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seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in seals around hokkaido, japan.serological analysis was performed to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in seals in hokkaido. serum samples were collected from 322 kuril harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) at nosappu, akkeshi and erimo, from 46 spotted seals (p. largha) at nosappu, erimo, yagishiri island, hamamasu and syakotan, and from 4 ribbon seals (p. fasciata) and a bearded seal (erignathus barbatus) at nosappu between 1998 and 2006. recombinant surface antigen of t. gondii (sag2t) and n. canin ...200717485927
detection of toxoplasma gondii in water by an immunomagnetic separation method targeting the sporocysts.an immunomagnetic separation (ims) method was developed to detect toxoplasma gondii in fresh waters by using the monoclonal antibody 4b6 targeting the sporocyst wall of t. gondii, hammondia hammondi, hammondia heydorni, and neospora caninum. water concentrates obtained by filtering 10- to 20-l samples samples were spiked with toxoplasma oocysts, sonicated to release the sporocysts, and analyzed by ims-4b6. mean sporocyst recoveries were 74.5 +/- 5.3% in drinking water, 30.6 +/- 2.4 and 37.1 +/- ...200717530288
prevention of lethal experimental infection of c57bl/6 mice by vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing neospora caninum antigens.bovine abortions caused by the intracellular protozoal parasite neospora caninum are a major concern to cattle industries worldwide. a strong th1 immune response is required for protection against n. caninum. brucella abortus strain rb51 is currently used as a live, attenuated vaccine against bovine brucellosis. strain rb51 can also be used as an expression vector for heterologous protein expression. in this study, putative protective antigens of n. caninum mic1, mic3, gra2, gra6 and srs2, were ...200717568587
protection against abortion linked to gamma interferon production in pregnant dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.many immunological aspects of pregnancy, such as the role played by gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in abortion, are not well understood. neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan considered to be among the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study analyzes the interaction between ifn-gamma production and n. caninum infection in naturally infected pregnant cows. data were obtained from 126 pregnant cows: 86 seropositive and 40 seronegative for the parasite. pregnancy diagn ...200717854883
treatment of canine pediatric neospora caninum myositis following immunohistochemical identification of tachyzoites in muscle biopsies.a 7-week-old irish wolfhound was evaluated for an abnormal hind limb gait. quadriceps muscle atrophy was pronounced and patellar reflexes were absent bilaterally. neospora caninum myositis was diagnosed by histopathologic and serologic examination and immunohistochemical staining of muscle. substantial clinical improvement was noted after 18 weeks of treatment with clindamycin.200717542369
neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs.the dog is a definitive host of the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, and in many parts of the world, infection is relatively common as determined by serology. reported seroprevalences usually range from 0 to 20 per cent, however, reports of clinically affected dogs are infrequent. affected dogs are generally less than six months old and predominantly have signs of an ascending hindleg paralysis, with the associated lesions of polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. although any ...200717547641
factors associated with variation in neospora caninum bulk-milk s/p ratios in initially bulk-milk negative testing dutch dairy herds.we conducted a study on 81 initially bulk-milk elisa negative dairy herds taken from a random sample of dutch dairy herds to evaluate variation in bulk-milk s/p ratios and to study reasons for bulk-milk conversion. these herds were repeatedly (3-month intervals) tested between april 2004 and august 2005 and serostatus of all animals had previously been established as negative (n), low-positive (lp) or high-positive (hp). of these herds, herd- and test-related factors associated with variation in ...200717566576
toxoplasma gondii dysregulates ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts: insights from a genome-wide transcriptional profiling.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that persists for the life of a mammalian host. the parasite's ability to block the potent ifn-gamma response may be one of the key mechanisms that allow toxoplasma to persist. using a genome-wide microarray analysis, we show here a complete dysregulation of ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts infected with toxoplasma. notably, 46 of the 127 ifn-gamma-responsive genes were induced and 19 were suppressed in infected cell ...200717404298
optimization of the use of c57bl/6 mice as a laboratory animal model for neospora caninum vaccine studies.the development and testing of vaccines for neospora caninum in mice require challenge studies to demonstrate a reduction in clinical signs or prevention of vertical transmission of the parasite after vaccination. genetic susceptibility to n. caninum varies with the strain of mice. in this study, c57bl/6 mice were evaluated as a model for neospora vaccine studies. a lethal challenge model was developed and the ld(50) was determined to be 1.5 x 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites/mouse, delivered intrape ...200717306460
the apicomplexan pathogen neospora caninum inhibits host cell apoptosis in the absence of discernible nf-kappa b activation.neospora caninum, a causative agent of bovine abortions, is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii. since a number of intracellular parasites, including t. gondii, have been shown to modulate host cell apoptosis, the present study was conducted to establish whether n. caninum is similarly capable of subverting apoptotic pathways in its host cells. our results indicated that death receptor-mediated apoptosis is repressed during n. caninum infectio ...200717576757
identification of ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 of neospora caninum as a potential common vaccine candidate for the control of both neosporosis and toxoplasmosis.the characterization of the cross-reactive antigens of two closely related apicomplexan parasites, neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, is important to elucidate the common mechanisms of parasite-host interactions. in this context, a gene encoding n. caninum ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 (ncp0) was identified by immunoscreening of a n. caninum tachyzoite cdna expression library with antisera from mice immunized with t. gondii tachyzoites. the ncp0 was encoded by a gene with open reading frame o ...200717412435
possible role of bovine trophoblast giant cells in transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an aplicomplexan parasite that has brought several concerns to cattle raisers worldwide due to its relationship to fetal loss. however, the mechanism of the parasite's transplacental infection and induced abortions are not completely understood. bovine trophoblastic binucleated cells (bnc) play a major role in the maternal-fetal interactions, migrating during the entire pregnancy from chorionic connections to uterine epithelium. this study aimed to investigate the possible ro ...200717588318
development of two immunochromatographic tests for the serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis.in this study, we developed two immunochromatographic tests (icts), which are nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassays for the convenient and rapid serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis (boict) and babesia bigemina (biict). the efficacy of two icts was evaluated using 13 positive sera from experimentally infected cattle with b. bovis or b. bigemina. clear results showed that the boict and elisa detected antibodies in sera collected from 14 to 93 days post-infection, while ...200717590275
neospora caninum in cattle: experimental infection with oocysts can result in exogenous transplacental infection, but not endogenous transplacental infection in the subsequent pregnancy.whilst it is presumed that infection of pregnant cattle with neospora caninum oocysts can provoke abortion and is the likely cause of epidemic abortion outbreaks, only two previous experiments have involved inoculation of pregnant cows with oocysts (and only one abortion was provoked in 22 pregnancies). here, we describe the oral oocyst challenge of 18 cows synchronously bred and inoculated precisely at 70 (n=6), 120 (n=6) and 210 (n=6) days in pregnancy with a nominal dose of 40,000 oocysts. on ...200717624353
dynamics of anti-neospora caninum antibodies during gestation in chronically infected dairy cows.the dynamics of antibody production against neospora caninum during the gestation period was examined in chronically infected dairy cows. data were obtained from 86 pregnant parous dairy cows, 21 of which had suffered abortion. the cows belonged to two herds in which a diagnosis of n. caninum infection had been previously confirmed in aborted foetuses. pregnancy diagnosis and blood collection were performed on post-insemination days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and at parturition or until the tim ...200717643822
reduced cerebral infection of neospora caninum in balb/c mice vaccinated with recombinant brucella abortus rb51 strains expressing n. caninum srs2 and gra7 proteins.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis, an important disease affecting the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent n. caninum infection in cattle. in this study, we examined the feasibility of developing a live, recombinant n. caninum vaccine using brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 as the expression and delivery vector. we generated two recombinant rb51 stra ...200717651896
evidence of neospora caninum dna in wild rodents.seventy-five house mice (mus musculus), 103 rats (rattus norvegicus) and 55 field mice (apodemus sylvaticus) from north-west italy were pcr analysed for neospora caninum infection. brain, kidney and muscle tissues collected from the above mentioned animals were tested by pcr using np6 and np21 primers. the brain tissue from 2 house mice and 2 rats, the kidney from 4 rats, 1 house mouse and 1 field mouse and muscle from 10 rats, 8 house mice and 1 field mouse were tested positive for n. caninum. ...200717651897
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from rural and urban environments in tehran, iran.103 serum samples were taken from owned dogs in tehran (53 urban dogs and 50 farm dogs) from february to may 2005 and tested for igg antibody against neospora caninum using the immunofluorescence antibody test. urban dogs were selected from apparent healthy dogs referred to the small animal hospital of faculty of veterinary medicine, university of tehran, for routine operation, and the farm dogs were selected from the sheepdogs in sheep flocks around tehran randomly. the titer of 1:50 was select ...200717687566
possibility of neospora caninum infection by venereal transmission in cb-17 scid mice.cb-17 scid and balb/c male mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with neospora caninum to examine the possibility of its venereal transmission. some of these mice were killed on days 7 and 20 post-inoculation to examine the genital organs for presence of the parasite. the remaining scid male mice were housed with non-infected female mice from day 7 p.i. and kept with them for 14 days. these scid mice died between days 28 and 35 p.i. n. caninum dna was detected in the testis of mice on days 7 an ...200717689194
humoral immune response in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival route.the aim of this study was to compare systemic humoral immune responses in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes. twenty nine heifers separated in three experimental groups were studied: group 1 (n=10 animals) and group 2 (n=9 animals) were inoculated with 10(8) of n. caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes at 5th month of gestation, respectively; group 3 (n=10 animals) were non-inoculated control animals. an indire ...200717697754
cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. recently, n. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. elisa diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in brazil, mostly because of th ...200717706005
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos city, paraíba state, northeast region of brazil.the prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies was investigated in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos, state of paraíba, northeast region of brazil, and possible associations between sex of the animals and antibody prevalence were verified. three-hundred six blood samples from goats collected before slaughter by jugular venopuncture were used. for the serologic diagnosis of t. gondii and n. caninum, the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (ifat) ...200717706359
first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in china.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in the tissues of aborted bovine foetuses in china is reported. aborted foetuses were collected from 16 dams, and 12 of the dams had high serum antibody titres to n. caninum determined using an elisa test kit. the nc-5 gene of n. caninum was amplified from dna samples extracted from brains of four aborted foetuses using a neospora-specific pcr assay, confirming n. caninum infection in the aborted foetuses. histology and immunohistochemistry ...200717706874
sarcocystis sp.-associated meningoencephalitis in a bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus).protozoal meningoencephalitis is uncommon in raptors. an adult female bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) was euthanized after several months of treatment for progressive neurologic signs. the predominant histologic lesion was lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis involving the cerebrum and cerebellum. there was a marked segmental loss of granular cells and purkinje cells, as well as segmental atrophy of the molecular layer in the cerebellum. protozoal merozoites and schizonts ...200717823405
cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a female japanese cat.a 16-year-old female japanese cat was presented with a single mammary-gland nodule approximately 3 cm in diameter. histologically, the nodule consisted of necrotizing granulomatous panniculitis, vasculitis, and mastitis, and contained free and clustered protozoal organisms. the organism was present in the cytoplasm of macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary-gland epithelia. the organism was positive for anti- toxoplasma gondii and anti- neospora caninum antibodies. electron micr ...200717846241
internal hydrocephalus and associated periventricular encephalitis in a young fox.marked lateral ventricular enlargement associated with atrophic cerebral cortex and periventricular encephalitis is described in a 2-month-old fox affected by disorientation, generalized ataxia, difficulty in walking, circling, and blindness. clinical conditions progressed to stupor and spontaneous death within a few days. at necropsy, severe inflammatory and necrotizing lesions were observed in periventricular sites associated with diverticula and cleft formation in perithalamic areas and rhine ...200717846249
isolation of neospora caninum from dairy zero grazing cattle in israel.first israeli neospora caninum isolates were obtained from brain tissues of aborted fetuses (ncis491 and ncis580) from dairy farms endemic for neosporosis and maintaining cattle on zero grazing. tissues from different parts of the fetus brains were used to infect vero cells. tachyzoites of n. caninum were first observed in cultures from days 30 and 32 after infection. to confirm the identity of the isolated parasites, dna extracts from brains and cultures were tested by pcr with specific primers ...200717850972
evaluation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (vicugna pacos) and llama (lama glama) aborted foetuses from peru.the aim of this study was to investigate the participation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of peruvian llamas and alpacas. fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in peru (central or south andean region). foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. n. caninum and t. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (ihc) combined with pcr and by pcr alone, respec ...200717931783
seroprevalence of neospora spp. among asymptomatic horses, aborted mares and horses demonstrating neurological signs in israel.sera from 800 asymptomatic horses were examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum by immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). the presence of antibodies to n. caninum was also tested in sera from 52 mares that had aborted and 40 horses exhibiting neurological signs. a total of 95 (11.9%) of the 800 sera had antibodies for neospora. significantly higher seropositivity was obtained from horses that had neurological signs (21.2%) and from aborted mares (37.5%). there was significan ...200717614202
quantification of vertical and horizontal transmission of neospora caninum infection in dutch dairy herds.ninety-six of 108 randomly selected dutch dairy herds had one or more cows with a positive serostatus for n. caninum. in these 96 herds, we have quantified the probabilities of vertical transmission (vt) and horizontal transmission (ht) of n. caninum infection by combining serostatus and pedigree data in 4091 dam-daughter pairs. the probability of animals infected by vertical transmission during pregnancy (prob(vt)) was calculated as the proportion of seropositive daughters among daughters of se ...200717640807
the host-parasite relationship in pregnant cattle infected with neospora caninum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is an important cause of reproductive disease in cattle worldwide. the dog is a definitive host for the parasite and the oocyst stage, shed in the faeces, is a source of infection for cattle through consumption of contaminated feed or water. in addition, transplacental transmission of n. caninum is a very efficient means of the parasite infecting a new host and this can occur in successive pregnancies and over several generations. neospora parasites may ca ...200717958926
dense-granule protein ncgra7, a new marker for the serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in aborting cows.to investigate whether the production of an antigen-specific antibody is associated with neospora caninum-induced bovine abortion, 62 serum samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant antigens ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncgra7. our study suggested that ncgra7 would be a new marker for the serodiagnosis of n. caninum infection resulting in abortion.200717959821
bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta beef and dairy cattle.identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. the objective of this study was to map the risk for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map - the causative agent of johne's disease) and neospora caninum (nc - t ...200718189052
neosporosis in beagle dogs: clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, isolation and genetic characterization of neospora caninum.clinical neosporosis was diagnosed in a litter of five pups born to a beagle bitch from virginia, usa. four of the pups developed limb weakness starting at 4 weeks of age. the dogs were suspected to have neosporosis based on clinical signs and empirically treated with clindamycin (75 mg, oral, twice daily, total 150 mg) starting at 9 weeks of age and the dosage was doubled at 13 weeks of age. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in sera of the dam and pups when first tested serologically ...200717890012
serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china with implications for species conservation.conservation strategies for the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. this study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv), toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans were measur ...200718229861
evaluation of four serological techniques to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) on prince edward island, canada.the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the performance and agreement of serological assays (elisa, ifat, neospora caninum agglutination test and immunoblot) using reference sera and field sera from foxes and coyotes and (2) to estimate the n. caninum seroprevalence in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada. with fox and coyote reference sera the test performance of the elisa, ifat and ib was excellent (100% sensitivity and specificity). nat showed a low sensitivity (50%). s ...200717223270
detection of pathogens in ovine and caprine abortion samples from sardinia, italy, by pcr.during 2003-2005, 399 abortion samples (315 fetuses and 84 placentae) were collected from 107 ovine and caprine farms in northern sardinia. tissues from aborted fetuses and placentae were examined by pcr assay to detect dna from coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, salmonella enterica serovar abortusovis, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. the dna from at least 1 of these 5 infectious agents was amplified in 41% of ovine fetuses, while only 17% of the caprine fetuses yielded a positiv ...200717459840
risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern italy.neosporosis by neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. this study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern italy, determined the prevalence of n. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. using an inhibition elisa, 20.9% of 306 dogs had perce ...200717257762
neospora caninum antibodies detected in midwestern white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by western blot and elisa.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) serve to maintain the neospora caninum life cycle in the wild. sera from white-tailed deer from south central wisconsin and southeastern missouri, usa were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by western blot analyses and two indirect elisas. seroreactivity against n. caninum surface antigens was observed in 30 of 147 (20%) of wi deer and 11 of 23 (48%) of mo deer using western blot analysis. compared to western blot, the two indirect elisas were found t ...200717194547
evaluation of bovine abortion associated with neospora caninum by different diagnostic techniques in mashhad, iran.twelve aborted foetuses (gestational ranged from 4-9 months) and dams from dairies cattle farms in (mashhad) iran were analysed to investigate the participation of neospora caninum in abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by histopathology, serology (indirect fluorescent antibody test [ifat]) and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total 33% of bovine foetuses were considered to be infected by pcr technique. microscopic lesions consistent with n. caninum infection in foe ...200717206503
presence of neospora caninum specific antibodies in three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas.neospora caninum is known to cause abortion in cattle. this study demonstrated the presence of specific igg to neospora in milk and serum samples obtained from three dairy farms in georgia and two in texas. samples from four hundred fourteen dairy cows were examined using a western blot assay of which 362 were milk and 87 were serum. samples with antibodies to neospora were identified in 32.1% (105/327) of the examined animals in georgia, whereas in texas it was identified in 10.3% (9/87). posit ...200717112670
serologic study of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms in tehran, iran.a few studies have been done on the seroepidemiology of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy and beef cattle farms in iran, which suggested the presence of n. caninum in these areas, but there is no published information directed on the presence or epidemiology of this organism in the dogs in iran. to investigate anti-n. caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in cattle farms, 100 blood samples were collected: 50 from dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms and 50 from house ...200717120042
aetiology of bovine abortion in switzerland from 1986 to 1995--a retrospective study with emphasis on detection of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by pcr.in a retrospective study, covering the period from 1986 to 1995, tissues of aborted fetuses were re-examined. a total of 347 cases were tested immunohistochemically, among them samples of 223 brains were examined for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), and 249 placentae for chlamydiaceae. two real-time pcr assays, one for n. caninum, and one for t. gondii, were developed. these potential abortion-inducing agents were detected - and confirmed by pcr, excep ...200717359449
immunization of cattle with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum confers protection against fetal death.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. it is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a t-helper-cell type 1 response involving cd4(+) cytotoxic t cells and gamma interferon. cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection in the mother causing congenital infection or abortion and by ingestion of oocysts, which, if it occurs during gestation, can also result in a ...200717145943
progesterone supplementation during mid-gestation increases the risk of abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows with high antibody titres.progesterone has been reported to reduce th1 responses during pregnancy. thus, given that an excessive th1 response could lead to abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows, we hypothesized a reduction in abortion risk following progesterone supplementation during the mid-gestation period in these animals. seropositive animals were assigned on day 120 of gestation to a control (n=33) or treatment (n=34) group. treatment consisted of progesterone supplementation by fitting a progesterone releasing ...200717182187
host/parasite relationship in the in vitro infection of rat gliocytes by neospora caninum: evaluation of cell respiration.neospora caninum is a protozoon that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, with the formation of cysts mainly in the central nervous system. since n. caninum is an intracellular parasite with tropism for the cells of nervous system, this study evaluated the respiratory metabolism of glial cells infected by this* parasite. glial cultures obtained from the cerebral cortex of newborn rats were kept in dmem enriched with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1 mm pyruvic acid and 2 mm of l- ...200717184800
natural killer cells act as early responders in an experimental infection with neospora caninum in calves.the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a cause of abortion and congenital disease in cattle worldwide. we have previously shown that natural killer (nk) cells produce ifn-gamma in response to n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. this study aimed to investigate the role of nk cells and other cellular immune responses in an experimental n. caninum infection model in calves. phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a drop in the percentage of nk cells at days 4-6 after i.v. ...200717188277
prevalence of neospora caninum and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy-breed steers in a feedlot.to determine the prevalence and effect of neospora caninum infection and persistent infection (pi) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) on weight gain, morbidity, and mortality rate in dairy-breed steer calves located on a feedlot in california.200717397345
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of heifers and cows using contaminated semen with different numbers of tachyzoites.to investigate the potential of different neospora caninum tachyzoite doses to infect heifers (experiment 1) and cows (experiment 2) when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen.200717126895
pcr-rflp for the detection and differentiation of the canine piroplasm species and its use with filter paper-based technologies.canine piroplasmosis is an emerging disease worldwide, with multiple species of piroplasm now recognised to infect dogs. a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) assay was developed for the detection and differentiation of each of the piroplasm species currently known to infect dogs on the basis of the 18s ribosomal rna gene. the assay can potentially amplify and discriminate between theileria annae, theileria equi, babesia conradae, babesia gibsoni, ...200717127005
experimental neosporosis in bulls: parasite detection in semen and blood and specific antibody and interferon-gamma responses.to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood, and the development of specific antibody and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses in experimentally infected bulls.200717316779
prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing n. caninum protective antigens.bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. brucella abortus strain rb51, a commercially available vacci ...200717575983
a longitudinal study of seroprevalence and seroconversion of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeast thailand.a long-term study was carried out in 11 dairy herds in the khon kaen province of northeast thailand between august 2001 and november 2004. the objective was to investigate seroprevalence dynamics of neospora caninum infection in the herds and to demonstrate patterns of seroconversion in individual cattle. each herd was visited once a year, in total four times, and sera from cattle > 3 months of age and farm dogs as well as a sample from the bulk milk were collected. all samples were analysed for ...200717416467
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
epidemiology and control of neosporosis and neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. until 1988, it was misidentified as toxoplasma gondii. since its first recognition in dogs in 1984 and the description of the new genus and species neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations, and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. although antibodies to n. caninum have been reported, the parasi ...200717428888
isolation and molecular detection of neospora caninum from naturally infected sheep from brazil.neospora caninum was isolated from a naturally infected sheep from brazil by bioassay in dogs. approximately 70g of brain from each of two 4-month-old sheep with indirect fluorescent antibodies (>or=1:50) to n. caninum was offered to a different ifat negative dog (sheep n. 302, ifat 1:400-dog 1 and sheep n. 342, ifat 1:50-dog 2). parasite dna was detected in both sheep brains using a pcr targeting the nc-5 gene of n. caninum. shedding of neospora-like oocysts was noticed only in dog 1, from 10 d ...200717451882
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in urban and rural dogs in north-west italy.sera were collected from 490 dogs from north-west italy. one hundred and eighty-eight dogs were urban, while 302 dogs were rural. among the latter, 190 were shepherd dogs and 112 were cattle farm dogs. sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum using the neospora agglutination test. seroprevalence at 1/40, 1/80, 1/160 dilution titres was significantly higher in rural (36.4%, 19.5%, 9.9% respectively) than in urban dogs (20.2%, 10.6%, 4.8% respectively). seroprevalen ...200717456144
study on the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and molecular evidence of encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis infections in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in rural ireland.thoracic fluid (pleural fluid and clotted blood) from 206 foxes were examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and 220 thoracic fluid samples were tested for neospora caninum antibodies using indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (ifat). a total of 115 (56%) and six (3%) foxes had antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum, respectively. the brains from 148 foxes were examined for histological lesions and pathological changes suggestive of parasitic encephalitis were observed in 33 (22%). two ...200717368946
chronic neospora caninum infection and repeat abortion in dairy cows: a 3-year study.the serological status of neospora was monitored in animals older than 6 months in a dairy herd with a 3-year history of prevalent n. caninum and n. caninum-associated abortions. the numbers of animals in the herd tested each year of the study period were 259, 222 and 231, respectively. a separate analysis was performed on the 122 animals persisting in the herd for the 3 years. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in the herd decreased from 31.7% in the first year to 24.8% in the second year ...200717467905
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in sheep and dogs from guarapuava farms, paraná state, brazil.sheep and dog blood samples were collected from nine farms in the county of guarapuava, paraná, brazil. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used to detect neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies. herein, serum samples from 305 sheep were evaluated, being 29 (9.5%) and 157 (51.5%) seropositives to n. caninum and t. gondii, respectively. seven (29.1%) and five (20.8%) out of 24 dogs were seropositives to n. caninum and t. gondii, respectively. there were no differences amon ...200717266999
serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china.the future of the endangered red panda (ailurusfulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. the present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species' home regions. serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east, and northeast china from october to december 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. antibody titers agai ...200717469274
comparative host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and strategies for vaccination.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important causes of reproductive loss in ruminant species worldwide. both parasites cause disease during pregnancy that may result in foetal death or birth of live congenitally infected offspring. t. gondii is also an important human pathogen with the main risk groups including pregnant women and immuno-compromised individuals, although clinical disease has also been observed in outbreaks among immuno-competent people. while the two parasites are closel ...200717367899
characterization of the fetuin-binding fraction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and its potential involvement in host-parasite interactions.terminal sialic acid residues on surface-associated glycoconjugates mediate host cell interactions of many pathogens. addition of sialic acid-rich fetuin enhanced, and the presence of the sialidiase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid reduced, the physical interaction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites with vero cell monolayers. thus, neospora extracts were subjected to fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography in order to isolate components potentially interacting wi ...200717291396
analysis of the immune response to neospora caninum in a model of intragastric infection in mice.to study experimental neospora caninum infection initiated at the gastrointestinal tract, toll-like receptor 4- and functional il-12rbeta2 chain-deficient c57bl/10 sccr mice were challenged intragastrically with 5 x 10(6) n. caninum tachyzoites. all parasite-inoculated mice eventually died with disseminated infection. in contrast, immunocompetent balb/c mice challenged with 1 x 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric (i.g.) or the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route remained alive for at least ...200717187652
seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in alberta, canada.a province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in alberta was conducted. the seroprevalence of map in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (ci): 2.3-23.4%). seropr ...200717494367
molecular characterisation of bsr4, a novel bradyzoite-specific gene from neospora caninum.here we present the identification and cloning of the ncbsr4 gene, the putative neospora caninum orthologue to the toxoplasma gondii tgbsr4 gene. to isolate ncbsr4, genome walking pcr was performed on n. caninum genomic dna using the expressed sequence tag ncest3c28h02.y1 sequence, which shares a 44% identity with the tgbsr4 gene, as a framework. nucleotide sequencing of amplified dna fragments revealed a single uninterrupted 1227 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 408 amino acids w ...200717376452
histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of neospora caninum diagnosis in bovine aborted fetuses.lesions suggestive of protozoal infection such as nonsuppurative myositis, nonsuppurative myocarditis, nonsuppurative pneumonia associated with focal cellular necrosis and multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative encephalitis were observed in 89 (34%) out of 258 aborted bovine fetuses. immunohistochemistry (ihc) revealed tachyzoites and cysts of neospora caninum in 55 (61.8%) of these 89 fetuses. several fetal variables were tested by multivariate logistic regression, in which increasing odds for p ...200717904290
anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in canine neosporosis.neospora caninum infection provokes neurological disorders, recurrent abortion and death in dogs and cattle. dogs are both intermediate and definitive host of n. caninum. thus, the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays to diagnose canine neosporosis is essential to control this disease. this work investigated serum anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in 140 dogs represented by 30 healthy animals (group i), 11 dogs showing acute n. caninum infection (group ii), 50 urban dogs with s ...200718035978
sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.a 1.5-year-old male feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. the dog was euthanized. the brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. protozoa morphologically ...200718039914
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 and has been known as a major cause of abortion in bovines and neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. to estimate the prevalence of bovine neosporosis in the 22 municipalities of the so-called estrato 1 subregion of the brazilian state of mato grosso do sul, blood samples were collected from cows aged 24 months and older, from december ...200718078599
c57bl/6 mice infected with neospora caninum during administration of progesterone show bias toward type 2 immune response.to clarify the role of progesterone in the development of immune responses during pregnancy against neospora caninum infection, c57bl/6 mice were given a progesterone pellet, and measured on interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production following the infection. ifn-gamma production in the prescribed group was significantly lower than that in the intact group on day 40 post administration. il-4 producing cell population in the prescribed group was larger than that in the intact group. these resul ...200717984602
low seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection associated with the limousin breed in cow-calf herds in andorra, europe.neospora caninum seroprevalence and risk factors affecting seroprevalence in beef cattle in andorra were investigated. antibodies to n. caninum were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on a yearly basis in 1,758 animals older than 6 mo, belonging to 26 herds. mean seroprevalence of antibodies to n. caninum for the herds was 7.4 +/- 1.2% (130/1,758). logistic regression analyses were performed on data from each animal, considering n. caninum seropositivity as the dependent va ...200718163335
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from durango city, mexico.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites, with many hosts in common. the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum was determined in sera from dogs from durango city, mexico. using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 52 (51.5%) of the 101 dogs with titers of 1:25 in 27, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 5, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 1. antibodies to n. caninum were determined by the indirect immunof ...200718163336
vaccination with microneme protein ncmic4 increases mortality in mice inoculated with neospora caninum.ncmic4 is a neospora caninum microneme protein that has been isolated and purified on the basis of its unique lactose-binding properties. we have shown that this protein binds to galactosyl residues of lactose; antibodies directed against ncmic4 inhibit host cell interactions in vitro, thus making it a vaccine candidate. because of this feature, ncmic4 was first purified on a larger scale in its native, functionally active form using lactose-agarose affinity chromatography. second, ncmic4 was ex ...200718163338
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild ruminants from the countryside or captivity in the czech republic.in the czech republic, sera from 720 wild ruminants were examined for antibodies to neospora caninum by screening competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); the same sera were also examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by ifat. neospora caninum antibodies were found in 14% (11 positive/79 tested) roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 14% (2/14) sika deer (cervus nippon), 6% (24/ 377) red deer (cervus elaphus), 1% (2/143) ...200718163361
fecal and serological survey of neospora caninum in farm dogs in costa rica.to detect oocysts of neospora caninum in dog feces and to determine the excretion pattern in dogs from specialized dairy farms in costa rica, a total of 265 fecal samples from 34 dogs were collected at intervals from february to august 2005. fecal samples were examined for n. caninum-like oocysts microscopically, by dna detection using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and by bioassay. n. caninum dna was detected by pcr in four fecal samples, twice from one dog, but oocysts were not detected ...200717868998
loss of infectivity of neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time.the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4 degrees c, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (meriones unguiculatus). six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for n. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody t ...200718165712
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in india.neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of n. caninum infection in cattle in india. serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in punjab, india, were tested for n. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cow ...200718314683
occurrence of antibodies against neospora caninum in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) on four ranches in corrientes province, argentina.the aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in corrientes province in the northeast of argentina. antibodies against n. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). a bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to n. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, ...200717950535
generation of parasite cysts in cultured cells instead of living animals.in order to develop any effective means of prevention or therapy against neospora caninum infection, all three life cycle stages of this parasite have to be taken into account. in this project, the in vitro culture of n. caninum bradyzoites containing tissue cysts has been developed, thus allowing to the initiation of stage conversion without the use of animal experimentation. this enables researchers to study novel aspects of stage differentiation, to investigate novel diagnostic antigens, and ...200719835051
[determination and correlation of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from paraná, brazil].the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the aim of the present study was to determine and to compare the presence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle, as well as in farm dogs, and the relationship among them. the research was conducted in different mesoregions of paraná state, southern brazil. sera from 1.263 cattle, from 77 farms were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by elisa. sera from 129 dogs, from 35 farms were tested for antibo ...200820059847
interleukin-12 response to ncsrs2 immunization of balb/c mice against neospora caninum.the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum can cause abortions and is recognized as an important causative agent responsible for economic and reproductive losses in the cattle industry. humoral immune response was investigated in balb/c mice by using recombinant ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli as polyhistidine-tagged fusion proteins. ncsrs2 is the major immunodominant tachyzoite surface antigen of n. caninum. separate groups of female balb/c mice were infected subcutaneously with (p) pbs, ( ...200820059851
[seroprevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. the prevalence of neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (canis latrans), a north american wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. the aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of n. caninum and t. gondii in wild native canids species from brazil. serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (lycalopex ...200820059860
[risk factors and prevalence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in urban and rural dogs from rio grande do sul, brazil].serum samples from 339 dogs from rural (beef and dairy farms) and urban areas of municipality of pelotas, rs, were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test to verify the presence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum. data from dogs took part of an epidemiologic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors associated with the seropositivity. antibodies anti-n. caninum were found 15.6% (53/339) of serum samples, with 5.5% (6/109) of positive dogs from urban area and 20.4% (47/230) from rural ...200820059865
[epidemiologic survey of neospora caninum in bovines of rural settlements in corumbá, ms].neospora caninum, is an obligate intracellular parasite, can infect domestic and wild dogs, equines and ruminants. it was described in 1988, and its economic importance is attributed to costs of abortion, the value of the fetuses, artificial insemination and coverage, the decrease in milk production, the increase in the disposal and replacement of animals. in four rural settlements of the municipality of corumba, ms (mato grande, paiolzinho, taquaral and tamarineiro) was used a combination of qu ...200820059867
occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in dogs from pernambuco, northeast brazil.a serological survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from the state of pernambuco. a total of 625 serum samples of dogs (289 from paulista, 168 from amaraji and 168 from garanhuns) were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody assay for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. a total of 177 (28.3%; ic 95%, 24.9-32.1) samples were positive. the seropositivity rates found in paulista, amaraji and garanhuns were 26% (ic 95%, 21-31.4), 26.2% ...200818723288
review of idiopathic eosinophilic meningitis in dogs and cats, with a detailed description of two recent cases in dogs.eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (eme) has been described in various species of animals and in humans. in dogs it has been associated with protozoal infections, cuterebral myiasis and various other aetiologies. ten cases of idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis have been reported in dogs and one in a cat where the origin was uncertain or unknown. the dogs were all males, of various breeds but with a predominance of golden retrievers and rottweilers; they generally had a young age of onset. ...200819496320
influence of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice during pregnancy in post-natal development.the influence of neospora caninum infection during pregnancy on the post-natal period has been poorly investigated. in a previous study, we suggested that infection with n. caninum during pregnancy could affect the normal post-natal development of the offspring. for this reason, in the present work we evaluated the influence of n. caninum infection in pregnant balb/c mice at days 0, 7 and 14 of gestation (groups a, b and c, respectively) on the post-natal development of the offspring from birth ...200818586405
studies on neospora caninum dna detection in the oocytes and embryos collected from infected cows.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle over the world. one of the methods of preventing vertical transmission within the herd is to avoid breeding replacement heifers from infected dams. another procedure suggested and recommended by the international embryo transfer society (iets) is embryo transfer (et) from infected dams into uninfected recipients. oocytes and embryos taken from seropositive cows were examined for the presence of neospora caninum dna. a modified pcr protocol using ...200818977601
current trends in follow-up of trophoblastic function in ruminant species.during the pregnancy of ruminants, different hormones and proteins are secreted by placenta or corpus luteum allowing the follow up of gestation. among them, progesterone (p4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) were proposed as laboratory tools to establish or to confirm pregnancy diagnosis. in last years, pag assay also provided useful information for researchers working in programs focused on the follow up of trophoblastic function. concentrations of pag appeared as altered after the ...200819261972
[frequency of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais].the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais. a total of 559 serum samples of cows of the a bank of sera formed from of serum samples collected at 18 dairy farms, distributed for seven municipalities of the lavras micro region, southern minas gerais, and 575 serum samples of cows and 503 serum samples of fetuses were collected at slaughter house of campo belo, mg. serum samples were ...200819265576
frequency of antibodies against neospora caninum in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from paraná state, southern brazil.antibodies to neospora caninum were analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from curitiba, paraná state, brazil. of the total of 556 dogs, 18.17% (101) were positive for n. caninum (titer 50). frequency of antibody was 12.71 in urban, 15.73 in periurban, and 25.38% in rural dogs. rural dogs had a significantly higher frequency of antibodies than urban dogs (p<0.05). there were no significant differences between t ...200819265582
development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.with the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (boiict) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using b. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and b. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. the boiict selectively detected specific antibodies to b. bovis and b. bigemina. all sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., cryptosporidium parv ...200818187794
the differential protein expression profiles and immunogenicity of tachyzoites and bradyzoites of in vitro cultured neospora caninum.we report a study on the variations in the protein expression profiles of tachyzoites and bradyzoites of neospora caninum. the in vitro stage conversion of n. caninum-infected vero cells was induced by continuous treatment of infected cultures with 70 mum sodium nitroprusside (snp) for up to 9 days. the stage conversion indicated by the expression of the bradyzoite-specific antigen bag1 was analyzed by immunofluoresence assay. morphological changes between tachyzoites and bradyzoites and localiz ...200818597117
high seroprevalence of neospora caninum in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees (ne spain).antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees, north-eastern spain. sera from 53 red foxes (29 male and 24 female) were tested using a neospora agglutination test (nat). seroprevalence at dilutions of 1/40, 1/80 and 1/160 was 69.8%, 47.2% and 7.5%, respectively. sex differences were significant only at a dilution of 1:40. the high seroprevalence observed in red fox suggests that this species is highly exposed to n. caninum in this area.200818280664
toxoplasma gondii rhoptry discharge correlates with activation of the early growth response 2 host cell transcription factor.toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite that can cause severe disease in fetuses and immune-compromised patients. rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules, which are secretory organelles unique to toxoplasma and other apicomplexan parasites, play critical roles in parasite growth and virulence. to understand how these organelles modulate infected host cells, we sought to identify host cell transcription factors triggered by their release. early growth response 2 (egr2) is a host ...200818678671
neospora caninum: detection in wild rabbits and investigation of co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis.neospora caninum is an important pathogen of cattle causing significant economic loss. there is much current interest in wild animal reservoirs for this parasite. the role of the rabbit in this is currently unknown. dna samples from the brains of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected from the malham area of the yorkshire dales were investigated by species-specific pcr for the presence of n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii. we found prevalences of n. caninum of 10.5% (6/57) and t. gondii o ...200818703054
spatial analysis of neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from sweden.the national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of neospora caninum infected dairy herds in sweden were investigated. the study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. test-positive herds were found in all parts of sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%). the presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the moran's i test. possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying ...200819021107
usefulness of rncgra7- and rncsag4-based elisa tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis.bovine reproductive failure caused by the parasite neospora caninum is a major problem and is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. currently, appropriate control measures depend on the predominant transmission route in a particular herd. therefore, the development of diagnostic tools capable of discriminating between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection is a major challenge in the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. here, two recombinant protein-based ...200818814972
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
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