TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
The immune enhancement of a novel soy lecithin/ß-glucans based adjuvant on native Neospora caninum tachyzoite extract vaccine in mice.Efficient, cost-effective and safe Th1-immunity-inducing vaccine formulations are paramount for achieving protection against Neospora caninum. In this study, a new adjuvant (Providean-AVEC(®)) was used in the development of a N. caninum vaccine and evaluated in a mouse model. Soluble N. caninum tachyzoite native protein extract (sNcAg) was selected as vaccine antigen based on its capacity to activate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on dendritic cells. Vaccines containing 4 and 0.4µg of ...201122178728
serological survey of neospora caninum in small ruminants from pernambuco state, brazil.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. a serological survey for antibodies against n. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of ibimirim, pe, northeastern brazil. the imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319) of the goats and 64.2% (52/81) of the sheep were positive. serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p < 0.01) and sheep (p > 0.05), with increasing rates in ol ...201121961757
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy goats from romania.little information is available about the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in romania and even in europe. during 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (crişana, maramureş, transylvania and muntenia) of romania. sera were analyzed for t. gondii and n. caninum antibodies (igg type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using two commercial kits (chekit toxotest antibody elisa and chekit neospo ...201122177331
artinm, a d-mannose-binding lectin from artocarpus integrifolia, plays a potent adjuvant and immunostimulatory role in immunization against neospora caninum.artinm and jacalin (jac) are lectins from the jackfruit (artocarpus integrifolia) that have important role in modulation of immune responses to pathogens. neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive disorders in cattle, with economic impact on the livestock industry. hence, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of artinm and jac in immunization of mice against neosporosis. six c57bl/6 mouse groups were subcutaneously immunized three times at ...201122001880
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera from camels (camelus dromedarius) in riyadh province, saudi arabia.from april to december 2010, blood samples were collected from 412 healthy camels in riyadh province, saudi arabia and used to evaluate serological screening for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). of the 412 camels, antibodies to n. caninum were found in sixteen in titers of 1:20 and in seven in titers of 1:40 using whole n. caninum tachyzoites as ifat slide (vmrd inc., pullman, wa 99163, usa). antibodies to t. gondii were found in n ...201121980764
molecular detection of coxiella burnetii and neospora caninum in equine aborted foetuses and neonates.abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death are major causes of equine mortality and cause severe economic loss to the equine industry. the present study was based on a complete necropsy protocol associated with classical microbiological examinations and molecular biology on 407 cases of abortion, stillbirths and neonate death. based on this retrospective survey, "less common" abortive infectious agents were characterised by molecular tools in nine independent cases of abortion or neonate mortality. ...201122130310
serological survey of neospora caninum infection in cattle herds from western romania.abstract serum samples from 376 randomly selected adult cattle, from 25 farms located in 3 counties (arad, bihor, and timiş) from western romania, were sampled for neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial elisa-kit (bio k 218, bio-x diagnostics, jemelle, belgium). seroprevalence values and risk factors for neosporosis (cow age, breed, herd size, farming system, previous abortion, and number of farm dogs) were examined using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial distribution. o ...201122150344
factors associated with infection by neospora caninum in dogs in brazil.from august 2006 to 2008, 411 dogs in northeastern brazil were evaluated for seropositivity to neospora caninum. the dogs were clinically examined, and their owners were interviewed about the conditions in which the animals were maintained in order to assess the factors associated with infection by this parasite. a serum sample was taken from each dog for serological examination in an indirect fluorescent antibody test for n. caninum. the yates' chi-square test or fisher's exact test was used to ...201122015062
clinicopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an angora cat.this report deals with a case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a 2 year-old female angora cat. cutaneous lesions were characterized by prescapular ulcers and hyperemic nodules in the skin of the inguinal and dorsosacral regions. a skin biopsy sample was collected from the lesioned area and processed for histopathologic examination and immunoperoxidase test using toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum specific antibodies. toxoplasma gondii immunopositive reactions were detected in keratinocytes and ...201121950216
surgical technique, postoperative complications and outcome in 14 dogs treated for hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal report frequency and type of complications, and outcome in dogs with severe neurologic signs secondary to internal, suspected obstructive hydrocephalus treated by ventriculoperitoneal (vp) shunting.201121244441
neospora caninum: in vivo and in vitro treatment with artemisone.neosporosis caused by neospora caninum has global economic, clinical, and epidemiological impacts, mainly in the cattle industry. currently, there is no useful drug for treatment of neosporosis. this publication is the first to describe the significant benefits that artemisone has on neospora infections both in vitro and in vivo. artemisone is a new semi-synthetic 10-alkylamino artemisinin that is superior to other artemisinin derivatives in terms of its significantly higher antimalarial activit ...201122260899
experimental inoculation of neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo.the aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of neospora caninum in experimentally inoculated pregnant water buffalo (bubalus bubalis). twelve mediterranean female water buffaloes ranging in age from 4 to 14 years old and seronegative to n. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) were involved. ten females were intravenously inoculated with 10(8) tachyzoites of nc-1 strain at 70 (n=3) or 90 (n=7) days of pregnancy (dp). two control animals were inoculated with placebo ...201122244534
identification of two novel coccidian species shed by california sea lions (zalophus californianus).abstract routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic californa sea lions (zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 california sea lions admitted to the marine mammal center between april 2007 and october 2009. phylogenetic analysis using the full its-1 region, partial small subunit 18s rdna sequence and the apicomplexa rpob region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred ...201122091999
neospora caninum: comparative gene expression profiling of neospora caninum wild type and a temperature sensitive understand the genetic basis of virulence, gene expression profiles of a temperature-sensitive clone (ncts-8, relatively avirulent) and its wild type (nc-1) of neospora caninum were characterized and compared using a high-density microarray with approximately 63,000 distinct oligonucleotides. this microarray consists of 5692 unique n. caninum sequences, including 1980 tentative consensus sequences and 3712 singleton ests from the tigr n. caninum gene index (ncgi, release 5.0). each sequence w ...201121963790
occurrence of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies in goats and sheep in western maranhão, brazil.neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are parasitic diseases which can cause reproductive problems in goats and sheep. the current study aimed to determine the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies in goats and sheep from the districts of amarante do maranhão and buritirana, imperatriz microregion, western area of maranhão state, northeastern brazil, and to assess factors associated to infection by these etiologic agents. blood samples from 110 animals (46 goats a ...201122166386
Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia ...201121906696
a study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in gauteng province, south africa.two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from gauteng province in south africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases includingbovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (bvd/md) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) virus, neospora caninum and brucella abortus usingvarious tests. for bvd/md virus, 49.37% tested positive, 74.47% for ibr/ipv virus, 8.96% for neospora caninum and 3.8% for brucella abortus. the result for brucella abort ...201122616434
seroprevalence of neospora spp. in horses in south of iran.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. however, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. the aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of neospora infection in horses in iran. blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against neospora spp. by the neospora modified direct agglutination test (n-mat). antibod ...201122433879
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in tabriz, northwest iran.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in tabriz, capital of east-azarbaijan in northwest of iran.201122347319
seroprevalence of neospora spp. in horses in north east of iran.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle, while limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of neospora antibodies in horses' worldwide. the aim of the present study was to determine serologic prevalence of neospora infection in horses in iran.201122347290
neospora caninum and leishmania infantum co-infection in domestic dogs (canis familiaris) in meshkin-shahr district, northwestern iran.mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (mvl) is an infectious disease that affects both human and animals. domestic dogs (canis familiaris) are principal reservoir hosts of mvl caused by leishmania infantum. dogs are definitive hosts for neospora caninum and a risk factor for infecting intermediate hosts. the immunosuppression caused by visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can promote the occurrence of co-infections with other agents such as neosporosis. this study aimed to determine the frequency of co-in ...201122808419
in vitro effects of arylimidamides against besnoitia besnoiti infection in vero cells.the in vitro effects of 4 arylimidamides (db811, db786, db750 and db766) against the proliferative tachyzoite stage of the apicomplexan parasite besnoitia besnoiti were investigated. these four compounds had been shown earlier to exhibit in vitro activities in the nanomolar range against the related apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. real-time-pcr was used to assess b. besnoiti intracellular proliferation in vitro. preliminary assessment by light microscopy identified db811 an ...201121349220
seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis.acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (acp) is considered to be an animal model of the acute axonal form of guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) in humans. various antecedent events have been associated with gbs, including bacterial or viral infection. the relationship between acp and previous infection requires additional attention.201121352374
vaccination of mice with chitosan nanogel-associated recombinant ncpdi against challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the effects of nanogel encapsulation of recombinant ncpdi (recncpdi) following vaccination of mice by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes and challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites were investigated. nanogels were chitosan based, with an alginate or alginate-mannose surface. none of the mice receiving recncpdi intraperitoneal (i.p.) (without nanogels) survived, whereas intranasal (i.n.) application protected 9 of 10 mice from disease. association of recncpdi with nanogels improve ...201121226721
genetic manipulation of neospora caninum to express the bradyzoite-specific protein ncsag4 in tachyzoites.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and the aetiological agent of bovine neosporosis, one of the main causes of reproductive failure worldwide. we have generated 2 independent transgenic knock-in clones, nc-1sag4c1.1 and nc-1sag4c2.1, that express the bradyzoite stage-specific protein ncsag4 in the tachyzoite stage. these clones have similar growth rates in vitro as the wild-type (wt) strain nc-1. studies in a cerebral mouse model of infection revealed a slightly lower rate of detection ...201121232176
Identification of a gene cluster for cell-surface genes of the SRS superfamily in Neospora caninum and characterization of the novel SRS9 gene.SUMMARYHere we present the detection of a gene cluster for Neospora caninum surface genes, similar to the Toxoplasma gondii SRS9 locus, and the cloning and characterization of the NcSRS9 gene. PCR genome walking, using NcBSR4 gene as a framework, allows the identification, upstream NcBSR4, of 2 sequences homologous to the SRS5 and the Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase genes and, downstream NcBSR4, of an ORF of 1191 bp coding for a 396-amino acid polypeptide with 59% similarity to the TgSRS9 antig ...201121939586
sero-prevalence of neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti in south australian beef and dairy cattle.a serological survey for neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti was carried out in beef and dairy cattle in south australia. serum samples of dairy cattle (n=133) from 9 properties and tank milk samples from a further 122 dairy herds were tested. an additional 810 sera from beef cattle from 51 properties were also tested. testing at the individual animal level by idexx neospora x2 ab test elisa revealed a low prevalence of n. caninum antibodies of only 2.7% (95% ci; 1.6-3.7%) sera positive, as ...201122138306
Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. ...201122112976
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern romania.abstract neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. conventional serological techniques, such as indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. in romania, infection with n. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and ...201121955278
neospora caninum in bovine fetuses of minas gerais, brazil: genetic characteristics of rdna.neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from minas gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rdna region, coding for rrnas. previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. of thes ...201122166381
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the netherlands.we investigated the presence of both neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the netherlands in 2004. collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time pcr. for n. caninum, 31 samples originating from 6 species tested positive (12.4%): common shrews (33.3%), wood mice (17.6%), harvest mice (16.7%), house mice (15.4%), white-toothed shrews (10.8%) and ...201121958437
prevalence and risk factors of giardia duodenalis in dogs from romania.the protozoan giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. a survey to investigate canine infections with g. duodenalis in romania was undertaken between june 2008 and december 2009. the objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test kit; (ii) to ...201121899952
oocysts and high seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dogs living in remote aboriginal communities and wild dogs in australia.canines are definitive hosts of neospora caninum (apicomplexa). for horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of n. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. canids in australia include wild dogs and aboriginal community dogs. wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a ...201122245069
vaccines against a major cause of abortion in cattle, neospora caninum infection.neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. during pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. in addition, n. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. the economic importance of neosp ...201126486502
granulomatous meningoencephalitis due to toxoplasma gondii in a black-headed night monkey (aotus nigriceps).this report describes toxoplasmosis infection in a black-headed night monkey (aotus nigriceps) from the zoological park of the federal university of mato grosso, brazil. the animal was submitted alive to the veterinary hospital of the federal university of mato grosso presenting neurologic clinical signs. there were no improvements on the animal's clinical condition after treatment, so it was euthanized. at necropsy, the most significant gross lesions observed were hemorrhages diffusely scattere ...201122946380
adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis.vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. a d-galactose-binding lectin from synadenium carinatum latex (scll) was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. in this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of scll in immunization of mice against neosporosis ...201223107170
seroprevalence of neospora caninum, paratuberculosis and q fever in cattle in belgium in 2009-2010. 201222952130
vaccination with the recombinant chimeric antigen recncmic3-1-r induces a non-protective th2-type immune response in the pregnant mouse model for n. caninum infection.the major route of transmission of neospora caninum in cattle is transplacentally from an infected cow to its progeny. therefore, a vaccine should be able to prevent both the horizontal transmission from contaminated food or water and the vertical transmission. we have previously shown that a chimeric vaccine composed of predicted immunogenic epitopes of ncmic3, ncmic1 and ncrop2 (recncmic3-1-r) significantly reduced the cerebral infection in balb/c mice. in this study, mice were first vaccinate ...201222940381
evaluation of the protection conferred by a naturally attenuated neospora caninum isolate against congenital and cerebral neosporosis in mice.the parasite neospora caninum is an important abortifacient agent in cattle worldwide. at present, the development of an effective and safe vaccine against bovine neosporosis is of great relevance. recently, a new isolate of n. caninum (nc-spain 1 h) which was obtained from the brain of an asymptomatic congenitally infected calf, exhibited non-virulent behaviour in mouse and bovine infection models. the aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of nc-spain 1 h when used as a vac ...201222913428
toxoplasmosis in tammar wallabies (macropus eugenii) in the budapest zoo and botanical garden (2006-2010).smaller macropodid species (commonly referred to as wallabies) are extremely susceptible to toxoplasmosis: in most cases, infection with toxoplasma gondii leads to death within a short time. between june 2006 and july 2010, t. gondii was detected by immunohistochemical examination in six tammar wallabies (macropus eugenii) that died in the budapest zoo and botanical garden; in another four specimens histopathology revealed t. gondii-like organisms (which could not be differentiated from neospora ...201222903081
rabbit antibodies against toxoplasma hsp20 are able to reduce parasite invasion and gliding motility in toxoplasma gondii and parasite invasion in neospora caninum.toxoplasma gondii hsp20 is a pellicle-associated functional chaperone whose biological role is still unknown. hsp20 is present in different apicomplexan parasites, showing a high degree of conservation across the phylum, with neospora caninum hsp20 presenting an 82% identity to that of t. gondii. hence rabbit anti-t. gondii hsp20 serum was able to recognize the n. caninum counterpart. interestingly, both n. caninum and t. gondii hsp20 localized to the inner membrane complex and to the plasma mem ...201222902747
the core mouse response to infection by neospora caninum defined by gene set enrichment this study, the balb/c and qs mouse responses to infection by the parasite neospora caninum were investigated in order to identify host response mechanisms. investigation was done using gene set (enrichment) analyses of microarray data. gsea, manova, romer, subgse and sam-gs were used to study the contrasts neospora strain type, mouse type (balb/c and qs) and time post infection (6 hours post infection and 10 days post infection). the analyses show that the major signal in the core mouse resp ...201223012496
label-free molecular analysis of live neospora caninum tachyzoites in host cells by selective scanning raman micro-spectroscopy.a selective scanning method was used to measure spatially resolved raman spectra of live neospora caninum tachyzoites colonizing human brain microvascular-endothelial cells. the technique allowed the detection of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins linked to the parasites and their cellular micro-environment at ∼10× shorter acquisition time compared to raster scanning.201222842554
serosurvey of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from northern mexico.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in white-tailed deer from northern mexico. sera from 532 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from three northern states of mexico were assayed for antibodies to t. gondii by elisa and western blot. from these samples, 368 were available to test for n. caninum antibodies by elisa. the overall prevalence for t. gondii antibodies was 13.9% (74/532; ci(95) 11-17) and for n. caninum 8.4% ( ...201222633992
the neospora caninum-spain 7 isolate induces placental damage, fetal death and abortion in cattle when inoculated in early gestation.the nc-spain 7 isolate of neospora caninum, which was newly obtained from an asymptomatic congenitally infected calf, demonstrated a similar virulence as nc-1 strain in mouse models. the aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of nc-spain 7 isolate in cattle after experimental infection at 65 days of gestation. for this purpose, thirteen pregnant heifers were divided into three groups as follows: group a: 7 heifers inoculated with 1 × 10(8) tachyzoites of nc-spain 7 isolate; group ...201222621962
neospora caninum infection dynamics in dairy cattle.neospora caninum is considered in many countries as one of the key abortion agents in cattle. this study aims to investigate the parasite behavior in dairy cattle in the municipality of avaré, sp, brazil, where abortions frequently occur. an elisa was performed to compare two samplings on a total of 615 animals; tests were performed in the same herds with a gap of 3 years. an increase in the percentage of reactive animals was observed, ranging from 21.6% at the first sampling to 38.9% at the sec ...201222581344
prevalence of anti- neospora caninum and anti- toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from two different indigenous communities in the brazilian amazon region.prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in sera of 325 dogs in 11 villages inhabited by the tapirapé and karajá ethnic groups in the south of the brazilian amazon was determined by the use of an indirect fluorescence antibody test. antibodies (cutoff 1:16) to t. gondii were found in 169 (52%) and to n. caninum (cut-off 1:50) in 32 (9.8%) of 325 dogs. seropositivity for both parasitic infections was widely prevalent in dogs from these villages and was higher in older dogs, ...201222551468
intra-cisternal vaccination induces high-level protection against neospora caninum infection in mice.the efficacy of intra-cisternal (ic) immunization in preventing the dissemination of neospora caninum tachyzoites into the brain was investigated. mice were vaccinated intracisternally with tachyzoite extract in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (acsf). for comparison, other groups were vaccinated via the intraperitoneal (ip) route with crude tachyzoite antigen extract, suspended either in freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) or saponin. subsequently, the mice were experimentally infected by ip admin ...201222537986
detection of neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of curitiba, southern brazil.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. the reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. thus, the present study investigated the frequency of neospora sp. antibodi ...201222534949
neospora caninum as causative agent of bovine encephalitis in brazil.for supporting the brazilian bovine encephalitis surveillance program this study examined the differential diagnosis of neospora caninum in central nervous system (cns) by histological analysis (he staining), immunohistochemistry (ihc), and nested-pcr using a set of primers from the nc5 region of the genomic dna and its1 region of the ribosomal dna. a sample of 302 cattle presenting neurological syndrome and negative for rabies, aged 0 to 18 years, from herds in 10 brazilian states was evaluated ...201222534945
epidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dogs from romania.the aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from romania at a national level and to detect possible correlations between the value of seroprevalence and a series of factors like sex, age, breed category and area. the prevalence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined in sera samples from 1114 dogs located in different regions of romania using the ifat method. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 364 dogs (32.7%). the titers of anti-n. can ...201222521974
immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction studies in neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.the diagnostic characteristics of immunohistochemistry (ihc) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods were studied in the tissues of broiler chicken embryos experimentally infected by neospora caninum. an infection with n. caninum nc-1 isolate was conducted in 70 broiler chicken embryonated eggs randomly divided into seven equal groups. after 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated with 10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) doses of tachyzoites/embryonated egg. the 7th group was ...201222475417
seroprevalence and risk factors for neospora caninum in sheep in the state minas gerais, southeastern brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with infection due to neospora caninum in serum samples from 488 sheep originating from 63 farms in 63 municipalities distributed across eight of the twelve mesoregions of the state minas gerais, southeastern brazil. for detection of n. caninum the sheep serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat ≥ 50). to identify the risk factors associated with infection due to n. caninum a que ...201222475416
comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. both species are tissue-dwelling coccidia and members of the phylum apicomplexa; they share many common fe ...201222457617
congenital neosporosis in goats from the state of minas gerais, brazil.congenital neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the southern region of the state of minas gerais, brazil. the first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that ...201222451736
detection of nesopora caninum-specific dna from cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction in a dog with confirmed neosporosis.a one-month male greyhound dog presented with a swinging gait of the hindlimbs, and later developed muscular atrophy of the femoral region and hyperextension of hindlimbs. the dog had positive serum ifat titers to neospora caninum, but a negative titer in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). n. caninum-specific dna was amplified from the csf using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. clusters of protozoa in biopsied muscle fibers were subsequently confirmed as n. caninum tachyzoites by immun ...201222446406
increased incidence of dna amplification in follicular than in uterine and blood samples indicates possible tropism of neospora caninum to the ovarian follicle.this study evaluated the presence of neospora caninum in ovarian follicle aspirates and uterine flushes obtained from n. caninum seropositive dairy cows. ninety-two cows that aborted within the previous 90 days were sampled to determine the presence of antibodies against n. caninum. thirteen seropositive cows were chosen for collection of blood leukocytes, uterine flushes (uf; n=12) and follicular aspirates (opu; n=13). samples were centrifuged and the cellular sediment from the follicular fluid ...201222440723
infected dendritic cells facilitate systemic dissemination and transplacental passage of the obligate intracellular parasite neospora caninum in mice.the obligate intracellular parasite neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. the mechanisms used by n. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. to examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different n. caninum isolates (nc-1, nc-liverpool, nc-sweb1 and the spanish isolates: nc-spain 3h, nc-spain 4h, nc-spain 6, nc-spain 7 a ...201222403627
elisas based on rncgra7 and rncsag1 antigens as an indicator of neospora caninum activation.bovine abortion caused by the apicomplexa parasite neospora caninum is a major economical problem in the livestock industry worldwide. however, the relationship between n. caninum infection and abortion is still unknown. our study aimed to elucidate the relationship between parasite-specific antibody responses, parasite stages and abortion. in experimentally infected cattle, anti-ncgra7 igg1 antibody was predominantly detected during the acute infection stage, while the production of anti-ncsag1 ...201222365337
proteome expression changes among virulent and attenuated neospora caninum isolates.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming parasite that has been recognised worldwide as a cause of cattle abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. variations in genetic profiles, behaviour in vitro, and pathogenicity have been established among n. caninum isolates. however, it is unclear which parasite factors are implicated in this intra-specific diversity. comparative analysis of protein expression patterns may define the determinants of biological diversity in n. caninum. using dige and maldi-to ...201222343075
a longitudinal study of neospora caninum infection on three dairy farms in brazil.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is one of the most important infectious causes of abortion in both dairy and beef cattle in many countries. the objectives of this longitudinal study were to determine the prevalence, rates of vertical and horizontal transmission of n. caninum and hazard for culling of n. caninum-seropositive animals in three brazilian dairy herds. blood samples from all animals were collected nine times at each of the three farms over a two-year period ...201222309800
effects of miltefosine treatment in fibroblast cell cultures and in mice experimentally infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.miltefosine was investigated for its activity against neospora caninum tachyzoites in vitro, and was shown to inhibit the proliferation of n. caninum tachyzoites cultured in human foreskin fibroblasts (hff) with an ic50 of 5·2 μm. treatment of infected cells with 25 μm miltefosine for a period of 10 h had only a parasitostatic effect, while after 20 h of treatment parasiticidal effects were observed. this was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of n. caninum-infected and miltefosine-tr ...201222309643
enrofloxacin is able to control toxoplasma gondii infection in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models.currently, toxoplasmosis is treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. however, this treatment presents several adverse side effects; thus, there is a critical need for the development and evaluation of new drugs, which do not present the same problems of the standard therapy. enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic known to control infection against several bacteria in veterinary medicine. recently, this drug has demonstrated protective effects against protozoan parasites such as neospor ...201222281151
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 and profilin for estimating the stage of neosporosis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes bovine and canine neosporosis, characterized by fetal abortion and neonatal mortality and by neuromuscular paralysis, respectively. although many diagnostic methods to detect parasite-specific antibodies or parasite dna have been reported, to date no effective serodiagnostic techniques for estimating pathological status have been described. our study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the parasite-specific antibody resp ...201222258707
[advances in the development of vaccines for bovine neosporosis].neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. the severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with t helper 1 immune response mediated by cd4 cytotoxic t lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin g2. the reduction of vertical transmission in ...201223102471
quantification of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cows in minas gerais, brazil.the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of minas gerais, brazil. the frequency of cows seropositive for n.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was 39.4% (93/236) for farm a and 31.4% (32/102) for the farm b (p > 0.05). the mean vertical transmission rate ...201223070443
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil.this study investigated occurrences of antibodies to anti-neospora caninum in dogs in the state of alagoas, brazil, and the risk factors associated with the infection. to investigate antibodies against n. caninum, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used. to identify risk factors associated with infection by n. caninum, univariate analyses on variables of interest were conducted. the study analyzed 237 samples from dogs of both sexes and different breeds and ages, both from r ...201223070441
experimental infection with neospora caninum in pregnant this study, transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in bitches at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated. three bitches were inoculated in the 3rd week and three in the 6th week of gestation with 10(8) tachyzoites of n. caninum (nc-1 strain). all the infected bitches and at least one of their offspring presented anti-n. caninum antibodies according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat > 400). the pups and their mothers were sacrificed and tissues from the central nervo ...201223070432
performance of a commercial serum elisa for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in whole and skim milk samples.control of neospora caninum infection in cattle depends on specific, ante-mortem detection of infected animals and limiting their use as breeding stock or by culling. the objective of the present study was to determine appropriate cut-off values and diagnostic performance of a milk elisa test using whole and skim milk in a commercial serum elisa test (idexx neospora ab). serum and milk samples were obtained from a total of 475 lactating cows from two herds with and two herds without a previous h ...201222770889
detection and molecular analysis of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum from dogs with neurological disorders.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are related apicomplexa parasites responsible for systemic diseases in many species of animals, including dogs.201222760137
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern china.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum infection in dairy cows in the guangxi zhuang autonomous region (gzar), subtropical southern china. in total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in gzar. the samp ...201222717118
molecular frequency and isolation of cyst-forming coccidia from free ranging chickens in bahia state, brazil.the toxoplasmatinae parasites toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and hammondia spp. have carnivores as definitive hosts that shed the parasite oocysts in their feces. birds that feed directly from the soil, such as chickens, are exposed to infection and may serve as indicators of the presence of the parasite in the environment and as a source of infection for other animals. the aims of this study were to determine the frequency of infection by these parasites in free ranging chickens, to test w ...201222673105
adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.a nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. serology was negative for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. permanent pacemaker implant ...201222647214
production, characterization and applications for toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to fc mammalian receptors. igy antibodies avoid those ...201222808150
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs from korea.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites, they share many common hosts, and can cause neurological diseases in dogs. dogs can have close contacts with humans and livestock and therefore they can act as reservoirs of these parasites. the aim of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of antibodies against t. gondii and n. caninum and their co-infection rate in dogs in korea. in total, sera from 553 domestic dogs were collected from different breeds, sexes ...201222807008
neospora caninum in estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.cows infected with the tissue parasite neospora caninum (nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. the known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. it has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv). the study was set t ...201222721941
survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in beijing, china, by pcr.abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by pcr between 2008 and 2010. from a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. the detected pathogens included infec ...201222366134
serological evidence of besnoitia spp. infection in canadian wild ruminants and strong cross-reaction between besnoitia besnoiti and besnoitia tarandi.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by besnoitia besnoiti, is considered to be emergent in europe and responsible for severe economic losses due to the chronic and debilitating course of the disease but has not been reported in north america. besnoitia tarandi is a related species and it has been reported in reindeer and caribou from different locations of the arctic pole, including north america. diagnosis of clinical besnoitiosis is largely based on the recognition of dermal grossly visible tissue cys ...201222795672
pathogens of wild maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) in brazil.the maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. we performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from galheiro natural private reserve, perdizes city, minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. we f ...201223060508
multivariate model for the assessment of risk of fetal loss in goat herds.the observational study was carried out in a population of polish breeding goats in 2007 to determine the prevalence of fetal loss and identify risk factors contributing to its occurrence. the multivariate model allowing to predict the risk of the occurrence of fetal loss in a herd in a study population was developed. data on the occurrence of fetal loss, as well as of 28 hypothesized risk factors were collected from goat owners using standardized questionnaire during face-to-face reviews on far ...201222708360
genetic mapping and coccidial parasites: past achievements and future prospects.coccidial parasites including cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and the eimeria species can cause severe disease of medical and veterinary importance. as many as one-third of the human population may carry t. gondii infection, and eimeria are thought to cost the global poultry production industry in excess of us$2 billion per annum. despite their significance, effective vaccines are scarce and have been confined to the veterinary field. as seque ...201223107923
the molecular basis for the distinct host and tissue tropisms of coccidian parasites.the phylum apicomplexa is home to a variety of parasites of significant medical and economic relevance, including the coccidian species toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and eimeria tenella. in spite of their shared ancestry, the aforementioned coccidian species exhibit highly variable host and tissue tropisms; whilst t. gondii invades a broad spectrum of cell types and host organisms, e. tenella infection is restricted to the caecum in chicken. apicomplexans are obligatory intracellular paras ...201222982139
identification and characterization of a novel neospora caninum immune mapped protein 1.immune mapped protein 1 (imp1) is a newly discovered protein in eimeria maxima. it is recognized as a potential vaccine candidate against e. maxima and a highly conserved protein in apicomplexan parasites. although the neospora caninum imp1 (ncimp1) orthologue of e. maxima imp1 was predicted in the n. caninum genome, it was still not identified and characterized. in this study, cdna sequence encoding ncimp1 was cloned by rt-pcr from rna isolated from nc1 tachyzoites. ncimp1 was encoded by an ope ...201222405293
low efficacy of ncgra7, ncsag4, ncbsr4 and ncsrs9 formulated in poly-ε-caprolactone against neospora caninum infection in mice.the protective efficacy of vaccination with neospora caninum recombinant antigens was evaluated in balb/c pregnant and non-pregnant mouse models of neosporosis. a major immunodominant dense granule protein (ncgra7) and three bradyzoite-specific surface antigens (ncsag4, ncbsr4 and ncsrs9) were expressed in escherichia coli and encapsulated within poly-ε-caprolactone (pcl) nanoparticles for the first time. good efficiencies of entrapment (greater than 50%) were obtained for all encapsulated prote ...201222640942
development of latex agglutination test with recombinant ncsag1 for the rapid detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1) is an important immunodominant candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for neosporosis. the present study describes the development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test (lat) with recombinant ncsag1 (rncsag1) for the detection of antibodies to n. caninum in cattle. the rncsag1 gene was cloned in pet-28a and protein was expresse ...201222571832
development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant neospora caninum proteins.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, neospora caninum. neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry.201222558916
characterization of neospora caninum microneme protein 10 (ncmic10) and its potential use as a diagnostic marker for neosporosis.improvements in the serological diagnosis of neosporosis are needed to differentiate acute versus chronic neospora caninum infections. in the present study, n. caninum microneme protein 10 (ncmic10), similar to other microneme proteins, was shown to be released in a calcium-dependent manner. ncmic10 may be discharged during active invasion of host cells by the parasite, and thus represent an excellent marker for the diagnosis of neosporosis. in order to test this hypothesis, recombinant ncmic10 ...201222284302
di-cationic arylimidamides act against neospora caninum tachyzoites by interference in membrane structure and nucleolar integrity and are active against challenge infection in mice.neospora caninum is considered to be the main cause of bovine abortion in europe and the usa, leading to considerable financial impact. losses are caused directly by abortions or indirectly through breeding of calves with impaired viability. due to the lack of effective chemotherapy against bovine neosporosis, there is a need to develop new anti-protozoal compounds, which would either eliminate the parasite or avoid its transmission. in order to identify compounds of interest, the in vitro activ ...201224533272
contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered african wild dogs (lycaon pictus).infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into ...201222238695
maternal and foetal immune responses of cattle following an experimental challenge with neospora caninum at day 70 of gestation.the immune responses of pregnant cattle and their foetuses were examined following inoculation on day 70 of gestation either intravenously (iv) (group 1) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2) with live nc1 strain tachyzoites or with vero cells (control) (group 3). peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc) responses to neospora antigen and foetal viability were assessed throughout the experiment. two animals from each group were sacrificed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post inoculation (pi). at post mortem ...201222536795
high rate of transplacental infection and transmission of neospora caninum following experimental challenge of cattle at day 210 of order to investigate the pathogenesis of neosporosis following a primary infection in late pregnancy, cattle were subcutaneously challenged with 5 × 108neospora caninum (nc1 isolate) tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation and serial necropsies were then carried out at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-infection (dpi). no abortions occurred and all the foetuses were viable at the time of euthanasia. there was a high rate of vertical transmission, as parasites were detected by immunohistochemical labell ...201223228067
study of the risk factors associated with neospora caninum seroprevalence in algerian cattle populations.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection were reported worldwide. the situation in algeria was unknown. for the evaluation of the prevalence of n. caninum and its associated risk factors, 799 cattle belonging to 87 farms of the north and northeast of algeria were analyzed. the cattle were divided into imported cattle, local cattle and improved cattle corresponding to breeding between imported and local cattle. sera were examined for the presence of n. caninum antibodies by indirect flu ...201222244708
immunological characterization of neospora caninum cyclophilin.summaryneospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that poses a unique ability to infect a variety of cell types by causing host cell migration. although previous studies demonstrated that parasite-derived proteins could trigger host cell migration, the related molecules have yet to be determined. our study aimed to investigate the relationship between neospora-derived molecules and host cell migration using recombinant protein of n. caninum cyclophilin (nccyp). indirect fluorescent antibody t ...201222217002
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in algeria's central northern region].as there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. a serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, conf ...201223520748
toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand.beef is a main type of meat consumed by thais. the prevalences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand. a total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of thailand: kanchanaburi, ratchaburi and nakhon pathom. an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for t. gondii an ...201223431814
fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous amazon parrot (amazona vinacea).toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. the bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. the heart had mild multifocal lymphocyt ...201223397856
antimicrobial effects of murine mesenchymal stromal cells directed against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: role of immunity-related gtpases (irgs) and guanylate-binding proteins (gbps).mesenchymal stromal cells (mscs) have a multilineage differentiation potential and provide immunosuppressive and antimicrobial functions. murine as well as human mscs restrict the proliferation of t cells. however, species-specific differences in the underlying molecular mechanisms have been described. here, we analyzed the antiparasitic effector mechanisms active in murine mscs. murine mscs, in contrast to human mscs, could not restrict the growth of a highly virulent strain of toxoplasma gondi ...201223269418
the rhoptry proteome of eimeria tenella sporozoites.proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. the rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, ron) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host mem ...201223262303
effects of ifn-γ, tnf-α, il-10 and tgf-β on neospora caninum infection in rat glial cells.neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and neurological disorders in dogs. the immunological response to this parasite has been described as predominantly of the th1 type. however, infected primary glial cell cultures release il-10 and il-6 but not ifn-γ. this suggests a rather protective response of the glia to avoid inflammatory damage of the nervous tissue. in this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary mixed cultures of rat astrocytes and microglia in ...201223262170
causes of abortion on new zealand dairy farms with a history of abortion associated with neospora caninum.abstract201222175426
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