PMID(sorted ascending)
parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in albania. blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for albania, a country located in the balkan peninsula in southeast europe. recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in albania. to provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between march 2010 and april 2011 in tirana, albania, were s ...201626453093
serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and neospora caninum in a population of south australian alpacas (vicugna pacos).bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. both diseases are present in the australian cattle population. the objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for bvdv and n. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of south australia.201526456156
vaccines against a major cause of abortion in cattle, neospora caninum infection.neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. during pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. in addition, n. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. the economic importance of neosp ...201126486502
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii serodiagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus carriers.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii belong to the sarcocystidae family, and both have one definitive and various intermediary hosts. owing to their weak immune systems, immunocompromised persons might be prone to opportunistic infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti- n. caninum and anti- t. gondii antibodies in immunocompromised individuals.201526516966
characterization of the neospora caninum ncrop40 and ncrop2fam-1 rhoptry proteins during the tachyzoite lytic cycle.virulence factors from the rop2-family have been extensively studied in toxoplasma gondii, but in the closely related neospora caninum only ncrop2fam-1 has been partially characterized to date. ncrop40 is a member of this family and was found to be more abundantly expressed in virulent isolates. both ncrop2fam-1 and ncrop40 were evaluated as vaccine candidates and exerted a synergistic effect in terms of protection against vertical transmission in mouse models, which suggests that they may be re ...201626521890
impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.the impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. cows were classified as seropositive (sp) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (sn) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against n caninum. seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (p < 0.001) inc ...201626542136
immunization with neospora caninum profilin induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice.profilins are actin-binding proteins that regulate the polymerization of actin filaments. in apicomplexan parasites, they are essential for invasion. profilins also trigger the immune response of the host by activating tlrs on dendritic cells (dcs), inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this study we characterized for the first time the immune response and protection elicited by a vaccine based on neospora caninum profilin in mice. groups of eight balb/c mice received either ...201626551412
cell mediated immune responses in the placenta following challenge of vaccinated pregnant heifers with neospora caninum.the aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate the cell-mediated immune response and pathological changes at the maternal-fetal interface of neospora-challenged pregnant cattle previously immunized with live and inactivated experimental vaccines. pregnant heifers naïve to neospora caninum were divided in 5 groups of 4 animals, each one immunized before mating: group a heifers were intravenously (iv) immunized with 6.25 × 10(7) live tachyzoites of the nc-6 strain; group b heifers w ...201526553499
isolation and proteomic analysis of rhoptry-enriched fractions from cryptosporidium parvum.rhoptries are unique secretory/excretory organelles that are found exclusively in the apicomplexa, and their contents are discharged at the time of invasion and are critical in the establishment of productive infection. several rhoptry proteins have been identified in toxoplasma gondii, plasmodium falciparum and neospora caninum and have been linked not only with the parasites' adhesion and invasion processes but also with their intracellular pathways. to date, only one cryptosporidium parvum rh ...201526587492
endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (balaenoptera musculus, b. physalus, b. borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.a number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (balaenoptera musculus), fin (balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) from the azores islands, portugal. in total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (b. physalus); n = 4 (p. macrocephalus); n = ...201626593736
phylogeny, morphology, and metabolic and invasive capabilities of epicellular fish coccidium goussia fill the knowledge gap on the biology of the fish coccidian goussia janae, rna extracted from exogenously sporulated oocysts was sequenced. analysis by trinity and trinotate pipelines showed that 84.6% of assembled transcripts share the highest similarity with toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. phylogenetic and interpretive analyses from rna-seq data provide novel insight into the metabolic capabilities, composition of the invasive machinery and the phylogenetic relationships of this par ...201526599727
serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas.201526609692
serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the central valley of costa rica.blood samples from 181 equines from the central valley of costa rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. the presence of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), west nile virus (wnv), influenza a virus (iav), equine viral arteritis virus (evav), babesia caballi, theileria equi, neospora ca ...201426623349
approaches for the vaccination and treatment of neospora caninum infections in mice and ruminant models.neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle, and is thus an important veterinary health problem of high economic significance. vaccination has been considered a viable strategy to prevent bovine neosporosis. different approaches have been investigated, and to date the most promising results have been achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. subunit vaccines have also been studied, and most of them represented components that are functionally involved in (i) the physical interaction ...201626626124
emergence of cutaneous neosporosis in a dog receiving immunosuppressive therapy: molecular identification and management.neosporosis is a multisystemic disease caused by the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum. in dogs the disease primarily affects the central nervous system. canine cutaneous neosporosis is a rare condition often associated with old age or concurrent immunosuppressive treatments for different underlying conditions.201626627466
[prevalence of neospora caninum infection in the intestine of pet dogs in some areas of anhui and zhejiang].to investigate the prevalence of neospora caninum infection in the intestine of pet dogs in areas of anhui and zhejiang.201526672220
evaluation of bovine abortion cases and tissue suitability for identification of infectious agents in california diagnostic laboratory cases from 2007 to 2012.establishing a definitive cause of bovine abortion is a challenging problem faced by veterinary practitioners and diagnosticians. detection of an infectious or noninfectious source for abortion may facilitate interventions that mitigate future fetal loss in the herd. the purposes of this study were to identify the most common causes of bovine abortion in cases submitted to the california animal health and food safety laboratory system, davis (cahfs) from 2007 to 2013 and to determine if detectio ...201626679514
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leishmania spp. serology and leishmania spp. pcr in dogs from pirassununga, sp.we examined the presence of antibodies against the parasites toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leishmania spp., as well the presence of dna from leishmania spp., in dogs from pirassununga - sp. the seropositivity rate was compared with the animals' originating location. three hundred seventy-three blood samples from the county's kennel and local veterinary clinics were collected and analyzed. a total of 300 samples were tested for t. gondii and n. caninum using an indirect immunofluoresce ...201526689180
risk factors for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in paraiba state, brazil.the aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of paraíba, brazil. this survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. to detect anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used. among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-t. gondii antibodies with titer ...201526689181
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs from the state of tocantins: serology and associated factors.this study investigated occurrences of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifat), along with risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, in 204 dogs from urban and rural areas of the municipality of araguaína, state of tocantins, brazil. one hundred and thirty samples (63.7%) were positive for t. gondii using elisa: 57.1% and 70.7% in the urban and rural ar ...201526689184
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
serological evidence of antibodies to neospora caninum in stray and owned grenadian dogs.neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs, world wide. cattle become infected by ingesting oocysts voided by dogs. the aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in two populations of dogs (stray and owned) in grenada, west indies. sera were collected from 625 dogs from all parishes in grenada. three hundred and sixty eight dogs were stray, while 257 dogs were owned. sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against n. caninu ...201526691257
risk factors involved in transmission of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in rabbit farms in northern italy, rabbits are frequently reared for meat production. the aim of the study was to find the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum parasites, and risk factors of infection in rabbit farms.201526706976
serology-based diagnostics for the control of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan neospora caninum is a primary infectious cause of abortion in cattle that causes significant economic losses worldwide. because effective vaccines and licensed pharmacological treatments are currently unavailable, control measures rely on biosecurity and management practice. serological diagnosis plays a crucial role in the identification of infected animals and several tests have been developed. however, owing to the particular dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and to the ...201626711188
systemic and local immune responses in sheep after neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation.besides its importance in cattle, neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. we have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10(6) nc-spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. in the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. serological analysis revealed earlier and higher ifn-γ and igg responses in ewes infected at early (g1) and mid (g2) gestati ...201626739099
relation between neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: risk factors and pathogenesis of disease.neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. this study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against n. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (ifa) in order to detect antibodies a ...201626747583
herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern poland.a serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern poland. ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of poland (podlaskie, 47 herds and łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. a simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). a total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. the animals were scree ...201626751872
experimental neospora caninum infection modifies trophoblast cell populations and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 dynamics in pregnant dairy heifers.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (pag-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while pag-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. in prior work, natural n. caninum infection was found to modify plasma pag-1 and pag-2 patterns ...201626801588
naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: differential distribution of parasites in the skin of chronically infected cattle.bovine besnoitiosis is caused by besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. in the acute stage of besnoitiosis, cattle suffer from pyrexia, swollen lymph nodes, anorexia and subcutaneous edema. in the chronic stage, tissue cysts are formed in a variety of tissues including the skin. knowledge about the distribution of tissue cysts of different parts of the skin of infected animals is scarce. four chronically infected cattle were euthan ...201626801602
characterization of an igg monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii infects animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. its oocysts and tissue cysts are important for the horizontal transmission of this parasite. the oocyst and tissue cyst walls are crucial for the ability of the parasite to persist in the environment or in animal tissues, respectively. however, the composition of these walls is not well understood. we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed against wall components using mice immunized with oocyst ant ...201626836446
experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at 40 (g1), 90 (g2) and 120 (g3) days of gestation. infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. foetal death occurred in g1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in g2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). goats in g2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). g ...201626864744
neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in british columbia, canada.the protozoan pathogen neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. to evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in british columbia, canada. retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the animal health centre, abbotsford, british columbia, a provinci ...201626872927
neospora caninum seropositivity and reproductive risk factors in dogs.despite the importance of neospora caninum in veterinary medicine, knowledge of distribution of neosporosis in dog populations in some countries is still poor. the aims of the present study were to determine the occurrence of anti-n. caninum antibodies in one-hundred dogs living in cattle farms or dog breedings in central italy and to evaluate the risk factors associated with seropositivity. the incidence of reproductive system disorders (e.g. infertility after first pregnancy) was also evaluate ...201626873272
repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.the three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against neospora caninum infection. all four compounds inhibited the proliferation of n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with ic50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (ic50 = 3 and 4.9 nm, respectively). however, in a neosporosis mouse m ...201626883424
host mitochondrial association evolved in the human parasite toxoplasma gondii via neofunctionalization of a gene toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other animals, host mitochondrial association (hma) is driven by a gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (maf1) proteins. however, the importance of maf1 gene duplication in the evolution of hma is not understood, nor is the impact of hma on parasite biology. here we used within- and between-species comparative analysis to determine that the maf1 locus is duplicated in t. gondii and its nearest extant re ...201626920761
frequency of neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group a: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group b: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group c: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf o ...201626921037
neospora caninum: chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. in the present study, the effect of n. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. cd1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the ncis491 isolate, wh ...201626921042
besnoitia besnoiti lytic cycle in vitro and differences in invasion and intracellular proliferation among isolates.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti, reduces productivity and fertility of affected herds. besnoitiosis continues to expand in europe and no effective control tools are currently available. experimental models are urgently needed. herein, we describe for the first time the kinetics of standardised in vitro models for the b. besnoiti lytic cycle. this will aid to study the pathogenesis of the disease, in the screening for vaccine targets and drugs potentially useful fo ...201626928430
n-terminal fusion of a toll-like receptor 2-ligand to a neospora caninum chimeric antigen efficiently modifies the properties of the specific immune response.immunoprophylactic products against neosporosis during pregnancy should induce an appropriately balanced immune response. in this respect, opri, a bacterial lipoprotein targeting toll like receptor (tlr)2, provides promising adjuvant properties. we report on the manipulation of the innate and the t-cell immune response through the fusion of opri with the neospora caninum chimeric protein mic3-1-r. in contrast to mic3-1-r, opri-mic3-1-r significantly activated bone-marrow dendritic cells from naï ...201626932317
experimental neospora caninum infection in pregnant dairy heifers raises concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in foetal fluids.plasma concentrations of pag-1 are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of placental/foetal well-being, while those of pag-2 may be an indicator of abortion risk in neospora caninum-infected cows. studies have shown that n. caninum infection modifies pag-1 and pag-2 patterns in maternal blood plasma. however, no prior work has examined the effects of n. caninum infection on concentrations of pags in foetal fluids. in this study, pag-1, pag-2 and ph levels were determined in the amniotic ...201626936628
canine cutaneous neosporosis in brazil.the clinical signs of infection in dogs with neospora caninum are usually associated with neurological disorders and are seen in young dogs. in this brief case report we observed multifocal ulcerative and exudative skin nodules on the neck and pelvic limbs of a 10-year-old cocker spaniel dog. infection with n. caninum was diagnosed on the basis of cytology and examination of skin tissues by pcr. the dog initially responded to treatment with clindamycin and then relapsed; the dog died. infection ...201626949109
fatal pyogranulomatous myocarditis in 10 boxer puppies.over a period of 5 years, 10 pure-bred boxer puppies, 9-16 weeks old, were presented with a history of sudden death and were diagnosed with pyogranulomatous myocarditis. the myocarditis was characterized by a mixed infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils and macrophages. in our retrospective study, original case records and archived materials were examined. all dogs were positive for borrelia burgdorferi on immunohistochemistry (ihc). there was no evidence of infectious agents in formal ...201626965234
effect of different ecosystems and management practices on toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in wild ruminants in spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. however, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. we studied the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four nat ...201626967135
changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. the majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. however, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. in this study, mice were infected with n. caninum (strain nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. mice infected with n. caninum showed impaired l ...201626971577
anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from itu municipality, são paulo.capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the largest rodents found in south america. the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in 170 free-living capybaras in a residential park area in itu municipality, são paulo state, brazil. serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for t. gondii (ifat ≥ 1:16) and n. caninum (ifat ≥ 1:50). among the 170 samples analyzed, 10% (17/170) and 0% (0/17 ...201626982562
enrichment of ifn-γ producing cells in different murine adipose tissue depots upon infection with an apicomplexan we report that lean mice infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum show a fast but sustained increase in the frequency of ifn-γ-producing cells noticeable in distinct adipose tissue depots. moreover, ifn-γ-mediated immune memory could be evoked in vitro in parasite antigen-stimulated adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells collected from mice infected one year before. innate or innate-like cells such as nk, nk t and tcrγδ(+) cells, but also cd4(+) and cd8(+) tcrβ(+) l ...201627001522
molecular phylogeny of toxoplasmatinae: comparison between inferences based on mitochondrial and apicoplast genetic sequences.phylogenies within toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpc) and beta subunit of rna polymerase (rpob), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome b (cytb) were analyzed. laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites sarcocystis falcatula and sarcocys ...201627007245
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in the czech republic.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are worldwide spread parasites, causing serious illnesses in sensitive animals; toxoplasmosis is also important zoonosis. although neosporosis is not considered as a zoonosis, it leads to aborted births in cattle, as well as paresis and paralysis in dogs.201627007522
molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.cattle are common intermediate hosts of sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. three sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, s. cruzi, s. hirsuta, and s. hominis. the aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, neospora caninum and besnoitia by pcr and rflp methods. tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaught ...201627021183
in vitro and in vivo effects of the phytohormone inhibitor fluridone against neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum causes abortion and stillbirth in cattle. identification of effective drugs against this parasite remains a challenge. previous studies have suggested that disruption of abscisic acid (aba)-mediated signaling in apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii offers a new drug target. in this study, the aba inhibitor, fluridone (flu), was evaluated for its action against n. caninum. production of endogenous aba within n. caninum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromat ...201627021922
crosstalk between uterine serpin (serpina14) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins at the fetal-maternal interface in pregnant dairy heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum.infection with neospora caninum is the leading cause of abortion in cattle. in cows naturally infected with n caninum, plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) 1 and 2 indicate fetal-placental well-being, whereas an excess of progesterone in the second trimester of gestation has been related to high abortion rate. the immunosuppressive action of progesterone on the uterus during gestation has been attributed in part to the uterine serpins (serpina14). this study examines ...201627045629
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
neonatal neosporosis in a 2-week-old bernese mountain dog infected with multiple neospora caninum strains based on ms10 microsatellite analysis.neonatal neosporosis is a challenging disease to diagnose in neonatal and young puppies because the first signs of this condition may not be strongly suggestive of an infectious aetiology. within two weeks of birth, three of four pups died with a subacute clinical course, some with dyspnea, some with diarrhoea and some with neurologic signs. neosporosis was diagnosed post-mortem, but only after microscopic examination of tissues collected at necropsy. histological findings consisted of (i) necro ...201627084485
estimating neospora caninum prevalence in wildlife populations using bayesian inference.prevalence of disease in wildlife populations, which is necessary for developing disease models and conducting epidemiologic analyses, is often understudied. laboratory tests used to screen for diseases in wildlife populations often are validated only for domestic animals. consequently, the use of these tests for wildlife populations may lead to inaccurate estimates of disease prevalence. we demonstrate the use of bayesian latent class analysis (lca) in determining the specificity and sensitivit ...201627099713
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum in père david's deer ( elaphurus davidianus ) in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan and causes neuromuscular disorders in canids and abortions in cattle worldwide. we screened sera samples from 49 free-ranging père david's deer ( elaphurus davidianus ) in a nature reserve in beijing, china, for antibodies against n. caninum using indirect fluorescence antibody tests and western blot tests. antibodies were found in 27% of the deer. western blot analysis revealed antibody reactivity against immunodominant n. caninum antigens of 16, 25 ...201627124330
diagnosis and control of bovine neosporosis.neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. the causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. the prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. there are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks ...201627161392
seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from campania region, southern italy.hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to neospora caninum dubey, carpenter, speer, topper et uggla, 1988 and toxoplasma gondii nicolle et manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. the aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum and t. gondii in hunting dogs from southern italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 ...201627189127
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild small mammals: seroprevalence, dna detection and genotyping.generally, rodents and other small mammals are considered as one of the sources of toxoplasma gondii or neospora caninum infection for cats and dogs as the definitive hosts of these two parasites, respectively. the aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of these two parasites in wild small mammals from the czech republic and to characterize t. gondii isolates by methods of molecular biology. a total of 621 wild small mammals were caught in the czech republic during years 2002-2014. anti ...201627198782
pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle.paraffin-embedded blocks of brain of a nine months old bull calf that died of neurological signs in 1982 in germany were restudied. numerous schizonts and merozoites were found associated with extensive but focal necrosis and severe meningoencephalitis. developing stages of schizonts as well as free merozoites were identified. the schizonts were primarily in perivascular areas. ultrastructurally, schizonts were seen both in capillaries and in extravascular space. merozoites were often concentrat ...201627198793
is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. these interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. this study determined the infectiousness of trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qpcr), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. ...201627198799
occurrence and first multilocus microsatellite genotyping of neospora caninum from naturally infected dogs in dairy farms in henan, central china.neospora caninum is one of the important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and can transmit the parasite to cattle by shedding oocysts. the aim of the present study is to detect the presence of n. caninum in feces of dairy farm dogs and determine the genetic characteristics of n. caninum in central china. a total of 78 fecal samples were collected from dogs in dairy farms from may to november 2014 and examined by microscopy and nest ...201627230015
embryonated pigeon eggs as a model to investigate neospora caninum has been shown that embryonated chicken eggs can be used as animal models for experimental infections. the aim of the present study was to investigate pigeon embryonated eggs as animal models for experimental neosporosis. an infection with neospora caninum nc1 isolate was conducted in chicken and pigeon embryonated eggs to evaluate ld50. after calculation of ld50, 2ld50 of tachyzoites were injected into the eggs. macroscopic changes of each embryo were observed, and immunohistochemistry (ihc) ...201727236141
serological survey on some pathogens in wild brown hares (lepus europaeus) in central determine the exposure of wild brown hares [lepus europaeus (l. europaeus), pallas] to anaplasma phagocytophilum (a. phagocytophilum), borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) sensu lato, encephalitozoon cuniculi (e. cuniculi), leishmania sp., neospora caninum (n. caninum) and toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii).201627261855
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in free-range chickens in henan province of china.background. chickens serve as an intermediate host for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum; infection of free-range (fr) chickens with these organisms is a useful indicator of soil and environmental contamination with oocysts. a total of 700 fr chicken serum samples and 300 heart samples were collected from henan province from march to july 2015. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 18.86% (132/700) of the chickens by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1 : 25), while 23.14% (162/700) were ...201627274992
vaccines for bovine neosporosis: current status and key aspects for development.bovine neosporosis is a worldwide concern due to its global distribution and great economic impact. reproductive failure in cattle due to abortion leads to major economic losses associated with the disease. currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available against abortion or transmission caused by neospora caninum infection in cattle. however, vaccination is considered the best measure of control against bovine neosporosis. several host and parasite factors can influence the dynamics of the ...201627314818
serological study of neospora caninum infection in dogs in central china.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. to investigate the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in dogs in central china, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in henan province, central china between march 2015 and february 2016 and tested for igg antib ...201627317461
the tandemly repeated ntpase (ntpdase) from neospora caninum is a canonical dense granule protein whose rna expression, protein secretion and phosphorylation coincides with the tachyzoite egress.ntpases (also ntpdases) are enzymes with apyrase activity. they are widely distributed among eukaryotes, and also among members of the family sarcocystidae. in toxoplasma gondii, the tgntpase accumulates in the dense granules, and has been commonly associated with the strain virulence. in the closely related neospora caninum, the ncntpase lacks nucleoside diphosphate hydrolase activity and appears to be more abundant in virulent isolates, indicating that it may contribute to the pathogenicity of ...201627329357
differential effects on survival, humoral immune responses and brain lesions in inbred balb/c, cba/ca, and c57bl/6 mice experimentally infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.c57bl/6, balb/c, and cba/ca mouse strains with different mhc-i haplotypes were compared with respect to susceptibility to neospora caninum infection. groups of 5 mice received 1 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), or 25 × 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-liverpool isolate by intraperitoneal injection and were observed for disease symptoms. humoral responses, splenocyte interferon-γ (ifn-γ) production, cerebral parasite loads, and histopathology were evaluated at human end points or the latest at 34 days postinfectio ...201327335863
neospora caninum and wildlife.bovine neosporosis caused by neospora caninum is among the main causes of abortion in cattle nowadays. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. serological evidence in domestic, wild, and zoo animals indicates that many species have been exposed to this parasite. however, many aspects of the life cycle of n. caninum are unknown and the role of wildlife in the life cycle of n. caninum is still not completely elucidated. in north america, there are data consistent with a sylvatic cyc ...201327335866
nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 prompts potent inflammatory stimuli during neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for major economic losses due to abortions in cattle. innate immune responses are crucial for host resistance against the infection, however the molecules involved in parasite recognition are still poorly understood. nod2 is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes several pathogens and its role during n. caninum infection has not yet been described. in that sense, we evaluated the role of nod2 in host response against this parasite. we found ...201627377650
serological detection and epidemiology of neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum antibodies in cattle in southern egypt.neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum are intracellular protozoan parasites that are distributed worldwide and of major economical concern in cattle industry. n. caninum can cause abortion storms and high culling rates, whereas c. parvum has zoonotic implications and can cause diarrhea in calves. there are currently no data on the prevalence of neosporosis and cryptosporidiosis in humans or animals in southern egypt. prevalence of these two infections was determined in a sample of cattle f ...201627377768
foetal death in naive heifers inoculated with neospora caninum isolate nc-spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy.neospora caninum infection is a leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis, particularly during the second term of gestation when most abortions occur in naturally infected dams, is poorly understood. in the present study foetal death was observed in 3 of 6 experimentally infected dams at 110 days of gestation after 6 weeks of experimental period. all experimental heifers were febrile between 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi). inoculated dams seroconver ...201627388371
immunopathological features of canine myocarditis associated with leishmania infantum infection.myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa neospora caninum, trypanosoma cruzi, babesia canis, and hepatozoon canis. however, although cardiac disease due to leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. the aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc classes i and ii in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy f ...201627413751
maternal and foetal cytokine production in dams naturally and experimentally infected with neospora caninum on gestation day the present study, ifn-γ (th1), il-17a (th17) and il-4 (th2) concentrations in response to concanavalin (cona) and neospora caninum antigen (nc-1) stimulation were determined in cultures of cells from control uninfected (n=4), naturally n. caninum-infected (n=3) and experimentally n. caninum-infected (n=6) pregnant dams and their foetuses. experimental animals were infected at 110days of gestation and euthanized 6weeks post-infection. in culture supernatants from the dams, significantly highe ...201627473975
fusion of foreign t-cell epitopes and addition of tlr agonists enhance immunity against neospora caninum profilin in cattle.we demonstrated recently that immunization with recombinant neospora caninum profilin (rncpro) induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice. the aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response elicited by rncpro in cattle and assess a strategy to enhance its immunogenicity, combining the addition of t-cell epitopes and immune modulators. we developed a chimeric recombinant profilin fused to functional t-cell epitopes present in the n-terminal sequence of vesicular st ...201627512980
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in feral swine (sus scrofa) in the united states.the protozoon neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. canids (canis familiaris, canis latrans, canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (sus scrofa) from 29 states of the usa were tested for n. caninum antibodies, using the n. caninum agglutination test (nat). of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, wit ...201627514880
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant tgsag2 and ncsag1 to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic animals in turkey.considering the scarce information on occurrences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in domestic animals from turkey, the aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of these parasite infections in cattle, horses, sheep, goats and dogs in turkey. the specific antibodies against t. gondii and n. caninum were detected by ielisas based on the recombinant tgsag2 or ncsag1 in a total of 2,039 serum samples from eleven provinces. the seroprevalence of t. gondii infections was 46.3%, ...201727523504
cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. however, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. in this study, th1 (ifn-γ), th2 (il4) and t reg (il-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time pcr using the taqman approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate nc-spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. in prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and ...201627523950
identification of latent neosporosis in sheep in tehran, iran by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the <i>nc-5</i> gene.little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of neospora caninum in sheep (ovis aries). in this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for n. caninum dna by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the nc-5 gene. neospora caninum dna was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. the parasite's dna was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. no clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfec ...201627543149
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in free ranging chickens (gallus domesticus).recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. free range chickens expose to infection with n. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. we studied n. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. one hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. antibodies to n. caninum were found in ...201627605795
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in iranian goats.many species of animals play the role of intermediate host for neospora caninum. although the neosporosis has a global distribution, however there is no information on goats' infection in iran. the main goal of present study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum in goats of western iran. a total of 450 sera were taken and analyzed for antibodies to n. caninum using elisa technique. of those, 28 (6.2%) examined goats were found to be seropositive (95%, ci=6.2±2.2%). in which male goat ...201727614475
myd88 and functionally related genes are associated with multiple infections in a model population of kenyan village dogs.the purpose of this study was to seek associations between immunity-related molecular markers and endemic infections in a model population of african village dogs from northern kenya with no veterinary care and no selective breeding. a population of village dogs from northern kenya composed of three sub-populations from three different areas (84, 50 and 55 dogs) was studied. canine distemper virus (cdv), hepatozoon canis, microfilariae (acantocheilonema dracunculoides, acantocheilonema reconditu ...201627655108
neospora caninum in axis deer ( axis axis ) and fallow deer ( dama dama ) in northern mexico.serum samples from 18 axis deer ( axis axis ) and 19 fallow deer ( dama dama ) were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for neospora caninum antibodies. two axis (11%) and two fallow deer (11%) were positive for n. caninum antibodies.201727669010
neospora caninum activates p38 mapk as an evasion mechanism against innate immunity.due to the high prevalence and economic impact of neosporosis, the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapies against this parasite has been a priority in the field and is crucial to limit horizontal and vertical transmission in natural hosts. limited data is available regarding factors that regulate the immune response against this parasite and such knowledge is essential in order to understand neospora caninum induced pathogenesis. mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) govern ...201627679624
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
genetic characterization of neospora caninum from aborted bovine foetuses in aguascalientes, mexico.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping. currently, the most extensive study reported is based on the n. caninum genotyping of 96 samples from four countries on two continents (spain, argentina, germany and scotland) that demonstrate different ...201627692324
toxoplasmatinae parasites in bats from bahia state, brazil.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. whereas t. gondii is a zoonotic disease, n. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. some chiropteran species can be infected by t. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. in most cases, t. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. it is not known whether ...201727705102
assessment of transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in the agreste region of pernambuco.the transplacental transmission is the primary route of neospora caninum infection in bovine herds around the world. this study aimed to determine the frequency of transplacental transmission of the parasite in dairy cattle of agreste region of pernambuco through serological tests (ifat and elisa). three hundred sixteen serum samples from cows and heifers and their offspring were analyzed. the transplacental transmission rate was 72.22% (13/18) for cows and 69.23% (9/13) for heifers by ifat. eli ...201727737368
unusual presentation of neosporosis in a neonatal puppy from a litter of bulldogs.a 17-day-old bulldog puppy died soon after presentation for weakness and tachypnoea. gross lesions included diffuse pulmonary oedema and a region of myocardial pallor that resembled an infarct. inflammation was observed histopathologically in many organs, with numerous clusters of intracellular protozoa that stained positively using neospora caninum immunohistochemistry. myocarditis was severe and had associated necrosis of individual myocytes, but the tissue was not infarcted. the bitch had an ...201627785796
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red foxes in slovakia.sera or meat juices of 177 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) originated from the localities of a human-influenced landscape (group 1) and 126 foxes from the protected mountain region (group 2) of slovakia, collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using indirect elisa and neospora caninum by competitive elisa. the tissue and uncoagulated blood samples were examined for the presence of the parasite's dna. the total seropositivity to t. gondii was 62.7 ...201627787208
neospora caninum in wild waterfowl: occurrence of parasite dna and low antibody titers.thirty-five adult waterfowl (14 males and 21 females) representing various orders and species were sampled during the hunting season from 2015 to 2016. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected by ifat on blood samples, while heart and brain were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of neospora caninum dna. twelve birds (34.3%) (6 anas crecca , 3 anas platyrhynchos , 2 anas penelope , 1 anas acuta ) showed antibodies versus n. caninum , while 10 animals out of 35 (4 a. crecca , 2 ...201727805842
mucosal immunization confers long-term protection against intragastrically established neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy and beef cattle farms worldwide. although vaccination is widely regarded as the preferable strategy to prevent neosporosis no commercial vaccine is currently available. we have previously shown that intranasal immunization with an n. caninum antigen extract enriched in hydrophobic proteins plus cpg adjuvant protected mice against intragastrically established neosporosis. nevertheless, ...201627814932
canine neutrophil extracellular traps release induced by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum in vitro.neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. the canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum (n. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. however, the effects of n. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (nets) formation remain unclear. in the present study, n. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine nets formation was observed by scanning ...201627843440
seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in nakuru district, kenya.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum (nc) and its risk factors in farm dogs in kenya.201627847430
molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella canis and ehrlichia canis in dogs.given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of brucella canis, ehrlichia canis, neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. this study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for t. gondii, 52.4% for n. caninum and 59.5% for b. canis. e. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. pregnancy is an important physiological condition fo ...201627865263
artemisinin and its derivatives in treating protozoan infections beyond malaria.parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. artemisinin (art) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from artemisia annua l. however, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, art and its de ...201727867026
the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp and trypanosoma evansi, respectively. toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies aga ...201627876900
serosurvey for leishmania spp., toxoplasma gondii, trypanosoma cruzi and neospora caninum in neighborhood dogs in curitiba-paraná, brazil.neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in curitiba, southern brazil. blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) for leishmania sp ...201627925057
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, espirito santo, brasil.the aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding córrego do veado biological reserve, espírito santo state, brazil. the reserve is one of the last lowland atlantic forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. the presence of igg antibodies was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for t. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and n. can ...201627925068
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