PMID(sorted descending)
serum response factor regulates immediate early host gene expression in toxoplasma gondii-infected host cells.toxoplasma gondii is a wide spread pathogen that can cause severe and even fatal disease in fetuses and immune-compromised hosts. as an obligate intracellular parasite, toxoplasma must alter the environment of its host cell in order to establish its replicative niche. this is accomplished, in part, by secretion of factors into the host cell that act to modulate processes such as transcription. previous studies demonstrated that genes encoding transcription factors such as c-jun, junb, egr1, and ...201121479245
[studies on the role of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) as a potential definitive host of neospora caninum].neospora (n.) caninum is a protozoan parasite which is regarded as a major cause of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum which may shed environmentally resistant stages, oocysts, in their feces. epidemiological studies in germany showed that the presence of dogs increased the risk of a bovine herd to be n. caninum-positive in a bulk-milk elisa test. however, there were also n. caninum-positive herds where dogs were not kept together with cattle.this leads to th ...201121465771
identification of the cross-reactive and species-specific antigens between neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by a proteomics approach.the characterization of the cross-reactive and species-specific antigens of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii is important in the exploration to determine the common mechanisms of parasite-host interaction and to improve the serological diagnosis; it is also useful for the selection of the cross-reactive antigens that could be used in the development of vaccines or drugs for controlling the diseases caused by these two parasites. in this study, cross-reactive and species-specific antigens b ...201121461729
shedding of neospora caninum oocysts by dogs fed different tissues from naturally infected cattle.neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the distribution of n. caninum in tissues of adult cattle is unknown and the parasite has not been demonstrated histologically in tissues of cows. in the present study the distribution of n. caninum in different tissues of adult cattle was evaluated by bioassays in dogs. seventeen dogs (2-3 month-old) were fed different tissues of 4 naturally exposed adult cattle (indirect fluorescent antibody test n. can ...201121450407
neosporosis in an aborted southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) december 2008, a southern white rhinoceros (ãsimum simum) aborted a 7-mo gestation male fetus. on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of fetal tissues, foci of necrosis were noted in the hepatic parenchyma and were associated with low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. protozoal zoites were identified within the hepatic lesions and within the cerebellum. evaluations utilizing immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and dna sequencing identified the protozoan as ...201021370658
seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis.acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (acp) is considered to be an animal model of the acute axonal form of guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) in humans. various antecedent events have been associated with gbs, including bacterial or viral infection. the relationship between acp and previous infection requires additional attention.201121352374
in vitro effects of arylimidamides against besnoitia besnoiti infection in vero cells.the in vitro effects of 4 arylimidamides (db811, db786, db750 and db766) against the proliferative tachyzoite stage of the apicomplexan parasite besnoitia besnoiti were investigated. these four compounds had been shown earlier to exhibit in vitro activities in the nanomolar range against the related apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. real-time-pcr was used to assess b. besnoiti intracellular proliferation in vitro. preliminary assessment by light microscopy identified db811 an ...201121349220
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle of southern china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in china's southern guangdong province between july 2009 and march 2010. a total of 370 serum samples of dairy cattle was collected from 5 farms and examined for antibodies to n. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in dairy cattle was 18.9% (70/370). the seroprevalence of n. caninum in aborting cows (22.7%) was higher than that in nonaborting cows (16.3%), ...201021348632
viability of sporulated oocysts of neospora caninum after exposure to different physical and chemical treatments.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the viability of neospora caninum sporulated oocysts after various chemical and physical treatments. bioassays in gerbils and molecular techniques (pcr-rflp) were used for identification of the oocysts shed by experimentally infected dogs. sporulated oocysts were purified and divided into 11 treatment groups as follows: absolute ethanol for 1 hr; 20 c for 6 hr; 4 c for 6 hr; 60 c for 1 min; 100 c for 1 min; 10% formaldehyde for 1 hr; 10% ammonia for 1 ...201021348620
genetic mapping identifies novel highly protective antigens for an apicomplexan parasite.apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a myriad of diseases in humans and livestock; yet despite intensive effort, development of effective sub-unit vaccines remains a long-term goal. antigenic complexity and our inability to identify protective antigens from the pool that induce response are serious challenges in the development of new vaccines. using a combination of parasite genetics and selective barriers with population-based genetic fingerprinting, we have identified that immunity agai ...201121347348
in vitro invasion efficiency and intracellular proliferation rate comprise virulence-related phenotypic traits of neospora caninum.abstract: in this study, we examined the in vitro invasion and proliferation capacities of the nc-liv and ten spanish neospora caninum isolates (nc-spain 1 h - nc-spain 10). the invasion rate was determined as the number of tachyzoites that completed their internalisation into marc-145 cells at 2, 4, and 6 h post-inoculation (pi). the proliferation rate was evaluated by determining the doubling time during the exponential proliferation period. significant differences in the invasion rates of the ...201121345202
immunoblot diagnosis of infection with neospora caninum in cattle based on recombinant ncsag4 antigen.the neospora caninum (n. caninum) ncsag4 gene was subcloned into a pet-28a (+) vector and successfully expressed in escherichia coli as inclusion body, and confirmed by sds-page and western blot using anti-his monoclonal antibody. the purified protein was then purified using ni-nta affinity chromatography column and recognized by positive serum from n. caninum-infected cattle. immunoblot (ib) method based on purified recombinant ncsag4 (rncsag4) antigen to detect antibodies against n. caninum in ...201121340564
identification of a host cell target for the thiazolide class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.the thiazolide nitazoxanide (ntz) and some derivatives exhibit considerable in vitro activities against a broad range of parasites, including the apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. in order to identify potential molecular targets for this compound in both parasites, rm4847 was coupled to epoxy-agarose and affinity chromatography was performed. a protein of approximately 35 kda was eluted upon rm4847-affinity-chromatography from extracts of n. caninum-infected human ...201121335006
functional activation of t cells by dendritic cells and macrophages exposed to the intracellular parasite neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. we studied how the interaction between murine conventional dendritic cells or macrophages and n. caninum influences the generation of cell-mediated immunity against the parasite. we first explored the invasion and survival ability of n. caninum in dendritic cells and macrophages. we observed that protozoa rapidly invaded and proliferated into these two cell populations. we then investigated how neospora-expos ...201121329692
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in 2007 a survey on herd-level seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in poland was carried out. sera were collected from all 49 breeding goat herds, scattered over the entire country, with the vast majority of them located in the western, central and northern provinces. only adult females (=12 months of age) were included in the study. a herd was recorded as infected if at least one seropositive female was detected. in each herd, simple random sampling was ...201121324599
quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays for the sensitive detection of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, an economically important disease in cattle in some countries of africa and asia, is emerging in europe. the definitive host of besnoitia besnoiti, the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis, is unknown and the transmission of the parasite is not completely understood. sensitive and quantitative dna detection methods are needed to determine whether serologically positive animals are infectious and to examine the role of vectors (e.g. haematophagous insects) in the transmissi ...201121324596
identification of novel rhoptry proteins in neospora caninum by lc/ms-ms analysis of subcellular fractions.apicomplexan parasites possess an apical complex that is composed of two secretory organelles recognized as micronemes and rhoptries. rhoptry contents are secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole during the host cell invasion process. several rhoptry proteins have been identified in toxoplasma gondii and seem to be involved in host-pathogen interactions and some of them are considered to be important virulence factors. only one rhoptry protein, ncrop2, has been identified and extensively charac ...201121315855
up regulation of the maternal immune response in the placenta of cattle naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. it forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. the mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. in this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites we ...201121283810
immunization of female balb/c mice with neospora cyclophilin and/or ncsrs2 elicits specific antibody response and prevents against challenge infection by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is the causal agent of bovine neosporosis which results in high levels of abortion. the present study determined the protective efficacy of two neospora antigens--neospora cyclophilin (nccyp) and ncsrs2. the ability of native nccyp to upregulate mouse ifn-? was also confirmed in this study. recombinant nccyp or ncsrs2 were tested either alone or in combination and formulated with adjuvant immumax-sr and cpg. female balb/c mice (n=15) of 10-12 weeks of age were immunized s.c. twi ...201121281689
serological profile of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in commercial sheep from são paulo state, brazil.neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are two important infections in young and adult sheep, leading to low production and abortion. this study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in sheep from the eastern region of são paulo state, brazil. serum samples (382) were collected from the sheep and assayed for t. gondii through modified agglutination test (mat) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), and for n. caninum antibodies, through ifat, with ...201021256676
surgical technique, postoperative complications and outcome in 14 dogs treated for hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal report frequency and type of complications, and outcome in dogs with severe neurologic signs secondary to internal, suspected obstructive hydrocephalus treated by ventriculoperitoneal (vp) shunting.201121244441
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wildlife: common parasites in belgian foxes and cervidae?sera from cervidae were tested for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum using elisa; and against toxoplasma gondii using sag1-elisa and a commercially available agglutination test. the t. gondii seroprevalence was 52% (38/73) in roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 0% in bred fallow deer (0/4) (dama dama) and red deer (0/7) (cervus elaphus). we found 2.7% of the roe deer samples and none of the bred deer samples positive for n. caninum. brain samples from wild roe deer, red deer and re ...201021236577
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in moose (alces alces) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in sweden.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. t. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. n. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. the purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of t. gondii, and n. caninum i ...201021232869
genetic manipulation of neospora caninum to express the bradyzoite-specific protein ncsag4 in tachyzoites.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and the aetiological agent of bovine neosporosis, one of the main causes of reproductive failure worldwide. we have generated 2 independent transgenic knock-in clones, nc-1sag4c1.1 and nc-1sag4c2.1, that express the bradyzoite stage-specific protein ncsag4 in the tachyzoite stage. these clones have similar growth rates in vitro as the wild-type (wt) strain nc-1. studies in a cerebral mouse model of infection revealed a slightly lower rate of detection ...201121232176
vaccination of mice with chitosan nanogel-associated recombinant ncpdi against challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the effects of nanogel encapsulation of recombinant ncpdi (recncpdi) following vaccination of mice by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes and challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites were investigated. nanogels were chitosan based, with an alginate or alginate-mannose surface. none of the mice receiving recncpdi intraperitoneal (i.p.) (without nanogels) survived, whereas intranasal (i.n.) application protected 9 of 10 mice from disease. association of recncpdi with nanogels improve ...201121226721
different humoral mechanisms against neospora caninum infection in purebreed and crossbreed beef/dairy cattle pregnancies.the antigen-specific igg subclass response may be a convenient indicator of the underlying nature of t helper cell regulation. the aim of the present study was to identify possible differences in neospora caninum-specific total plasma igg, igg1 and igg2 antibody levels in purebreed and crossbreed pregnancies throughout gestation in beef and dairy cattle chronically infected with n. caninum. comparisons were also made between aborting and non-aborting dams. the population examined comprised 96 pr ...201021216103
transplacental transmission in cattle: is toxoplasma gondii less potent than neospora caninum?we compared the transplacental-transmission ability of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in cattle. one uninfected pregnant heifer served as control, while three were inoculated with n. caninum k9wa strain and four with t. gondii rh strain at their midgestational period. both infected groups showed clinical signs and antibodies either to n. caninum or t. gondii, while the control animal was normal. two (50%) toxoplasma dams aborted on days 6 and 11 postinoculation. t. gondii tachyzoites wer ...201121203773
influence of culture medium ph on internalization, growth and phenotypic plasticity of neospora caninum.neospora caninum, a strictly intracellular protozoan, is a major leading cause of parasite-induced abortion in cattle. a widely held view of n. caninum infection is that both cellular proliferation and stage interconversion (tachyzoite-bradyzoite transformation) are triggered, perhaps even modulated by, changes in cultural conditions. this study tested the hypothesis that exposure of n. caninum tachyzoites to different ph culture media affects the parasite's entry, proliferation and cyst formati ...201021185654
evidence of congenital transmission of neospora caninum in naturally infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) fetus from brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the congenital infection by neospora caninum in the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), a natural intermediate host. nine pregnant water buffalos, raised under free-grazing condition, were slaughtered, and their fetuses were collected. samples of brain and thoracic fluid were obtained from those fetuses, with gestational ages ranging from 2 to 5 months. the dna of n. caninum was detected and identified in the brain of one of those fetuses, using two pcr assays ...201021181191
tunicamycins, a class of nucleoside antibiotics similar to corynetoxins of the rathayibacter toxicus, increase susceptibility of mice to neospora caninum.neosporosis is the leading cause of abortion in cattle. neospora caninum-associated abortion may exhibit both endemic and epidemic patterns. it was reported that the epidemic outbreaks took place in the form of "abortion storms" and were not significantly correlated with seasonal changes or consumption of any particular feeds; and thus, the mechanisms by which the epidemic "abortion storms" are triggered remain unclear. annual ryegrass toxicity (argt) is a severe or fatal neurological disorder o ...201021168974
development of an indirect elisa-ncsrs2 for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle.neosporosis is of alarming economic concern in the cattle industry. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against neospora caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. use of a single specific antigen might improve test specificity. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed using the truncated protein ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli. the elisa results were compared with those of the indirect fluorescence ant ...201021168278
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica hispanica).a cross-sectional study was carried out on spanish ibex populations in southern spain to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and to investigate the risk factors associated with these infections. using the modified agglutination test, the seroprevalence to t. gondii was 27.5% (146/531; ci(95%), 23.7-31.3), and this seropositivity significantly increased with age. among adults, statistically significant differences were observed between geographical locations and ov ...201021159529
prevalence of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, toxoplasma gondii, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, besnoitia darlingi, and neospora caninum in north american opossums, didelphis virginiana, from southern louisiana.we examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( trypanosoma cruzi, toxoplasma gondii, and encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and besnoitia darlingi) in a population of north american opossums ( didelphis virginiana) from louisiana. samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for t. cruzi in louisiana. frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluoresce ...201021158620
neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of spain, galicia.herd and individual animal seroprevalence for neospora caninum (n. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the galician farmer sanitary defence associations (adsg) in 2004. all animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect elisa. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. true herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed he ...201021145605
monensin use against neospora caninum challenge in dairy cattle.using a randomized controlled trial design, a randomly allocated intervention group of 15 cows received a slow-release bolus that delivered 100 days of monensin. the negative control group of 15 cows received a placebo bolus that was identical to the monensin bolus, except without the monensin. two weeks after bolus administration, all cows were challenged with a 2 ml subcutaneous injection of a live tachyzoite suspension. whole blood and serum samples were collected from each cow every week for ...201021106293
experimental infection of dogs (canis familiaris) with sporulated oocysts of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is widely distributed in the world and this parasite is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum and several species of domestic and wild animals are intermediate hosts. dogs can become infected by the ingestion of tissues containing cysts and then excrete oocysts. it is not yet known whether sporulated oocysts are able to induce a patent infection in dogs, i.e. a shedding of n. caninum oocysts in feces. the objective of ...201021094584
detection of specific antibodies anti-neospora caninum in the fallow deer (dama dama).sera from 335 farmed fallow deer (dama dama) at the breeding station in kosewo górne in the mazurian lake district, north-east poland, were investigated for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum. the distribution of age groups was as follow: >4years - 154 animals; 2years - 76 animals; 1year - 105 animals. ten sera with the optical density exceeding 0.159 absorbance units (i.e., cut-off value) in elisa test were also analyzed by western blot. western blot analysis revealed seroreact ...201021087781
development of an immunochromatographic strip for the rapid detection of toxoplasma gondii circulating antigens.we developed a rapid immunochromatographic strip (ics) procedure that can detect circulating antigens in the blood of animals during the acute stage of toxoplasmosis. the aim of this study was to evaluate this test using sera from field samples and from experimentally infected animals. the sensitivity and specificity of the ics were compared with those of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). both assays detected circulating antigens in the sera of animals experimentally infected with th ...201021081174
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum in dogs from urban areas in central poland.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. to assess the prevalence of the parasite in urban dogs in the mazovian voivodeship, central poland, serum samples from 257 dogs were analyzed for the presence of specific igg antibodies. the examined dogs visited three private veterinary clinics located in warsaw due to control tests, vaccinations, or other reasons not directly connected with neosporosis. ...201021079995
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in free living and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in poland.serum samples from 47 free living and 106 farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) from the mazurian lake district in north-east poland were investigated for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum. a modified neospora iscom-elisa was used for initial screening. all sera with optical density (od) values exceeding 0.400 absorbance units were further investigated by western blot analysis. eighteen sera were positive in both tests. six of these were from free living and 12 from farmed animals giving ...201021077439
evaluation of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from uberlândia, minas gerais state, brazil, by different serological methods.toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. considering the scarce information on the occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from uberlândia, minas gerais state, brazil, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of antibodies against these parasites in sheep sera from this region by using different serological methods. a total of 155 sheep serum samples were analyze ...201021075529
immune response to neospora caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes in calves.the aim of this study was to compare the immune responses to live neospora caninum tachyzoites and n. caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes matrix (iscom-matrix) in calves. fifteen calves were used in this study: 3 were intravenously inoculated with 1 × 10(8) live tachyzoites (group a), 3 were inoculated twice with n. caninum native antigens formulated with iscoms (group b); 3 with n. caninum native antigens in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) (group c); 3 received ...201021074325
influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against neospora caninum infection in this study, the protection afforded by a neospora caninum inactivated vaccine formulated with three different adjuvants (water-in-oil emulsion, aluminum hydroxide with cpg oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminum hydroxide with ginseng extract) and three different parasite doses (10(5), 5 × 10(5) or 10(6) inactivated whole tachyzoites) was evaluated using a mouse model. mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at three-week intervals with inactivated nc-spain 1h tachyzoites and challenged by intrap ...201021067865
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered beef cows (bos indicus).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes the most important reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. the objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of vertical transmission of n. caninum in zebus breed beef cows (bos indicus) submitted for slaughter at an abattoir in the northern region of the state of paraná, southern brazil. one hundred and fifty-nine cows were evaluated: 83 pregnant (in different stages of gestation) and 76 non-pregnant. serum determination of n. ca ...201021063729
crystallization and preliminary x-ray structural analysis of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases from neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii.the nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases that are produced by neospora caninum (ncntpase) and toxoplasma gondii (tgntpase-i) have a different physiological function from the ubiquitous ecto-atpases. the recombinant enzymes were crystallized at 293 k using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant and x-ray diffraction data sets were collected for ncntpase (to 2.8 å resolution) and tgntpase-i (to 3.1 å resolution) at 100 k using synchrotron radiation. the crystals of ncntpase and tgntpase-i belonge ...201021045291
evaluation of a commercial elisa for the specific detection of antibodies against besnoitia besnoiti.bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease in cattle caused by the protozoan parasite besnoitia besnoiti, which occurs endemically in many countries of africa and asia and is spreading in europe. serological identification of subclinically infected cattle is important to avoid the introduction of infected animals into naive herds. here we determine the sensitivity and specificity of the priocheck(®) besnoitia ab, a serological test recently introduced into the european market. anal ...201021035269
identification of hammondia heydorni oocysts by a heminested-pcr (hnpcr-ap10) based on the h. heydorni rapd fragment ap10.toxoplasma gondii, hammondia hammondi, neospora caninum, neospora hughesi and hammondia heydorni are members of the toxoplasmatinae sub-family. they are closely related coccidians with similarly sized oocysts. molecular diagnostic techniques, especially those based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr), can be successfully applied for the differentiation of hammondia-like oocysts. in this paper, we describe a rapid and simple method for the identification of h. heydorni oocysts among other members ...201021030154
validation of a leishmania infantum elisa rapid test for serological diagnosis of leishmania chagasi in dogs.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is caused by leishmania donovani complex parasites including l. donovani, leishmania infantum and leishmania chagasi. as some studies suggest that l. chagasi and l. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid elisa test, originally designed for l. infantum, in the diagnosis of cvl in dogs naturally infected by l. chagasi. a total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs ...201021030153
effects of neospora caninum infection at mid-gestation on placenta in a pregnant mouse model.neospora caninum is one of the more-efficient transplacentally-transmitted organisms. the goal of the present study was to investigate the pathologic and immunologic changes that occur at the materno-fetal interphase in pregnant balb/c mice infected with n. caninum at mid-gestation. parasite dna was detected in feto-placentary units 3 days post-infection (pi). on day 7 pi, the dna detection level and parasite burden were significantly higher in the placentas than in the fetuses, which may indica ...201020950112
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.this study was designed to detect antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in brazilian zoos. blood samples were collected from 142 brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 european wolves (canis lupus) and 94 brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in brazilian zoos of são paulo, mato grosso states and federal district. one hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for t. gondii ...201020950109
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep flocks of uberlândia county, mg.neosporosis is a parasitic disease that occurs in sheep and is associated with reproductive failure. the aim of this study was to verify seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in 12 sheep flocks in uberlândia county, minas gerais, brazil, using indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 334 sheep blood samples were analyzed and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of neosporosis: gender, age, breed, abortion problems, co ...201020943017
update on the diagnosis and management of neospora caninum infections in dogs. 201020937501
a new thrombospondin-related anonymous protein homologue in neospora caninum (ncmic2-like1).neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that has the dog as a definitive host and cattle (among other animals) as intermediate hosts. it causes encephalopathy in dogs and abortion in cows, with significant loss in worldwide livestock. as any apicomplexan, the parasite invades the cells using proteins contained in the phylum-specific organelles, like the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. the aim of this study was the characterization of a homologue (denominated ncmic2-like1) of n. c ...201020880420
neospora caninum infection in stray and farm dogs: seroepidemiological study and oocyst a previous study, farm and stray dogs were considered potential high risk populations of neospora caninum infection in spain. consequently, we decided to investigate the significance of n. caninum infection in these populations. specific antibodies were detected in 120 out of 275 dog sera (43.6%), with titres ranging from 1:50 to 1:800. differences in seroprevalence between farm (47.5%, 67/141) and stray (39.5%, 53/134) dogs were not significant (p>0.05; χ(2) test), but farm dogs showed signi ...201020851523
neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog.this study presents the first case report of neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog, including characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate. the dog in question, a 6-year-old welsh springer spaniel, was presented with flaccid tail and faecal and urinary incontinence. the histological lesions included severe mononuclear cell infiltration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and of the lumbar nerve roots. the infiltrate was composed of large numbers of t-lymphocytes and b-lymphocytes and small ...201020840297
construction of neospora caninum stably expressing tgsag1 and evaluation of its protective effects against toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related apicomplexan parasites. the surface antigen 1 of t. gondii (tgsag1) is a major immunodominant antigen and, therefore, is considered to be a good candidate for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. in this study, n. caninum stably expressing the tgsag1 gene (nc/tgsag1) was constructed using pyrimethamine-resistant dhfr-ts and gfp genes as double-selection markers. the expression level, molecular weight ...201020832493
microarray analyses of mouse responses to infection by neospora caninum identifies disease associated cellular pathways in the host response.neospora caninum is a coccidian cyst-forming parasite found in a wide range of host species such as mice, dogs and cattle. the development of methods such as vaccines to prevent abortion and fetal loss due to neosporosis would be greatly assisted by further knowledge on immunity and host responses to infection. in this study we used microarray technology to investigate the protective host responses occurring at 6h post infection in the spleen of mice infected with a prototype live n. caninum vac ...201020817048
clinical and clinicopathological features of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young greyhounds in ireland.the clinical and clinicopathological features of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in 30 greyhounds were reviewed. the dogs were from 21 separate litters, comprised both sexes (16 males and 14 females) and ranged in age from five to 18 months. in 14 (66.7 per cent) litters, more than one case was suspected or confirmed, and the number of siblings affected within individual litters ranged from one to seven. clinical signs were progressive and varied from five days to 12 months in duration; 12 d ...201020802187
peripheral white blood cell counts throughout pregnancy in non-aborting neospora caninum-seronegative and seropositive high-producing dairy cows in a holstein friesian herd.pregnancy is characterized by transient changes in the maternal immune system, also evident at peripheral level. the present study analyzes the kinetics and possible factors affecting peripheral white blood cell populations throughout pregnancy in a herd of high-producing dairy cows chronically infected or not with neospora caninum. we examined 54 pregnant parous cows: 29 neospora-seronegative and 25 neospora-seropositive cows. blood samples were collected on days 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of ge ...201120801467
neospora caninum tachyzoite- and antigen-stimulated cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and spleen cells of naive balb/c mice.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. this parasite elicits a typical type 1 immune response in host animals, and it is widely believed that the strong type 1 immune response during pregnancy may result in fetal death. pro-inflammatory and/or inflammatory cytokines produced during either primary or secondary pathogen exposure are supposed to be the mediators of abortion. the present study defined cytokine production by murine naïve dendritic cell ...201020738198
systemic neosporosis in a white rhinoceros.neosporosis was diagnosed in a 16-year-old female white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) that died suddenly without clinical signs. histopathology revealed disseminated protozoan tachyzoites in liver, adrenal cortex, kidney, and intestine, with morphology compatible with either toxoplasma or neospora. the organism was identified as neospora caninum with the use of primary rabbit anti-n. caninum antibody immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. the exact source of infection remains unk ...201020722274
serodiagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis in mongolia by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant toxoplasma gondii matrix antigen 1.toxoplasma gondii matrix antigen 1 (tgmag1), known as the 65-kda protein, which is abundantly expressed in both bradyzoites and tachyzoites, was evaluated as a candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for ovine toxoplasmosis. the tgmag1 gene was expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione s-transferase (gst), and the recombinant tgmag1 (rtgmag1) was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the elisa with rtgmag1 showed a highly specific reaction ...201020715421
differential susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) and uterine cervical (hela) cells to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite, closely related to toxoplasma gondii, and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. trophoblast cells act in mechanisms of innate immune defense at the fetal-maternal interface and no data are available about the interaction of neospora with human trophoblasts. thus, this study aimed to verify the susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) compared with uterine cervical (hela) cell lines to n. caninum. bewo and hela cells were ...201020708622
in vitro isolation and identification of the first neospora caninum isolate from european bison (bison bonasus bonasus l.).peripheral blood from european bison (bison bonasus bonasus l.) living in białowieża forest, north-east poland, were investigated for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and isolation of parasite. out of 23 animals three of them showed a strong positive response to n. caninum (13%). the white blood cells from two positive and two negative bison were loaded on monolayer vero cells culture. the first viable tachyzoites were detected only in positive samples at days 60 and 70 after incub ...201020702042
detection of neospora caninum tachyzoites in cerebrospinal fluid of a dog following prednisone and cyclosporine therapy.a 9-year-old female spayed shetland sheepdog was presented to the kansas state university veterinary medical teaching hospital for evaluation following a 3-week history of left rear limb lameness that had progressed to generalized ataxia. multifocal or diffuse brain lesions were suspected based on physical examination findings. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) contained 52 nucleated cells/μl composed of mixed inflammatory cells. treatment with prednisone and cyclosporine was initiated based on a presum ...201020698940
validation of an elisa method for the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis due to brucella the present study, the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis is described. two different antigenic extracts, obtained by heat or ultrasonic homogenization of microbial antigens from a wild isolate of brucella canis bacteria, were compared by elisa and western blot (wb). a total of 145 canine sera were used to define sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the elisa as follows: (1) sera from 34 animals with natural b. canis infectio ...201120692004
kennel dogs as sentinels of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in majorca island, spain.kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, thus being exposed to pathogens. we tested dogs from the kennel of inca (majorca/mallorca, balearic islands, spain) for evidence of infection with three protozoan parasites: leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. exposure to l. infantum was found in 56.3% of 48 dogs (37.5% by western blot, 43.8% by pcr). only 30% of in ...201020689966
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in alaska caribou and moose populations in some regions of alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan pa ...201020688628
rng1 is a late marker of the apical polar ring in toxoplasma gondii.the asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. these stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (mtocs). centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. the apical polar ring (apr), a mtoc unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. here we describe the c ...201020658557
abortions in bovines and neospora caninum transmission in an embryo transfer center.neosporosis is considered to be one of the main causes of abortions in bovines. in this study we evaluated the congenital transmission and occurrence of abortions by neospora caninum in an embryo transfer center in neropolis, goiás. serological samples from 101 recipients, 61 donors, and 90 calves were analyzed. among these animals, 32.67% of the recipients, 22.22% of the donors, and 6.66% of the calves were positive for n. caninum. the rate of vertical transmission was 24%. there was a statisti ...201020655663
association between neospora caninum seropositivity and perinatal mortality in dairy heifers at first calving.associations between neospora caninum infection and the reproductive performance of dairy heifers in their first and second pregnancy on 18 uk farms were examined. six-month-old heifer calves were tested for n caninum-specific antibodies with a commercial elisa, and were then monitored until their second calving. random-effects regression analyses were performed on the data, using serological status as the explanatory variable. of 460 heifers tested, 7.2 per cent were seropositive. seropositive ...201020643884
association between seropositivity for neospora caninum and reproductive performance of beef heifers in the pantanal of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, ruminants, and horses. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of antibodies to n. caninum and reproductive loss in beef heifers in the south pantanal region of mato grosso, brazil. a total of 1098 heifers were evaluated from breeding to calving with regard to reproductive performance, and serology for neosporosis was assayed by indirect immunofluorescence react ...201020624350
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in swine from northeastern brazil.a serologic survey was conducted among 130 swine slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of the city of patos, paraíba state, northeastern brazil, to determine the prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, and to verify possible associations between sex of the animals and antibody prevalence. the sera were analyzed by indirect antibody tests, considering 1:64 (t. gondii) and 1:50 (n. caninum) dilutions as cut-off points. the prevalence of anti-t. gondii antibodi ...201020624342
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in gray wolves in scandinavia.transmission of the protozoan parasite neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. because of the close relationship between gray wolf (canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. the aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of n. caninum in scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. the investigation was based on blood samples collect ...201020609524
microsatellite typing and avidity analysis suggest a common source of infection in herds with epidemic neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion.neosporosis is an important cause of reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. two different abortion patterns associated with neospora caninum infection have been observed in cattle herds: endemic and epidemic abortion outbreaks. the endemic pattern is characterized by an abortion problem in a herd persisting for several months or years, and is assumed to be caused by reactivation of a chronic infection. in epidemic outbreaks, abortions concentrate within a short period of time, most likely due ...201020609521
neospora caninum: in vitro culture of tachyzoites in mcf-7 human breast carcinoma cells.the development of neospora caninum tachyzoites, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, was studied in vitro using the human breast carcinoma cell 7 (mcf-7) as the host cell line. the extracellular nc-1 tachyzoites in mcf-7 cells were observed and counted daily for 6 consecutive days post-infection to establish the growth curve. the intracellular parasites were observed by acridine orange staining using laser scanning confocal microscope. the results indicated that nc-1 tachyzoites invaded mcf-7 ce ...201020566363
neospora spp. and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses in the czech republic.during january 2007, blood samples were collected from 552 healthy horses from nine different regions of the czech republic. sera were tested for serum antibodies to neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. the same samples were tested for serum antibodies against toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. in total, 131 of 552 (24%) horses reacted positively for neospora antibodies in competitive- ...201020532561
detection of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and encephalitozoon cuniculi in the brains of common voles (microtus arvalis) and water voles (arvicola terrestris) by gene amplification techniques in western austria (vorarlberg).knowledge about the protozoan parasite fauna in voles (arvicolinae) in austria is rather limited, although some of these pathogens play an important role in human medicine and cause zoonoses (e.g., toxoplasma gondii and encephalitozoon cuniculi). others are of relevance in veterinary medicine and have a negative economic impact (e.g., neospora caninum). two hundred sixty-eight common voles (microtus arvalis) and 86 water voles (arvicola terrestris) from the most western austrian province, vorarl ...201020480373
detection of neospora caninum dna in capybaras and phylogenetic analysis.the role of rodents in the sylvatic cycle of neospora sp. and in the neosporosis epidemiology is still uncertain. the aim of the present work was to detect neospora caninum and to determine its prevalence in capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), to help elucidate the role of this rodent in the life cycle of the parasite. n.caninum dna was detected by pcr using 4 different sets of primers specific to the nc5 and its1 sequences. the parasite was found in the lymph nodes, heart, liver, and blood o ...201020470895
roles of cd122+ cells in resistance against neospora caninum infection in a murine model.innate cells, such as natural killer (nk) cells and nkt cells, play essential roles as primary effector cells at the interface between the host and parasite until establishment of adaptive immunity. however, the roles of nk and nkt cells in defense against neospora caninum have not been well clarified. nk and nkt cells were depleted by the treatment with an anti-cd122 (interleukin-2 receptor beta chain) monoclonal antibody (mab, tm-β1) in vivo. the parasite burden in the brain of mice was promot ...201020460838
occurrence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum, anti-toxoplasma gondii, and anti-leishmania chagasi in serum of dogs from pará state, amazon, brazil.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of anti-toxoplasma gondii, anti-neospora caninum, and anti- leishmania chagasi antibodies in dogs of the state of pará, brazil. for this purpose, 129 blood samples were collected from dogs of different ages and gender. samples of 72 dogs were collected from 39 rural properties from 19 municipalities, and 57 samples were from stray dogs, collected after captivity by the center of zoonosis control from the municipality of santarém. ...201020445991
molecular characterization of neospora caninum mag1, a dense granule protein secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole, and associated with the cyst wall and the cyst matrix.summary: in neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, the parasitophorous vacuole (pv) is synthesized at the time of infection. during tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite stage conversion, the pv is later transformed into a tissue cyst that allows parasites to survive in their host for extended periods of time. we report on the characterization of ncmag1, the n. caninum orthologue of t. gondii mag1 (matrix antigen 1; tgmag1). the 456 amino acid predicted ncmag1 protein is 54% identical to tgmag1. by immunobl ...201020444303
development of an indirect elisa test using an affinity purified surface antigen (p38) for sero-diagnosis of canine neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids, as well as many warm blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites and the detection of parasite dna in naturally infected hosts. n. caninum is described as a cause of neuromuscular disease and death in dogs. the dog is also known as a definitive host, shedding oocysts involved in the transmission of the infection to intermediate hosts. this study was conducted to develop an indirect elisa test ...201020434268
comparative analysis of stage specific gene regulation of apicomplexan parasites: plasmodium falciparum and toxoplasma gondii.apicomplexans comprise some of the most life threatening parasites infecting human and livestock and includes plasmodium and toxoplasma, the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis respectively, in humans as well as neospora caninum (abortion in livestock, neosporosis in dogs), cryptosporidium (diarrheal cryptosporidiosis and opportunistic infections in aids patients) and eimeria (poultry coccidiosis). these parasites are characterized by a complex life cycle usually alternating between se ...201020429866
neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii seropositivity are related to endocrine pattern changes during gestation in lactating dairy cows.q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by coxiella burnetii that is endemic worldwide. domestic ruminants are a source of infection for humans. given the suggestion that the bacterium recrudesces during pregnancy in cattle, this study was designed to determine whether c. burnetii infection affects hormonal patterns, such as progesterone, cortisol, pregnancy associated glycoproteins (pag), and prolactin during gestation in lactating cows. possible interactions with neospora caninum were also expl ...201020416940
influence of neospora caninum intra-specific variability in the outcome of infection in a pregnant balb/c mouse model.previous assays in pregnant animals have demonstrated the effect of different host factors and timing of infection on the outcome of neosporosis during pregnancy. however, the influence of neospora caninum isolate itself has been poorly investigated. here, we compared the effects on clinical outcome and vertical transmission observed in a pregnant mouse model following infection with 10 different n. caninum isolates. the isolates in our study included the nc-liv isolate and nine n. caninum isola ...201020416260
recognition by toll-like receptor 2 induces antigen-presenting cell activation and th1 programming during infection by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for major economic losses due to abortions in cattle. toll-like receptors (tlrs) sense specific microbial products and direct downstream signaling pathways in immune cells, linking innate, and adaptive immunity. here, we analyze the role of tlr2 on innate and adaptive immune responses during n. caninum infection. inflammatory peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to n. caninum-soluble antigens presented an ...201020404835
implications of wild dog ecology on the sylvatic and domestic life cycle of neospora caninum in australia.neospora caninum is transmitted either transplacentally or horizontally by ingestion of tissue cysts present in tissues or oocysts shed by dogs. neosporosis is a significant disease, causing cattle abortion at 5-7 months of pregnancy. infected cows may remain infective for life transmitting the infection in several consecutive or non-consecutive pregnancies. a great deal is known about the epidemiology of neosporosis, although only limited information is available on the main routes of horizonta ...201120400345
detection of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected non-human primates by indirect fluorescence assay (ifa) and indirect elisa.the indirect fluorescence assay (ifa) and the indirect elisa were comparatively used to detect igg and igm antibodies for toxoplasma gondii in experimentally and naturally infected primates. in the experimentally infected group, antibodies of diagnostic value were detected at day 9 post-infection (pi) with the ifa (igg and igm) and with igg-elisa. igm-elisa detected antibodies for t. gondii starting at day 3 pi until the end of the experiment (102 days pi). of the 209 naturally infected sera tes ...201020385056
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in stray dogs of urmia, investigate anti-neospora caninum antibodies in stray dogs living in urmia city, 135 blood samples were collected. serum samples were screened for detection of anti-n. caninum igg antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat; >or=50). antibodies were seen in 36 (27%) of 135 dogs. the ifat antibody titers were as follows: 1:50 in 16 dogs, 1:100 in ten dogs, 1:200 in six dogs, 1:400 in one dog, 1:800 in two dogs, and 1:1,600 in one dog. there were no significant differences in sero ...201020379836
comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent antibody and new immunoblot tests for the specific detection of antibodies against besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites and bradyzoites in bovine sera.besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite causes economically important disease in cattle in many countries of africa and asia is re-emerging in europe. serological identification of infected cattle is important because introduction of these animals into naive herds seems to play a major role in the transmission of the parasite. we report new, simplified immunoblot-based serological tests for the detection of b. besnoiti-specific antibodies. antigens were used under non-reducing conditions in ...201020378250
a survey of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in large dairy farms of mashhad, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoon causing abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of this parasite for causing abortion in dairy farms in the mashhad area of iran. of the aborted bovine fetuses, 151 were collected from dairy farms between 2006 and 2008. first, brain samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the presence of n. caninum dna, diagnosis was complemented with immunohistochemistry (ihc) and fetal serology (eli ...201020352453
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in european brown hares in the czech republic, slovakia and austria.european brown hares (lepus europaeus) coming from the czech republic, slovakia and austria were tested for serum antibodies against neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for serum antibodies against toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. in a total of 925 samples, 280 (30%) and 132 (14%) reacted positively for n. caninum and t. gondii antibodies, respectively. out of 333 hares in the czech republic, 129 (39%) and 71 (21%) reacted ...201020347525
necrotizing cerebellitis and cerebellar atrophy caused by neospora caninum infection: magnetic resonance imaging and clinicopathologic findings in seven dogs with neosporosis can develop a variety of neurologic signs. no area of predilection within the nervous system so far has been identified in adult dogs.201020337912
pathogenic characterization in mice of neospora caninum isolates obtained from asymptomatic this study, we characterized 8 new isolates obtained from healthy but congenitally infected calves using a balb/c mouse model. neospora caninum-infected mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs of disease. nevertheless, differences among isolates in parasite organ distribution, parasite burden and the severity of histopathological lesions were determined. mice infected with the nc-spain 5h, nc-spain 7 and nc-spain 9 isolates showed higher parasite burdens and more severe brain lesi ...201020233488
conventional and molecular diagnostic testing for the acute neurologic patient.the aim of this review is to describe and evaluate both conventional and molecular diagnostic testing utilized in dogs and cats with acute neurologic diseases. various types of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) are explored along with novel molecular diagnostic testing that ultimately may prove useful in the critical care setting.201020230434
the prevalence and spatial clustering of neospora caninum in dairy herds in norway.the aims of this study were to estimate the national herd prevalence and the general spatial distribution of neospora caninum infection in norwegian dairy cattle. bulk milk samples from 1657 randomly selected dairy herds were analysed by iscom elisa for the presence of n. caninum specific antibodies. the national herd prevalence was estimated to be 0.7% (95% ci: 0.3-1.2%), which is the lowest national herd prevalence reported in europe. in addition, we included a subpopulation study in which all ...201020227188
neospora caninum: cloning and expression of a gene coding for cytokine-inducing profilin.profilins are actin-binding proteins that in toxoplasma gondii stimulate innate immunity in mice by binding toll-like receptors (tlr) on dendritic cells (dc) leading to release of inflammatory cytokines, primarily il-12 and ifn-gamma. the purpose of the present study was to characterize neospora caninum profilin, termed ncprofilin. recombinant ncprofilin was purified by affinity chromatography, and used to prepare specific antisera to allow characterization of native ncprofilin antigen in n. can ...201020211619
the first report of ovine cerebral neosporosis and evaluation of neospora caninum prevalence in sheep in new south wales.presence of neospora caninum dna was detected in the brain and spinal cord of an adult merino sheep suspected of dying with acute non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and mild to moderate non-suppurative myelitis. the most severe neurological lesions were found in the midbrain at the rostral coliculi with moderate to severe multifocal vasculitis and gliosis. as this was the first known occurrence of cerebral disease in sheep in australia caused by n. caninum, we surveyed sera from five sheep prop ...201020189309
stress-driven stage transformation of neospora caninum.neosporiosis, a serious disease caused by the apicomplexan intracellular parasite neospora caninum, is considered to be one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. it is associated with potentially serious complications such as abortion, stillbirth and maternal infertility. to survive in fluctuating physiological and immunological environments, n. caninum has evolved a diverse set of regulatory mechanisms that govern various adaptive responses. the most intriguing paradigm in n. c ...201020165871
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