PMID(sorted ascending)
pathogens of wild maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) in brazil.the maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. we performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from galheiro natural private reserve, perdizes city, minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. we f ...201223060508
investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. the only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. this study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. a sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: american mink (mustela vison), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), pine martens (martes martes), badgers (meles meles), stoats (mustela erminea), otters (lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (mustela ...201323068142
experimental infection with neospora caninum in pregnant this study, transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in bitches at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated. three bitches were inoculated in the 3rd week and three in the 6th week of gestation with 10(8) tachyzoites of n. caninum (nc-1 strain). all the infected bitches and at least one of their offspring presented anti-n. caninum antibodies according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat > 400). the pups and their mothers were sacrificed and tissues from the central nervo ...201223070432
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil.this study investigated occurrences of antibodies to anti-neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil, and the risk factors associated with the infection. to investigate antibodies against n. caninum, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used. to identify risk factors associated with infection by n. caninum, univariate analyses on variables of interest were conducted. the study analyzed 237 samples from dogs of both sexes and different breeds and ages, both from r ...201223070441
quantification of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cows in minas gerais, brazil.the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of minas gerais, brazil. the frequency of cows seropositive for n.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was 39.4% (93/236) for farm a and 31.4% (32/102) for the farm b (p > 0.05). the mean vertical transmission rate ...201223070443
[advances in the development of vaccines for bovine neosporosis].neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. the severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with t helper 1 immune response mediated by cd4 cytotoxic t lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin g2. the reduction of vertical transmission in ...201223102471
detection of neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in great britain.samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (mustela furo), 83 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 70 european polecats (mustela putorius), 65 american mink (neovison vison), 64 eurasian badgers (meles meles) and 9 stoats (mustela erminea), from around great britain. dna was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested its1 pcr for neospora caninum. the results from the pcr demonstrated that neospora specific dna was detected in all species of wild carnivo ...201323102760
expression, purification and antigenicity of neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.infection of neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. in this study, n. caninum surface antigen 1 (sag1) and sag1-related sequence 2 (srs2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. expressed sag1 and srs2 clearly showed antigenicity against n. caninum-positive ...201323102762
adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis.vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. in this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of scll in immunization of mice against neosporosis ...201223107170
genetic mapping and coccidial parasites: past achievements and future prospects.coccidial parasites including cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and the eimeria species can cause severe disease of medical and veterinary importance. as many as one-third of the human population may carry t. gondii infection, and eimeria are thought to cost the global poultry production industry in excess of us$2 billion per annum. despite their significance, effective vaccines are scarce and have been confined to the veterinary field. as seque ...201223107923
temporal trends in bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.bulk milk samples were collected from 309 irish dairy herds at four time points during 2009 and tested for antibodies to salmonella spp., n. caninum, and l. hardjo, three abortifacient agents in irish dairy herds. of the 312 study herds, 49% vaccinated against salmonella and 76% vaccinated against l. hardjo. in unvaccinated herds, the overall prevalence of antibody positive herds was 49% for salmonella, 19% for n. caninum and 86% for l. hardjo. there was no association between both testing posit ...201323117041
novel tools for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic bovine besnoitiosis.diagnosis of acute bovine besnoitiosis is a major diagnostic problem. we developed diagnostic tests to serologically diagnose and differentiate acute and chronic cases of bovine besnoitiosis using affinity purified antigens of besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites in immunoblots and in both, a conventional elisa and an avidity elisa. sera of acutely and chronically infected cattle were investigated using these tests. acutely infected cattle initially recognised an antigen of 74 kda relative molecular m ...201323160022
babesia divergens and neospora caninum apical membrane antigen 1 structures reveal selectivity and plasticity in apicomplexan parasite host cell cell invasion by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium (malaria) and toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), requires a step-wise mechanism unique among known host-pathogen interactions. a key step is the formation of the moving junction (mj) complex, a circumferential constriction between the apical tip of the parasite and the host cell membrane that traverses in a posterior direction to enclose the parasite in a protective vacuole essential for intracellular survival ...201323169033
on the efficacy and safety of vaccination with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum for prevention of neospora-associated fetal loss in cattle.infection of cattle with neospora caninum may result in abortion or the birth of a congenitally infected calf. vaccination with live n. caninum protects against experimental infection of cattle and mice, and the naturally attenuated nc-nowra strain of n. caninum is of particular interest as a potential vaccine candidate. vaccination of heifers prior to breeding with live nc-nowra tachyzoites by either the subcutaneous or the intravenous route reduced the rate of abortion and the presence of the ...201323175289
library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways: a manually curated database for metabolic pathways of apicomplexan parasites.the library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways (lamp, is a web database that provides near complete mapping from genes to the central metabolic functions for some of the prominent intracellular parasites of the phylum apicomplexa. this phylum includes the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and theileriosis-diseases with a huge economic and social impact. a number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced, but the accurate annotation of gene function remains challe ...201323193253
seroprevalence for neospora caninum in goats of minas gerais state, brazil.this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in serum samples from 667 goats, collected from 90 herds in 90 municipalities in eight of the twelve mesoregions of minas gerais state. the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined by ifat with a cut-off value of 1:50. the true herd-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 75.2% (ci 95%: 59.5-90.9%). the true individual-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 10.7% (ci 95%: 8.3- ...201323200513
factors associated with seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in southeastern brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. this cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to n. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of minas gerais, southeastern brazil. producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immuno ...201323212838
plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins measured using anti-bovine pag-2 antibodies on day 120 of gestation predict abortion in dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.the present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (pag-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma pag-2 concentrations could predict abortion in n. caninum-infected cows. the study was performed on a commercial holstein-friesian dairy herd in northeastern spain and the final data included those recorded in 53 non-aborting and 19 aborting animals. blood samples were collected im ...201323228018
high rate of transplacental infection and transmission of neospora caninum following experimental challenge of cattle at day 210 of order to investigate the pathogenesis of neosporosis following a primary infection in late pregnancy, cattle were subcutaneously challenged with 5 × 108neospora caninum (nc1 isolate) tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation and serial necropsies were then carried out at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-infection (dpi). no abortions occurred and all the foetuses were viable at the time of euthanasia. there was a high rate of vertical transmission, as parasites were detected by immunohistochemical labell ...201223228067
comparative study of protective activities of neospora caninum bradyzoite antigens, ncbag1, ncbsr4, ncmag1, and ncsag4, in a mouse model of acute parasitic infection.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes severe neuromuscular diseases, repeated abortion, stillbirth, and congenital infection in livestock and companion animals. the development of an effective vaccine against neosporosis in cattle is an important issue due to the significant worldwide economic impact of this disease. we evaluated the immunogenicity of four bradyzoite antigens, ncbag1 (first described in this study), ncbsr4, ncmag1, and ncsag4, using an acut ...201323229317
tissue distribution of neospora caninum in experimentally infected cattle.histopathology and quantitative pcr (qpcr) were used to determine the tissue distribution of neospora caninum in calves at 80 days postinfection. our findings revealed that the most appropriate brain areas for researching n. caninum pathogenesis were the amygdala and hippocampus for qpcr and the corpus striatum and diencephalon for histopathology.201323239805
gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene bag1.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. the aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the n. caninum orthologue (ncbag1) of the toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein tgbag1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with tgbag1. ncbag1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to tgbag1. a p ...201323245337
what is the global economic impact of neospora caninum in cattle - the billion dollar question.neospora caninum is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortions in cattle worldwide, yet the global economic impact of the infection has not been established. a systematic review of the economic impact of n. caninum infections/abortions was conducted, searching pubmed with the terms 'cattle' and 'neospora'. this yielded 769 publications and the abstracts were screened for economically relevant information (e.g. abortion prevalence and risk, serological prevalence). furth ...201323246675
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of ethiopia.a cross-sectional study of neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of ethiopia. cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercial elisa kit. herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. the overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. in urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprev ...201323261087
effects of ifn-γ, tnf-α, il-10 and tgf-β on neospora caninum infection in rat glial cells.neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and neurological disorders in dogs. the immunological response to this parasite has been described as predominantly of the th1 type. however, infected primary glial cell cultures release il-10 and il-6 but not ifn-γ. this suggests a rather protective response of the glia to avoid inflammatory damage of the nervous tissue. in this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary mixed cultures of rat astrocytes and microglia in ...201223262170
the rhoptry proteome of eimeria tenella sporozoites.proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. the rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, ron) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host mem ...201223262303
antimicrobial effects of murine mesenchymal stromal cells directed against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: role of immunity-related gtpases (irgs) and guanylate-binding proteins (gbps).mesenchymal stromal cells (mscs) have a multilineage differentiation potential and provide immunosuppressive and antimicrobial functions. murine as well as human mscs restrict the proliferation of t cells. however, species-specific differences in the underlying molecular mechanisms have been described. here, we analyzed the antiparasitic effector mechanisms active in murine mscs. murine mscs, in contrast to human mscs, could not restrict the growth of a highly virulent strain of toxoplasma gondi ...201223269418
proteins mediating the neospora caninum-host cell interaction as targets for vaccination.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is capable of infecting, a wide range of tissues. the fact that neospora represents an important abortion-causing parasite in cattle has transformed neosporosis research from an earlier, rather esoteric field, to a significant research topic, and considerable investments have been made in the last years to develop an efficacious vaccine or other means of intervention that would prevent infection and abortion due to n. caninum infection in cattle. ...201323276967
development of two murine antibodies against neospora caninum using phage display technology and application on the detection of n. caninum.neosporosis, caused by an intracellular parasite, neospora caninum, is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs. it occurs worldwide and causes huge damages to dairy farms. in this study, we immunized mice with recombinant surface-associated protein 1 of n. caninum (rncsag1) and developed two novel monoclonal antibodies, a10 and h3, against ncsag1 using phage-display technology. both clones bound to purified rncsag1 and the half maximal inhibitory concentrations of a10 and h3 are 50 an ...201323308179
neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of argentina.this work estimates the economic losses due to neospora abortions in the humid pampa region of argentina.the total dairy and beef cattle population at risk of abortion is 1,771,326 and 9,726,684 head, respectively. in dairy cattle, there was an 8 % risk of experiencing abortion due to a variety of causes, but 16.5 % of them were due to neospora caninum. the economic losses were estimated at us$1,415 (1,400-1,431) per abortion, which equates to a total loss of us$33,097,221 (15,622,600-119,349,69 ...201323325013
specific antibody responses against neospora caninum recombinant rncgra7, rncsag4, rncbsr4 and rncsrs9 proteins are correlated with virulence in mice.the intraspecific diversity of neospora caninum is a determinant for in vivo parasite virulence and in vitro parasite behaviour. the relationship between isolate virulence and specific antibody responses against key parasite proteins has not been well characterized. the response kinetics and the differences in specific anti-rncgra7, -rncsag4, -rncbsr4 and -rncsrs9 antibody levels were analysed by recombinant protein-based elisa in groups of mice inoculated with 10 different n. caninum isolates t ...201323343779
effects of neospora caninum infection on brain microvascular endothelial cells bioenergetics.the brain is the most commonly affected organ during neospora caninum infection but the mechanisms utilized by this protozoan parasite for traversal of the blood-brain barrier (bbb) are not yet understood. herein, we investigate the cellular pathogenicity of n. caninum infection on bioenergetics of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hbmecs), a fundamental component of the bbb.201323351811
characterisation of full-length mitochondrial copies and partial nuclear copies (numts) of the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i genes of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, hammondia heydorni and hammondia triffittae (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae).genomic dna was extracted from three oocyst isolates of hammondia triffittae from foxes and two oocyst isolates of hammondia heydorni from dogs, as well as from cell culture-derived tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii (rh strain) and neospora caninum (nc-liverpool strain), and examined by pcr with primers targeting the cytochrome b (cytb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox1) genes in order to characterise both genes and, if possible, the remainder of the mitochondrial genome of these speci ...201323358734
fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous amazon parrot (amazona vinacea).toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. the bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. the heart had mild multifocal lymphocyt ...201223397856
development of an immunochromatographic assay based on dense granule protein 7 for serological detection of toxoplasma gondii infection.dense granule antigen proteins derived from toxoplasma gondii (tggras) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools. tggra7 and tggra14 were detected in the peritoneal fluid of t. gondii-infected mice, suggesting that tggras may be highly antigenic proteins. here, tggra7 and tggra14 were evaluated as candidates for the development of a marker for a rapid diagnostic test. the specificity and sensitivity of purified recombinant proteins of tggra7 and tggra14 were compared in an i ...201323408523
risk factors associated with seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dogs from urban and rural areas of milk and coffee production in minas gerais state, brazil.this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and to investigate the risk factors related to seroprevalence in dogs from urban and rural areas with distinct economic activities (milk and coffee production) in minas gerais state, brazil. for this purpose, blood samples from 703 dogs were collected and questionnaires addressing epidemiological aspects were completed by dog-owners. the sera were analysed for anti-n. caninum antibodies by indirect fluor ...201323419686
toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand.beef is a main type of meat consumed by thais. the prevalences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand. a total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of thailand: kanchanaburi, ratchaburi and nakhon pathom. an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for t. gondii an ...201223431814
neospora caninum surface antigen (p40) is a potential diagnostic marker for cattle neosporosis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids as well as many warm-blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against n. caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. so, there is currently an urgent need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detecting n. caninum in animals. the n. caninum 40-kd surface antigen (p40), similar to ncs ...201323435920
development of a disperse dye immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in cattle. sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial elisa kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. the positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (ddia) compared to 32% obtained by elisa kit. this study showed no significant difference between ddia an ...201323467930
first report of seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy sheep from humid pampa, argentina.the aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy sheep from the humid pampa region, argentina. blood samples from 704 dairy sheep belonging to six flocks were collected. using a cut off titer of 1:50, an indirect fluorescence antibody test was used. antibodies to t. gondii or n. caninum were detected in 17.3 % (n = 122) and 3 % (n = 21), respectively. all the flocks had at least one seropositive animal to t. gondii but two of t ...201323494577
mice congenitally infected with low-to-moderate virulence neospora caninum isolates exhibited clinical reactivation during the mating period without transmission to the next generation.endogenous transplacental transmission (entt) is the major transmission route of neospora caninum in cattle. thus, the development of a standardised experimental model of entt is needed for more appropriate testing of parasite biology and control strategies. a recent study reported up to 40-50% entt rates in chronically infected dams with either high or low-to-moderate virulence isolates, although low fertility rates were observed in dams inoculated with the high virulence isolate. therefore, lo ...201323501806
serologic survey of infectious diseases in populations of maned wolf (chrysocyon brachyurus) and crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) from aguas emendadas ecological station, brazil.domestic dogs are reservoirs for many infectious diseases and may represent a potential source of infection for wild canid populations. a serologic investigation of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella abortus, and leptospira spp. was conducted on three maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) and seven crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous), all free-living, at the aguas emendadas ecological station (esecae), federal district, brazil, between february and october 2006. out of th ...201323505716
display of neospora caninum surface protein related sequence 2 on rous sarcoma virus-derived gag protein virus-like particles.virus-like particles (vlps) displaying antigen have been increasingly recognized as a potential vaccine in the livestock industry. in this study, neospora caninum surface protein related sequence (ncsrs)2 was displayed on the surface of rous sarcoma virus group-antigen protein (rsv-gag) vlps. two types of bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv) bacmids, encoding rsv-gag and ncsrs2 genes, were co-injected into silkworm larvae to produce vlps-ncsrs2. at 7 days post-injection, vlps-ncsrs2 were col ...201323511652
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in algeria's central northern region].as there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. a serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, conf ...201223520748
efficacy of decoquinate against sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures.decoquinate is a quinolone anticoccidial approved for use in the prevention of intestinal coccidiosis in farm animals. this compound has good activity against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in cell cultures. the drug acts on the parasites' mitochondria. the activity of decoquinate against developing merozoites of 2 isolates of sarcocystis neurona was examined in cell culture. merozoite production at 10 days was completely inhibited when decoquinate was used at 20 or 240 nm. the ic50 of d ...201323523012
antibody kinetics in goats and conceptuses naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. however, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. this is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by n. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. the subclasses of igg (igg1 and igg2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) oc ...201323537945
diagnosis and isolation of toxoplasma gondii in horses from brazilian slaughterhouses.this study aimed to investigate anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in brazil. we collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six brazilian states. serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat cut-off titre ≥ 1:64), and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. among the 398 horses, positivity for t. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6%) by ifat and in 14 (3.5%) b ...201323538498
congenital transmission of neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. many aspects of transmission of neospora caninum in nature are unknown. the white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of n. caninum in the usa. during the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. viable n. caninum (ncwtdmn1, ncwtdmn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioa ...201323566408
fecal shedding of toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada.knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) in prince edward island, canada. identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 h ...201323568915
a novel dense granule protein, gra22, is involved in regulating parasite egress in toxoplasma gondii.the intracellular protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii is capable of invading any nucleated cell and replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole (pv). this microenvironment is modified by secretory proteins from organelles named rhoptries and dense granules. in this report, we identify a novel dense granule protein, which we refer to as gra22. gra22 has no significant homology to any other known proteins. gra22 possesses a signal peptide at the n-terminal end which is responsible for dense granu ...201323623919
neospora caninum: infection induces high lysosomal activity.neospora caninum is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, making it an important target of veterinary medicine. lysosomes are cellular organelles responsible for important biological functions as cellular defense mechanisms. the aim of this work was to evaluate the lysosomal stability of rat gliocytes infected in vitro with n. caninum. rat glial cultures were infected at a ratio of 1:1 (cell/parasite). the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (orthophosp ...201323648665
bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. since the description of n. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. this review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. finally, based on the implications of clinical f ...201323659742
parasiticidal activity of a novel synthetic peptide from the core α-helical region of nk-lysin.nk-lysin is an anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role in innate immunity against infectious pathogens through its selective membrane disruptive property. we previously expressed and purified a full-length chicken nk-lysin (cnkl) recombinant protein, and demonstrated its in vitro anti-parasitic activity against the apicomplexan protozoan, eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis. this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic properties of a synthetic peptide (cn ...201323664157
neospora caninum nc-6 argentina induces fetopathy in both serologically positive and negative experimentally inoculated pregnant dams.neospora caninum infection is a major cause of abortion in cattle. the objectives of this study were to genetically characterize the n. caninum nc-6 argentina isolate using a multilocus microsatellite analysis approach and to study its biological behavior by experimental inoculations into seronegative and seropositive pregnant cattle, evaluating the humoral and cellular immune response elicited and the occurrence of transplacental transmission and fetopathy. pregnant cows (65 days of gestation) ...201323666227
evaluation of cross immunity and histopathological findings in experimentally infected balb/c mice with neospora caninum and besnoitia caprae.caprine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of goats. neospora caninum, another coccidian parasite of worldwide distribution, infects several animal species and is a major cause of abortion in cattle. combined infections of n. caninum and besnoitia caprae can occur in geographical areas endemic for both species of parasite in goats. this experiment was conducted to investigate the possible cross-immunity between these two infections in experimentally infected balb/c mice.201323682267
cloning, nucleotide sequencing and bioinformatics study of ncsrs2 gene, an immunogen from iranian isolate of neospora caninum.neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. ncsrs2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of n. caninum which is considered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or dna vaccine against neosporosis. as no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of n. caninum in iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in iran.201323682269
expression of neospora caninum ncsrs2 surface protein in pichia pastoris and its application for serodiagnosis of neospora infection.neospora caninum is considerd a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the antigenic domain of ncsrs2 in n. caninum is an important surface antigen present in the membrane of this parasite. in the present study, the pichia pastoris expression system proved to be a useful tool for the production of recombinant protein. the truncated ncsrs2 gene (by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence), was cloned in the vector ppiczalphab, and integrated on the genome of the methylotrophic yeast ...201323683365
comparison of use of vero cell line and suspension culture of murine macrophage to attenuation of virulence of neospora this study the tachyzoite yields of neospora caninum were compared in two cell lines: vero (african green monkey kidney) and suspension culture of murine macrophage (j774) cell lines. then, n. caninum were continuously passaged in these cell lines for 3 months and the effect of host cells on virulence of tachyzoites was assessed by broiler chicken embryonated eggs. inoculation was performed in the chorioallantoic (ca) liquid of the embryonated eggs with different dilutions (0.5 × 10(4), 1.0 × ...201323684321
dose-dependent immunogenicity of a soluble neospora caninum tachyzoite-extract vaccine formulated with a soy lecithin/β-glucan adjuvant in cattle.mice immunized with a soluble extract of neospora caninum tachyzoites (sncag) formulated with providean-avec, an aqueous soy-based adjuvant, are fully protected from n. caninum multiplication. here we evaluated the dose-dependent immunogenicity of this vaccine formulation in cattle. cattle (n=3 per group) were immunized with two applications (30 days apart) of formulations containing providean-avec and different payloads of sncag (100, 50 and 10 μg), that were five to fifty times lower than the ...201323692926
generation and immunity testing of a recombinant adenovirus expressing ncsrs2-ncgra7 fusion protein of bovine neospora caninum.neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of bovine neosporosis, which affects the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. the transmembrane protein, ncsrs2, and dense-granule protein, ncgra7, were identified as protective antigens based on their ability to induce significant protective immune responses in murine neosporosis models. in the current study, ncsrs2 and ncgra7 genes were spliced by overlap-extension pcr in a recombinant adenovirus termed ad5-ncsrs2-ncgra 7, expressing the ncsrs2- ...201323710096
gra 14, a novel dense granule protein from neospora caninum. 201323722878
first isolation of hammondia heydorni from dogs in china.fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in china from march 2010 to november 2011. in 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. their morphology was similar to those of hammondia heydorni and neospora caninum. sporulated hammondia/neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 km mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. oocysts were no ...201323731857
sag2a protein from toxoplasma gondii interacts with both innate and adaptive immune compartments of infected hosts.toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes relevant clinical disease in humans and animals. several studies have been performed in order to understand the interactions between proteins of the parasite and host cells. sag2a is a 22 kda protein that is mainly found in the surface of tachyzoites. in the present work, our aim was to correlate the predicted three-dimensional structure of this protein with the immune system of infected hosts.201323735002
structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors.the widespread protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ropks), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase rop5. the extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood.201323742205
oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped dense granule protein 7 induces protective immune response to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cows. vaccination is an important strategy for control of neosporosis, and a safe and effective vaccine suitable for cattle is required. dense granule protein 7 of n. caninum (ncgra7) is a secretory protein with high antigenicity in hosts. we demonstrated previously that ncgra7 entrapped in liposomes coated with mannotriose (m3-ncgra7) could induce a parasite-specific t-helper type 1 immune response and produce humor ...201323742998
molecular cloning and characterization of ncrop2fam-1, a member of the rop2 family of rhoptry proteins in neospora caninum that is targeted by antibodies neutralizing host cell invasion in vitro.recent publications demonstrated that a fragment of a neospora caninum rop2 family member antigen represents a promising vaccine candidate. we here report on the cloning of the cdna encoding this protein, n. caninum rop2 family member 1 (ncrop2fam-1), its molecular characterization and localization. the protein possesses the hallmarks of rop2 family members and is apparently devoid of catalytic activity. ncrop2fam-1 is synthesized as a pre-pro-protein that is matured to 2 proteins of 49 and 55 k ...201323743240
encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in invasive eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus in northwestern italy.sylvilagus floridanus is a lagomorph introduced for hunting purposes from north america to europe where, in certain areas like northern italy, its population reached high densities. brain, kidney and skeletal muscle of 144 eastern cottontail rabbits s. floridanus were examined by pcr for encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. dna of e. cuniculi was found with a prevalence of 9.72% (ci 95% 0.058-0.156). t. gondii and n. caninum dna was detected in 2.08% (ci 95% 0.0071-0 ...201323747104
t and b lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: leishmania chagasi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.visceral leishmaniasis is a disease with great variability regarding the clinical manifestations in humans and dogs. chronically infected dogs may develop neurological disorders, however, there are few reports that characterize the lesions and make clear the pathogenesis of the canine cerebral leishmaniasis. concomitant with leishmania chagasi, dogs may be infected by opportunistic pathogens, such as toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, which may contribute to the occurrence of lesions in the ...201323758819
detection of antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., and apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the northeast of argentina.water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the northeast of argentina (nea). however, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. the aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the nea. serum samples were tested for b. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, leptospira spp. by ...201323765549
first molecular detection of neospora caninum in european brown bear (ursus arctos).neospora caninum is an important intracellular protozoan parasite with an affinity to the central nervous system of many animals and a major causative agent of repeated abortions in cattle. in total, 45 muscle, liver, or spleen samples of brown bear sampled in different locations of central slovakia were examined by pcr. genotyping of n. caninum was based on amplification of nc-5 gene and its1 rrna fragments and subsequent sequencing. presence of n. caninum dna was confirmed in 24.4% (11/45) of ...201323770068
prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against ncsag1 and ncgra7 antigens of neospora caninum in cattle during the gestation period.bovine abortion caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is a major economic problem in the livestock industry worldwide. our study measured the prevalence and temporal changes in levels of antibodies specific for two n. caninum derived antigens, ncsag1 and ncgra7, to determine an appropriate strategy for serodiagnosis. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), blood samples showed that 71 cows out of 129 were positive for anti-ncsag1 antibodies and that only nine cows were ...201323782543
detection of neospora caninum dna in semen of experimental infected rams with no evidence of horizontal transmission in ewes.recent reports from new zealand indicate neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep. transmission of n. caninum via semen has been documented in cattle. this study aimed to investigate if horizontal transmission through semen was also possible in sheep. initially, 6-month old crossbred ram lambs (n=32), seronegative to n. caninum, were divided into 4 equal groups. group 1 remained uninoculated whilst the remainder were inoculated with n. caninum tachyzoites intravenously ...201323819894
gc/ms analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fractions from sophora flavescens and torilis japonica extracts and their in vitro anti-neosporal effects on neospora caninum.we analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against neospora (n.) caninum. to identify the chemical components of sophora (s.) flavescens and torilis (t.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). in vitro activity of the fractions against n. caninum was then assessed. gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (gc/ms) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal mole ...201323820198
characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor.the present study is the first characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (ncmif). blast-n analysis of ncmif revealed high similarity (87%) to the toxoplasma gondii mif. ncmif was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli in 3 forms, ncmif (mature protein), ncmifm (mutation of proline-2 to glycine), and ncmifhis (addition of a polyhistidine tag at the n-terminus). none of these recombinant ncmifs (rncmif) had tautomerase, oxidoreductase, or immunologic regulatory ...201323850997
first report of antibodies to neospora caninum in nigerian cattle. 201323857393
evaluation of a real-time pcr assay based on the single-copy sag1 gene for the detection of toxoplasma gondii.real-time pcr-based detection of toxoplasma gondii is very sensitive and convenient for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. however, the performance of the pcr assays could be influenced by the target gene chosen. here we evaluate a real-time pcr assay using double-stranded dna dyes (sybr(®) green i assay) with a new set of primers targeting the sag1 gene for the fast and specific detection of t. gondii. the assay showed higher sensitivity than conventional pcr protocols using t. gondii dna as template. t ...201323867074
phenotypic characterisation of the cellular immune infiltrate in placentas of cattle following experimental inoculation with neospora caninum in late gestation.despite neospora caninum being a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide, its pathogenesis is not completely understood. neospora infection stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for the placental damage leading to abortion. the aim of the current study was to characterize the placental immune response following an experimental inoculation of pregnant cattle with n. caninum tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation. cows were culled at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post ino ...201323876124
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in chicken samples from delta egypt using a recombinant ncsag1 protein-based elisa.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion and economic loss in the cattle industry. this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-n. caninum antibodies in chicken using elisa methods based on the surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1t). the overall prevalence of n. caninum in chicken was 15.51%. the seroprevalence was high in qalyoubiya, minufiya, kafr el-shaykh, gharbiya, dakahlia provinces; (34%, 17.39%, 14.75%, 14.29%, and 12.25% respectively). in co ...201323888555
using open-access taxonomic and spatial information to create a comprehensive database for the study of mammalian and avian livestock and pet infections.what are all the species of pathogen that affect our livestock? as 6 out of every 10 human pathogens came from animals, with a good number from livestock and pets, it seems likely that the majority that emerge in the future, and which could threaten or devastate human health, will come from animals. only 10 years ago, the first comprehensive pathogen list was compiled for humans; we still have no equivalent for animals. here we describe the creation of a novel pathogen database, and present outp ...201423906393
a survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infecting house mice from a hybrid zone.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites infecting a wide range of wild and domestic animals as intermediate hosts, and rodents serve as important reservoir hosts during the life cycles of these parasites. the present study is aimed at identifying t. gondii and n. caninum infection in 360 wild house mice (mus musculus) collected across the czech-german border, where 2 genetically distinct mouse subspecies meet and hybridize. toxoplasma gondii or n. caninum d ...201423927367
combination of monoclonal antibodies improves immunohistochemical diagnosis of neospora caninum.histological analysis is commonly used for a conclusive diagnosis of neosporosis. immunohistochemistry (ihc) using monoclonal (mab) and polyclonal (pab) antibodies can improve diagnosis; however, the use of pab may induce cross-reactivity with other related parasites. the aims of this study were to compare the performance of mabs and their combinations with that of pab in ihc and evaluate the usefulness of mab to identify neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine fetal tissues. for this purpo ...201323927916
immune response and protection provided by live tachyzoites and native antigens from the nc-6 argentina strain of neospora caninum in pregnant heifers.the aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of live tachyzoites and native antigen extract obtained from the nc-6 argentina strain against vertical transmission of neospora caninum, following experimental challenge in pregnant heifers with the nc-1 strain. sixteen pregnant heifers were divided in 4 groups of 4 animals, each receiving different inoculation before mating: group a animals were intravenously (iv) inoculated with 6.25×10(7) live tachyzoites ...201323932455
contribution of leptospira, neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in new zealand.the profitability of beef breeding farms in new zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. the aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), neospora caninum (n. caninum), leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo (hardjo), and leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cas ...201323932894
mucosal and systemic t cell response in mice intragastrically infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the murine model has been widely used to study the host immune response to neospora caninum. however, in most studies, the intraperitoneal route was preferentially used to establish infection. here, c57bl/6 mice were infected with n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric route, as it more closely resembles the natural route of infection through the gastrointestinal tract. the elicited t-cell mediated immune response was evaluated in the intestinal epithelium and mesenteric lymph nodes (mln). e ...201323937079
genetic diversity and geographic population structure of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite genotyping analysis.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (mss). mss may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in n. caninum, which have been poorly defined. in this ...201323940816
simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum in abortion material of ruminants by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum are responsible for reproductive diseases and are closely linked with high abortion rates in ruminants. furthermore, c. burnetii and chlamydia spp. have zoonotic potential. a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., c. burnetii, and n. caninum. the detection of beta-actin as internal control in the same pcr reaction provides additional information about sample quality by ...201323942900
suspension culture of neospora caninum by theileria annulata-infected cell line.there are some limiting aspects of scaling up the neospora caninum tachyzoites in continuous cell lines, particularly as related to the absence of surface attachment. in this study, suspension cell culture of theileria annulata-infected lymphoblastoid (til) was used as a host cell for the continous production of n. caninum tachyzoites. the numbers of free tachyzoites in the medium supernatant were showed regularly increased up to the day 6 post-cultivation. transmission electron microscopy demon ...201323959501
identification of a highly antigenic region of subtilisin-like serine protease 1 for serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion in cattle; hence, accurate diagnosis of this pathogen is important to the cattle farming industry. our previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that the n. caninum subtilisin-like serine protease 1 (ncsub1) has potential as a serodiagnostic tool for neospora. consequently, we expressed two fragments containing five ncsub1 tandem repeat copies covering amino acids (aa) 524 to 843 (ncsub1t) and 555 to 679 (ncsub1tr) ...201323966554
in vitro effects of novel ruthenium complexes in neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.upon the screening of 16 antiproliferative compounds against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, two hydrolytically stable ruthenium complexes (compounds 16 and 18) exhibited 50% inhibitory concentrations of 18.7 and 41.1 nm (t. gondii) and 6.7 and 11.3 nm (n. caninum). to achieve parasiticidal activity with compound 16, long-term treatment (22 to 27 days at 80 to 160 nm) was required. transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the rapid impact on and ultrastructural alterations in both p ...201323979747
neospora caninum and reproductive wastage in extensively managed queensland beef compare reproduction in extensively managed, tropically adapted beef cows that were either seropositive or seronegative to neospora caninum.201323980832
a transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the canary islands, spain.the canary islands contain the most important dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) population in the european union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental europe and latin america. we investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 canarian camel sera. selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by pcr. sera were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus (btv; 0%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv; 0%), camelpox virus (c ...201323992795
quails are resistant to infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the aim of this study was to characterize the role of quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) as intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. fifty-eight 20-day old quails were individually identified with numbered rings and kept in cages adequate for the species. the birds were fed commercial feed and distilled water ad libitum. they were weighed daily during the first month and every seven days from then on. the birds were randomly distributed into 3 groups; 40 quails (group a) and 8 quails (group b) ...201324041486
seroprevalence and risk factors of neospora spp. in donkeys from southern some european countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in southern italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (martina-franca, amiata, sicilian-grey, ragusano, sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). sera were tested by a compet ...201324050943
an outbreak of sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.a total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. by immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue c ...201324081928
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (blv) and neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies against blv were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% ci = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (p = 0.56). both tests identified ...201324082160
development of maternal and foetal immune responses in cattle following experimental challenge with neospora caninum at day 210 of gestation.this study examined the immunological responses of pregnant cattle and their foetuses following an experimental challenge with live neospora caninum tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation. animals were bled prior to and weekly throughout the experiment and sacrificed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post inoculation (dpi). at post mortem examination, samples of lymph nodes and spleen were collected from both dam and foetus for immunological analysis. subcutaneous (sc) inoculation over the left prefemoral ...201324090114
tracking neospora caninum parasites using chimera monoclonal antibodies against its surface antigen-related sequences (rncsrs2).neosporosis, an infectious disease of cattle and dogs, causes an abortion in cattle, which has a major damage on the dairy industry worldwide. tracking of neospora caninum parasite that is responsible for neosporosis is required for the prevention of this infectious disease. we developed three chimera monoclonal antibodies consist of variable regions of murine antibody and constant regions of human antibody against n. caninum. recombinant surface antigen-related sequence 2 (rncsrs2) of n. caninu ...201424103572
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.toxoplasma and neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. in order to investigate the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep ...201324103737
coxiella burnetii shedding by farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever. currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human q fever cases. however, a human case of q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with c. burnetii and ascertain the implicat ...201524127840
protective effect of intranasal immunization with neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract.neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. in the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with n. caninum membrane antigens plus cpg adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 10(7) tachyzoites, showing that significant p ...201424128071
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