unravelling the neospora caninum secretome through the secreted fraction (esa) and quantification of the discharged tachyzoite using high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics.the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum causes neosporosis, a disease that leads to abortion or stillbirth in cattle, generating an economic impact on the dairy and beef cattle trade. as an obligatory intracellular parasite, n. caninum needs to invade the host cell in an active manner to survive. the increase in parasite cytosolic ca2+ upon contact with the host cell mediates critical events, including the exocytosis of phylum-specific secretory organelles and the activation of the parasite i ...201324267406
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered dairy cows (bos taurus).neospora caninum is a worldwide parasite recognized as one of the main parasites responsible for abortion in cattle. the objective of this study was to evaluate vertical transmission of n. caninum in dairy cows (bos taurus) that were slaughtered at an abattoir in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil. blood samples (with and without edta) from 60 pregnant dairy cows and blood and tissue samples (brain, lung, heart and liver) from their fetuses were collected and used for pcr and serologic ...201324252950
hepatic neosporosis in a dog treated for pemphigus foliaceus.a 4-year-old, female, spayed border collie dog was presented for progressive lethargy, inappetence, and weakness of 4 days duration. the animal had been diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus 3 months prior and was receiving combination immunosuppressive therapy. serum biochemistry revealed severely elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, and humane euthanasia was elected. gross postmortem examination revealed a diffusely pale tan to slightly yellow, enlarged, markedly friable liver with an enhanced r ...201324202993
molecular identification of neospora caninum from calf/foetal brain tissue and among oocysts recovered from faeces of naturally infected dogs in southern ethiopia.this study sought to confirm and investigate further recently published information regarding the occurrence of neospora caninum in cattle in ethiopia and investigate infection in dogs, the canine definitive host, in this region. faecal samples from 383 dogs in hawassa, ethiopia were examined by microscopy for neospora-like oocysts, and positive samples then analysed by a molecular approach (dna isolation, pcr and sequencing at the its1 gene). brain tissue samples from four late term aborted foe ...201424189135
oxidative stress in brain tissue of gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum infection is generally latent and asymptomatic, and it results in the formation of dormant encysted bradyzoites that remain in the brain and other tissues of infected animals for life, causing major economic and pathological problems. the aim of this study was to assess the relation between infection by n. caninum and its damage to brain tissue through the evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. sixteen gerbil (meriones un ...201424188248
neospora caninum tachyzoites inoculated by the conjunctival route are not vertically transmitted in pregnant cattle: a descriptive study.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether neospora caninum tachyzoites (nc-1) inoculated by the conjunctival route in pregnant cows were able to generate infection in their fetuses. group 1 contained 2 naturally infected cows; group 2 contained two cows inoculated intravenously with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites, group 3 contained two cows inoculated with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites by the conjunctival route, and group 4 contained two uninfected control cows. the four inoculated cows from groups 2 and ...201424184173
neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from vojvodina, serbia.neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. in dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. in this study, we determined the occurrence of n. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in vojvodina (northern province of serbia) and possible risk factors. n. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/ ...201324152767
clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.we compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant balb/c model. four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (nc-ger2, nc-ger3, nc-ger6 and nc-6arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (nc-bahia and nc-liv). the dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the o ...201424148606
study on outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows in tabriz (northwest iran) by serological, molecular and histopathologic determine neospora caninum (n. caninum) as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy cows by elisa, pcr and pathological methods in tabriz, northwest of iran.201324144024
neospora caninum: activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between n. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche) during the acute ...201324140613
protective effect of intranasal immunization with neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract.neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. in the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with n. caninum membrane antigens plus cpg adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 10(7) tachyzoites, showing that significant p ...201424128071
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.toxoplasma and neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. in order to investigate the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep ...201324103737
tracking neospora caninum parasites using chimera monoclonal antibodies against its surface antigen-related sequences (rncsrs2).neosporosis, an infectious disease of cattle and dogs, causes an abortion in cattle, which has a major damage on the dairy industry worldwide. tracking of neospora caninum parasite that is responsible for neosporosis is required for the prevention of this infectious disease. we developed three chimera monoclonal antibodies consist of variable regions of murine antibody and constant regions of human antibody against n. caninum. recombinant surface antigen-related sequence 2 (rncsrs2) of n. caninu ...201424103572
development of maternal and foetal immune responses in cattle following experimental challenge with neospora caninum at day 210 of gestation.this study examined the immunological responses of pregnant cattle and their foetuses following an experimental challenge with live neospora caninum tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation. animals were bled prior to and weekly throughout the experiment and sacrificed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post inoculation (dpi). at post mortem examination, samples of lymph nodes and spleen were collected from both dam and foetus for immunological analysis. subcutaneous (sc) inoculation over the left prefemoral ...201324090114
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (blv) and neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies against blv were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% ci = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (p = 0.56). both tests identified ...201324082160
an outbreak of sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.a total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. by immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue c ...201324081928
development and standardization of dot - elisa for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and comparison with standard indirect elisa and direct agglutination test (dat).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicomplexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world.201325516747
seroprevalence and risk factors of neospora spp. in donkeys from southern some european countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in southern italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (martina-franca, amiata, sicilian-grey, ragusano, sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). sera were tested by a compet ...201324050943
quails are resistant to infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the aim of this study was to characterize the role of quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) as intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. fifty-eight 20-day old quails were individually identified with numbered rings and kept in cages adequate for the species. the birds were fed commercial feed and distilled water ad libitum. they were weighed daily during the first month and every seven days from then on. the birds were randomly distributed into 3 groups; 40 quails (group a) and 8 quails (group b) ...201324041486
neospora caninum and reproductive wastage in extensively managed queensland beef compare reproduction in extensively managed, tropically adapted beef cows that were either seropositive or seronegative to neospora caninum.201323980832
in vitro effects of novel ruthenium complexes in neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.upon the screening of 16 antiproliferative compounds against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, two hydrolytically stable ruthenium complexes (compounds 16 and 18) exhibited 50% inhibitory concentrations of 18.7 and 41.1 nm (t. gondii) and 6.7 and 11.3 nm (n. caninum). to achieve parasiticidal activity with compound 16, long-term treatment (22 to 27 days at 80 to 160 nm) was required. transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the rapid impact on and ultrastructural alterations in both p ...201323979747
identification of a highly antigenic region of subtilisin-like serine protease 1 for serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion in cattle; hence, accurate diagnosis of this pathogen is important to the cattle farming industry. our previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that the n. caninum subtilisin-like serine protease 1 (ncsub1) has potential as a serodiagnostic tool for neospora. consequently, we expressed two fragments containing five ncsub1 tandem repeat copies covering amino acids (aa) 524 to 843 (ncsub1t) and 555 to 679 (ncsub1tr) ...201323966554
suspension culture of neospora caninum by theileria annulata-infected cell line.there are some limiting aspects of scaling up the neospora caninum tachyzoites in continuous cell lines, particularly as related to the absence of surface attachment. in this study, suspension cell culture of theileria annulata-infected lymphoblastoid (til) was used as a host cell for the continous production of n. caninum tachyzoites. the numbers of free tachyzoites in the medium supernatant were showed regularly increased up to the day 6 post-cultivation. transmission electron microscopy demon ...201323959501
genetic diversity and geographic population structure of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite genotyping analysis.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (mss). mss may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in n. caninum, which have been poorly defined. in this ...201323940816
mucosal and systemic t cell response in mice intragastrically infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the murine model has been widely used to study the host immune response to neospora caninum. however, in most studies, the intraperitoneal route was preferentially used to establish infection. here, c57bl/6 mice were infected with n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric route, as it more closely resembles the natural route of infection through the gastrointestinal tract. the elicited t-cell mediated immune response was evaluated in the intestinal epithelium and mesenteric lymph nodes (mln). e ...201323937079
immune response and protection provided by live tachyzoites and native antigens from the nc-6 argentina strain of neospora caninum in pregnant heifers.the aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of live tachyzoites and native antigen extract obtained from the nc-6 argentina strain against vertical transmission of neospora caninum, following experimental challenge in pregnant heifers with the nc-1 strain. sixteen pregnant heifers were divided in 4 groups of 4 animals, each receiving different inoculation before mating: group a animals were intravenously (iv) inoculated with 6.25×10(7) live tachyzoites ...201323932455
a survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infecting house mice from a hybrid zone.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites infecting a wide range of wild and domestic animals as intermediate hosts, and rodents serve as important reservoir hosts during the life cycles of these parasites. the present study is aimed at identifying t. gondii and n. caninum infection in 360 wild house mice (mus musculus) collected across the czech-german border, where 2 genetically distinct mouse subspecies meet and hybridize. toxoplasma gondii or n. caninum d ...201423927367
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in chicken samples from delta egypt using a recombinant ncsag1 protein-based elisa.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion and economic loss in the cattle industry. this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-n. caninum antibodies in chicken using elisa methods based on the surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1t). the overall prevalence of n. caninum in chicken was 15.51%. the seroprevalence was high in qalyoubiya, minufiya, kafr el-shaykh, gharbiya, dakahlia provinces; (34%, 17.39%, 14.75%, 14.29%, and 12.25% respectively). in co ...201323888555
first report of antibodies to neospora caninum in nigerian cattle. 201323857393
gc/ms analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fractions from sophora flavescens and torilis japonica extracts and their in vitro anti-neosporal effects on neospora caninum.we analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against neospora (n.) caninum. to identify the chemical components of sophora (s.) flavescens and torilis (t.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). in vitro activity of the fractions against n. caninum was then assessed. gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (gc/ms) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal mole ...201323820198
detection of neospora caninum dna in semen of experimental infected rams with no evidence of horizontal transmission in ewes.recent reports from new zealand indicate neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep. transmission of n. caninum via semen has been documented in cattle. this study aimed to investigate if horizontal transmission through semen was also possible in sheep. initially, 6-month old crossbred ram lambs (n=32), seronegative to n. caninum, were divided into 4 equal groups. group 1 remained uninoculated whilst the remainder were inoculated with n. caninum tachyzoites intravenously ...201323819894
prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against ncsag1 and ncgra7 antigens of neospora caninum in cattle during the gestation period.bovine abortion caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is a major economic problem in the livestock industry worldwide. our study measured the prevalence and temporal changes in levels of antibodies specific for two n. caninum derived antigens, ncsag1 and ncgra7, to determine an appropriate strategy for serodiagnosis. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), blood samples showed that 71 cows out of 129 were positive for anti-ncsag1 antibodies and that only nine cows were ...201323782543
first molecular detection of neospora caninum in european brown bear (ursus arctos).neospora caninum is an important intracellular protozoan parasite with an affinity to the central nervous system of many animals and a major causative agent of repeated abortions in cattle. in total, 45 muscle, liver, or spleen samples of brown bear sampled in different locations of central slovakia were examined by pcr. genotyping of n. caninum was based on amplification of nc-5 gene and its1 rrna fragments and subsequent sequencing. presence of n. caninum dna was confirmed in 24.4% (11/45) of ...201323770068
molecular cloning and characterization of ncrop2fam-1, a member of the rop2 family of rhoptry proteins in neospora caninum that is targeted by antibodies neutralizing host cell invasion in vitro.recent publications demonstrated that a fragment of a neospora caninum rop2 family member antigen represents a promising vaccine candidate. we here report on the cloning of the cdna encoding this protein, n. caninum rop2 family member 1 (ncrop2fam-1), its molecular characterization and localization. the protein possesses the hallmarks of rop2 family members and is apparently devoid of catalytic activity. ncrop2fam-1 is synthesized as a pre-pro-protein that is matured to 2 proteins of 49 and 55 k ...201323743240
oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped dense granule protein 7 induces protective immune response to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cows. vaccination is an important strategy for control of neosporosis, and a safe and effective vaccine suitable for cattle is required. dense granule protein 7 of n. caninum (ncgra7) is a secretory protein with high antigenicity in hosts. we demonstrated previously that ncgra7 entrapped in liposomes coated with mannotriose (m3-ncgra7) could induce a parasite-specific t-helper type 1 immune response and produce humor ...201323742998
sag2a protein from toxoplasma gondii interacts with both innate and adaptive immune compartments of infected hosts.toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes relevant clinical disease in humans and animals. several studies have been performed in order to understand the interactions between proteins of the parasite and host cells. sag2a is a 22 kda protein that is mainly found in the surface of tachyzoites. in the present work, our aim was to correlate the predicted three-dimensional structure of this protein with the immune system of infected hosts.201323735002
gra 14, a novel dense granule protein from neospora caninum. 201323722878
generation and immunity testing of a recombinant adenovirus expressing ncsrs2-ncgra7 fusion protein of bovine neospora caninum.neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of bovine neosporosis, which affects the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. the transmembrane protein, ncsrs2, and dense-granule protein, ncgra7, were identified as protective antigens based on their ability to induce significant protective immune responses in murine neosporosis models. in the current study, ncsrs2 and ncgra7 genes were spliced by overlap-extension pcr in a recombinant adenovirus termed ad5-ncsrs2-ncgra 7, expressing the ncsrs2- ...201323710096
dose-dependent immunogenicity of a soluble neospora caninum tachyzoite-extract vaccine formulated with a soy lecithin/β-glucan adjuvant in cattle.mice immunized with a soluble extract of neospora caninum tachyzoites (sncag) formulated with providean-avec, an aqueous soy-based adjuvant, are fully protected from n. caninum multiplication. here we evaluated the dose-dependent immunogenicity of this vaccine formulation in cattle. cattle (n=3 per group) were immunized with two applications (30 days apart) of formulations containing providean-avec and different payloads of sncag (100, 50 and 10 μg), that were five to fifty times lower than the ...201323692926
comparison of use of vero cell line and suspension culture of murine macrophage to attenuation of virulence of neospora this study the tachyzoite yields of neospora caninum were compared in two cell lines: vero (african green monkey kidney) and suspension culture of murine macrophage (j774) cell lines. then, n. caninum were continuously passaged in these cell lines for 3 months and the effect of host cells on virulence of tachyzoites was assessed by broiler chicken embryonated eggs. inoculation was performed in the chorioallantoic (ca) liquid of the embryonated eggs with different dilutions (0.5 × 10(4), 1.0 × ...201323684321
expression of neospora caninum ncsrs2 surface protein in pichia pastoris and its application for serodiagnosis of neospora infection.neospora caninum is considerd a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the antigenic domain of ncsrs2 in n. caninum is an important surface antigen present in the membrane of this parasite. in the present study, the pichia pastoris expression system proved to be a useful tool for the production of recombinant protein. the truncated ncsrs2 gene (by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence), was cloned in the vector ppiczalphab, and integrated on the genome of the methylotrophic yeast ...201323683365
neospora caninum nc-6 argentina induces fetopathy in both serologically positive and negative experimentally inoculated pregnant dams.neospora caninum infection is a major cause of abortion in cattle. the objectives of this study were to genetically characterize the n. caninum nc-6 argentina isolate using a multilocus microsatellite analysis approach and to study its biological behavior by experimental inoculations into seronegative and seropositive pregnant cattle, evaluating the humoral and cellular immune response elicited and the occurrence of transplacental transmission and fetopathy. pregnant cows (65 days of gestation) ...201323666227
parasiticidal activity of a novel synthetic peptide from the core α-helical region of nk-lysin.nk-lysin is an anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role in innate immunity against infectious pathogens through its selective membrane disruptive property. we previously expressed and purified a full-length chicken nk-lysin (cnkl) recombinant protein, and demonstrated its in vitro anti-parasitic activity against the apicomplexan protozoan, eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis. this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic properties of a synthetic peptide (cn ...201323664157
bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. since the description of n. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. this review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. finally, based on the implications of clinical f ...201323659742
neospora caninum: infection induces high lysosomal activity.neospora caninum is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, making it an important target of veterinary medicine. lysosomes are cellular organelles responsible for important biological functions as cellular defense mechanisms. the aim of this work was to evaluate the lysosomal stability of rat gliocytes infected in vitro with n. caninum. rat glial cultures were infected at a ratio of 1:1 (cell/parasite). the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (orthophosp ...201323648665
a novel dense granule protein, gra22, is involved in regulating parasite egress in toxoplasma gondii.the intracellular protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii is capable of invading any nucleated cell and replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole (pv). this microenvironment is modified by secretory proteins from organelles named rhoptries and dense granules. in this report, we identify a novel dense granule protein, which we refer to as gra22. gra22 has no significant homology to any other known proteins. gra22 possesses a signal peptide at the n-terminal end which is responsible for dense granu ...201323623919
congenital transmission of neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. many aspects of transmission of neospora caninum in nature are unknown. the white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of n. caninum in the usa. during the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. viable n. caninum (ncwtdmn1, ncwtdmn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioa ...201323566408
diagnosis and isolation of toxoplasma gondii in horses from brazilian slaughterhouses.this study aimed to investigate anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in brazil. we collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six brazilian states. serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat cut-off titre ≥ 1:64), and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. among the 398 horses, positivity for t. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6%) by ifat and in 14 (3.5%) b ...201323538498
antibody kinetics in goats and conceptuses naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. however, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. this is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by n. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. the subclasses of igg (igg1 and igg2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) oc ...201323537945
efficacy of decoquinate against sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures.decoquinate is a quinolone anticoccidial approved for use in the prevention of intestinal coccidiosis in farm animals. this compound has good activity against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in cell cultures. the drug acts on the parasites' mitochondria. the activity of decoquinate against developing merozoites of 2 isolates of sarcocystis neurona was examined in cell culture. merozoite production at 10 days was completely inhibited when decoquinate was used at 20 or 240 nm. the ic50 of d ...201323523012
display of neospora caninum surface protein related sequence 2 on rous sarcoma virus-derived gag protein virus-like particles.virus-like particles (vlps) displaying antigen have been increasingly recognized as a potential vaccine in the livestock industry. in this study, neospora caninum surface protein related sequence (ncsrs)2 was displayed on the surface of rous sarcoma virus group-antigen protein (rsv-gag) vlps. two types of bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv) bacmids, encoding rsv-gag and ncsrs2 genes, were co-injected into silkworm larvae to produce vlps-ncsrs2. at 7 days post-injection, vlps-ncsrs2 were col ...201323511652
mice congenitally infected with low-to-moderate virulence neospora caninum isolates exhibited clinical reactivation during the mating period without transmission to the next generation.endogenous transplacental transmission (entt) is the major transmission route of neospora caninum in cattle. thus, the development of a standardised experimental model of entt is needed for more appropriate testing of parasite biology and control strategies. a recent study reported up to 40-50% entt rates in chronically infected dams with either high or low-to-moderate virulence isolates, although low fertility rates were observed in dams inoculated with the high virulence isolate. therefore, lo ...201323501806
first report of seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy sheep from humid pampa, argentina.the aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy sheep from the humid pampa region, argentina. blood samples from 704 dairy sheep belonging to six flocks were collected. using a cut off titer of 1:50, an indirect fluorescence antibody test was used. antibodies to t. gondii or n. caninum were detected in 17.3 % (n = 122) and 3 % (n = 21), respectively. all the flocks had at least one seropositive animal to t. gondii but two of t ...201323494577
development of a disperse dye immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in cattle. sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial elisa kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. the positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (ddia) compared to 32% obtained by elisa kit. this study showed no significant difference between ddia an ...201323467930
risk factors associated with seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dogs from urban and rural areas of milk and coffee production in minas gerais state, brazil.this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and to investigate the risk factors related to seroprevalence in dogs from urban and rural areas with distinct economic activities (milk and coffee production) in minas gerais state, brazil. for this purpose, blood samples from 703 dogs were collected and questionnaires addressing epidemiological aspects were completed by dog-owners. the sera were analysed for anti-n. caninum antibodies by indirect fluor ...201323419686
development of an immunochromatographic assay based on dense granule protein 7 for serological detection of toxoplasma gondii infection.dense granule antigen proteins derived from toxoplasma gondii (tggras) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools. tggra7 and tggra14 were detected in the peritoneal fluid of t. gondii-infected mice, suggesting that tggras may be highly antigenic proteins. here, tggra7 and tggra14 were evaluated as candidates for the development of a marker for a rapid diagnostic test. the specificity and sensitivity of purified recombinant proteins of tggra7 and tggra14 were compared in an i ...201323408523
effects of neospora caninum infection on brain microvascular endothelial cells bioenergetics.the brain is the most commonly affected organ during neospora caninum infection but the mechanisms utilized by this protozoan parasite for traversal of the blood-brain barrier (bbb) are not yet understood. herein, we investigate the cellular pathogenicity of n. caninum infection on bioenergetics of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hbmecs), a fundamental component of the bbb.201323351811
specific antibody responses against neospora caninum recombinant rncgra7, rncsag4, rncbsr4 and rncsrs9 proteins are correlated with virulence in mice.the intraspecific diversity of neospora caninum is a determinant for in vivo parasite virulence and in vitro parasite behaviour. the relationship between isolate virulence and specific antibody responses against key parasite proteins has not been well characterized. the response kinetics and the differences in specific anti-rncgra7, -rncsag4, -rncbsr4 and -rncsrs9 antibody levels were analysed by recombinant protein-based elisa in groups of mice inoculated with 10 different n. caninum isolates t ...201323343779
neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of argentina.this work estimates the economic losses due to neospora abortions in the humid pampa region of argentina.the total dairy and beef cattle population at risk of abortion is 1,771,326 and 9,726,684 head, respectively. in dairy cattle, there was an 8 % risk of experiencing abortion due to a variety of causes, but 16.5 % of them were due to neospora caninum. the economic losses were estimated at us$1,415 (1,400-1,431) per abortion, which equates to a total loss of us$33,097,221 (15,622,600-119,349,69 ...201323325013
development of two murine antibodies against neospora caninum using phage display technology and application on the detection of n. caninum.neosporosis, caused by an intracellular parasite, neospora caninum, is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs. it occurs worldwide and causes huge damages to dairy farms. in this study, we immunized mice with recombinant surface-associated protein 1 of n. caninum (rncsag1) and developed two novel monoclonal antibodies, a10 and h3, against ncsag1 using phage-display technology. both clones bound to purified rncsag1 and the half maximal inhibitory concentrations of a10 and h3 are 50 an ...201323308179
proteins mediating the neospora caninum-host cell interaction as targets for vaccination.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is capable of infecting, a wide range of tissues. the fact that neospora represents an important abortion-causing parasite in cattle has transformed neosporosis research from an earlier, rather esoteric field, to a significant research topic, and considerable investments have been made in the last years to develop an efficacious vaccine or other means of intervention that would prevent infection and abortion due to n. caninum infection in cattle. ...201323276967
differential effects on survival, humoral immune responses and brain lesions in inbred balb/c, cba/ca, and c57bl/6 mice experimentally infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.c57bl/6, balb/c, and cba/ca mouse strains with different mhc-i haplotypes were compared with respect to susceptibility to neospora caninum infection. groups of 5 mice received 1 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), or 25 × 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-liverpool isolate by intraperitoneal injection and were observed for disease symptoms. humoral responses, splenocyte interferon-γ (ifn-γ) production, cerebral parasite loads, and histopathology were evaluated at human end points or the latest at 34 days postinfectio ...201327335863
use of a th1 stimulator adjuvant for vaccination against neospora caninum infection in the pregnant mouse model.vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new neospora caninum infections in cattle. a vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recncmic3-1-r, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins ncmic1 and ncmic3, the rhoptry protein ncrop2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant balb/c mice. protection was associated with a mixed th1/th2-type cytokine response. however ...201325437035
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of ethiopia.a cross-sectional study of neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of ethiopia. cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercial elisa kit. herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. the overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. in urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprev ...201323261087
what is the global economic impact of neospora caninum in cattle - the billion dollar question.neospora caninum is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortions in cattle worldwide, yet the global economic impact of the infection has not been established. a systematic review of the economic impact of n. caninum infections/abortions was conducted, searching pubmed with the terms 'cattle' and 'neospora'. this yielded 769 publications and the abstracts were screened for economically relevant information (e.g. abortion prevalence and risk, serological prevalence). furth ...201323246675
tissue distribution of neospora caninum in experimentally infected cattle.histopathology and quantitative pcr (qpcr) were used to determine the tissue distribution of neospora caninum in calves at 80 days postinfection. our findings revealed that the most appropriate brain areas for researching n. caninum pathogenesis were the amygdala and hippocampus for qpcr and the corpus striatum and diencephalon for histopathology.201323239805
comparative study of protective activities of neospora caninum bradyzoite antigens, ncbag1, ncbsr4, ncmag1, and ncsag4, in a mouse model of acute parasitic infection.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes severe neuromuscular diseases, repeated abortion, stillbirth, and congenital infection in livestock and companion animals. the development of an effective vaccine against neosporosis in cattle is an important issue due to the significant worldwide economic impact of this disease. we evaluated the immunogenicity of four bradyzoite antigens, ncbag1 (first described in this study), ncbsr4, ncmag1, and ncsag4, using an acut ...201323229317
plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins measured using anti-bovine pag-2 antibodies on day 120 of gestation predict abortion in dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.the present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (pag-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma pag-2 concentrations could predict abortion in n. caninum-infected cows. the study was performed on a commercial holstein-friesian dairy herd in northeastern spain and the final data included those recorded in 53 non-aborting and 19 aborting animals. blood samples were collected im ...201323228018
factors associated with seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in southeastern brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. this cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to n. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of minas gerais, southeastern brazil. producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immuno ...201323212838
seroprevalence for neospora caninum in goats of minas gerais state, brazil.this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in serum samples from 667 goats, collected from 90 herds in 90 municipalities in eight of the twelve mesoregions of minas gerais state. the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined by ifat with a cut-off value of 1:50. the true herd-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 75.2% (ci 95%: 59.5-90.9%). the true individual-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 10.7% (ci 95%: 8.3- ...201323200513
adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis.vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. in this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of scll in immunization of mice against neosporosis ...201223107170
expression, purification and antigenicity of neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.infection of neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. in this study, n. caninum surface antigen 1 (sag1) and sag1-related sequence 2 (srs2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. expressed sag1 and srs2 clearly showed antigenicity against n. caninum-positive ...201323102762
detection of neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in great britain.samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (mustela furo), 83 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 70 european polecats (mustela putorius), 65 american mink (neovison vison), 64 eurasian badgers (meles meles) and 9 stoats (mustela erminea), from around great britain. dna was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested its1 pcr for neospora caninum. the results from the pcr demonstrated that neospora specific dna was detected in all species of wild carnivo ...201323102760
[advances in the development of vaccines for bovine neosporosis].neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. the severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with t helper 1 immune response mediated by cd4 cytotoxic t lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin g2. the reduction of vertical transmission in ...201223102471
quantification of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cows in minas gerais, brazil.the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of minas gerais, brazil. the frequency of cows seropositive for n.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was 39.4% (93/236) for farm a and 31.4% (32/102) for the farm b (p > 0.05). the mean vertical transmission rate ...201223070443
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil.this study investigated occurrences of antibodies to anti-neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil, and the risk factors associated with the infection. to investigate antibodies against n. caninum, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used. to identify risk factors associated with infection by n. caninum, univariate analyses on variables of interest were conducted. the study analyzed 237 samples from dogs of both sexes and different breeds and ages, both from r ...201223070441
experimental infection with neospora caninum in pregnant this study, transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in bitches at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated. three bitches were inoculated in the 3rd week and three in the 6th week of gestation with 10(8) tachyzoites of n. caninum (nc-1 strain). all the infected bitches and at least one of their offspring presented anti-n. caninum antibodies according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat > 400). the pups and their mothers were sacrificed and tissues from the central nervo ...201223070432
investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. the only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. this study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. a sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: american mink (mustela vison), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), pine martens (martes martes), badgers (meles meles), stoats (mustela erminea), otters (lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (mustela ...201323068142
low rates of neospora caninum infection reactivation during gestation are observed in both chronically and congenitally infected mice.endogenous transplacental transmission (entt) of neospora caninum is the most common route of infection in cattle and occurs as a consequence of a reactivation of n. caninum infection that may lead to abortion or to the birth of congenitally infected calves. the reactivation of n. caninum infection was studied during the gestation of chronically infected dams and, for the first time, in their congenitally infected pups. balb/c mice were infected with nc-spain 7 (group 1) or nc-spain 3h (group 2) ...201323058003
differential effects of intranasal vaccination with recombinant ncpdi in different mouse models of neospora caninum this study, mice were vaccinated intranasally with recombinant n. caninum protein disulphide isomerase (ncpdi) emulsified in cholera toxin (ct) or cholera toxin subunit b (ctb) from vibrio cholerae. the effects of vaccination were assessed in the murine nonpregnant model and the foetal infection model, respectively. in the nonpregnant mice, previous results were confirmed, in that intranasal vaccination with recncpdi in ct was highly protective, and low cerebral parasite loads were noted upon ...201323046358
reproductive disorders in relation to neospora caninum, brucella spp. and bovine viral diarrhoea virus serostatus in breeding and dairy farms of central and southern ethiopia.abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. this study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), brucella spp., and neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in ethiopia. dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. the over ...201323034138
the core mouse response to infection by neospora caninum defined by gene set enrichment this study, the balb/c and qs mouse responses to infection by the parasite neospora caninum were investigated in order to identify host response mechanisms. investigation was done using gene set (enrichment) analyses of microarray data. gsea, manova, romer, subgse and sam-gs were used to study the contrasts neospora strain type, mouse type (balb/c and qs) and time post infection (6 hours post infection and 10 days post infection). the analyses show that the major signal in the core mouse resp ...201223012496
frequency of infection by neospora caninum in wild rodents associated with dairy farms in aguascalientes, mexico.the purpose of this study was to detect the presence of neospora caninum in tissues from wild rodents associated with dairy farms in aguascalientes, mexico. individuals from mus musculus, rattus novergicus and spermophilus variegatus were caught in dairy farms with history of positive status to n. caninum. a total of 33 rodents were caught from which samples were taken of brain, spinal cord, liver and heart and were tested with nested pcr and immunohistochemistry (ihc). results obtained with pcr ...201322989953
a review of the infection, genetics, and evolution of neospora caninum: from the past to the present.this paper is a review of current knowledge on neospora caninum in the context of other apicomplexan parasites and with an emphasis on: life cycle, disease, epidemiology, immunity, control and treatment, evolution, genomes, and biological databases and web resources. n. caninum is an obligate, intracellular, coccidian, protozoan parasite of the phylum apicomplexa. infection can cause the clinical disease neosporosis, which most notably is associated with abortion in cattle. these abortions are a ...201322985682
seroprevalence of neospora caninum, paratuberculosis and q fever in cattle in belgium in 2009-2010. 201222952130
vaccination with the recombinant chimeric antigen recncmic3-1-r induces a non-protective th2-type immune response in the pregnant mouse model for n. caninum infection.the major route of transmission of neospora caninum in cattle is transplacentally from an infected cow to its progeny. therefore, a vaccine should be able to prevent both the horizontal transmission from contaminated food or water and the vertical transmission. we have previously shown that a chimeric vaccine composed of predicted immunogenic epitopes of ncmic3, ncmic1 and ncrop2 (recncmic3-1-r) significantly reduced the cerebral infection in balb/c mice. in this study, mice were first vaccinate ...201222940381
neospora caninum infection in dogs from southern romania: coproparasitological study and serological follow-up.neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide for which dogs are the definitive host. the present study was aimed at investigating the exposure to n. caninum infection based on lifestyle categories of dogs from southern romania. for this purpose, randomly selected rural and urban dogs were examined for fecal n. caninum -like oocysts and were serologically tested for the presence of anti- n. caninum igg antibodies. of the 386 dog fecal samples, n. caninum -like oocysts were ...201322931541
effects of age and breed on the prevalence of neospora caninum in commercial dairy cattle from pakistan.neospora caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide. a serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of exposure to n. caninum in dairy cattle based on age and breed from punjab and sindh provinces, pakistan. serum samples from 641 animals from 12 herds from punjab (n = 7) and sindh (n = 5) provinces were tested for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. positive reactions to n. caninum were seen ...201322924907
evaluation of the protection conferred by a naturally attenuated neospora caninum isolate against congenital and cerebral neosporosis in mice.the parasite neospora caninum is an important abortifacient agent in cattle worldwide. at present, the development of an effective and safe vaccine against bovine neosporosis is of great relevance. recently, a new isolate of n. caninum (nc-spain 1 h) which was obtained from the brain of an asymptomatic congenitally infected calf, exhibited non-virulent behaviour in mouse and bovine infection models. the aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of nc-spain 1 h when used as a vac ...201222913428
toxoplasmosis in tammar wallabies (macropus eugenii) in the budapest zoo and botanical garden (2006-2010).smaller macropodid species (commonly referred to as wallabies) are extremely susceptible to toxoplasmosis: in most cases, infection with toxoplasma gondii leads to death within a short time. between june 2006 and july 2010, t. gondii was detected by immunohistochemical examination in six tammar wallabies (macropus eugenii) that died in the budapest zoo and botanical garden; in another four specimens histopathology revealed t. gondii-like organisms (which could not be differentiated from neospora ...201222903081
rabbit antibodies against toxoplasma hsp20 are able to reduce parasite invasion and gliding motility in toxoplasma gondii and parasite invasion in neospora caninum.toxoplasma gondii hsp20 is a pellicle-associated functional chaperone whose biological role is still unknown. hsp20 is present in different apicomplexan parasites, showing a high degree of conservation across the phylum, with neospora caninum hsp20 presenting an 82% identity to that of t. gondii. hence rabbit anti-t. gondii hsp20 serum was able to recognize the n. caninum counterpart. interestingly, both n. caninum and t. gondii hsp20 localized to the inner membrane complex and to the plasma mem ...201222902747
prevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in dairy herds in jordan.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in 62 dairy herds (n = 671 cows) in jordan between january and june 2007. information regarding herd management was recorded through personal interviews with farmers. antibodies against n. caninum were detected using an indirect elisa test. chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with ...201322869339
label-free molecular analysis of live neospora caninum tachyzoites in host cells by selective scanning raman micro-spectroscopy.a selective scanning method was used to measure spatially resolved raman spectra of live neospora caninum tachyzoites colonizing human brain microvascular-endothelial cells. the technique allowed the detection of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins linked to the parasites and their cellular micro-environment at ∼10× shorter acquisition time compared to raster scanning.201222842554
occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dogs in rural areas in minas gerais, brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and risk factors associated with seropositivity in 240 dogs from rural areas of the lavras, belo horizonte and nanuque regions, state of minas gerais, brazil. the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) with a cutoff of 50 was used to assess the frequency of seropositive dogs. the risk factor analysis was performed using the chi-square test (χ2) and multiple logistic regression. the frequency of seroposit ...201322832759
occurrence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cats with outdoor access in são luís, maranhão, brazil.the present study aimed to investigate the frequency of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cats with outdoor access in são luís, maranhão, brazil. the presence of igg anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies was tested using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). igg anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies were detected in 101 (50.5%) and 54 (27%) sampled cats, respectively. the titers of anti-t. gondii antibodies ranged from 40 (cut-off) to 2 ...201322832749
production, characterization and applications for toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to fc mammalian receptors. igy antibodies avoid those ...201222808150
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs from korea.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites, they share many common hosts, and can cause neurological diseases in dogs. dogs can have close contacts with humans and livestock and therefore they can act as reservoirs of these parasites. the aim of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of antibodies against t. gondii and n. caninum and their co-infection rate in dogs in korea. in total, sera from 553 domestic dogs were collected from different breeds, sexes ...201222807008
characterization of the inflammatory response in the uteri of cows infected naturally by neospora caninum.bovine neosporosis manifests during gestation, when the fetus may be vulnerable to pathogens. experimental studies of neospora caninum-infected cattle have been performed, but little is known about the in-utero inflammatory response. the aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory response in the uteri of pregnant and non-pregnant cows infected naturally with n. caninum. four groups of seven animals were studied. two groups consisted of n. caninum-seropositive pregnant and non-pregnan ...201322784781
performance of a commercial serum elisa for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in whole and skim milk samples.control of neospora caninum infection in cattle depends on specific, ante-mortem detection of infected animals and limiting their use as breeding stock or by culling. the objective of the present study was to determine appropriate cut-off values and diagnostic performance of a milk elisa test using whole and skim milk in a commercial serum elisa test (idexx neospora ab). serum and milk samples were obtained from a total of 475 lactating cows from two herds with and two herds without a previous h ...201222770889
detection and molecular analysis of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum from dogs with neurological disorders.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are related apicomplexa parasites responsible for systemic diseases in many species of animals, including dogs.201222760137
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