seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern china.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum infection in dairy cows in the guangxi zhuang autonomous region (gzar), subtropical southern china. in total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in gzar. the samp ...201222717118
molecular frequency and isolation of cyst-forming coccidia from free ranging chickens in bahia state, brazil.the toxoplasmatinae parasites toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and hammondia spp. have carnivores as definitive hosts that shed the parasite oocysts in their feces. birds that feed directly from the soil, such as chickens, are exposed to infection and may serve as indicators of the presence of the parasite in the environment and as a source of infection for other animals. the aims of this study were to determine the frequency of infection by these parasites in free ranging chickens, to test w ...201222673105
adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.a nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. serology was negative for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. permanent pacemaker implant ...201222647214
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of southern peninsular india.a seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from karnataka and andhra pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular india by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and ...201322644733
serosurvey of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from northern mexico.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from northern mexico. sera from 532 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from three northern states of mexico were assayed for antibodies to t. gondii by elisa and western blot. from these samples, 368 were available to test for n. caninum antibodies by elisa. the overall prevalence for t. gondii antibodies was 13.9% (74/532; ci(95) 11-17) and for n. caninum 8.4% ( ...201222633992
the neospora caninum-spain 7 isolate induces placental damage, fetal death and abortion in cattle when inoculated in early gestation.the nc-spain 7 isolate of neospora caninum, which was newly obtained from an asymptomatic congenitally infected calf, demonstrated a similar virulence as nc-1 strain in mouse models. the aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of nc-spain 7 isolate in cattle after experimental infection at 65 days of gestation. for this purpose, thirteen pregnant heifers were divided into three groups as follows: group a: 7 heifers inoculated with 1 × 10(8) tachyzoites of nc-spain 7 isolate; group ...201222621962
neospora caninum infection dynamics in dairy cattle.neospora caninum is considered in many countries as one of the key abortion agents in cattle. this study aims to investigate the parasite behavior in dairy cattle in the municipality of avaré, sp, brazil, where abortions frequently occur. an elisa was performed to compare two samplings on a total of 615 animals; tests were performed in the same herds with a gap of 3 years. an increase in the percentage of reactive animals was observed, ranging from 21.6% at the first sampling to 38.9% at the sec ...201222581344
prevalence of anti- neospora caninum and anti- toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from two different indigenous communities in the brazilian amazon region.prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in sera of 325 dogs in 11 villages inhabited by the tapirapé and karajá ethnic groups in the south of the brazilian amazon was determined by the use of an indirect fluorescence antibody test. antibodies (cutoff 1:16) to t. gondii were found in 169 (52%) and to n. caninum (cut-off 1:50) in 32 (9.8%) of 325 dogs. seropositivity for both parasitic infections was widely prevalent in dogs from these villages and was higher in older dogs, ...201222551468
intra-cisternal vaccination induces high-level protection against neospora caninum infection in mice.the efficacy of intra-cisternal (ic) immunization in preventing the dissemination of neospora caninum tachyzoites into the brain was investigated. mice were vaccinated intracisternally with tachyzoite extract in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (acsf). for comparison, other groups were vaccinated via the intraperitoneal (ip) route with crude tachyzoite antigen extract, suspended either in freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) or saponin. subsequently, the mice were experimentally infected by ip admin ...201222537986
detection of neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of curitiba, southern brazil.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. the reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. thus, the present study investigated the frequency of neospora sp. antibodi ...201222534949
neospora caninum as causative agent of bovine encephalitis in brazil.for supporting the brazilian bovine encephalitis surveillance program this study examined the differential diagnosis of neospora caninum in central nervous system (cns) by histological analysis (he staining), immunohistochemistry (ihc), and nested-pcr using a set of primers from the nc5 region of the genomic dna and its1 region of the ribosomal dna. a sample of 302 cattle presenting neurological syndrome and negative for rabies, aged 0 to 18 years, from herds in 10 brazilian states was evaluated ...201222534945
epidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dogs from romania.the aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from romania at a national level and to detect possible correlations between the value of seroprevalence and a series of factors like sex, age, breed category and area. the prevalence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined in sera samples from 1114 dogs located in different regions of romania using the ifat method. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 364 dogs (32.7%). the titers of anti-n. can ...201222521974
immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction studies in neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.the diagnostic characteristics of immunohistochemistry (ihc) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods were studied in the tissues of broiler chicken embryos experimentally infected by neospora caninum. an infection with n. caninum nc-1 isolate was conducted in 70 broiler chicken embryonated eggs randomly divided into seven equal groups. after 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated with 10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) doses of tachyzoites/embryonated egg. the 7th group was ...201222475417
seroprevalence and risk factors for neospora caninum in sheep in the state minas gerais, southeastern brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with infection due to neospora caninum in serum samples from 488 sheep originating from 63 farms in 63 municipalities distributed across eight of the twelve mesoregions of the state minas gerais, southeastern brazil. for detection of n. caninum the sheep serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat ≥ 50). to identify the risk factors associated with infection due to n. caninum a que ...201222475416
comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. both species are tissue-dwelling coccidia and members of the phylum apicomplexa; they share many common fe ...201222457617
congenital neosporosis in goats from the state of minas gerais, brazil.congenital neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the southern region of the state of minas gerais, brazil. the first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that ...201222451736
detection of nesopora caninum-specific dna from cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction in a dog with confirmed neosporosis.a one-month male greyhound dog presented with a swinging gait of the hindlimbs, and later developed muscular atrophy of the femoral region and hyperextension of hindlimbs. the dog had positive serum ifat titers to neospora caninum, but a negative titer in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). n. caninum-specific dna was amplified from the csf using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. clusters of protozoa in biopsied muscle fibers were subsequently confirmed as n. caninum tachyzoites by immun ...201222446406
increased incidence of dna amplification in follicular than in uterine and blood samples indicates possible tropism of neospora caninum to the ovarian follicle.this study evaluated the presence of neospora caninum in ovarian follicle aspirates and uterine flushes obtained from n. caninum seropositive dairy cows. ninety-two cows that aborted within the previous 90 days were sampled to determine the presence of antibodies against n. caninum. thirteen seropositive cows were chosen for collection of blood leukocytes, uterine flushes (uf; n=12) and follicular aspirates (opu; n=13). samples were centrifuged and the cellular sediment from the follicular fluid ...201222440723
infected dendritic cells facilitate systemic dissemination and transplacental passage of the obligate intracellular parasite neospora caninum in mice.the obligate intracellular parasite neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. the mechanisms used by n. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. to examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different n. caninum isolates (nc-1, nc-liverpool, nc-sweb1 and the spanish isolates: nc-spain 3h, nc-spain 4h, nc-spain 6, nc-spain 7 a ...201222403627
elisas based on rncgra7 and rncsag1 antigens as an indicator of neospora caninum activation.bovine abortion caused by the apicomplexa parasite neospora caninum is a major economical problem in the livestock industry worldwide. however, the relationship between n. caninum infection and abortion is still unknown. our study aimed to elucidate the relationship between parasite-specific antibody responses, parasite stages and abortion. in experimentally infected cattle, anti-ncgra7 igg1 antibody was predominantly detected during the acute infection stage, while the production of anti-ncsag1 ...201222365337
proteome expression changes among virulent and attenuated neospora caninum isolates.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming parasite that has been recognised worldwide as a cause of cattle abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. variations in genetic profiles, behaviour in vitro, and pathogenicity have been established among n. caninum isolates. however, it is unclear which parasite factors are implicated in this intra-specific diversity. comparative analysis of protein expression patterns may define the determinants of biological diversity in n. caninum. using dige and maldi-to ...201222343075
a longitudinal study of neospora caninum infection on three dairy farms in brazil.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is one of the most important infectious causes of abortion in both dairy and beef cattle in many countries. the objectives of this longitudinal study were to determine the prevalence, rates of vertical and horizontal transmission of n. caninum and hazard for culling of n. caninum-seropositive animals in three brazilian dairy herds. blood samples from all animals were collected nine times at each of the three farms over a two-year period ...201222309800
effects of miltefosine treatment in fibroblast cell cultures and in mice experimentally infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.miltefosine was investigated for its activity against neospora caninum tachyzoites in vitro, and was shown to inhibit the proliferation of n. caninum tachyzoites cultured in human foreskin fibroblasts (hff) with an ic50 of 5·2 μm. treatment of infected cells with 25 μm miltefosine for a period of 10 h had only a parasitostatic effect, while after 20 h of treatment parasiticidal effects were observed. this was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of n. caninum-infected and miltefosine-tr ...201222309643
enrofloxacin is able to control toxoplasma gondii infection in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models.currently, toxoplasmosis is treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. however, this treatment presents several adverse side effects; thus, there is a critical need for the development and evaluation of new drugs, which do not present the same problems of the standard therapy. enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic known to control infection against several bacteria in veterinary medicine. recently, this drug has demonstrated protective effects against protozoan parasites such as neospor ...201222281151
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 and profilin for estimating the stage of neosporosis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes bovine and canine neosporosis, characterized by fetal abortion and neonatal mortality and by neuromuscular paralysis, respectively. although many diagnostic methods to detect parasite-specific antibodies or parasite dna have been reported, to date no effective serodiagnostic techniques for estimating pathological status have been described. our study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the parasite-specific antibody resp ...201222258707
granulomatous meningoencephalitis due to toxoplasma gondii in a black-headed night monkey (aotus nigriceps).this report describes toxoplasmosis infection in a black-headed night monkey (aotus nigriceps) from the zoological park of the federal university of mato grosso, brazil. the animal was submitted alive to the veterinary hospital of the federal university of mato grosso presenting neurologic clinical signs. there were no improvements on the animal's clinical condition after treatment, so it was euthanized. at necropsy, the most significant gross lesions observed were hemorrhages diffusely scattere ...201122946380
pathological findings in the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in northern germany.anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. the present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereu ...201728399176
serology and protein electrophoresis for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens in free-ranging american mink (neovison vison) in argentina.basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. however, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail.201728635524
survey of neospora caninum in eared doves (zenaida auriculata) in southern brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that has worldwide distribution and is responsible for enormous economic losses in cattle. birds are considered a good bioindicator of environmental contamination, since they feed on the ground, being exposed to n. caninum oocysts. the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of antibodies against n. caninum and to verify the presence of parasite dna in brain from free-ranging eared doves (zenaida auri ...201728716354
herd-level prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases of dairy cows in great implement appropriate and effective disease control programs at the national level, up-to-date and unbiased information on disease frequency is needed. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases in the population of dairy herds in great britain. bulk milk tank (bmt) samples from 225 randomly selected dairy farms, stratified by region and herd size, were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus type 1 ...201728843682
serological survey of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in oyo state, south-western nigeria.several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. this study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in oyo state, southwest nigeria.201728670646
host species heterogeneity in the epidemiology of nesopora caninum.pathogen transmission across species drives disease emergence; however, mechanisms by which multi-host pathogens cross species boundaries are not well identified. this knowledge gap prevents integrated and targeted control in an epidemiologically continuous ecosystem. our goal is to describe the impact of host species heterogeneity on the epidemiology of neospora caninum circulating between livestock and wildlife in southeastern ohio. we collected biological samples from père david's deer (elaph ...201728850580
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique and comparison with quantitative real-time pcr for the rapid visual detection of canine neosporosis.dogs are the definitive hosts of neospora caninum and play an important role in the transmission of the parasite. despite the high sensitivity of existing molecular tools such as quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr), these techniques are not suitable for use in many countries because of equipment costs and difficulties in implementing them for field diagnostics. therefore, we developed a simplified technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp), for the rapid visual detection of n. caninu ...201728835287
engineering and purification of a thermostable, high-yield, variant of pfcrt, the plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter.historically chloroquine was used to treat the most deadly form of malaria, caused by the parasite plasmodium falciparum. the selective pressure of chloroquine therapy led to the rapid emergence of chloroquine resistant parasites. resistance has been attributed to the plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), an integral membrane protein of unknown structure. a pfcrt structure would provide new insights into how the protein confers chloroquine resistance and thereby also ...201728823509
a rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to infection of t. gondii clonal type i: public health concern in urban settings with stray animals?typing of toxoplasma gondii strains is important in epidemiological surveys, to understand the distribution and virulence of different clones of the parasite among human and animal populations. stray dogs can be consider sentinel animals for contaminated environments playing an important but probably under- evaluated role in the epidemiology of t. gondii. we reported a rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to clonal type i infection. the clonal type i, sporadic in europe, is freque ...201728818085
sarcocystis neurona and neospora caninum in brazilian opossums (didelphis spp.): molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of sarcocystis spp.sarcocystis neurona and neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. opossums (didelphis albiventris and didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of s. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm). neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while n. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. the aims of this study were to investigate s. neuro ...201728807293
neospora caninum rop16 play an important role in the pathogenicity by phosphorylating host cell stat3.neospora caninum is a common cause of abortions in cattle and nervous system dysfunctions in dogs. our analysis shows that ncrop16 and tgrop16 have similar structures and may have similar functions. to our surprise, we found that similar to the t. gondii rh strain, the n. caninum nc-1 strain could phosphorylate stat3(y705), but in contrast to t. gondii, n. caninum nc-1 could not phosphorylate stat6(y641). we constructed a gene-knockout plasmid and screened δncrop16 strains at the gene, protein a ...201728807283
immunization with inactivated antigens of neospora caninum induces toll-like receptors 3, 7, 8 and 9 in maternal-fetal interface of infected pregnant heifers.neospora caninum is an obligate parasite and a major cause of abortion in cattle. pregnancy failures appear to be associated with weak innate defences on the maternal-fetal interface during infection with n. caninum. herein, we studied the gene expression of toll-like receptors (tlrs) in pregnant heifers immunized with different vaccine formulations against n. caninum before mating and then challenged the heifers with live n. caninum on day 70 of gestation. tlr7 and tlr8 expression was upregulat ...201728807280
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum induce different host cell responses at proteome-wide phosphorylation events; a step forward for uncovering the biological differences between these closely related parasites.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites and tissue cyst-forming coccidia of the phylum apicomplexa. there are remarkable similarities between the morphology, genomes and transcriptomes of both parasites. toxoplasma is zoonotic, with a wide host range and is mainly transmitted horizontally between its definitive host, the cat, and its intermediate hosts. neospora causes disease within a narrow host range and with reduced virulence potential to ...201728803361
enrofloxacin and toltrazuril are able to reduce toxoplasma gondii growth in human bewo trophoblastic cells and villous explants from human third trimester pregnancy.classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection. the aim of the present ...201728798905
activation of erk signaling via tlr11 induces il-12p40 production in peritoneal macrophages challenged by neospora caninum.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, can infect a large variety of vertebrate hosts including the most economically important cattle. infection with n. caninum is a main cause of abortion in both dairy and beef cattle, which causes great economic losses worldwide. however, the mechanism of host cell infection by n. caninum has not been fully elucidated, especially in terms of inflammatory responses. in this study, the effect of tlr-erk signaling pathway on the synthesi ...201728798732
association of neospora caninum with reproductive performance in dairy cows: a prospective study from iran.there is no prospective study from iran to estimate the direct risk of neospora caninum for pregnancy loss or reproductive factors. in addition, there is no report in the literature concerning the association of n. caninum with dystocia and sex of calves. therefore, this study was conducted on a group of dairy cows in a large intensive production system during 2011 to 2013 in southern iran to evaluate the impact of neosporosis on reproductive performance. a total of 253 cows which were diagnosed ...201728785385
infection exposure, detection and causes of death in perinatal mortalities in polish dairy herds.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of infections in perinatal mortality (pm) cases from polish dairy farms and the relevance of the presence of infection to the cause of death. this prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 121 pm and 21 control calves with a gestation of ≥260 days. six control calves were euthanized and examined using the same protocol as for pm calves. material was collected over a 20-month period between november 2013 and june 2015. ...201728783589
in vitro screening of the open source pathogen box identifies novel compounds with profound activities against neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and represents an important veterinary health problem of great economic significance. the medicines for malaria venture (mmv) pathogen box, an open-source collection of 400 compounds with proven anti-infective properties against a wide range of pathogens, was screened against a n. caninum beta-galactosidase reporter strain grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. a primary screening carried out at 1µm yielded 40 compounds that were effective ag ...201728751177
relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against neospora caninum infection in different stages of lactationneospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle. the general health of affected cows has not been investigated before. therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify possible relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against n. caninum antibodies in different stages of lactation. the study was carried out using 72 n. caninum seropositive cows and 61 seronegative dairy cows (control). serum ...201728741343
the enzymes and electrolytes profiles in sera of iranian stray dogs naturally infected with neospora caninumthe protozoan neospora caninum (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae), respectively infects canids and ruminants as the most definitive and intermediate hosts. a diagnosis of neosporosis is generally made on the basis of clinical signs together with the detection of high levels of antibodies in serum. the present study compares the serum electrolyte profile (ca, k, mg, na, p) and serum enzyme level (alp, ast, cpk) of non-infected dogs with those of stray dogs naturally infected with n. caninum. the indire ...201728741339
transduction of a neospora caninum antigen gene into mammalian cells using a modified bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus for antibody production.autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv). in this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered bmnpv. the gp64 of bmnpv (bmgp64) was replaced with the gp64 of acmnpv (acgp64); this construct, designated bmnpvδbgp/acgp64, displays acgp64 on the surface of bmnpv. the neospora caninu ...201728716628
towards a preventive strategy for neosporosis: challenges and future perspectives for vaccine development against infection with neospora caninum.neosporosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum. this major disease-causing pathogen is responsible for inducing abortion in cattle, and these adverse events occur sporadically all over the world, including japan. currently, there are no vaccines on the market against infection with n. caninum. because live and attenuated vaccines against n. caninum have had safety and effectiveness issues, development of a next-generation vaccine is urgently required. to develop a ...201728690279
serological survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle (bos indicus) and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of brazil.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii among 500 cattle (bos indicus) and 500 buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) technique. blood samples from were collected from water buffalo and cattle in 10 municipalities in the northern region of brazil. the frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for neospora caninum in pará state, brazil, was 55% and 44%, respectively, and ...201728673459
incidence and vertical transmission rate of neospora caninum in sheep.the infection by neospora caninum in sheep can lead to abortion and the birth of weak and debilitated lambs. the aim of this study was to assess the incidence of natural infection by neospora caninum and the vertical transmission rate among sheep. a flock of 50 sheep was monitored for serum antibody titres against n. caninum and seroconversion over a period of six months using an indirect elisa technique. the offspring of the herd was also investigated regarding anti-n. caninum antibodies to det ...201728673457
risk factors for neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and their possible cause-effect relation for disease.neospora caninum causes reproductive problems in cattle such as abortion, premature birth, retention of fetal membranes, and metritis. therefore, this study aimed to verify possible risk factors for n. caninum infection in dairy cattle and their cause-effect relation to neosporosis. serum samples of 1518 dairy cows from the west of santa catarina state, southern brazil were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for n. caninum, where 466 were found to be positives (30.69%-ci95%; 28. ...201728666842
new molecular tools in neospora caninum for studying apicomplexan parasite proteins.the development of molecular genetics has greatly enhanced the study of the biology and pathology associated with parasites of the phylum apicomplexa. we have established a system specifically designed for neospora caninum, and used this system as a heterologous platform for the expression of foreign genes. plasmid constructs containing fluorescent proteins or targeted genes of toxoplasma gondii, driven by n. caninum promoters, have yielded robust expression and correct trafficking of target gen ...201728630403
bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils cast neutrophil extracellular traps against the abortive parasite neospora caninum.neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. neutrophil extracellular trap (net) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmn) acting against different parasites. in vitro interactions of bovine pmn with n. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. extracellular dna staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of nets [i.e., histones (h3 ...201728611772
peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. however, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. we recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by n. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. in the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at early (g1 ...201728606322
seroprevalence of and risk factors for neospora caninum infection in yaks (bos grunniens) in china.the aim of the present study was to detect the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in yaks in gansu province, china. serum samples from 974 white yaks and 610 black yaks were tested by a commercial competitive-inhibition elisa for the detection of specific anti-n. caninum antibodies.; n. caninum antibodies were detected in 10.4% of yaks with higher prevalence in black (11.5% of 610) than white yak (8.6% of 974). age, regions and sampling times were considered as risk factors associated ...201728606319
molecular detection of neospora caninum infection in ovine aborted foetuses in the mashhad area, irann. caninum could cause abortion in small ruminants. the aim of the study was to detect n. caninum infection in ovine aborted foetuses in the mashhad area by pcr examination. during the period 2009 to 2013, 71 ovine aborted foetuses were collected and their brain samples examined by pcr. of the 71 brains of the aborted foetuses, n. caninum dna was detected in seven (9.8%) samples. in conclusion, it seems that n. caninum may act as a causative agent of abortion in sheep in the mashhad area.201728601062
immune response in bovine neosporosis: protection or contribution to the pathogenesis of abortion.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a preference for cattle and dogs as hosts. when n. caninum infection occurs in cattle it induces abortion, bovine neosporosis being a main cause of abortion worldwide. in dairy cattle, the economic burden of neosporosis-associated abortion is so great that it might results in closure of a farm. however, not all infected cows abort and it is not yet understood why this occurs. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. this review provides ...201728578088
nlrp3 inflammasome activation in murine macrophages caused by neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that causes significant economic losses in cattle industry. understanding the host resistance mechanisms in the innate immune response to neosporosis could facilitate the exploration of approaches for controlling n. caninum infection. the nlr inflammasome is a multiprotein platform in the cell cytoplasm and plays critical roles in the host response against microbes.201728558839
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-mediated polarization of macrophages in neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related toxoplasma gondii, which causes neurological disease and abortion in multiple animal species. macrophage polarization plays an important role in host immune responses to parasites infection, such as toxoplasma gondii, leishmania, trypanosoma cruzi. however, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible mechanism that regulate macrophage polarization, during n. caninum infection remains unclear.201728527905
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in exotic ruminants and camelids in the czech republic.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are the protozoan parasites with definitive hosts from order carnivora. due to vertical transmission, both parasites can cause abortions and neonatal mortality that lead to significant productive and economic losses in the domestic ruminants. the aim of this study was to describe n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in the group of frequently farmed captive exotic ruminants (n = 184) including bovidae (barbary sheep, bezoar goat, common eland, american b ...201728497227
neospora caninum abortion in a malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).a captive 17-year old female malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. the fetus showed an early state of mummification. histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. although immunohistologically, neospora (n.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, n. caninum dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in brain, hear ...201728495194
review on the immunological and molecular diagnosis of neosporosis (years 2011-2016).neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan protozoan neospora caninum, is a disease which affects a wide range of mammalian hosts (mainly cattle and dogs). n. caninum infection is considered the major cause of livestock abortions worldwide, and therefore is responsible for great losses in the industry. because there are no effective treatments or vaccines, diagnosis is essential for pathogen control. studies of n. caninum mechanisms of pathogenesis have led to the identification of new antigens, in ...201728495191
the coccidian parasites toxoplasma and neospora dysregulate mammalian lipid droplet biogenesis.upon infection, the intracellular parasite toxoplasma gondii co-opts critical functions of its host cell to avoid immune clearance and gain access to nutritional resources. one route by which toxoplasma co-opts its host cell is through hijacking host organelles, many of which have roles in immunomodulation. here we demonstrate that toxoplasma infection results in increased biogenesis of host lipid droplets through rewiring of multiple components of host neutral lipid metabolism. these metabolic ...201728487365
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in the serum of camels (camelus dromedarius) from central punjab, pakistan.infection with the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide. this parasite causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide. the current study was designed to assess the prevalence of n. caninum antibodies in the sera of camels (camelus dromedarius) from rakh mahni, bhakkar, pakistan, to better understand the epidemiology of this important cause of bovine abortion in pakistan. eighty-one sera samples collected from apparently healthy ...201728470581
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