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prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing n. caninum protective antigens.bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. brucella abortus strain rb51, a commercially available vacci ...200717575983
experimental neosporosis in bulls: parasite detection in semen and blood and specific antibody and interferon-gamma responses.to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood, and the development of specific antibody and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses in experimentally infected bulls.200717316779
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from rural and urban environments in tehran, iran.103 serum samples were taken from owned dogs in tehran (53 urban dogs and 50 farm dogs) from february to may 2005 and tested for igg antibody against neospora caninum using the immunofluorescence antibody test. urban dogs were selected from apparent healthy dogs referred to the small animal hospital of faculty of veterinary medicine, university of tehran, for routine operation, and the farm dogs were selected from the sheepdogs in sheep flocks around tehran randomly. the titer of 1:50 was select ...200717687566
peripheral immune responses in pregnant cattle following neospora caninum infection.experimental infection of cattle with neospora caninum in early gestation causes foetal death, but the foetus survives infection in late gestation. an immunological mechanism of abortion has been suggested; therefore changes in the maternal immune response during pregnancy could account for these differences. we have investigated the peripheral immune responses of pregnant cattle following an intravenous inoculation with 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites in early and late gestation. percentages of cd ...200717371459
neospora caninum in cattle: experimental infection with oocysts can result in exogenous transplacental infection, but not endogenous transplacental infection in the subsequent pregnancy.whilst it is presumed that infection of pregnant cattle with neospora caninum oocysts can provoke abortion and is the likely cause of epidemic abortion outbreaks, only two previous experiments have involved inoculation of pregnant cows with oocysts (and only one abortion was provoked in 22 pregnancies). here, we describe the oral oocyst challenge of 18 cows synchronously bred and inoculated precisely at 70 (n=6), 120 (n=6) and 210 (n=6) days in pregnancy with a nominal dose of 40,000 oocysts. on ...200717624353
cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. recently, n. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. elisa diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in brazil, mostly because of th ...200717706005
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos city, paraíba state, northeast region of brazil.the prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies was investigated in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos, state of paraíba, northeast region of brazil, and possible associations between sex of the animals and antibody prevalence were verified. three-hundred six blood samples from goats collected before slaughter by jugular venopuncture were used. for the serologic diagnosis of t. gondii and n. caninum, the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (ifat) ...200717706359
occurrence of antibodies against neospora caninum in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) on four ranches in corrientes province, argentina.the aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in corrientes province in the northeast of argentina. antibodies against n. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). a bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to n. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, ...200717950535
possibility of neospora caninum infection by venereal transmission in cb-17 scid mice.cb-17 scid and balb/c male mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with neospora caninum to examine the possibility of its venereal transmission. some of these mice were killed on days 7 and 20 post-inoculation to examine the genital organs for presence of the parasite. the remaining scid male mice were housed with non-infected female mice from day 7 p.i. and kept with them for 14 days. these scid mice died between days 28 and 35 p.i. n. caninum dna was detected in the testis of mice on days 7 an ...200717689194
the host-parasite relationship in pregnant cattle infected with neospora caninum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is an important cause of reproductive disease in cattle worldwide. the dog is a definitive host for the parasite and the oocyst stage, shed in the faeces, is a source of infection for cattle through consumption of contaminated feed or water. in addition, transplacental transmission of n. caninum is a very efficient means of the parasite infecting a new host and this can occur in successive pregnancies and over several generations. neospora parasites may ca ...200717958926
humoral immune response in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival route.the aim of this study was to compare systemic humoral immune responses in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes. twenty nine heifers separated in three experimental groups were studied: group 1 (n=10 animals) and group 2 (n=9 animals) were inoculated with 10(8) of n. caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes at 5th month of gestation, respectively; group 3 (n=10 animals) were non-inoculated control animals. an indire ...200717697754
dense-granule protein ncgra7, a new marker for the serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in aborting cows.to investigate whether the production of an antigen-specific antibody is associated with neospora caninum-induced bovine abortion, 62 serum samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant antigens ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncgra7. our study suggested that ncgra7 would be a new marker for the serodiagnosis of n. caninum infection resulting in abortion.200717959821
serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china with implications for species conservation.conservation strategies for the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. this study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv), toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans were measur ...200718229861
c57bl/6 mice infected with neospora caninum during administration of progesterone show bias toward type 2 immune response.to clarify the role of progesterone in the development of immune responses during pregnancy against neospora caninum infection, c57bl/6 mice were given a progesterone pellet, and measured on interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production following the infection. ifn-gamma production in the prescribed group was significantly lower than that in the intact group on day 40 post administration. il-4 producing cell population in the prescribed group was larger than that in the intact group. these resul ...200717984602
cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a female japanese cat.a 16-year-old female japanese cat was presented with a single mammary-gland nodule approximately 3 cm in diameter. histologically, the nodule consisted of necrotizing granulomatous panniculitis, vasculitis, and mastitis, and contained free and clustered protozoal organisms. the organism was present in the cytoplasm of macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary-gland epithelia. the organism was positive for anti- toxoplasma gondii and anti- neospora caninum antibodies. electron micr ...200717846241
internal hydrocephalus and associated periventricular encephalitis in a young fox.marked lateral ventricular enlargement associated with atrophic cerebral cortex and periventricular encephalitis is described in a 2-month-old fox affected by disorientation, generalized ataxia, difficulty in walking, circling, and blindness. clinical conditions progressed to stupor and spontaneous death within a few days. at necropsy, severe inflammatory and necrotizing lesions were observed in periventricular sites associated with diverticula and cleft formation in perithalamic areas and rhine ...200717846249
first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in china.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in the tissues of aborted bovine foetuses in china is reported. aborted foetuses were collected from 16 dams, and 12 of the dams had high serum antibody titres to n. caninum determined using an elisa test kit. the nc-5 gene of n. caninum was amplified from dna samples extracted from brains of four aborted foetuses using a neospora-specific pcr assay, confirming n. caninum infection in the aborted foetuses. histology and immunohistochemistry ...200717706874
anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in canine neosporosis.neospora caninum infection provokes neurological disorders, recurrent abortion and death in dogs and cattle. dogs are both intermediate and definitive host of n. caninum. thus, the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays to diagnose canine neosporosis is essential to control this disease. this work investigated serum anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in 140 dogs represented by 30 healthy animals (group i), 11 dogs showing acute n. caninum infection (group ii), 50 urban dogs with s ...200718035978
sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.a 1.5-year-old male feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. the dog was euthanized. the brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. protozoa morphologically ...200718039914
histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of neospora caninum diagnosis in bovine aborted fetuses.lesions suggestive of protozoal infection such as nonsuppurative myositis, nonsuppurative myocarditis, nonsuppurative pneumonia associated with focal cellular necrosis and multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative encephalitis were observed in 89 (34%) out of 258 aborted bovine fetuses. immunohistochemistry (ihc) revealed tachyzoites and cysts of neospora caninum in 55 (61.8%) of these 89 fetuses. several fetal variables were tested by multivariate logistic regression, in which increasing odds for p ...200717904290
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild ruminants from the countryside or captivity in the czech republic.in the czech republic, sera from 720 wild ruminants were examined for antibodies to neospora caninum by screening competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); the same sera were also examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by ifat. neospora caninum antibodies were found in 14% (11 positive/79 tested) roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 14% (2/14) sika deer (cervus nippon), 6% (24/ 377) red deer (cervus elaphus), 1% (2/143) ...200718163361
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from durango city, mexico.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites, with many hosts in common. the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum was determined in sera from dogs from durango city, mexico. using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 52 (51.5%) of the 101 dogs with titers of 1:25 in 27, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 5, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 1. antibodies to n. caninum were determined by the indirect immunof ...200718163336
vaccination with microneme protein ncmic4 increases mortality in mice inoculated with neospora caninum.ncmic4 is a neospora caninum microneme protein that has been isolated and purified on the basis of its unique lactose-binding properties. we have shown that this protein binds to galactosyl residues of lactose; antibodies directed against ncmic4 inhibit host cell interactions in vitro, thus making it a vaccine candidate. because of this feature, ncmic4 was first purified on a larger scale in its native, functionally active form using lactose-agarose affinity chromatography. second, ncmic4 was ex ...200718163338
loss of infectivity of neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time.the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4 degrees c, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (meriones unguiculatus). six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for n. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody t ...200718165712
bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta beef and dairy cattle.identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. the objective of this study was to map the risk for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map - the causative agent of johne's disease) and neospora caninum (nc - t ...200718189052
neospora caninum: high susceptibility to the parasite in c57bl/10sccr mice.c57bl/10sccr mice, lack toll-like receptor 4 and a functional interleukin-12 receptor. taking this into account, susceptibility of these mice to neospora caninum infection was assessed comparatively to that of immunocompetent c57bl/10scsn mice. c57bl/10sccr mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 5x10(5)n. caninum tachyzoites showed a high susceptibility to this parasite. all infected c57bl/10sccr mice were dead by day 8 post-infection whereas all control c57bl/10scsn mice survived this parasitic ...200716889774
serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle using a recombinant tncsrs2 protein-based elisa.the truncated ncsrs2 gene (tncsrs2) by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence was cloned into the pgex-6p-1 plasmid and subsequently expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein. the purified recombinant tncsrs2 protein was specific to neospora caninum and was used in an elisa for the diagnosis of neosporosis. there was a good agreement between tnctsrs2-based elisa and three commercially available diagnostic kits (idexx elisa, hipra elisa and vmrd ifat). three hundred da ...200716989950
comparison of serological methods for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle.the aims of this study were to evaluate the performance and agreement of various commercial and in-house neospora caninum antibody assays used in dairy cattle in north america, and to investigate reproducibility of two assays performed in different laboratories. from 1998 to 2005, three enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas, a competitive elisa-vmrd inc., an indirect elisa-biovet inc., and another indirect elisa-herdchek idexx corp.), two indirect fluorescent antibody tests (ifats, vmrd inc ...200716989951
immunization of cattle with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum confers protection against fetal death.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. it is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a t-helper-cell type 1 response involving cd4(+) cytotoxic t cells and gamma interferon. cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection in the mother causing congenital infection or abortion and by ingestion of oocysts, which, if it occurs during gestation, can also result in a ...200717145943
neospora caninum detected in feral rodents.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of neosporosis was investigated by assaying brain tissue of feral mice (mus musculus) and rats (rattus norvegicus) for neospora caninum. both mouse and rat brain tissue were extracted for total dna, and subjected to two different n. caninum-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. a portion of brain tissue from the mice and rats were also assayed for n. caninum in gerbils or gamma-interferon gene knockout (ko) mice. of the 105 feral mice tes ...200716997474
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in non-carnivorous wildlife from spain.serum samples from 1034 non-carnivorous wildlife from spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). high agreement was observed between results in both techniques (kappa value higher than 0.9). prevalences of n. caninum antibodies positive by both techniques were 11.8% of 237 red deer (cervus elaphus), 7.7% of 13 barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), 6.1% of 33 ro ...200716962706
evaluation of serological tests for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs: optimization of cut off titers and inhibition studies of cross-reactivity with toxoplasma gondii.diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs is based on serological assays such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). this study evaluated two serological tests (ifat and elisa) for the detection of igg antibodies to n. caninum in 300 serum samples of dogs through the optimization of cut off titers by using the two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (tg-roc) curve. in addition, the identification of major cross-reactive antigens ...200716973287
immunoanalysis of three litters born to a doberman bitch infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a tissue cyst-forming coccidium that may cause neuromuscular disorders in dogs. infected bitches can transmit the parasite to their pups in utero. vertical transmission may occur after primary infection during pregnancy and in subsequent pregnancies. the reason why only a few pups develop clinical neosporosis is unknown. we obtained sera from a doberman bitch and its offspring delivered in three litters. the bitch had a titer of 1:640 in an indirect fluorescent antibody test ...200717096148
presence of neospora caninum specific antibodies in three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas.neospora caninum is known to cause abortion in cattle. this study demonstrated the presence of specific igg to neospora in milk and serum samples obtained from three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas. samples from four hundred fourteen dairy cows were examined using a western blot assay of which 362 were milk and 87 were serum. samples with antibodies to neospora were identified in 32.1% (105/327) of the examined animals in georgia, whereas in texas it was identified in 10.3% (9/87). posit ...200717112670
serologic study of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms in tehran, iran.a few studies have been done on the seroepidemiology of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy and beef cattle farms in iran, which suggested the presence of n. caninum in these areas, but there is no published information directed on the presence or epidemiology of this organism in the dogs in iran. to investigate anti-n. caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in cattle farms, 100 blood samples were collected: 50 from dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms and 50 from house ...200717120042
host/parasite relationship in the in vitro infection of rat gliocytes by neospora caninum: evaluation of cell respiration.neospora caninum is a protozoon that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, with the formation of cysts mainly in the central nervous system. since n. caninum is an intracellular parasite with tropism for the cells of nervous system, this study evaluated the respiratory metabolism of glial cells infected by this* parasite. glial cultures obtained from the cerebral cortex of newborn rats were kept in dmem enriched with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1 mm pyruvic acid and 2 mm of l- ...200717184800
analysis of the immune response to neospora caninum in a model of intragastric infection in mice.to study experimental neospora caninum infection initiated at the gastrointestinal tract, toll-like receptor 4- and functional il-12rbeta2 chain-deficient c57bl/10 sccr mice were challenged intragastrically with 5 x 10(6) n. caninum tachyzoites. all parasite-inoculated mice eventually died with disseminated infection. in contrast, immunocompetent balb/c mice challenged with 1 x 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric (i.g.) or the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route remained alive for at least ...200717187652
neospora caninum antibodies detected in midwestern white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by western blot and elisa.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. sera from white-tailed deer from south central wisconsin and southeastern missouri, usa were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by western blot analyses and two indirect elisas. seroreactivity against n. caninum surface antigens was observed in 30 of 147 (20%) of wi deer and 11 of 23 (48%) of mo deer using western blot analysis. compared to western blot, the two indirect elisas were found t ...200717194547
structure-activity relationships from in vitro efficacies of the thiazolide series against the intracellular apicomplexan protozoan neospora caninum.nitazoxanide (2-acetolyloxy-n-(5-nitro 2-thiazolyl) benzamide; ntz) represents the parent compound of a novel class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. ntz is active against a wide variety of intestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths, protozoa, enteric bacteria and a number of viruses infecting animals and humans. while potent, this poses a problem in practice, since this obvious non-selectivity can lead to undesired side effects in both humans and animals. in this study ...200717141783
evaluation of bovine abortion associated with neospora caninum by different diagnostic techniques in mashhad, iran.twelve aborted foetuses (gestational ranged from 4-9 months) and dams from dairies cattle farms in (mashhad) iran were analysed to investigate the participation of neospora caninum in abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by histopathology, serology (indirect fluorescent antibody test [ifat]) and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total 33% of bovine foetuses were considered to be infected by pcr technique. microscopic lesions consistent with n. caninum infection in foe ...200717206503
evaluation of four serological techniques to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) on prince edward island, canada.the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the performance and agreement of serological assays (elisa, ifat, neospora caninum agglutination test and immunoblot) using reference sera and field sera from foxes and coyotes and (2) to estimate the n. caninum seroprevalence in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada. with fox and coyote reference sera the test performance of the elisa, ifat and ib was excellent (100% sensitivity and specificity). nat showed a low sensitivity (50%). s ...200717223270
apical membrane antigen 1 is a cross-reactive antigen between neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, and the anti-ncama1 antibody inhibits host cell invasion by both parasites.the cross-reactive antigens of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are important in the exploration to determine the common mechanisms of parasite-host interaction. in this study, a gene encoding n. caninum apical membrane antigen 1 (ncama1) was identified by immunoscreening of a n. caninum tachyzoite cdna expression library with antisera from mice immunized with recombinant t. gondii apical membrane antigen 1 (tgama1). ncama1 was encoded by an open reading frame of 1695 bp, which encoded a p ...200717156863
prevalence of neospora caninum and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy-breed steers in a feedlot.to determine the prevalence and effect of neospora caninum infection and persistent infection (pi) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) on weight gain, morbidity, and mortality rate in dairy-breed steer calves located on a feedlot in california.200717397345
production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.the primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map), and neospora caninum (nc) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in canadian dairy cattle. serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against blv (idexx elisa; idexx corporation, westbr ...200717235141
risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern italy.neosporosis by neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. this study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern italy, determined the prevalence of n. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. using an inhibition elisa, 20.9% of 306 dogs had perce ...200717257762
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in sheep and dogs from guarapuava farms, paraná state, brazil.sheep and dog blood samples were collected from nine farms in the county of guarapuava, paraná, brazil. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used to detect neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies. herein, serum samples from 305 sheep were evaluated, being 29 (9.5%) and 157 (51.5%) seropositives to n. caninum and t. gondii, respectively. seven (29.1%) and five (20.8%) out of 24 dogs were seropositives to n. caninum and t. gondii, respectively. there were no differences amon ...200717266999
the ncgra7 gene encodes the immunodominant 17 kda antigen of neospora caninum.a neospora caninum 17-19 kda antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by n. caninum. to identify the proteins making up the p17 fraction, we screened a new n. caninum tachyzoite cdna library with an affinity-purified antibody against p17 (apa17). we isolated several cdna clones with 100% sequence identity to the ncgra7 gene. this previously described gene enco ...200717032479
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in hungarian red foxes (vulpes vulpes).in the present study we have investigated the seroprevalence to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in 337 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from 16 out of 19 counties in hungary. the foxes were originally collected within a national vaccination program against rabies. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in as many as 228 (68%) of the foxes using a commercial direct agglutination test (dat). in an indirect iscom elisa, five foxes (1.5%) were positive for antibodies against n ...200717045742
optimization of the use of c57bl/6 mice as a laboratory animal model for neospora caninum vaccine studies.the development and testing of vaccines for neospora caninum in mice require challenge studies to demonstrate a reduction in clinical signs or prevention of vertical transmission of the parasite after vaccination. genetic susceptibility to n. caninum varies with the strain of mice. in this study, c57bl/6 mice were evaluated as a model for neospora vaccine studies. a lethal challenge model was developed and the ld(50) was determined to be 1.5 x 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites/mouse, delivered intrape ...200717306460
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in seals around hokkaido, japan.serological analysis was performed to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in seals in hokkaido. serum samples were collected from 322 kuril harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) at nosappu, akkeshi and erimo, from 46 spotted seals (p. largha) at nosappu, erimo, yagishiri island, hamamasu and syakotan, and from 4 ribbon seals (p. fasciata) and a bearded seal (erignathus barbatus) at nosappu between 1998 and 2006. recombinant surface antigen of t. gondii (sag2t) and n. canin ...200717485927
characterization of the fetuin-binding fraction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and its potential involvement in host-parasite interactions.terminal sialic acid residues on surface-associated glycoconjugates mediate host cell interactions of many pathogens. addition of sialic acid-rich fetuin enhanced, and the presence of the sialidiase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid reduced, the physical interaction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites with vero cell monolayers. thus, neospora extracts were subjected to fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography in order to isolate components potentially interacting wi ...200717291396
molecular characterisation of bsr4, a novel bradyzoite-specific gene from neospora caninum.here we present the identification and cloning of the ncbsr4 gene, the putative neospora caninum orthologue to the toxoplasma gondii tgbsr4 gene. to isolate ncbsr4, genome walking pcr was performed on n. caninum genomic dna using the expressed sequence tag ncest3c28h02.y1 sequence, which shares a 44% identity with the tgbsr4 gene, as a framework. nucleotide sequencing of amplified dna fragments revealed a single uninterrupted 1227 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 408 amino acids w ...200717376452
toxoplasma gondii dysregulates ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts: insights from a genome-wide transcriptional profiling.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that persists for the life of a mammalian host. the parasite's ability to block the potent ifn-gamma response may be one of the key mechanisms that allow toxoplasma to persist. using a genome-wide microarray analysis, we show here a complete dysregulation of ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts infected with toxoplasma. notably, 46 of the 127 ifn-gamma-responsive genes were induced and 19 were suppressed in infected cell ...200717404298
a longitudinal study of seroprevalence and seroconversion of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeast thailand.a long-term study was carried out in 11 dairy herds in the khon kaen province of northeast thailand between august 2001 and november 2004. the objective was to investigate seroprevalence dynamics of neospora caninum infection in the herds and to demonstrate patterns of seroconversion in individual cattle. each herd was visited once a year, in total four times, and sera from cattle > 3 months of age and farm dogs as well as a sample from the bulk milk were collected. all samples were analysed for ...200717416467
chronic neospora caninum infection and repeat abortion in dairy cows: a 3-year study.the serological status of neospora was monitored in animals older than 6 months in a dairy herd with a 3-year history of prevalent n. caninum and n. caninum-associated abortions. the numbers of animals in the herd tested each year of the study period were 259, 222 and 231, respectively. a separate analysis was performed on the 122 animals persisting in the herd for the 3 years. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in the herd decreased from 31.7% in the first year to 24.8% in the second year ...200717467905
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bulk milk to estimate the prevalence of neospora caninum on dairy farms in prince edward island, canada.this study evaluated the use of bulk milk as a diagnostic tool for estimation of herd-level neospora caninum exposure in atlantic canada; it was used to estimate the prevalence of dairy farms with a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence > or = 15% in prince edward island (pei). the variation over time of n. caninum antibodies in bulk milk is also reported. skimmed bulk milk and individual serum samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). ...200717542367
treatment of canine pediatric neospora caninum myositis following immunohistochemical identification of tachyzoites in muscle biopsies.a 7-week-old irish wolfhound was evaluated for an abnormal hind limb gait. quadriceps muscle atrophy was pronounced and patellar reflexes were absent bilaterally. neospora caninum myositis was diagnosed by histopathologic and serologic examination and immunohistochemical staining of muscle. substantial clinical improvement was noted after 18 weeks of treatment with clindamycin.200717542369
factors associated with variation in neospora caninum bulk-milk s/p ratios in initially bulk-milk negative testing dutch dairy herds.we conducted a study on 81 initially bulk-milk elisa negative dairy herds taken from a random sample of dutch dairy herds to evaluate variation in bulk-milk s/p ratios and to study reasons for bulk-milk conversion. these herds were repeatedly (3-month intervals) tested between april 2004 and august 2005 and serostatus of all animals had previously been established as negative (n), low-positive (lp) or high-positive (hp). of these herds, herd- and test-related factors associated with variation in ...200717566576
possible role of bovine trophoblast giant cells in transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an aplicomplexan parasite that has brought several concerns to cattle raisers worldwide due to its relationship to fetal loss. however, the mechanism of the parasite's transplacental infection and induced abortions are not completely understood. bovine trophoblastic binucleated cells (bnc) play a major role in the maternal-fetal interactions, migrating during the entire pregnancy from chorionic connections to uterine epithelium. this study aimed to investigate the possible ro ...200717588318
seroprevalence of neospora spp. among asymptomatic horses, aborted mares and horses demonstrating neurological signs in israel.sera from 800 asymptomatic horses were examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum by immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). the presence of antibodies to n. caninum was also tested in sera from 52 mares that had aborted and 40 horses exhibiting neurological signs. a total of 95 (11.9%) of the 800 sera had antibodies for neospora. significantly higher seropositivity was obtained from horses that had neurological signs (21.2%) and from aborted mares (37.5%). there was significan ...200717614202
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of heifers and cows using contaminated semen with different numbers of tachyzoites.to investigate the potential of different neospora caninum tachyzoite doses to infect heifers (experiment 1) and cows (experiment 2) when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen.200717126895
neospora caninum emerges from the shadow of toxoplasma gondii.it is sometimes easy to make the mistake of assuming that everything that holds true for toxoplasma gondii is also true for its relative neospora caninum. however, a recurring theme in the recent review by hemphill et al. is not the similarities but the striking differences between the two parasites.200717185039
pcr-rflp for the detection and differentiation of the canine piroplasm species and its use with filter paper-based technologies.canine piroplasmosis is an emerging disease worldwide, with multiple species of piroplasm now recognised to infect dogs. a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) assay was developed for the detection and differentiation of each of the piroplasm species currently known to infect dogs on the basis of the 18s ribosomal rna gene. the assay can potentially amplify and discriminate between theileria annae, theileria equi, babesia conradae, babesia gibsoni, ...200717127005
natural killer cells act as early responders in an experimental infection with neospora caninum in calves.the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a cause of abortion and congenital disease in cattle worldwide. we have previously shown that natural killer (nk) cells produce ifn-gamma in response to n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. this study aimed to investigate the role of nk cells and other cellular immune responses in an experimental n. caninum infection model in calves. phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a drop in the percentage of nk cells at days 4-6 after i.v. ...200717188277
multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis), tristram's jird (meriones tristrami) and wagner's gerbil (gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute neosporosis.to test the different sensitivity of rodents of the subfamily murinae and gerbillinae, wagner's gerbils (gerbillus dasyurus), tristram's jirds (meriones tristrami) and multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis) were inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites. clinical signs of neosporosis appeared in all inoculated animals. histopathological examination confirmed the presence of tachyzoites in brains, lungs, skeletal muscle, myocardium, liver, in serosa of stomach and intestines, and in vesicular ...200717134728
plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations during gestation in neospora-infected dairy cows.the aim of this study was to determine whether plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations in pregnancy are affected by persistent neospora caninum infection in dairy cows. the data analyzed were derived from 22 multiparous cows: 16 n. caninum-seropositive and 6 n. caninum-seronegative animals (used as controls). three of the 16 seropositive cows aborted during the study period and the corresponding data were analyzed separately. pregnancy diagnoses were performed on day 40 ...200717010415
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in the people's republic of china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the people's republic of china. serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in china. all sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and t. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and an indirect agglutination test (iat), respectively. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum ...200717010521
first report of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in mashhad area, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan which causes abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of bovine neosporosis for causing abortion in iranian cattle. infection was primarily diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), complemented with histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc). one hundred brains of aborted bovine fetuses were collected from iranian dairy herd between 2003 and 2005 in mashhad area. n. caninum was detected by pcr in t ...200717024355
the first detection of neospora caninum dna in the colostrum of infected cows.limited data is available on the vertical transmission of neospora caninum via the colostrum. the results of our previous research revealed the presence of n. caninum dna in the milk of seropositive cows. the aim of the present work is to demonstrate parasite dna in colostrum samples. a polymerase chain reaction using np21 and np6 primers was applied to dna isolated from the colostrum sediment in order to amplify the corresponding genomic nc-5 region. the expected 328-bp product was obtained in ...200717024360
immunogenicity and protective effect against murine cerebral neosporosis of recombinant ncsrs2 in different iscom formulations.recombinant ncsrs2, a major immunodominant surface antigen of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum, was used as a model antigen to compare the immunogenicity of iscoms prepared according to three different methods. two ncsrs2 fusion proteins were used, one that was biotinylated upon expression in escherichia coli and linked to ni2+-loaded iscom matrix (iscom without any protein) via a hexahistidyl (his6)-tagged streptavidin fusion protein, and another that contained both a his6- ...200717280751
survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpes virus 1 coinfection in cattle.a seroprevalence survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) was conducted in cattle pasturing in an area of the southern italian apennines to investigate the coinfection of these two pathogens. blood samples were collected from 948 pastured cattle raised on 81 farms. sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and to bhv-1 using an elisa assay and a neutralization test, respectively. out of the 81 farms sampled, 63 (77.8%) were positive for n. caninum and 80 (98.8%) for bhv-1. ...200717053931
progesterone supplementation during mid-gestation increases the risk of abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows with high antibody titres.progesterone has been reported to reduce th1 responses during pregnancy. thus, given that an excessive th1 response could lead to abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows, we hypothesized a reduction in abortion risk following progesterone supplementation during the mid-gestation period in these animals. seropositive animals were assigned on day 120 of gestation to a control (n=33) or treatment (n=34) group. treatment consisted of progesterone supplementation by fitting a progesterone releasing ...200717182187
antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats from brazil.the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii was determined in 400 domestic cats (siamese, persian, and undetermined breeds) from the municipality of araçatuba, sao paulo, brazil, through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat). of the 400 cats, 100 were seropositive to t. gondii (25%, titer > or =64) and 98 to n. caninum (24.5%, titer > or =16). the rate of seropositive cats for t. gondii was correlated with age (chi(2)=35.7; p<0.001), with a higher number of in ...200716941188
serological survey of neospora caninum in dogs in the czech republic and a long-term study of dynamics of antibodies.the main aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum dogs from the czech republic and to examine the dynamics of antibody titers during a long-term period. for this purpose, sera of 858 dogs were examined for the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). four groups of dogs of various origins were included in the survey: the first group (a, n=470) comprised dogs purchased by the czech army ...200716956728
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 and has been known as a major cause of abortion in bovines and neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. to estimate the prevalence of bovine neosporosis in the 22 municipalities of the so-called estrato 1 subregion of the brazilian state of mato grosso do sul, blood samples were collected from cows aged 24 months and older, from december ...200718078599
low seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection associated with the limousin breed in cow-calf herds in andorra, europe.neospora caninum seroprevalence and risk factors affecting seroprevalence in beef cattle in andorra were investigated. antibodies to n. caninum were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on a yearly basis in 1,758 animals older than 6 mo, belonging to 26 herds. mean seroprevalence of antibodies to n. caninum for the herds was 7.4 +/- 1.2% (130/1,758). logistic regression analyses were performed on data from each animal, considering n. caninum seropositivity as the dependent va ...200718163335
development of two immunochromatographic tests for the serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis.in this study, we developed two immunochromatographic tests (icts), which are nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassays for the convenient and rapid serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis (boict) and babesia bigemina (biict). the efficacy of two icts was evaluated using 13 positive sera from experimentally infected cattle with b. bovis or b. bigemina. clear results showed that the boict and elisa detected antibodies in sera collected from 14 to 93 days post-infection, while ...200717590275
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in india.neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of n. caninum infection in cattle in india. serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in punjab, india, were tested for n. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cow ...200718314683
generation of parasite cysts in cultured cells instead of living animals.in order to develop any effective means of prevention or therapy against neospora caninum infection, all three life cycle stages of this parasite have to be taken into account. in this project, the in vitro culture of n. caninum bradyzoites containing tissue cysts has been developed, thus allowing to the initiation of stage conversion without the use of animal experimentation. this enables researchers to study novel aspects of stage differentiation, to investigate novel diagnostic antigens, and ...200719835051
toxoplasma rhoptries: unique secretory organelles and source of promising vaccine proteins for immunoprevention of toxoplasmosis.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite classified in the phylum apicomplexa, which includes numerous notable human and animal pathogens (plasmodium species, cryptosporidium species, neospora caninum, etc.). the invasive stages of apicomplexans are characterized by the presence of an apical complex composed of specialized cytoskeletal and secretory organelles, including rhoptries. rhoptries, unique apical secretory organelles shared exclusively by all apicomplexan paras ...200818670609
review of idiopathic eosinophilic meningitis in dogs and cats, with a detailed description of two recent cases in dogs.eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (eme) has been described in various species of animals and in humans. in dogs it has been associated with protozoal infections, cuterebral myiasis and various other aetiologies. ten cases of idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis have been reported in dogs and one in a cat where the origin was uncertain or unknown. the dogs were all males, of various breeds but with a predominance of golden retrievers and rottweilers; they generally had a young age of onset. ...200819496320
[seroprevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. the prevalence of neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (canis latrans), a north american wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. the aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of n. caninum and t. gondii in wild native canids species from brazil. serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (lycalopex ...200820059860
current trends in follow-up of trophoblastic function in ruminant species.during the pregnancy of ruminants, different hormones and proteins are secreted by placenta or corpus luteum allowing the follow up of gestation. among them, progesterone (p4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) were proposed as laboratory tools to establish or to confirm pregnancy diagnosis. in last years, pag assay also provided useful information for researchers working in programs focused on the follow up of trophoblastic function. concentrations of pag appeared as altered after the ...200819261972
[frequency of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais].the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais. a total of 559 serum samples of cows of the a bank of sera formed from of serum samples collected at 18 dairy farms, distributed for seven municipalities of the lavras micro region, southern minas gerais, and 575 serum samples of cows and 503 serum samples of fetuses were collected at slaughter house of campo belo, mg. serum samples were ...200819265576
frequency of antibodies against neospora caninum in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from paraná state, southern brazil.antibodies to neospora caninum were analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from curitiba, paraná state, brazil. of the total of 556 dogs, 18.17% (101) were positive for n. caninum (titer 50). frequency of antibody was 12.71 in urban, 15.73 in periurban, and 25.38% in rural dogs. rural dogs had a significantly higher frequency of antibodies than urban dogs (p<0.05). there were no significant differences between t ...200819265582
[risk factors and prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in urban and rural dogs from rio grande do sul, brazil].serum samples from 339 dogs from rural (beef and dairy farms) and urban areas of municipality of pelotas, rs, were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test to verify the presence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum. data from dogs took part of an epidemiologic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors associated with the seropositivity. antibodies anti-n. caninum were found 15.6% (53/339) of serum samples, with 5.5% (6/109) of positive dogs from urban area and 20.4% (47/230) from rural ...200820059865
[epidemiologic survey of neospora caninum in bovines of rural settlements in corumbá, ms].neospora caninum, is an obligate intracellular parasite, can infect domestic and wild dogs, equines and ruminants. it was described in 1988, and its economic importance is attributed to costs of abortion, the value of the fetuses, artificial insemination and coverage, the decrease in milk production, the increase in the disposal and replacement of animals. in four rural settlements of the municipality of corumba, ms (mato grande, paiolzinho, taquaral and tamarineiro) was used a combination of qu ...200820059867
effects of re-infection with neospora caninum in bulls on parasite detection in semen and blood and immunological responses.three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with neospora caninum were re-infected intravenously with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 isolate at 300 days post-infection to investigate the presence of n. caninum in semen and blood, and the associated immune responses. in parallel, three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with n. caninum and three non-infected bulls were also monitored. re-infected and infected bulls showed an intermittent presence of n ...200818336895
a four year longitudinal sero-epidemiology study of neospora caninum in adult cattle from 114 cattle herds in south west england: associations with age, herd and dam-offspring pairs.neosporosis caused by the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, is an economically important cause of abortion, stillbirth, low milk yield, reduced weight gain and premature culling in cattle. consequently, a seroepidemiological study of n. caninum antibodies was conducted in england with 29,782 samples of blood taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds visited on three occasions at yearly intervals. herds were categorised into lower (< 10%) and higher (> or = 10%) median herd seroprevalence. hiera ...200818793402
usefulness of rncgra7- and rncsag4-based elisa tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis.bovine reproductive failure caused by the parasite neospora caninum is a major problem and is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. currently, appropriate control measures depend on the predominant transmission route in a particular herd. therefore, the development of diagnostic tools capable of discriminating between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection is a major challenge in the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. here, two recombinant protein-based ...200818814972
the development and evaluation of a nested pcr assay for detection of neospora caninum and hammondia heydorni in feral mouse tissues.the development of a novel nested polymerase chain reaction is described and used for detecting the presence of neospora caninum and hammondia heydorni dna in dna extracted from feral rodent tissues. a unique strategy was used for design of an assay that could be adapted for detecting dna from more than one member of toxoplasmatinae simultaneously with a minimal number of additional steps. the level of sensitivity described for this assay is comparable to real time-pcr and other nested pcr assay ...200818420378
neospora caninum: detection in wild rabbits and investigation of co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis.neospora caninum is an important pathogen of cattle causing significant economic loss. there is much current interest in wild animal reservoirs for this parasite. the role of the rabbit in this is currently unknown. dna samples from the brains of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected from the malham area of the yorkshire dales were investigated by species-specific pcr for the presence of n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii. we found prevalences of n. caninum of 10.5% (6/57) and t. gondii o ...200818703054
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum infection in dogs found in dairy farms and urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico.the objective of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of neospora caninum infection in dogs in close contact with dairy cattle and dogs from urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico, as well as to estimate the possible association between age, gender and size of these groups and seroprevalence. sera were obtained from samples of 152 dogs in dairy farms and 116 in the urban area, and were subjected to elisa test. general seroprevalence reached 32%, while the seroprevalence in farm dogs (4 ...200818722716
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii in wild waterfowl in chukotka, kamchatka, russia and hokkaido, japan.antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were assayed by elisa in 22 experimentally inoculated domestic ducks. in addition, a serological assay was carried out at obihiro, hokkaido, japan, in 2004 and 2005, on 221 wild ducks of 5 species: anas platyrhynchus (n = 111); a. poecilorhyncha (n = 27); a. acuta (n = 58); a. penelope (n = 16); and a. crecca (n = 9). assays were also conducted using sera from 197 wild geese of 2 species, i.e., anser albifrons (n = 162) and ans. fabalis (n = 35). birds were collec ...200818576786
influence of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice during pregnancy in post-natal development.the influence of neospora caninum infection during pregnancy on the post-natal period has been poorly investigated. in a previous study, we suggested that infection with n. caninum during pregnancy could affect the normal post-natal development of the offspring. for this reason, in the present work we evaluated the influence of n. caninum infection in pregnant balb/c mice at days 0, 7 and 14 of gestation (groups a, b and c, respectively) on the post-natal development of the offspring from birth ...200818586405
[epidemiological and financial considerations for the control of neospora caninum on swiss dairy farms].neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important abortifacients in cattle and causes substantial financial losses to bovine livestock production. this study aimed to calculate the losses caused by n. caninum on swiss dairy farms and to evaluate the efficacy and profitability of the control strategies culling, not breeding replacements and chemotherapy of calves on farm level. three different farm sizes with high, medium and low herd prevalences were defined. epidemiological and ...200818605018
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from grenada, west indies.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in grenada, west indies. using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) of the 107 dogs, with titers of 1:25 in 17, 1:50 in 19, 1:100 in 7, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200 or higher in 4. seroprevalence increased with age from 2.2% in dogs <6 mo old to 18.9% in dogs older than 2 ...200818605807
the differentiation of transcription between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of in vitro cultured neospora caninum.interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of neospora caninum plays a pivotal role in transmission of the parasite. although significant efforts have been made toward understanding the mechanisms that trigger and control stage conversion of the parasite, little is known about this process. we used annealing control primer (acp)-based polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique to characterize the differences in transcription between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum. the in vitro ...200818618147
sarcocystis neurona: molecular characterization of enolase domain i region and a comparison to other protozoa.sarcocystis neurona causes protozoal myeloencephalitis and has the ability to infect a wide host range in contrast to other sarcocystis species. in the current study, five s. neurona isolates from a variety of sources, three sarcocystis falcatula, one sarcocystis dasypi/s. neurona-like isolate, and one besnoitia darlingi isolate were used to compare the enolase 2 gene segment containing the domain i region to previously sequenced enolase genes from neospora caninum, neospora hughesi, toxoplasma ...200818625501
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