PMID(sorted ascending)
canine neosporosis in hungary: screening for seroconversion of household, herding and stray order to assess the seroprevalence of canine neosporosis 651 blood samples were collected from 586 household, 41 herding and 24 stray dogs, at small animal clinics in four large cities and other places of hungary. nineteen (2.9%) showed positivity in the ifat with titres between 1:80 and 1:10240. two dogs with high titres of antibodies to neospora caninum had neuromuscular signs (imbalance, tremor) and a further one developed papulomatous, ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis. there was no c ...200616490318
[bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination].neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. the neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. dogs (canis familiaris) and coyotes (canis latrans) are the definitive hosts known at present. although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. the mechani ...200516502644
[new practice guidelines for abortion in cattle due to neospora caninum?]. 200616514978
seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. infections in swedish horses.sera from 414 swedish horses were investigated for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. by the t. gondii direct agglutination test (dat), and an neospora caninum iscom-elisa. five sera (1%) had a titre >1:40 in dat, but when analysed by immunoblotting against t. gondii antigens only two of them were positive, giving a seroprevalence of 0.5%. since the neospora iscom elisa had not been validated for equine sera it was used for an initial screening, and all sera with an ...200616517077
artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. the detection of neospora caninum dna in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. in this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable n. caninum tachyzoites (group a) and four control cows were insem ...200616542775
temporal distribution and parasite load kinetics in blood and tissues during neospora caninum infection in mice.the kinetics of neospora caninum loads in mice inoculated with nc-liv or nc-1 isolates were studied. the acute phase was characterized by parasitemia and the detection of parasite dna in several organs, whereas during the chronic phase, the parasite was detected mainly in the brain. mice infected with nc-liv developed clinical signs, showing higher brain parasite burdens than nc-1-infected mice.200616552086
incidence of neospora caninum and other intestinal protozoan parasites in populations of swiss dogs.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the most important abortifacient organisms in cattle worldwide. the dog is known to act as definitive host although its potential role as infection source for bovines still remains unelucidated. the aim of the present study was to compile initial epidemiological data on the prevalence and incidence of n. caninum in swiss dogs acting as definitive hosts. thus, 249 swiss dogs were investigated coproscopically in monthly intervals over a period of 1 ...200616564131
precolostral serology in calves born from neospora-seropositive mothers.the present study was designed to exploratively determine (a) how many healthy calves, born from seropositive mothers, were also precolostrally seropositive; (b) how many precolostrally negative calves became postcolostrally positive; and (c) in these calves, how the igg1/igg2 situation developed pre- and postcolostrally. all calves were born from mothers that were determined to be seropositive in a conventional neospora caninum-elisa and by immunoblotting. when the diagnostic performance of the ...200616572335
identification of a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum in excretory-secretory products and its iga binding and enzymatic activities.a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum (ncpdi) with a molecular weight of 50kda was identified in tachyzoite lysate and excretory-secretory (es) products. the iga antibody in 58.0% of the individual cattle tear samples recognized the ncpdi, which suggests that the pdi-specific antibody may be involved in defense against parasites. in addition, pdi-specific inhibitors and ncpdi antiserum showed inhibitory effects on the growth of n. caninum tachyzoites. furthermore, the purified recomb ...200616574326
vaccination with gamma-irradiated neospora caninum tachyzoites protects mice against acute challenge with n. caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is a leading cause of bovine abortions worldwide. the efficacy of gamma-irradiated n. caninum strain nc-1 tachyzoites as a vaccine for neosporosis was assessed in c57bl6 mice. a dose of 528 gy of gamma irradiation was sufficient to arrest replication but not host cell penetration by tachyzoites. female c57bl6 mice were vaccinated with two intraperitoneal inoculations of 1 x 10(6) irradiated tachyzoites at 4-wk intervals. when stimulated with n. caninum ...200616579818
detection of neospora caninum tachyzoites in canine cerebrospinal fluid. 200616594603
a prospective study of the effect of neospora caninum and bvdv infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru.we used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru, and its association with neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infections. between january 2002 and march 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. the serological status to n. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas bvdv status was assessed at the herd level thro ...200616597470
molecular identity of the electrophoretic pattern and the major cross-reacting immunogens of toxoplasma gondii (rh strain) and neospora caninum.the complex electrophoretic profile of the antigenic components of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum was studied. t. gondii (rh strain) trophozoite's antigens were resolved by gel electrophoresis under denaturating condition. resolved polypeptides were tested by immunoblotting against hyper-immune serum prepared in boscat rabbits. immunoblot analysis revealed 6 reactive bands, which are 158, 111, 102, 86, 55 and 33 kda, out of 10 antigenic bands of the parasite. concerning n. caninum tropho ...200616605107
footpad reaction induced by neospora caninum tachyzoite extract in infected balb/c mice.little information is available regarding a delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction in neosporosis. in this study, we examined the elicitation of a dth reaction in mice infected with neospora caninum by inoculation of the footpad with tachyzoite antigens. the footpads of balb/c mice infected with n. caninum and those of non-infected were injected with either the tachyzoite extract, or paraformaldehyde-fixed tachyzoites. in mice inoculated with n. caninum antigens on day 7 p.i. swelling peak ...200616616423
neospora caninum in wildlife.neosporosis, which is caused by the coccidian parasite neospora caninum, is recognized as a major disease of domestic animals that causes high abortion rates in cattle and fatal neurological disease in dogs. a life cycle of n. caninum in wild animals (i.e. sylvatic) has long been suspected because neosporosis has been detected in several wildlife species. recently, the transmission of n. caninum has been confirmed in coyotes and white-tailed deer. the newly confirmed wild hosts and other wild an ...200616616642
a nationwide survey on seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in south america. however, no data on the prevalence of n. caninum infection have been available in this country. the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of n. caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay through a nationwide survey. a two stage samp ...200616621288
humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril.neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important infectious organisms causing abortion and stillbirth in cattle. this parasite causes severe economical losses worldwide. infection is mostly passed vertically from mother to calf during pregnancy. under certain circumstances, an infection can lead to abortion, but in most cases it results in a chronically infected calf, which itself will represent the next endogenously infectious generation. so far, no reliable therapeutic or met ...200616628455
performance characteristics and optimisation of cut-off values of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in the serum of determine the performance characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) manufactured by institut pourquier (ip) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine sera.200616672180
neospora caninum antibodies in commercial fetal bovine serum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. in the process of propagating neospora in vitro and producing specific antibodies for development of diagnostic assays in the food supply, our laboratory identified the presence of bovine antibodies to n. caninum in fetal bovine sera. the sera were produced commercially and preferentially recommended for tissue culture use and monoclonal antibody production. seventeen different fetal bovine serum ...200616697531
pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. it is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. the pathogenesis of abortion due to neospora is complex and only partially understood. losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. parasitaemi ...200616712863
neospora caninum immunoblotting improves serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum ranges among the major causes of infectious abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to improve the serodiagnostic tools by complementing a conventional elisa with a highly sensitive and species-specific n. caninum immunoblot. to evaluate this test combination, sera from several groups of cows were tested. the first group, consisting of experimentally infected calves, showed that immunoblot antibody reactivities were detectable 1 to 3 days earlier than those ...200616718512
a clinical, evidence-based approach to infectious causes of infertility in beef cattle.infertility is the diminished or absent capacity to produce viable offspring. infections that reduce ovulation rates, fertilization rates, embryonic survival rates, fetal survival rates or perinatal survival rates result in observed infertility in beef cows. reproductive pathogens include leptospira, campylobacter, hemophilus, brucella, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, tritrichomonas foetus, and neospora caninum. infectious infertility can be prevented or controlled with approp ...200616725187
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) from urban sydney, australia.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) has well adapted to increasing urbanization, resulting in greater interaction with humans and their domestic pets. wildlife species in urban areas face a higher risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens and may be affected by parasites hosted by cats (toxoplasma gondii) or dogs (neospora caninum), yet it is unknown to what extent urban t. vulpecula are exposed to these parasites. antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of 142 a ...200616729682
diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. the diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. in the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable n. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.200616730126
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections of bovine endothelial cells induce endothelial adhesion molecule gene transcription and subsequent pmn adhesion.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important, closely related coccidian parasites infecting a broad spectrum of hosts and host cells. infections underly a complex immunological regulation; however, little is known on innate immune reactions to these parasites. to investigate interactions between infected cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (pmn), pmn adhesion to tachyzoite-infected bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvecs) under physiological flow conditions and adhesion ...200616730378
neospora caninum and leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in significant association existed between neospora caninum titer and serostatus to leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in ontario. leptospira titer increased with parity. amongst herds not vaccinated against leptospira, the proportions of herds with > or = 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.200616734373
neospora caninum igg avidity tests: an interlaboratory comparison.avidity tests can be used to discriminate between cattle that are acutely and chronically infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum. the aim of this study was to compare the igg avidity elisa tests being used in four european laboratories. a coded panel of 200 bovine sera from well documented naturally and experimentally n. caninum infected animals were analysed at the participating laboratories by their respective assay systems and laboratory protocols. comparing the numeric tes ...200616750301
cellular and immunological basis of the host-parasite relationship during infection with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and domestic animals. however, in contrast to t. gondii, n. caninum represents a major cause of abortion in cattle, pointing towards distinct differences in the biology of these two species. there are 3 distinct key features that represent potential targets for prevention of infection or intervention against disease caused by n. caninum. firstly, tachyzoites a ...200616753081
investigation for presence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and brucella-species infection in killer whales (orcinus orca) mass-stranded on the coast of shiretoko, hokkaido, japan.twelve killer whale (orcinus orca) were hemmed in by ice floes, and nine died on the aidomari coast in the nemuro strait in rausu, shiretoko, hokkaido, japan on 8 february 2005. tissue samples collected from 8 whales were tested for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and brucella species dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. gamma-globulin isolated from blood samples by ammonium sulfate precipitation was tested for antibodies to these pathogens by means of agglutination tests and immun ...200616757901
long-term passage of tachyzoites in tissue culture can attenuate virulence of neospora caninum in determine whether prolonged in vitro passage would result in attenuation of virulence in vivo, neospora caninum tachyzoites were passaged for different lengths of time in vitro and compared for their ability to cause disease in mice. groups of balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 x 10(6) or 1 x 10(7) of low-passage or high-passage n. caninum tachyzoites. the mice were monitored for changes in their demeanour and body weight, and were culled when severe clinical symptoms of mur ...200616762097
diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in southern brazil.the protozoa neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. the objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in southern brazil with special reference to n. caninum infection. a total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. the cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with n. caninum. bacterial infection ac ...200616772136
neospora caninum associated with septic peritonitis in an adult dog.a 7-year-old, male neutered rhodesian ridgeback dog was referred to the university of california-davis veterinary medical teaching hospital with a 4-month history of peritonitis and episodic abdominal discomfort, lethargy, and weakness. marked abdominal distension with a prominent fluid wave was noted on physical examination. cytologic analysis of the abdominal fluid indicated a septic exudate with mixed bacteria and many protozoal zoites. differentials for the identity of the protozoal zoites i ...200616783720
identification of a dithiol-dependent nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in sarcocystis neurona.a putative nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (ntpase) gene was identified in a database of expressed sequence tags (ests) from the apicomplexan parasite sarcocystis neurona. analysis of culture-derived s. neurona merozoites demonstrated a dithiol-dependent ntpase activity, consistent with the presence of a homologue to the tgntpases of toxoplasma gondii. a complete cdna was obtained for the s. neurona gene and the predicted amino acid sequence shared 38% identity with the two tgntpase isoforms f ...200616790243
immunodiagnosis of besnoitia besnoiti infection by elisa and western blot.besnoitia besnoiti, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis. this infection may dramatically affect body condition and lead to irreversible infertility in males, resulting in important economical losses in livestock production. identification of serologically positive animals is of major relevance to elaborate appropriate measures of control. while identification of clinical cases is relatively easy to carry out, the finding of sub ...200616822616
astroglial cells in primary culture: a valid model to study neospora caninum infection in the cns.the protozoan neospora caninum has a veterinary importance because it causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular alterations in dogs. we infected rat astrocytes, in vitro, with different concentrations of n. caninum. astrocytes responded to infection by producing the pro-inflammatory cytokine tnf-alpha and the neurotoxic-free radical no, 24 and 72 h post-infection. these data suggest that astrocytes, which are essential for brain function, are targets for the parasite and this represents a prac ...200616828168
associations between neospora caninum specific antibodies in serum and milk in two dairy herds in scotland.the study evaluated the use of the mastazyme elisa for quantification of neospora caninum (n. caninum) specific igg in bovine milk and examined the relationship between serum and milk antibodies in two dairy herds. the serum and milk antibodies both had bimodal distributions in each herd. this was mainly due to between cow variation: in both herds, approximately two thirds of cows were either clearly and consistently seropositive or seronegative for n. caninum with one third consistently near th ...200616834998
[red fox (vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].red fox (vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. this review presents data from europe and poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (vulpes vulpes). the most common nematodes were geohelminths: uncinaria stenocephala, toxocara canis and toxocara leonina. as concerning trichinella genus t. britovi was found more often than t. spiralis. among tapeworms the following species were recorded: mesocestoides lineatus, taenia sp., and echinococcus ...200516838621
variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in milk during lactation in dairy cows.a longitudinal study was performed to investigate the variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in individual milk during lactation as well as the association between antibody levels in serum and milk. serum and milk samples of 15 milking cows were collected between february 2003 and september 2004 in three smallholder dairy farms in khon kaen province in northeast thailand. all samples were analyzed for presence of antibodies by an n. caninum iscom elisa test kit and the results were given ...200616842923
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from western amazon, brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.for evaluation of the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the state of rondônia, western amazon, brazil. an inquiry was applied in each farm. sera were examined by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were anal ...200616857319
[isolation, identification and in vitro cultivation of neospora caninum (protozoa)]. 200416862816
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in wild boars in the czech republic.sera collected from hunter-killed wild boars (sus scrofa) during 1999-2005 from seven different regions of the czech republic were assayed for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test and to neospora caninum by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by indirect fluorescence antibody test. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in 148 (26.2%) of 565 wild boars with serum dilutions of 1:40 in 40, 1:80 in 40, 1:160 in 27, 1:320 in 19, 1:640 in 18 a ...200616876948
prevalence of neospora caninum infection in australian (nsw) dairy cattle estimated by a newly validated elisa for determine the performance characteristics of an institut pourquier (ip) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine milk and subsequent determination of the prevalence of n. caninum infection in new south wales (nsw) dairy cattle.200616876950
multilocus microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic diversity in neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a world-wide parasite that causes neuromuscular disorders in dogs and bovine abortion. biological diversity among isolates has been proved in both in vivo and in vitro studies. in contrast, little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. microsatellite sequence analysis constitutes a suitable tool that has been used for the genetic analysis of other apicomplexan parasites. in this report, we describe the identification and analysis of 13 microsatellite loci from ...200616883994
comparison of neospora caninum distribution, parasite loads and lesions between epidemic and endemic bovine abortion has been suggested that the abortion herd pattern could influence bovine foetal neosporosis. here, a comparison of (i) neospora caninum dna-detectability by pcr, (ii) n. caninum-associated lesions and (iii) parasite loads in target organs was made between epidemic and endemic abortion cases. we observed that n. caninum dna was predominantly detected in more than one organ in the foetuses from herds with epizootic rather than endemic abortion cases (p<0.05, fisher f-test). the highest parasite ...200616884852
neospora caninum: high susceptibility to the parasite in c57bl/10sccr mice.c57bl/10sccr mice, lack toll-like receptor 4 and a functional interleukin-12 receptor. taking this into account, susceptibility of these mice to neospora caninum infection was assessed comparatively to that of immunocompetent c57bl/10scsn mice. c57bl/10sccr mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 5x10(5)n. caninum tachyzoites showed a high susceptibility to this parasite. all infected c57bl/10sccr mice were dead by day 8 post-infection whereas all control c57bl/10scsn mice survived this parasitic ...200716889774
if control of neospora caninum infection is technically feasible does it make economic sense?recent work on neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that causes abortions in dairy cattle has focused on a number of different control options. modelling has suggested the most effective options for control but the present paper argues that the most effective option might not necessarily be optimal from an economic point of view. decision trees, using published quantitative data, were constructed to choose between four different control strategies. the costs of these interventions, such as 'te ...200616893606
dynamics of transcription of immunomodulatory genes in endothelial cells infected with different coccidian parasites.sporozoites of eimeria bovis and tachyzoites of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are able to invade and to replicate in endothelial cells. here we report on responses of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro to these coccidial infections by determining mrna levels of the cxc chemokines gro-alpha, il-8 and ip-10, the cc chemokines mcp-1 and rantes and of gm-csf, cox-2 and inos relative to the level of housekeeping gene (gapdh) transcription. t. gondii and n. caninum tachy ...200616930845
seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in manitoba.of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres > or = 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.200616933557
diagnostic significance of neospora caninum dna detected by pcr in cattle serum.a nested pcr that successfully detected neospora caninum dna in serum of cattle was used for investigation of selected abortion cases and in a study of healthy pregnant cows at an abattoir. n. caninum dna was not detected in serum from antibody positive dams that aborted due to n. caninum, but was present in serum of some antibody negative dams that aborted due to other causes. n. caninum dna was also found in the serum of about half of the animals that aborted of undetermined cause, but was not ...200616934934
antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats from brazil.the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii was determined in 400 domestic cats (siamese, persian, and undetermined breeds) from the municipality of araçatuba, sao paulo, brazil, through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat). of the 400 cats, 100 were seropositive to t. gondii (25%, titer > or =64) and 98 to n. caninum (24.5%, titer > or =16). the rate of seropositive cats for t. gondii was correlated with age (chi(2)=35.7; p<0.001), with a higher number of in ...200716941188
effect of neospora caninum-serostatus on culling, reproductive performance and milk production in dutch dairy herds with and without a history of neospora caninum-associated abortion epidemics.we quantified the effect of neospora caninum (nc)-serostatus on culling and (re)production in 83 herds randomly selected from the dutch dairy herd population (random group) and in 17 herds that had experienced an abortion epidemic associated with nc infection (epidemic-abortion group). in the random group, a single whole-herd blood sampling was done during the spring of 2003, while in the epidemic-abortion group whole-herd blood sampling was done repeatedly at least once a year starting after th ...200616949168
serological survey of neospora caninum in dogs in the czech republic and a long-term study of dynamics of antibodies.the main aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum dogs from the czech republic and to examine the dynamics of antibody titers during a long-term period. for this purpose, sera of 858 dogs were examined for the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). four groups of dogs of various origins were included in the survey: the first group (a, n=470) comprised dogs purchased by the czech army ...200716956728
simulating the impact of four control strategies on the population dynamics of neospora caninum infection in swiss dairy cattle.a dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to assess the impact of different putative control strategies on the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in female swiss dairy cattle. the model structure comprised compartments of "susceptible" and "infected" animals (si-model) and the cattle population was divided into 12 age classes. a reference model (model 1) was developed to simulate the current (status quo) situation (present seroprevalence in switzerland 12%), taking into account avai ...200616962190
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in non-carnivorous wildlife from spain.serum samples from 1034 non-carnivorous wildlife from spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). high agreement was observed between results in both techniques (kappa value higher than 0.9). prevalences of n. caninum antibodies positive by both techniques were 11.8% of 237 red deer (cervus elaphus), 7.7% of 13 barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), 6.1% of 33 ro ...200716962706
fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in a puppy with eosinophilia and eosinophilic peritoneal effusion.a 3-month-old male golden retriever puppy was evaluated for lethargy and fever of 2-days duration. results of a cbc and biochemical profile revealed marked eosinophilia (6.3 x 10(3)/microl; reference interval 0.1-1.2 x 10(3)/microl), moderate thrombocytopenia, and increased activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. hepatomegaly and peritoneal effusion were found using abdominal ultrasound. peritoneal fluid analysis revealed eosinophilic inflammation ...200616967426
evaluation of serological tests for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs: optimization of cut off titers and inhibition studies of cross-reactivity with toxoplasma gondii.diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs is based on serological assays such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). this study evaluated two serological tests (ifat and elisa) for the detection of igg antibodies to n. caninum in 300 serum samples of dogs through the optimization of cut off titers by using the two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (tg-roc) curve. in addition, the identification of major cross-reactive antigens ...200716973287
[distribution of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows at municipalities of resende and rio claro in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil].this study aimed to verify the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows from municipalities of resende and rio claro, both located at sulfluminense dairy belt. a total of 29 farms from resende and 28 from rio claro were randomly selected. to evaluate the association between herds and animals against the etiological agent χ² tests were used. seventy eight animals at resende (25.74%, confidence intervals(ic) at 95%: 15.7-25.8%) had anti-n. caninum antibodies, while 53 animals ( ...200616978473
[prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in bovines from anápolis and goiânia microregions, goiás, brazil].the prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in bovines was determined in 21 farms from anápolis and goiânia microregions, in goiás, brazil. out of these 11 were dairy farms (holstein and crossbred holstein-zebu), nine had beef cattle (nelore) and one was for mixed exploitation (simental). blood samples were collected from 930 animals, and sera obtained were separated and stored at -20 degrees c. serum samples were examined by the immunofluorescent antibody technique (ifat), using tachyzoi ...200616978474
financial analysis of various strategies for the control of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in switzerland.the present study was conducted to estimate the direct losses due to neospora caninum in swiss dairy cattle and to assess the costs and benefits of different potential control strategies. a monte carlo simulation spreadsheet module was developed to estimate the direct costs caused by n. caninum, with and without control strategies, and to estimate the costs of these control strategies in a financial analysis. the control strategies considered were "testing and culling of seropositive female catt ...200616982104
serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle using a recombinant tncsrs2 protein-based elisa.the truncated ncsrs2 gene (tncsrs2) by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence was cloned into the pgex-6p-1 plasmid and subsequently expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein. the purified recombinant tncsrs2 protein was specific to neospora caninum and was used in an elisa for the diagnosis of neosporosis. there was a good agreement between tnctsrs2-based elisa and three commercially available diagnostic kits (idexx elisa, hipra elisa and vmrd ifat). three hundred da ...200716989950
comparison of serological methods for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle.the aims of this study were to evaluate the performance and agreement of various commercial and in-house neospora caninum antibody assays used in dairy cattle in north america, and to investigate reproducibility of two assays performed in different laboratories. from 1998 to 2005, three enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas, a competitive elisa-vmrd inc., an indirect elisa-biovet inc., and another indirect elisa-herdchek idexx corp.), two indirect fluorescent antibody tests (ifats, vmrd inc ...200716989951
characterization of the immune response in the placenta of cattle experimentally infected with neospora caninum in early gestation.a serial examination of three groups of cattle infected intravenously (iv) (group 1, n=8) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2, n=8) with live neospora caninum tachyzoites or with vero cells (group 3, n=8) at 70 days' gestation was carried out and the nature of the inflammatory responses in the placenta and the presence of parasite antigen were analysed. immune cells expressing cd3, cd4, cd8, gamma delta (gammadelta) t-cell receptors (tcr), cd79alpha cytoplasmic (cy) (b cells) and nkp46 [natural kill ...200616997005
neospora caninum detected in feral rodents.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of neosporosis was investigated by assaying brain tissue of feral mice (mus musculus) and rats (rattus norvegicus) for neospora caninum. both mouse and rat brain tissue were extracted for total dna, and subjected to two different n. caninum-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. a portion of brain tissue from the mice and rats were also assayed for n. caninum in gerbils or gamma-interferon gene knockout (ko) mice. of the 105 feral mice tes ...200716997474
[reaction of bovine endothelial cells in vitro to coccidia (eimeria bovis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum) infections as the expression of a non-adaptive immune response].eimeria (e.) bovis sporozoites as well as toxoplasma (t.) gondii and neospora (n.) caninum tachyzoites can invade bovine endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro and develop to next stage meronts within 15-20 and 3-4 days, respectively. the latter differences suggest different immune evasion strategies, particularly concerning innate reactions. realtime rt-pcr techniques were used to determine transcript levels of genes relevant in this sense, i.e. adhesion molecule, chemokine, growth factor gm-csf, c ...200617009708
plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations during gestation in neospora-infected dairy cows.the aim of this study was to determine whether plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations in pregnancy are affected by persistent neospora caninum infection in dairy cows. the data analyzed were derived from 22 multiparous cows: 16 n. caninum-seropositive and 6 n. caninum-seronegative animals (used as controls). three of the 16 seropositive cows aborted during the study period and the corresponding data were analyzed separately. pregnancy diagnoses were performed on day 40 ...200717010415
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in the people's republic of china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the people's republic of china. serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in china. all sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and t. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and an indirect agglutination test (iat), respectively. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum ...200717010521
first report of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in mashhad area, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan which causes abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of bovine neosporosis for causing abortion in iranian cattle. infection was primarily diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), complemented with histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc). one hundred brains of aborted bovine fetuses were collected from iranian dairy herd between 2003 and 2005 in mashhad area. n. caninum was detected by pcr in t ...200717024355
the first detection of neospora caninum dna in the colostrum of infected data is available on the vertical transmission of neospora caninum via the colostrum. the results of our previous research revealed the presence of n. caninum dna in the milk of seropositive cows. the aim of the present work is to demonstrate parasite dna in colostrum samples. a polymerase chain reaction using np21 and np6 primers was applied to dna isolated from the colostrum sediment in order to amplify the corresponding genomic nc-5 region. the expected 328-bp product was obtained in ...200717024360
[search for neospora caninum dna in bull semen using pcr ].neospora caninum represents one of the most frequent abortifaciant organisms worldwide. the parasite is diaplacentally transmitted from the pregnant cow to the fetus, where it normally leads to the delivery of a healthy, however persistently infected calf. abortion thus is a relative rare event. the transmission of bovine neosporosis occurs in more than 90% of the cases vertically due to the endogenous reactivation of a persistently infected mother. exogenous infections are therefore responsible ...200617024977
the ncgra7 gene encodes the immunodominant 17 kda antigen of neospora caninum.a neospora caninum 17-19 kda antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by n. caninum. to identify the proteins making up the p17 fraction, we screened a new n. caninum tachyzoite cdna library with an affinity-purified antibody against p17 (apa17). we isolated several cdna clones with 100% sequence identity to the ncgra7 gene. this previously described gene enco ...200717032479
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in hungarian red foxes (vulpes vulpes).in the present study we have investigated the seroprevalence to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in 337 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from 16 out of 19 counties in hungary. the foxes were originally collected within a national vaccination program against rabies. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in as many as 228 (68%) of the foxes using a commercial direct agglutination test (dat). in an indirect iscom elisa, five foxes (1.5%) were positive for antibodies against n ...200717045742
survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpes virus 1 coinfection in cattle.a seroprevalence survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) was conducted in cattle pasturing in an area of the southern italian apennines to investigate the coinfection of these two pathogens. blood samples were collected from 948 pastured cattle raised on 81 farms. sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and to bhv-1 using an elisa assay and a neutralization test, respectively. out of the 81 farms sampled, 63 (77.8%) were positive for n. caninum and 80 (98.8%) for bhv-1. ...200717053931
neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis in ruminants.neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp, and toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. in addition, t gondii and certain species of sarcocystis are zoonotic. this article reviews information on the etiology, diagnosis, control, and prevention of these diseases.200617071358
use of an immunodominant p17 antigenic fraction of neospora caninum in detection of antibody response in cattle.a neospora caninum 17 kda protein fraction (p17) has been described as an immunodominant antigen (ida) under reducing and non-reducing conditions. the aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of p17 in cattle. in order to achieve this, p17 was purified by electroelution from whole n. caninum tachyzoite soluble extract and a p17-based western blot (wb-p17) was developed. the p17 recognition was measured by densitometry and expressed as od values to check the validity of ...200617072457
seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity.a province-wide, cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), neospora caninum (nc), bovine leukemia virus (blv), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) genotypes 1 and 2 (bvdv1 and bvdv2) infection in dairy cattle herds in alberta was conducted. among adults, the seroprevalence of map, nc, and blv was 9.1%, 18.5%, and 26.9%, respectively. for map, based on a herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows, 58.8% ...200617078247
neospora caninum infection in a free-ranging raccoon (procyon lotor) with concurrent canine distemper virus infection.during a canine distemper virus (cdv) outbreak in raccoons (procyon lotor) from cook county, illinois, a juvenile female suffering from seizures was killed and necropsied. gross and histologic findings of necrotizing encephalitis and proliferative bronchopneumonia were attributed to cdv infection and considered the cause of clinical signs. a section of cerebellum stained immunohistochemically for neospora caninum revealed an approximately 40 microm diameter, round to oval cyst with a 2- to 3-mic ...200517089776
antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in the pacific bottlenose dolphin (tursiops aduncus) from the solomon islands.serum samples from 58 pacific bottlenose dolphins (tursiops aduncus) from the solomon islands were tested for the igg antibody to toxoplasma gondii by the latex agglutination test (lat), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and immunoblotting. the elisa cut-off value was taken as od > or = 0.276, and the final dilution ratio, recognized as positive, was represented by the end titer. in 25 of 58 samples, no antibody activity was detected by lat and elisa. in 8 of 58 samples, anti-t. gondii ...200517089778
serosurvey of roe deer, chamois and domestic sheep in the central italian alps.roe deer (capreolus capreolus), chamois (rupicapra rupricapra rupicapra), and domestic sheep in the orobie alps, italy, were serologically tested for antibodies to selected pathogens that may be transmitted across species. antibodies against brucella spp. and bovine herpesvirus 1 (roe deer and chamois only) were not detected in any species. in roe deer, antibodies were detected against toxoplasma gondii (13%) and neospora caninum (3%). chamois tested positive for antibodies to t. gondii (5%), n. ...200617092903
[biological characteristics of the korean isolate ki-1 of toxoplasma gondii].to study the biological characteristics of newly isolated toxoplasma gondii korean isolate-1 (ki-1).200617094617
immunoanalysis of three litters born to a doberman bitch infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a tissue cyst-forming coccidium that may cause neuromuscular disorders in dogs. infected bitches can transmit the parasite to their pups in utero. vertical transmission may occur after primary infection during pregnancy and in subsequent pregnancies. the reason why only a few pups develop clinical neosporosis is unknown. we obtained sera from a doberman bitch and its offspring delivered in three litters. the bitch had a titer of 1:640 in an indirect fluorescent antibody test ...200717096148
presence of neospora caninum specific antibodies in three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas.neospora caninum is known to cause abortion in cattle. this study demonstrated the presence of specific igg to neospora in milk and serum samples obtained from three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas. samples from four hundred fourteen dairy cows were examined using a western blot assay of which 362 were milk and 87 were serum. samples with antibodies to neospora were identified in 32.1% (105/327) of the examined animals in georgia, whereas in texas it was identified in 10.3% (9/87). posit ...200717112670
serologic study of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms in tehran, iran.a few studies have been done on the seroepidemiology of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy and beef cattle farms in iran, which suggested the presence of n. caninum in these areas, but there is no published information directed on the presence or epidemiology of this organism in the dogs in iran. to investigate anti-n. caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in cattle farms, 100 blood samples were collected: 50 from dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms and 50 from house ...200717120042
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri].this study was carried out in order to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri. blood samples were collected from 186 cattle and sera were obtained from these samples. sera samples were analyzed for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercially available competitive elisa (c-elisa) kit. according to the elisa test results, seroprevalence of n. caninum in the region of kayseri was found to be 7%. three of 9 aborting cows (33.3%) were found to be se ...200617124655
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of heifers and cows using contaminated semen with different numbers of investigate the potential of different neospora caninum tachyzoite doses to infect heifers (experiment 1) and cows (experiment 2) when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen.200717126895
pcr-rflp for the detection and differentiation of the canine piroplasm species and its use with filter paper-based technologies.canine piroplasmosis is an emerging disease worldwide, with multiple species of piroplasm now recognised to infect dogs. a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) assay was developed for the detection and differentiation of each of the piroplasm species currently known to infect dogs on the basis of the 18s ribosomal rna gene. the assay can potentially amplify and discriminate between theileria annae, theileria equi, babesia conradae, babesia gibsoni, ...200717127005
multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis), tristram's jird (meriones tristrami) and wagner's gerbil (gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute test the different sensitivity of rodents of the subfamily murinae and gerbillinae, wagner's gerbils (gerbillus dasyurus), tristram's jirds (meriones tristrami) and multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis) were inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites. clinical signs of neosporosis appeared in all inoculated animals. histopathological examination confirmed the presence of tachyzoites in brains, lungs, skeletal muscle, myocardium, liver, in serosa of stomach and intestines, and in vesicular ...200717134728
structure-activity relationships from in vitro efficacies of the thiazolide series against the intracellular apicomplexan protozoan neospora caninum.nitazoxanide (2-acetolyloxy-n-(5-nitro 2-thiazolyl) benzamide; ntz) represents the parent compound of a novel class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. ntz is active against a wide variety of intestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths, protozoa, enteric bacteria and a number of viruses infecting animals and humans. while potent, this poses a problem in practice, since this obvious non-selectivity can lead to undesired side effects in both humans and animals. in this study ...200717141783
immunization of cattle with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum confers protection against fetal death.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. it is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a t-helper-cell type 1 response involving cd4(+) cytotoxic t cells and gamma interferon. cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection in the mother causing congenital infection or abortion and by ingestion of oocysts, which, if it occurs during gestation, can also result in a ...200717145943
apical membrane antigen 1 is a cross-reactive antigen between neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, and the anti-ncama1 antibody inhibits host cell invasion by both parasites.the cross-reactive antigens of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are important in the exploration to determine the common mechanisms of parasite-host interaction. in this study, a gene encoding n. caninum apical membrane antigen 1 (ncama1) was identified by immunoscreening of a n. caninum tachyzoite cdna expression library with antisera from mice immunized with recombinant t. gondii apical membrane antigen 1 (tgama1). ncama1 was encoded by an open reading frame of 1695 bp, which encoded a p ...200717156863
[survey of neospora caninum in cattle in some provinces in the eastern anatolian region.]this study was carried out in order to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in cattle in the elaziğ, malatya, muş and bingöl provinces from january 2003- may 2004. blood samples were collected from 513 cattle and 32 aborting cows that were of various breeds and ages in all provinces. sera were obtained from these animals and antibodies against n. caninum were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). a commercially available competitive elisa (celisa) kit (vmrd, i ...200517167738
progesterone supplementation during mid-gestation increases the risk of abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows with high antibody titres.progesterone has been reported to reduce th1 responses during pregnancy. thus, given that an excessive th1 response could lead to abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows, we hypothesized a reduction in abortion risk following progesterone supplementation during the mid-gestation period in these animals. seropositive animals were assigned on day 120 of gestation to a control (n=33) or treatment (n=34) group. treatment consisted of progesterone supplementation by fitting a progesterone releasing ...200717182187
host/parasite relationship in the in vitro infection of rat gliocytes by neospora caninum: evaluation of cell respiration.neospora caninum is a protozoon that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, with the formation of cysts mainly in the central nervous system. since n. caninum is an intracellular parasite with tropism for the cells of nervous system, this study evaluated the respiratory metabolism of glial cells infected by this* parasite. glial cultures obtained from the cerebral cortex of newborn rats were kept in dmem enriched with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1 mm pyruvic acid and 2 mm of l- ...200717184800
neospora caninum emerges from the shadow of toxoplasma is sometimes easy to make the mistake of assuming that everything that holds true for toxoplasma gondii is also true for its relative neospora caninum. however, a recurring theme in the recent review by hemphill et al. is not the similarities but the striking differences between the two parasites.200717185039
analysis of the immune response to neospora caninum in a model of intragastric infection in study experimental neospora caninum infection initiated at the gastrointestinal tract, toll-like receptor 4- and functional il-12rbeta2 chain-deficient c57bl/10 sccr mice were challenged intragastrically with 5 x 10(6) n. caninum tachyzoites. all parasite-inoculated mice eventually died with disseminated infection. in contrast, immunocompetent balb/c mice challenged with 1 x 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric (i.g.) or the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route remained alive for at least ...200717187652
natural killer cells act as early responders in an experimental infection with neospora caninum in calves.the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a cause of abortion and congenital disease in cattle worldwide. we have previously shown that natural killer (nk) cells produce ifn-gamma in response to n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. this study aimed to investigate the role of nk cells and other cellular immune responses in an experimental n. caninum infection model in calves. phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a drop in the percentage of nk cells at days 4-6 after i.v. ...200717188277
neospora caninum antibodies detected in midwestern white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by western blot and elisa.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. sera from white-tailed deer from south central wisconsin and southeastern missouri, usa were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by western blot analyses and two indirect elisas. seroreactivity against n. caninum surface antigens was observed in 30 of 147 (20%) of wi deer and 11 of 23 (48%) of mo deer using western blot analysis. compared to western blot, the two indirect elisas were found t ...200717194547
distribution of antibodies against neospora caninum, bvdv and bhv-1 among cows in brazilian dairy herds with reproductive disorders.neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv-1) are worldwide spread pathogens associated with reproductive problems in cattle. the present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of these three pathogens in two dairy herds with distinct reproductive managements from triângulo mineiro, minas gerais state, brazil. the herds were not vaccinated against either n. caninum, bvdv or bhv-1. blood samples were collected and analyzed for presence of specific ant ...200617196123
evaluation of bovine abortion associated with neospora caninum by different diagnostic techniques in mashhad, iran.twelve aborted foetuses (gestational ranged from 4-9 months) and dams from dairies cattle farms in (mashhad) iran were analysed to investigate the participation of neospora caninum in abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by histopathology, serology (indirect fluorescent antibody test [ifat]) and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total 33% of bovine foetuses were considered to be infected by pcr technique. microscopic lesions consistent with n. caninum infection in foe ...200717206503
evaluation of four serological techniques to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) on prince edward island, canada.the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the performance and agreement of serological assays (elisa, ifat, neospora caninum agglutination test and immunoblot) using reference sera and field sera from foxes and coyotes and (2) to estimate the n. caninum seroprevalence in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada. with fox and coyote reference sera the test performance of the elisa, ifat and ib was excellent (100% sensitivity and specificity). nat showed a low sensitivity (50%). s ...200717223270
production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.the primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map), and neospora caninum (nc) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in canadian dairy cattle. serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against blv (idexx elisa; idexx corporation, westbr ...200717235141
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