PMID(sorted ascending)
bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus displaying neospora caninum antigens as a vaccine candidate against n. caninum infection in mice.baculovirus display systems have been utilized for cell-specific gene transfer, regenerative medicine, and as vaccine vectors. in particular, baculovirus particles displaying surface antigens have been used as vaccines against some parasites and viruses. in this study, bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv) particles displaying neospora caninum antigens (ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncmic3) purified from the hemolymph or fat body of silkworm larvae were prepared to vaccinate mice against n. caninum. ea ...201525307182
abortion and foetal lesions induced by neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (bubalus bubalis).the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. it is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. it has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no descripti ...201525324135
role of ifn-γ and lps on neuron/glial co-cultures infected by neospora caninum.neospora caninum causes cattle abortion and neurological symptoms in dogs. although infection is usually asymptomatic, classical neurological symptoms of neosporosis may be associated with encephalitis. this parasite can grow in brain endothelial cells without markedly damages, but it can modulate the cellular environment to promote its survival in the brain. in previous studies, we described that ifn-γ decreased the parasite proliferation and down regulated nitric oxide (no) production in astro ...201425386119
blocking elisa using recombinant ncsrs2 protein for diagnosing bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle industry. the reference method for serodiagnosis of neosporosis is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). however, ifat is laborious, expensive, and is not practicable in high throughput screening. in order to facilitate the serological diagnosis of neosporosis, we developed a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa) based on ncsrs2 recombinant protein (rncsrs2) and polyclonal an ...201525432863
use of a th1 stimulator adjuvant for vaccination against neospora caninum infection in the pregnant mouse model.vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new neospora caninum infections in cattle. a vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recncmic3-1-r, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins ncmic1 and ncmic3, the rhoptry protein ncrop2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant balb/c mice. protection was associated with a mixed th1/th2-type cytokine response. however ...201325437035
a 78 kda host cell invasion protein of neospora caninum as a potential vaccine candidate.neosporosis is an intracellular protozoan disease caused by neospora caninum. until now, there is no effective vaccine to prevent neosporosis. the host cell binding protein has the potential as neosporosis vaccine. in the present study, a t7 phage display library was constructed and screened using vero cells to obtain host cell binding protein of n. caninum. two host cell binding proteins, a hypothetical protein of 78 kda (named as ncp78) homologous to the acylglycerol lipase of toxoplasma gondi ...201525448355
effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. studies have shown that n caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed holstein friesian (hf) pregnancies. this study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (p4), pregnancy-associ ...201525459029
a small-molecule cell-based screen led to the identification of biphenylimidazoazines with highly potent and broad-spectrum anti-apicomplexan in vitro screening of the anti-apicomplexan activity of 51 compounds, stemming from our chemical library and from chemical synthesis, was performed. as a study model, we used toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii), expressing β-galactosidase for the colorimetric assessment of drug activity on parasites cultivated in vitro. this approach allowed the validation of a new series of molecules with a biphenylimidazoazine scaffold as inhibitors of t. gondii growth in vitro. hence, 8 molecules significantly i ...201525462254
a neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rncsag1, rnchsp20 and rncgra7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (iscoms) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of neospora caninum. twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group a animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins ...201425467890
gallus gallus domesticus are resistant to infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 strain.the aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate infection in gallus gallus domesticus with neospora caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 strain. experimental infection was conducted in 90-day-old chickens, embryonated eggs and bioassays in dogs. in the first experiment, poults were randomly divided into four groups. groups i and ii were provided feed with coccidiostat, whereas groups iii and iv received feed without coccidiostat. when the poults from groups i and iii reached 90 days of age, they ...201425468016
association of histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from brazil.this study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of brazil. fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. pcr/rt-pcr assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1), listeri ...201525480485
susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum.neuropathogenesis is a feature of neospora caninum infection. in order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (schistocerca gregaria). we show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with n. caninum tachyzoites. this was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to ...201425493211
histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory and glial cells in the central nervous system of goat fetuses and adult male goats naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. the lesions found in the central nervous system (cns) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. the lesions in the cns of infected adult animals have rarely been described. therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, ...201425495444
low prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in jilin, henan and anhui provinces of the people's republic of china.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. n. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are considered as sentinels for this parasite because of their close contact with people and cats; additionally dog meat is also used for human consumption in china. the aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence ...201425495616
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) to neospora caninum in northeast thailand.water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in asia. although enzootic to thailand, the distribution of n. caninum among thai water buffalo is unclear. the objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum among water buffalo of northeast thailand and ...201525499824
development and standardization of dot - elisa for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and comparison with standard indirect elisa and direct agglutination test (dat).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicomplexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world.201325516747
serological detection of toxoplasma gondii, leishmania infantum and neospora caninum in cats from an area endemic for leishmaniasis in investigation was made into the occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, leishmania infantum and neospora caninum in 151 domestic cats, based on the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). serum samples were collected from 151 domestic cats (65 free-roaming and 86 domiciled cats; 55 males and 96 females) in campo grande, mato grosso do sul, brazil between january and april 2013. igg antibodies to t. gondii, l. infantum and n. caninum were found, respectively, in 49 (32.5%), 34 (22.5% ...201725517522
frequency of antibodies against sarcocystis neurona and neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of bahia, brazil.sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. it infects several mammalian species in the americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus didelphis (d. virginiana and d. albiventris) are found. domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against s. neurona had never before been demonstrated in brazilian cats. the aim of this study was to determine whether cats in bahia, brazil, are exposed to the par ...201725517534
exposure of free-living jaguars to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis neurona in the brazilian pantanal.toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. in the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against t. gondii, n. caninum and s. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (panthera onca) in two protected areas in the pantanal region of mato grosso state, brazil. ten jaguars (90. ...201725517539
erratum to: neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of argentina. 201525547804
flavonoids modulate the proliferation of neospora caninum in glial cell primary cultures.neospora caninum (apicomplexa; sarcocystidae) is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs as well as neurological and dermatological diseases in dogs. in the central nervous system of dogs infected with n. caninum, cysts were detected that exhibited gliosis and meningitis. flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, and antiviral properties. in this study, we investigated the effects of flavonoids in a well-established i ...201425548412
role of the chemokine receptor ccr5-dependent host defense system in neospora caninum infections.neospora caninum, a toxoplasma gondii-like obligate intracellular parasite, causes abortion in cattle and neurological signs in canines. to understand neosporosis better, studies on host cell migration and host immune responses during the early phase of infection are important. although the c-c chemokine receptor 5 (ccr5) plays a crucial role in immune cell migration, the role played by it in protective immunity against n. caninum is poorly understood.201525558986
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in kurdistan province, iran.neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of kurdistan province (western iran) from september 2010 to september 2011. serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies using commercial n. ...201425568696
prevalence of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody to neospora caninum in dairy cattle of hamedan province, west of iran.bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite n. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of hamedan province (west of iran) by elisa method. blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. a signific ...201425568710
[endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].the aim of this study was to describe two events in which neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. in the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. one aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (or=4.9; ic 1.2-19.9) (p<0.05). in the second event, no association between serological results and abortions were observed (or=0,69; 0,06-7,31) (p>0.05). neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were ach ...201525576415
a vaccine formulation combining rhoptry proteins ncrop40 and ncrop2 improves pup survival in a pregnant mouse model of neosporosis.currently there are no effective vaccines for the control of bovine neosporosis. during the last years several subunit vaccines based on immunodominant antigens and other proteins involved in adhesion, invasion and intracellular proliferation of neospora caninum have been evaluated as targets for vaccine development in experimental mouse infection models. among them, the rhoptry antigen ncrop2 and the immunodominant ncgra7 protein have been assessed with varying results. recent studies have show ...201525579396
immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite neospora caninum.the adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently af ...201525581844
seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in small ruminants in china.little information is available about the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep and goats in china. in the present investigation, the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum infections in sheep and goats were investigated in qinghai province, china between january 2012 and june 2013. a total of 1250 serum samples (600 sheep and 650 goats) collected from 8 administrative regions of qinghai province, china were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assa ...201525591976
transcriptome and histopathological changes in mouse brain infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. it can cause nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and a variety of neuronal symptoms are observed, particularly in dogs. however, the pathogenic mechanism, including the relationship between the parasite distribution and the clinical signs, is unclear. in this study, to understand the pathogenic mechanism of neosporosis, parasite distribution and lesions were assessed in the brain of mice infected with ...201525604996
development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays based on its-1 for rapid detection of toxoplasma gondii in pork.the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method that rapidly amplifies dna with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. in this study, we established a lamp assay with six primers targeting a highly conserved region of toxoplasma gondii its-1 sequence. the amplification protocol completes within 30 min under isothermal condition in a 65°c water bath while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with dna templates of neospora caninum, eimeri ...201525624074
vertical transmission in experimentally infected sheep despite previous inoculation with neospora caninum ncnz1 isolate.recent reports indicate n. caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in new zealand. knowledge about the mode of transmission of neosporosis in sheep in new zealand is limited. this study aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission that would occur in lambs born from experimentally inoculated ewes and to determine if previous inoculation would protect the lambs from n. caninum infection. a group of 50 ewes was divided into 2 groups with one group being inoculated with 5× ...201525638717
secreted effectors in toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host-pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. however, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of t. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (hammondia hammondi and neospora caninum) is unknown. these unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host ra ...201525655311
a live vaccine against neospora caninum abortions in cattle. 201525659274
isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of neospora caninum china yanbian strain.the aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the neospora caninum infections in china.201425678924
effect of exposure to neospora caninum, salmonella, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo on the economic performance of irish dairy herds.the objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (l. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for salmonella and l. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. the production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mort ...201525704967
dynamic exophthalmos and lateral strabismus in a dog caused by masticatory muscle myositis.a 5.5-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a 5-month history of deviation of the right globe upon opening the mouth and a 1-month history of conjunctivitis in the same eye. clinical findings, diagnostic imaging results, treatment and follow-up are described.201525728848
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii dna in brain tissue from hoary foxes (pseudalopex vetulus) in brazil.the hoary fox (pseudalopex vetulus) is a wild canid native to brazil and is commonly found in the semiarid northeastern area living in contact with cattle. the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii dna in hoary foxes, in the state of paraíba, brazil. brain tissue samples were collected from 49 hoary foxes. from the samples, dna extraction and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were performed using specific primers for n. caninum and ...201525746974
improving the gene structure annotation of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum fulfils a vital requirement towards an in silico-derived vaccine.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite which can cause abortion in cattle, instigating major economic burden. vaccination has been proposed as the most cost-effective control measure to alleviate this burden. consequently the overriding aspiration for n. caninum research is the identification and subsequent evaluation of vaccine candidates in animal models. to save time, cost and effort, it is now feasible to use an in silico approach for vaccine candidate prediction. precise protein seque ...201525747726
neospora caninum recruits host cell structures to its parasitophorous vacuole and salvages lipids from organelles.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, which cause the diseases toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, respectively, are two closely related apicomplexan parasites. they have similar heteroxenous life cycles and conserved genomes and share many metabolic features. despite these similarities, t. gondii and n. caninum differ in their transmission strategies and zoonotic potential. comparative analyses of the two parasites are important to identify the unique biological features that underlie the basis of ...201525750213
a study of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the czech republic.the aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by elisas, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the czech republic, and thus to obtain actual data about n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in cattle.201525780824
ectopic expression of a neospora caninum kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in toxoplasma and plasmodium.regulated proteolysis is known to control a variety of vital processes in apicomplexan parasites including invasion and egress of host cells. serine proteases have been proposed as targets for drug development based upon inhibitor studies that show parasite attenuation and transmission blockage. genetic studies suggest that serine proteases, such as subtilisin and rhomboid proteases, are essential but functional studies have proved challenging as active proteases are difficult to express. protei ...201525803874
markers related to the diagnosis and to the risk of abortion in bovine neosporosis.bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. an important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. in the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gesta ...201525841793
safety and immunogenicity of a soluble native neospora caninum tachyzoite-extract vaccine formulated with a soy lecithin/β-glucan adjuvant in pregnant cattle.the global economic impact of neospora caninum infection in cattle herds has promoted the development of vaccines that can be safely used during pregnancy. the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine formulated with the soluble fraction of tachyzoite's lysate and a soy-based aqueous adjuvant (sncag/avec), which was protective in the mouse model and induced strong ifn-γ responses and high avidity antibodies in non-pregnant cattle. ten pregnant heifers were vac ...201525851060
serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a bayesian evaluation of two antibody elisa tests for in vivo diagnosis in purchased and abortion cattle.currently, there are no perfect reference tests for the in vivo detection of neospora caninum infection. two commercial n caninum elisa tests are currently used in belgium for bovine sera (test a and test b). the goal of this study is to evaluate these tests used at their current cut-offs, with a no gold standard approach, for the test purpose of (1) demonstration of freedom of infection at purchase and (2) diagnosis in aborting cattle. sera of two study populations, abortion population (n=196) ...201525861822
a large-scale proteogenomics study of apicomplexan pathogens-toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.proteomics data can supplement genome annotation efforts, for example being used to confirm gene models or correct gene annotation errors. here, we present a large-scale proteogenomics study of two important apicomplexan pathogens: toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we queried proteomics data against a panel of official and alternate gene models generated directly from rnaseq data, using several newly generated and some previously published ms datasets for this meta-analysis. we identified ...201525867681
comprehensive evaluation of toxoplasma gondii veg and neospora caninum liv genomes with tachyzoite stage transcriptome and proteome defines novel transcript features.toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals and causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised humans. its closest relative, neospora caninum, is an important veterinary pathogen that causes spontaneous abortion in livestock. comparative genomics of these two closely related coccidians has been of particular interest to identify genes that contribute to varied host cell specificity and disease. here, we describe a manual evaluation of these g ...201525875305
influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. in order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly n ...201525884945
in vitro cultivation of hammondia heydorni: generation of tachyzoites, stage conversion into bradyzoites, and evaluation of serologic cross-reaction with neospora caninum.hammondia heydorni was in vitro isolated from oocysts shed by three dogs using a finite cell line from embryonal bovine heart (kh-r). the oocysts were purified and suspended in 2% potassium dichromate or 2% sulphuric acid for sporulation for 2-5 days at room temperature. the parasites were confirmed as h. heydorni by pcr using specific primers (js4/js5) and by negative reaction for neospora caninum employing the primers np6+/np21+. h. heydorni sporulated oocysts (1 × 10(6)) from each dog were in ...201525887985
the effect of a live neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine in naturally infected pregnant dairy cows.neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. there is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. a n. caninum ncis491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. n. caninum-seroposi ...201525890821
development of an indirect elisa using different fragments of recombinant ncgra7 for detection of neospora caninum infection in cattle and water buffalo.dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. in the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo.201725904948
neospora caninum - associated abortions in slovak dairy farm.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. this study aimed to determine the seropositivity to n. caninum using indirect elisa and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in slovakia.201525904951
correction: ectopic expression of a neospora caninum kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in toxoplasma and plasmodium. 201525905860
antibodies to neospora caninum in sheep from slaughterhouses in the state of são paulo, brazil.neosporosis is an emergent disease responsible for considerable economic impact due to reproductive losses. its zoonotic potential remains unknown. this study involved a survey of antibodies to neospora caninum in slaughtered sheep and their association with epidemiological variables. serum samples from 596 sheep from the states of são paulo and rio grande do sul, brazil, were collected in two slaughterhouses located in são paulo and evaluated by indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat), using ...201525909261
isolation and molecular characterization of a new neospora caninum isolate from cattle in argentina.neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. the aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of n. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable n. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthani ...201525913666
in vitro effects of new artemisinin derivatives in neospora caninum-infected human fibroblasts.from a panel of 34 artemisinin derivatives tested in vitro, artemisone, gc007 and gc012 were most efficacious at inhibiting neospora caninum replication (ic50 values of 3-54nm), did not notably impair the invasiveness of tachyzoites and were non-toxic for human foreskin fibroblasts (hffs). transmission electron microscopy of drug-treated n. caninum-infected hffs demonstrated severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the matrix of the parasitophorous vacuole (pv) ...201525934265
study on the use of toltrazuril to eliminate neospora caninum in congenitally infected lambs born from experimentally infected determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in groups a and b were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites on day 120 of gestation and group c was maintained as a negative control group. lambs born from ewes in group a were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. lambs in groups b and c were untreated. all lambs in groups a a ...201525935293
evaluation of recombinant neospora caninum antigens purified from silkworm larvae for the protection of n. caninum infection in mice.three antigens (ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3) from neospora caninum were expressed using the bmnpv bacmid system in silkworm larvae and purified from the hemolymph. from 20 silkworm larvae, 1.5, 1.2 and 1.4 mg of purified recombinant ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3 were obtained, respectively. when each purified recombinant antigen was immunized with freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) to mice, recombinant ncsag1 induced a th2 immune response in immunized mice and produced a sag1-specific antibody. in the ...201525935502
buparvaquone is active against neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.the naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for neospora caninum infection. in 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited n. caninum tachyzoite replication (ic50 = 4.9 nm; ic100 = 100 nm). however, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nm buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. parasiticida ...201525941626
identification and characterization of a microneme protein (ncmic6) in neospora caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexa parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis. as described for other members of apicomplexa, microneme proteins (mics) play a key role in attachment and invasion of host cells by n. caninum. herein we identified n. caninum microneme protein 6 (ncmic6) that is orthologous to toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 6 (tgmic6). the open reading frame of the ncmic6 gene is 984 bp and encodes a 327 amino acid peptide. sequence analysis showed that ncmic6 included a sig ...201525956399
molecular detection of neospora caninum in house sparrows (passer domesticus) in iran.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite with a wide range of intermediate bird hosts. there is little information describing the prevalence and genetic characterization of n. caninum in bird hosts worldwide and in iran. in this study, a total of 217 brain samples of house sparrow (passer domesticus) were examined for n. caninum presence by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the nc-5 gene. n. caninum dna was detected in 3.68% (8/217) of sparrows. sequencing of the nc5 geno ...201525971651
a review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of neospora caninum infection in wildlife.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. this protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. in recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the n. ca ...201525973393
neospora caninum: the first demonstration of the enteroepithelial stages in the intestines of a naturally infected dog.a 1.5-month-old kangal breed puppy from a dairy cattle farm died after showing severe diarrhoea and incoordination. necropsy examination revealed multifocal pulmonary consolidation and necrosis and fibrinohaemorrhagic enteritis. microscopically, there was necrotic and purulent bronchopneumonia, myocarditis and non-purulent encephalitis. in the jejunum and ileum there was villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia with oocyst-like and schizont-like structures in the epithelia. immunohistochemically, n ...201525981437
genetic diversity of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. in this study, using nc5 and its1 nested pcr, n. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in tehran, iran. these specimen (nc-iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different m ...201525988829
prevalence and distribution of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the northern territory of australia.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the northern territory (nt) of australia has never been determined. a total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the nt government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the northern territory were tested by commercial elisa for anti-n. caninum antibodies. the water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence o ...201525992666
dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.the present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respi ...201526012856
serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.the aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (no) and advanced oxidation protein products (aopp) in serum of goats naturally infected by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. thus, it was measured nox and aopp levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for t. gondii and n. caninum [negative control group (a)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositi ...201526031474
protozoal infections of the cornea and conjunctiva in dogs associated with chronic ocular surface disease and topical describe five cases of protozoal keratitis or conjunctivitis in dogs with chronic preexisting ocular surface disease treated with long-term immunosuppression.201626037023
a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.meningoencephalitis (me) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. clinically, me has both infectious and non-infectious causes. in the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqpcr) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (blastomyces dermatitidis, cryptococcus spp., neospora caninum, borrelia burgdorferi, bartonella spp., toxoplasma gondii, ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [cdv]). ...201526040611
sarcocystis spp. infection in two red panda cubs (ailurus fulgens).two neonatal male red panda (ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. one animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. to further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (tem), immunohistochemistry (ihc), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. ihc was negative ...201526054654
survey for infectious disease in the south american fur seal (arctocephalus australis) population at punta san juan, peru.the peruvian population of the south american fur seal ( arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. one of the largest rookeries for this species in peru is located within the punta san juan marine protected area (15°22's, 75°12'w). to better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques in novembe ...201526056875
experimental neospora caninum infection in domestic bird's embryonated date, there are no reports regarding comparison between different bird species in neospora. caninum infection. in the present study 70 embryonated eggs from quail, partridge, broiler and egg laying chickens were divided into 7 groups equally. six groups in each species were inoculated with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg in the chorioallantoic membrane and the seventh group was considered as control. the mortality rates and clinic ...201526064008
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in farmed sika deer (cervus nippon) in china.neospora caninum is a worldwide protozoan that can induce neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. the objective of the present investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in farmed sika deer in china as little is known of this host-parasite relationship. a total of 1800 serum samples were collected during 2013 and 2014 from farmed sika deer in the major production areas of liaoning, jilin and heilongjiang provinces.assa ...201526073107
use of elisa based on ncsrs2 of neospora caninum expressed in pichia pastoris for diagnosing neosporosis in sheep and dogs.neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. in the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein ncsrs2 of n. caninum expressed in pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. we observed that the elisa test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. we ...201526083692
dose-dependent effects of experimental infection with the virulent neospora caninum nc-spain7 isolate in a pregnant mouse model.pregnant balb/c mice have been widely used as an in vivo model to study neospora caninum infection biology and to provide proof-of-concept for assessments of drugs and vaccines against neosporosis. the fact that this model has been used with different isolates of variable virulence, varying infection routes and differing methods to prepare the parasites for infection, has rendered the comparison of results from different laboratories impossible. in most studies, mice were infected with similar n ...201526104964
serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern australia.the aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern australia.201526113353
comparative analysis of apicoplast-targeted protein extension lengths in apicomplexan general, the mechanism of protein translocation through the apicoplast membrane requires a specific extension of a functionally important region of the apicoplast-targeted proteins. the corresponding signal peptides were detected in many apicomplexans but not in the majority of apicoplast-targeted proteins in toxoplasma gondii. in t. gondii signal peptides are either much diverged or their extension region is processed, which in either case makes the situation different from other studied api ...201526114107
mic3, a novel cross-protective antigen expressed in toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.microneme protein 3 (mic3) is an important adhesion molecule expressed by toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum that plays a crucial role in invasion. in our study, we found that recombinant tgmic3 (rtgmic3) was recognized by both t. gondii-reactive sera and hyper-immune serum against n. caninum. polyclonal antibodies against tgmic3 reacted with n. caninum by western blot and immunofluorescence assay (ifa). these results indicate that mic3 is a novel cross-reactive antigen expressed in n. canin ...201526141436
integration of rna-seq and proteomics data with genomics for improved genome annotation in apicomplexan parasites.while high quality genomic sequence data is available for many pathogenic organisms, the corresponding gene annotations are often plagued with inaccuracies that can hinder research that utilizes such genomic data. experimental validation of gene models is clearly crucial in improving such gene annotations; the field of proteogenomics is an emerging area of research wherein proteomic data is applied to testing and improving genetic models. krishna et al. [proteomics 2015, 15, 2618-2628] investiga ...201526152714
infection by neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of brazil.neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of ji-paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. for this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody te ...201526154960
[risk factors of increased abortions in dairy herds - a statistical analysis].to examine whether dairy herds with and without abortion problems differ in their management and prevalence of antibodies against various pathogens, through collecting and analysing data from these herds.201526166195
evaluation of neospora caninum truncated dense granule protein 2 for serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dogs.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, and it primarily affects cattle and dogs. an infection by n. caninum causes fetal abortion and neonatal mortality. previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that n. caninum dense granule antigen 2 (ncgra2) has potential for serodiagnosis of n. caninum. consequently, we expressed the truncated ncgra2 (ncgra2t), which lacks a signal peptide. we compared the serodiagnostic performances of recombinant ncgra2t with that ...201526172405
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in la pampa, argentina.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. the aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of argentina (la pampa, province). an average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. a total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- neospora caninum igg using an indirect-elisa and 302 seropositive-elisa sera were re-examined using an avidity-elisa proce ...201526203996
herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern china.although the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in china, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. thus, from september 2013 to december 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determin ...201526231838
[a duplex pcr method for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi].to develop a duplex pcr assay for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi.201526245119
in vitro and in vivo effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 in the related cyst-forming apicomplexans toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.we report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (bki-1294) in cultures of virulent neospora caninum isolates nc-liverpool (nc-liv) and nc-spain7 and in two strains of toxoplasma gondii (rh and me49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. in these parasites, bki-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) ranging from 20 nm (t. gondii rh) to 360 nm (n. caninum nc-liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzo ...201526248379
seroprevalence of antibody to ncsag1 antigen of neospora caninum in cattle from western java, indonesia.neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from western java, indonesia. serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) on the basis of recombinant ncsag1. the overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampl ...201626256492
activity of several kinds of drugs against neospora caninum.neosporosis caused by neospora caninum is a serious disease in cattle and dogs worldwide. it is the major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle. in this study, we evaluated the anti-n. caninum activity of chinese medicine extracts (curcumin, artemether), herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), anticoccidiosis drugs (toltrazuril and ponazuril), cyclophosphamide, diminazene aceturate and praziquantel in vitro using parasite growth, replication and host cell invasion assays in human foreski ...201526264260
a review of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).a number of countries in the world have reported infections with neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), from africa to asia, europe and south america and recently australia. in general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of n. caninum infection. worldwide, the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffal ...201526298507
three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells.a structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of x-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. by alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-cdi) can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-cdi for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole froz ...201526306199
neospora caninum tachyzoite immunome study reveals differences among three biologically different isolates.pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis is determined by different host- and parasite-dependent factors, including isolate virulence. a previous study identified that several neospora caninum tachyzoite proteins were more abundant in virulent isolates, nc-liv and nc-spain7, compared with the low-virulent isolate nc-spain1h. herein, we explored differences in the immunomes of these three isolates. protein extracts from the nc-liv, nc-spain1h and nc-spain7 isolates were analysed in a 3×3 design by 2-de ...201526324244
pathology in practice. meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis due to neospora caninum. 201526331418
systemic neosporosis in a dog treated for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.a 4-year-old male toy poodle was presented to the small animal veterinary hospital of the faculty of veterinary medicine of the autonomous university of mexico (fmvz, unam) because of depression, lethargy, and hemorrhages involving several areas of the skin and around the eyes. hematology data and a bone marrow analysis suggested hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. the dog was treated with prednisone, and after one month the hematology variables improved. however, the dog's cl ...201526345698
neospora caninum in crows from israel.a cross-sectional neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (corvus cornix, corvus monedula and corvus splendens) from israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. using the modified agglutination test (mat) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be n. caninum seropositive. positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent ...201526359640
detection of neospora caninum-dna in brain tissues from pigeons in changchun, jilin (china).neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. the domestic chicken (gallus domesticus) and the sparrow (passer domesticus) are known as natural intermediate hosts of n. caninum, whereas the role of other birds such as pigeons is still unclear. in the present study, pigeon brain tissues collected in jilin of china were screened by n. caninum specific-nested pcr to determine whether pigeons functioned as the natural intermediate hosts of n. caninum. the p ...201526385650
anti-neospora caninum and anti-sarcocystis spp. specific antibodies cross-react with besnoitia besnoiti and influence the serological diagnosis of bovine besnoitiosis.bovine besnoitiosis control remains a challenge because the disease continues to spread and control relies solely on accurate diagnosis coupled to management measures. however, recent studies have reported that routinely used elisas may raise a high number of false-positive results. herein, cross-reactions between besnoitia besnoiti antigens and anti-neospora caninum and/or anti-sarcocystis spp.-specific antibodies were studied in an in house elisa since n. caninum and sarcocystis spp. are close ...201526386830
investigation of neospora caninum seroprevalence and potential impact on reproductive success in semi-free-ranging père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus).this study aimed to determine the prevalence and reproductive impact of neospora caninum in a herd of semi-free-ranging père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus) at a conservation facility, following a suspected abortion storm in 2008. serum samples (n=103) collected from 60 individuals between 2002 and 2011 were evaluated using competitive elisa for the detection of n. caninum-specific antibodies. of the 103 samples, 73 (70.9 per cent) were positive for n. caninum antibodies, with a mean±sd comp ...201526392906
a serosurvey for selected pathogens in greek european wild boar.serum samples, collected from 94 european wild boar (sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health.201526392908
evaluation and comparison of serological methods for the detection of bovine neosporosis in argentina.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion and important economic losses in cattle worldwide. the accurate diagnosis of neosporosis is essential for management and control measures. the aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the performance of an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the 38kda native antigen (p38-elisa) to diagnose bovine neosporosis in argentina using a well- characterized local sera panel from experimentally infected and naturally exposed catt ...201626409300
brazilian donkeys (equus asinus) have a low exposure to neospora spp.donkeys (equus asinus) are closely related to horses and are known to be infected by several equine pathogens. neospora caninum and neospora hughesi are protozoan parasites that infect horses, but they were not confirmed in donkeys up to this date. the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of donkeys (equus asinus) to neospora spp. using tachyzoites of n. caninum as antigen and employing two common serologic methods, ifat and immunoblot. sera from 500 donkeys were obtained from 30 munic ...201526444065
predominant role of interferon-γ in the host protective effect of cd8(+) t cells against neospora caninum is well established that cd8(+) t cells play an important role in protective immunity against protozoan infections. however, their role in the course of neospora caninum infection has not been fully elucidated. here we report that cd8-deficient mice infected with n. caninum presented higher parasitic loads in the brain and lungs and lower spleen and brain immunity-related gtpases than their wild-type counterparts. moreover, adoptive transfer of splenic cd8(+) t cells sorted from n. caninum-pr ...201526449650
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