PMID(sorted ascending)
in vitro isolation and identification of the first neospora caninum isolate from european bison (bison bonasus bonasus l.).peripheral blood from european bison (bison bonasus bonasus l.) living in białowieża forest, north-east poland, were investigated for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and isolation of parasite. out of 23 animals three of them showed a strong positive response to n. caninum (13%). the white blood cells from two positive and two negative bison were loaded on monolayer vero cells culture. the first viable tachyzoites were detected only in positive samples at days 60 and 70 after incub ...201020702042
differential susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) and uterine cervical (hela) cells to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite, closely related to toxoplasma gondii, and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. trophoblast cells act in mechanisms of innate immune defense at the fetal-maternal interface and no data are available about the interaction of neospora with human trophoblasts. thus, this study aimed to verify the susceptibility of human trophoblastic (bewo) compared with uterine cervical (hela) cell lines to n. caninum. bewo and hela cells were ...201020708622
serodiagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis in mongolia by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant toxoplasma gondii matrix antigen 1.toxoplasma gondii matrix antigen 1 (tgmag1), known as the 65-kda protein, which is abundantly expressed in both bradyzoites and tachyzoites, was evaluated as a candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for ovine toxoplasmosis. the tgmag1 gene was expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione s-transferase (gst), and the recombinant tgmag1 (rtgmag1) was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the elisa with rtgmag1 showed a highly specific reaction ...201020715421
systemic neosporosis in a white rhinoceros.neosporosis was diagnosed in a 16-year-old female white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) that died suddenly without clinical signs. histopathology revealed disseminated protozoan tachyzoites in liver, adrenal cortex, kidney, and intestine, with morphology compatible with either toxoplasma or neospora. the organism was identified as neospora caninum with the use of primary rabbit anti-n. caninum antibody immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. the exact source of infection remains unk ...201020722274
neospora caninum tachyzoite- and antigen-stimulated cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and spleen cells of naive balb/c mice.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. this parasite elicits a typical type 1 immune response in host animals, and it is widely believed that the strong type 1 immune response during pregnancy may result in fetal death. pro-inflammatory and/or inflammatory cytokines produced during either primary or secondary pathogen exposure are supposed to be the mediators of abortion. the present study defined cytokine production by murine naïve dendritic cell ...201020738198
peripheral white blood cell counts throughout pregnancy in non-aborting neospora caninum-seronegative and seropositive high-producing dairy cows in a holstein friesian herd.pregnancy is characterized by transient changes in the maternal immune system, also evident at peripheral level. the present study analyzes the kinetics and possible factors affecting peripheral white blood cell populations throughout pregnancy in a herd of high-producing dairy cows chronically infected or not with neospora caninum. we examined 54 pregnant parous cows: 29 neospora-seronegative and 25 neospora-seropositive cows. blood samples were collected on days 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of ge ...201120801467
clinical and clinicopathological features of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young greyhounds in ireland.the clinical and clinicopathological features of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in 30 greyhounds were reviewed. the dogs were from 21 separate litters, comprised both sexes (16 males and 14 females) and ranged in age from five to 18 months. in 14 (66.7 per cent) litters, more than one case was suspected or confirmed, and the number of siblings affected within individual litters ranged from one to seven. clinical signs were progressive and varied from five days to 12 months in duration; 12 d ...201020802187
microarray analyses of mouse responses to infection by neospora caninum identifies disease associated cellular pathways in the host response.neospora caninum is a coccidian cyst-forming parasite found in a wide range of host species such as mice, dogs and cattle. the development of methods such as vaccines to prevent abortion and fetal loss due to neosporosis would be greatly assisted by further knowledge on immunity and host responses to infection. in this study we used microarray technology to investigate the protective host responses occurring at 6h post infection in the spleen of mice infected with a prototype live n. caninum vac ...201020817048
construction of neospora caninum stably expressing tgsag1 and evaluation of its protective effects against toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related apicomplexan parasites. the surface antigen 1 of t. gondii (tgsag1) is a major immunodominant antigen and, therefore, is considered to be a good candidate for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. in this study, n. caninum stably expressing the tgsag1 gene (nc/tgsag1) was constructed using pyrimethamine-resistant dhfr-ts and gfp genes as double-selection markers. the expression level, molecular weight ...201020832493
neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog.this study presents the first case report of neuritis of the cauda equina in a dog, including characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate. the dog in question, a 6-year-old welsh springer spaniel, was presented with flaccid tail and faecal and urinary incontinence. the histological lesions included severe mononuclear cell infiltration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and of the lumbar nerve roots. the infiltrate was composed of large numbers of t-lymphocytes and b-lymphocytes and small ...201020840297
neospora caninum infection in stray and farm dogs: seroepidemiological study and oocyst a previous study, farm and stray dogs were considered potential high risk populations of neospora caninum infection in spain. consequently, we decided to investigate the significance of n. caninum infection in these populations. specific antibodies were detected in 120 out of 275 dog sera (43.6%), with titres ranging from 1:50 to 1:800. differences in seroprevalence between farm (47.5%, 67/141) and stray (39.5%, 53/134) dogs were not significant (p>0.05; χ(2) test), but farm dogs showed signi ...201020851523
a new thrombospondin-related anonymous protein homologue in neospora caninum (ncmic2-like1).neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that has the dog as a definitive host and cattle (among other animals) as intermediate hosts. it causes encephalopathy in dogs and abortion in cows, with significant loss in worldwide livestock. as any apicomplexan, the parasite invades the cells using proteins contained in the phylum-specific organelles, like the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. the aim of this study was the characterization of a homologue (denominated ncmic2-like1) of n. c ...201020880420
update on the diagnosis and management of neospora caninum infections in dogs. 201020937501
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep flocks of uberlândia county, mg.neosporosis is a parasitic disease that occurs in sheep and is associated with reproductive failure. the aim of this study was to verify seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in 12 sheep flocks in uberlândia county, minas gerais, brazil, using indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 334 sheep blood samples were analyzed and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of neosporosis: gender, age, breed, abortion problems, co ...201020943017
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.this study was designed to detect antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in brazilian zoos. blood samples were collected from 142 brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 european wolves (canis lupus) and 94 brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in brazilian zoos of são paulo, mato grosso states and federal district. one hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for t. gondii ...201020950109
effects of neospora caninum infection at mid-gestation on placenta in a pregnant mouse model.neospora caninum is one of the more-efficient transplacentally-transmitted organisms. the goal of the present study was to investigate the pathologic and immunologic changes that occur at the materno-fetal interphase in pregnant balb/c mice infected with n. caninum at mid-gestation. parasite dna was detected in feto-placentary units 3 days post-infection (pi). on day 7 pi, the dna detection level and parasite burden were significantly higher in the placentas than in the fetuses, which may indica ...201020950112
validation of a leishmania infantum elisa rapid test for serological diagnosis of leishmania chagasi in dogs.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is caused by leishmania donovani complex parasites including l. donovani, leishmania infantum and leishmania chagasi. as some studies suggest that l. chagasi and l. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid elisa test, originally designed for l. infantum, in the diagnosis of cvl in dogs naturally infected by l. chagasi. a total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs ...201021030153
identification of hammondia heydorni oocysts by a heminested-pcr (hnpcr-ap10) based on the h. heydorni rapd fragment ap10.toxoplasma gondii, hammondia hammondi, neospora caninum, neospora hughesi and hammondia heydorni are members of the toxoplasmatinae sub-family. they are closely related coccidians with similarly sized oocysts. molecular diagnostic techniques, especially those based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr), can be successfully applied for the differentiation of hammondia-like oocysts. in this paper, we describe a rapid and simple method for the identification of h. heydorni oocysts among other members ...201021030154
evaluation of a commercial elisa for the specific detection of antibodies against besnoitia besnoiti.bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease in cattle caused by the protozoan parasite besnoitia besnoiti, which occurs endemically in many countries of africa and asia and is spreading in europe. serological identification of subclinically infected cattle is important to avoid the introduction of infected animals into naive herds. here we determine the sensitivity and specificity of the priocheck(®) besnoitia ab, a serological test recently introduced into the european market. anal ...201021035269
crystallization and preliminary x-ray structural analysis of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases from neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii.the nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases that are produced by neospora caninum (ncntpase) and toxoplasma gondii (tgntpase-i) have a different physiological function from the ubiquitous ecto-atpases. the recombinant enzymes were crystallized at 293 k using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant and x-ray diffraction data sets were collected for ncntpase (to 2.8 å resolution) and tgntpase-i (to 3.1 å resolution) at 100 k using synchrotron radiation. the crystals of ncntpase and tgntpase-i belonge ...201021045291
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered beef cows (bos indicus).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes the most important reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. the objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of vertical transmission of n. caninum in zebus breed beef cows (bos indicus) submitted for slaughter at an abattoir in the northern region of the state of paraná, southern brazil. one hundred and fifty-nine cows were evaluated: 83 pregnant (in different stages of gestation) and 76 non-pregnant. serum determination of n. ca ...201021063729
influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against neospora caninum infection in this study, the protection afforded by a neospora caninum inactivated vaccine formulated with three different adjuvants (water-in-oil emulsion, aluminum hydroxide with cpg oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminum hydroxide with ginseng extract) and three different parasite doses (10(5), 5 × 10(5) or 10(6) inactivated whole tachyzoites) was evaluated using a mouse model. mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at three-week intervals with inactivated nc-spain 1h tachyzoites and challenged by intrap ...201021067865
immune response to neospora caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes in calves.the aim of this study was to compare the immune responses to live neospora caninum tachyzoites and n. caninum native antigens formulated with immune stimulating complexes matrix (iscom-matrix) in calves. fifteen calves were used in this study: 3 were intravenously inoculated with 1 × 10(8) live tachyzoites (group a), 3 were inoculated twice with n. caninum native antigens formulated with iscoms (group b); 3 with n. caninum native antigens in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) (group c); 3 received ...201021074325
evaluation of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from uberlândia, minas gerais state, brazil, by different serological methods.toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. considering the scarce information on the occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from uberlândia, minas gerais state, brazil, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of antibodies against these parasites in sheep sera from this region by using different serological methods. a total of 155 sheep serum samples were analyze ...201021075529
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in free living and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in poland.serum samples from 47 free living and 106 farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) from the mazurian lake district in north-east poland were investigated for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum. a modified neospora iscom-elisa was used for initial screening. all sera with optical density (od) values exceeding 0.400 absorbance units were further investigated by western blot analysis. eighteen sera were positive in both tests. six of these were from free living and 12 from farmed animals giving ...201021077439
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum in dogs from urban areas in central poland.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. to assess the prevalence of the parasite in urban dogs in the mazovian voivodeship, central poland, serum samples from 257 dogs were analyzed for the presence of specific igg antibodies. the examined dogs visited three private veterinary clinics located in warsaw due to control tests, vaccinations, or other reasons not directly connected with neosporosis. ...201021079995
development of an immunochromatographic strip for the rapid detection of toxoplasma gondii circulating antigens.we developed a rapid immunochromatographic strip (ics) procedure that can detect circulating antigens in the blood of animals during the acute stage of toxoplasmosis. the aim of this study was to evaluate this test using sera from field samples and from experimentally infected animals. the sensitivity and specificity of the ics were compared with those of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). both assays detected circulating antigens in the sera of animals experimentally infected with th ...201021081174
detection of specific antibodies anti-neospora caninum in the fallow deer (dama dama).sera from 335 farmed fallow deer (dama dama) at the breeding station in kosewo górne in the mazurian lake district, north-east poland, were investigated for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum. the distribution of age groups was as follow: >4years - 154 animals; 2years - 76 animals; 1year - 105 animals. ten sera with the optical density exceeding 0.159 absorbance units (i.e., cut-off value) in elisa test were also analyzed by western blot. western blot analysis revealed seroreact ...201021087781
experimental infection of dogs (canis familiaris) with sporulated oocysts of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is widely distributed in the world and this parasite is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum and several species of domestic and wild animals are intermediate hosts. dogs can become infected by the ingestion of tissues containing cysts and then excrete oocysts. it is not yet known whether sporulated oocysts are able to induce a patent infection in dogs, i.e. a shedding of n. caninum oocysts in feces. the objective of ...201021094584
monensin use against neospora caninum challenge in dairy cattle.using a randomized controlled trial design, a randomly allocated intervention group of 15 cows received a slow-release bolus that delivered 100 days of monensin. the negative control group of 15 cows received a placebo bolus that was identical to the monensin bolus, except without the monensin. two weeks after bolus administration, all cows were challenged with a 2 ml subcutaneous injection of a live tachyzoite suspension. whole blood and serum samples were collected from each cow every week for ...201021106293
neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of spain, galicia.herd and individual animal seroprevalence for neospora caninum (n. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the galician farmer sanitary defence associations (adsg) in 2004. all animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect elisa. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. true herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed he ...201021145605
prevalence of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, toxoplasma gondii, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, besnoitia darlingi, and neospora caninum in north american opossums, didelphis virginiana, from southern louisiana.we examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( trypanosoma cruzi, toxoplasma gondii, and encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and besnoitia darlingi) in a population of north american opossums ( didelphis virginiana) from louisiana. samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for t. cruzi in louisiana. frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluoresce ...201021158620
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica hispanica).a cross-sectional study was carried out on spanish ibex populations in southern spain to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and to investigate the risk factors associated with these infections. using the modified agglutination test, the seroprevalence to t. gondii was 27.5% (146/531; ci(95%), 23.7-31.3), and this seropositivity significantly increased with age. among adults, statistically significant differences were observed between geographical locations and ov ...201021159529
development of an indirect elisa-ncsrs2 for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle.neosporosis is of alarming economic concern in the cattle industry. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against neospora caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. use of a single specific antigen might improve test specificity. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed using the truncated protein ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli. the elisa results were compared with those of the indirect fluorescence ant ...201021168278
tunicamycins, a class of nucleoside antibiotics similar to corynetoxins of the rathayibacter toxicus, increase susceptibility of mice to neospora caninum.neosporosis is the leading cause of abortion in cattle. neospora caninum-associated abortion may exhibit both endemic and epidemic patterns. it was reported that the epidemic outbreaks took place in the form of "abortion storms" and were not significantly correlated with seasonal changes or consumption of any particular feeds; and thus, the mechanisms by which the epidemic "abortion storms" are triggered remain unclear. annual ryegrass toxicity (argt) is a severe or fatal neurological disorder o ...201021168974
evidence of congenital transmission of neospora caninum in naturally infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) fetus from brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the congenital infection by neospora caninum in the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), a natural intermediate host. nine pregnant water buffalos, raised under free-grazing condition, were slaughtered, and their fetuses were collected. samples of brain and thoracic fluid were obtained from those fetuses, with gestational ages ranging from 2 to 5 months. the dna of n. caninum was detected and identified in the brain of one of those fetuses, using two pcr assays ...201021181191
influence of culture medium ph on internalization, growth and phenotypic plasticity of neospora caninum.neospora caninum, a strictly intracellular protozoan, is a major leading cause of parasite-induced abortion in cattle. a widely held view of n. caninum infection is that both cellular proliferation and stage interconversion (tachyzoite-bradyzoite transformation) are triggered, perhaps even modulated by, changes in cultural conditions. this study tested the hypothesis that exposure of n. caninum tachyzoites to different ph culture media affects the parasite's entry, proliferation and cyst formati ...201021185654
transplacental transmission in cattle: is toxoplasma gondii less potent than neospora caninum?we compared the transplacental-transmission ability of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in cattle. one uninfected pregnant heifer served as control, while three were inoculated with n. caninum k9wa strain and four with t. gondii rh strain at their midgestational period. both infected groups showed clinical signs and antibodies either to n. caninum or t. gondii, while the control animal was normal. two (50%) toxoplasma dams aborted on days 6 and 11 postinoculation. t. gondii tachyzoites wer ...201121203773
different humoral mechanisms against neospora caninum infection in purebreed and crossbreed beef/dairy cattle pregnancies.the antigen-specific igg subclass response may be a convenient indicator of the underlying nature of t helper cell regulation. the aim of the present study was to identify possible differences in neospora caninum-specific total plasma igg, igg1 and igg2 antibody levels in purebreed and crossbreed pregnancies throughout gestation in beef and dairy cattle chronically infected with n. caninum. comparisons were also made between aborting and non-aborting dams. the population examined comprised 96 pr ...201021216103
vaccination of mice with chitosan nanogel-associated recombinant ncpdi against challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the effects of nanogel encapsulation of recombinant ncpdi (recncpdi) following vaccination of mice by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes and challenge infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites were investigated. nanogels were chitosan based, with an alginate or alginate-mannose surface. none of the mice receiving recncpdi intraperitoneal (i.p.) (without nanogels) survived, whereas intranasal (i.n.) application protected 9 of 10 mice from disease. association of recncpdi with nanogels improve ...201121226721
genetic manipulation of neospora caninum to express the bradyzoite-specific protein ncsag4 in tachyzoites.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and the aetiological agent of bovine neosporosis, one of the main causes of reproductive failure worldwide. we have generated 2 independent transgenic knock-in clones, nc-1sag4c1.1 and nc-1sag4c2.1, that express the bradyzoite stage-specific protein ncsag4 in the tachyzoite stage. these clones have similar growth rates in vitro as the wild-type (wt) strain nc-1. studies in a cerebral mouse model of infection revealed a slightly lower rate of detection ...201121232176
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in moose (alces alces) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in sweden.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. t. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. n. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. the purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of t. gondii, and n. caninum i ...201021232869
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wildlife: common parasites in belgian foxes and cervidae?sera from cervidae were tested for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum using elisa; and against toxoplasma gondii using sag1-elisa and a commercially available agglutination test. the t. gondii seroprevalence was 52% (38/73) in roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 0% in bred fallow deer (0/4) (dama dama) and red deer (0/7) (cervus elaphus). we found 2.7% of the roe deer samples and none of the bred deer samples positive for n. caninum. brain samples from wild roe deer, red deer and re ...201021236577
surgical technique, postoperative complications and outcome in 14 dogs treated for hydrocephalus by ventriculoperitoneal report frequency and type of complications, and outcome in dogs with severe neurologic signs secondary to internal, suspected obstructive hydrocephalus treated by ventriculoperitoneal (vp) shunting.201121244441
serological profile of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in commercial sheep from são paulo state, brazil.neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are two important infections in young and adult sheep, leading to low production and abortion. this study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in sheep from the eastern region of são paulo state, brazil. serum samples (382) were collected from the sheep and assayed for t. gondii through modified agglutination test (mat) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), and for n. caninum antibodies, through ifat, with ...201021256676
immunization of female balb/c mice with neospora cyclophilin and/or ncsrs2 elicits specific antibody response and prevents against challenge infection by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is the causal agent of bovine neosporosis which results in high levels of abortion. the present study determined the protective efficacy of two neospora antigens--neospora cyclophilin (nccyp) and ncsrs2. the ability of native nccyp to upregulate mouse ifn-? was also confirmed in this study. recombinant nccyp or ncsrs2 were tested either alone or in combination and formulated with adjuvant immumax-sr and cpg. female balb/c mice (n=15) of 10-12 weeks of age were immunized s.c. twi ...201121281689
up regulation of the maternal immune response in the placenta of cattle naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite which is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. it forms persistent infections which recrudesce during pregnancy leading to foetal infection and in a proportion of cases, abortion. the mechanisms underlying abortion are not understood. in this study, recrudescence of a persistent infection in eight naturally infected cows occurred between 20 and 33 weeks of gestation. animals were killed at the time of recrudescence and parasites we ...201121283810
identification of novel rhoptry proteins in neospora caninum by lc/ms-ms analysis of subcellular fractions.apicomplexan parasites possess an apical complex that is composed of two secretory organelles recognized as micronemes and rhoptries. rhoptry contents are secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole during the host cell invasion process. several rhoptry proteins have been identified in toxoplasma gondii and seem to be involved in host-pathogen interactions and some of them are considered to be important virulence factors. only one rhoptry protein, ncrop2, has been identified and extensively charac ...201121315855
quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays for the sensitive detection of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, an economically important disease in cattle in some countries of africa and asia, is emerging in europe. the definitive host of besnoitia besnoiti, the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis, is unknown and the transmission of the parasite is not completely understood. sensitive and quantitative dna detection methods are needed to determine whether serologically positive animals are infectious and to examine the role of vectors (e.g. haematophagous insects) in the transmissi ...201121324596
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in 2007 a survey on herd-level seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in poland was carried out. sera were collected from all 49 breeding goat herds, scattered over the entire country, with the vast majority of them located in the western, central and northern provinces. only adult females (=12 months of age) were included in the study. a herd was recorded as infected if at least one seropositive female was detected. in each herd, simple random sampling was ...201121324599
functional activation of t cells by dendritic cells and macrophages exposed to the intracellular parasite neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan pathogen that causes abortion in cattle. we studied how the interaction between murine conventional dendritic cells or macrophages and n. caninum influences the generation of cell-mediated immunity against the parasite. we first explored the invasion and survival ability of n. caninum in dendritic cells and macrophages. we observed that protozoa rapidly invaded and proliferated into these two cell populations. we then investigated how neospora-expos ...201121329692
identification of a host cell target for the thiazolide class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.the thiazolide nitazoxanide (ntz) and some derivatives exhibit considerable in vitro activities against a broad range of parasites, including the apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. in order to identify potential molecular targets for this compound in both parasites, rm4847 was coupled to epoxy-agarose and affinity chromatography was performed. a protein of approximately 35 kda was eluted upon rm4847-affinity-chromatography from extracts of n. caninum-infected human ...201121335006
immunoblot diagnosis of infection with neospora caninum in cattle based on recombinant ncsag4 antigen.the neospora caninum (n. caninum) ncsag4 gene was subcloned into a pet-28a (+) vector and successfully expressed in escherichia coli as inclusion body, and confirmed by sds-page and western blot using anti-his monoclonal antibody. the purified protein was then purified using ni-nta affinity chromatography column and recognized by positive serum from n. caninum-infected cattle. immunoblot (ib) method based on purified recombinant ncsag4 (rncsag4) antigen to detect antibodies against n. caninum in ...201121340564
in vitro invasion efficiency and intracellular proliferation rate comprise virulence-related phenotypic traits of neospora caninum.abstract: in this study, we examined the in vitro invasion and proliferation capacities of the nc-liv and ten spanish neospora caninum isolates (nc-spain 1 h - nc-spain 10). the invasion rate was determined as the number of tachyzoites that completed their internalisation into marc-145 cells at 2, 4, and 6 h post-inoculation (pi). the proliferation rate was evaluated by determining the doubling time during the exponential proliferation period. significant differences in the invasion rates of the ...201121345202
genetic mapping identifies novel highly protective antigens for an apicomplexan parasite.apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a myriad of diseases in humans and livestock; yet despite intensive effort, development of effective sub-unit vaccines remains a long-term goal. antigenic complexity and our inability to identify protective antigens from the pool that induce response are serious challenges in the development of new vaccines. using a combination of parasite genetics and selective barriers with population-based genetic fingerprinting, we have identified that immunity agai ...201121347348
viability of sporulated oocysts of neospora caninum after exposure to different physical and chemical treatments.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the viability of neospora caninum sporulated oocysts after various chemical and physical treatments. bioassays in gerbils and molecular techniques (pcr-rflp) were used for identification of the oocysts shed by experimentally infected dogs. sporulated oocysts were purified and divided into 11 treatment groups as follows: absolute ethanol for 1 hr; 20 c for 6 hr; 4 c for 6 hr; 60 c for 1 min; 100 c for 1 min; 10% formaldehyde for 1 hr; 10% ammonia for 1 ...201021348620
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle of southern china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in china's southern guangdong province between july 2009 and march 2010. a total of 370 serum samples of dairy cattle was collected from 5 farms and examined for antibodies to n. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in dairy cattle was 18.9% (70/370). the seroprevalence of n. caninum in aborting cows (22.7%) was higher than that in nonaborting cows (16.3%), ...201021348632
in vitro effects of arylimidamides against besnoitia besnoiti infection in vero cells.the in vitro effects of 4 arylimidamides (db811, db786, db750 and db766) against the proliferative tachyzoite stage of the apicomplexan parasite besnoitia besnoiti were investigated. these four compounds had been shown earlier to exhibit in vitro activities in the nanomolar range against the related apicomplexans neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii. real-time-pcr was used to assess b. besnoiti intracellular proliferation in vitro. preliminary assessment by light microscopy identified db811 an ...201121349220
seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis.acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (acp) is considered to be an animal model of the acute axonal form of guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) in humans. various antecedent events have been associated with gbs, including bacterial or viral infection. the relationship between acp and previous infection requires additional attention.201121352374
neosporosis in an aborted southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) december 2008, a southern white rhinoceros (ãsimum simum) aborted a 7-mo gestation male fetus. on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of fetal tissues, foci of necrosis were noted in the hepatic parenchyma and were associated with low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. protozoal zoites were identified within the hepatic lesions and within the cerebellum. evaluations utilizing immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and dna sequencing identified the protozoan as ...201021370658
shedding of neospora caninum oocysts by dogs fed different tissues from naturally infected cattle.neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the distribution of n. caninum in tissues of adult cattle is unknown and the parasite has not been demonstrated histologically in tissues of cows. in the present study the distribution of n. caninum in different tissues of adult cattle was evaluated by bioassays in dogs. seventeen dogs (2-3 month-old) were fed different tissues of 4 naturally exposed adult cattle (indirect fluorescent antibody test n. can ...201121450407
identification of the cross-reactive and species-specific antigens between neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by a proteomics approach.the characterization of the cross-reactive and species-specific antigens of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii is important in the exploration to determine the common mechanisms of parasite-host interaction and to improve the serological diagnosis; it is also useful for the selection of the cross-reactive antigens that could be used in the development of vaccines or drugs for controlling the diseases caused by these two parasites. in this study, cross-reactive and species-specific antigens b ...201121461729
[studies on the role of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) as a potential definitive host of neospora caninum].neospora (n.) caninum is a protozoan parasite which is regarded as a major cause of abortion in cattle. dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of n. caninum which may shed environmentally resistant stages, oocysts, in their feces. epidemiological studies in germany showed that the presence of dogs increased the risk of a bovine herd to be n. caninum-positive in a bulk-milk elisa test. however, there were also n. caninum-positive herds where dogs were not kept together with cattle.this leads to th ...201121465771
serum response factor regulates immediate early host gene expression in toxoplasma gondii-infected host cells.toxoplasma gondii is a wide spread pathogen that can cause severe and even fatal disease in fetuses and immune-compromised hosts. as an obligate intracellular parasite, toxoplasma must alter the environment of its host cell in order to establish its replicative niche. this is accomplished, in part, by secretion of factors into the host cell that act to modulate processes such as transcription. previous studies demonstrated that genes encoding transcription factors such as c-jun, junb, egr1, and ...201121479245
identification of novel proteins in neospora caninum using an organelle purification and monoclonal antibody approach.neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. neospora has also generated substantial interest because it is an extremely close relative of the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii, yet does not appear to infect humans. while for toxoplasma there are a wide array of molecular tools and reagents available for experimental investigation, relatively few reagents exist for neospora. to investigate the unique biological features of ...201121483743
discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting california sea lions (zalophus californianus) with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity.abstract enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded california sea lions (zalophus californianus). microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, morphologically similar to coccidian parasites. by histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgam ...201121495828
serological response of cats to experimental besnoitia darlingi and besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from virginia and pennsylvania.abstract besnoitia darlingi and besnoitia neotomofelis are cyst-forming tissue apicomplexan parasites that use domestic cats ( felis domesticus ) as definitive hosts and opossums ( didelphis virginiana ) and southern plains woodrats ( neotoma micropus ) as intermediate hosts, respectively. nothing is known about the prevalence of b. darlingi or b. neotomofelis in cats from the united states. besnoitia darlingi infections have been reported in naturally infected opossums from many states in the u ...201121506782
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and brucella abortus among dairy cattle herds with high abortion rates.abstract the protozoon neospora caninum and the bacterium brucella abortus are well recognized abortifacients in dairy cattle. serum samples (n = 240) from aborting (n = 141) and at risk (n = 99) animals from 5 herds with high abortion rates in punjab province, pakistan were tested for antibodies to n. caninum using monoclonal antibody based competitive elisa and to b. abortus using the serum agglutination test. antibodies to n. caninum and b. abortus were detected in 105 (43.8 %) and 135 (56.3% ...201121506829
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy buffaloes in lahore district, pakistan.abstract seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy buffaloes ( bubalus bubalis ) was assessed in the lahore district of punjab province, pakistan. the study revealed an overall prevalence of 54.7% for n. caninum antibodies determined through a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on randomly collected serum samples. the highest prevalence was observed in buffaloes >3-5 yr of age (64.1%), followed by 57.9% for 5 to 6 yr olds, and 55.8% in 1-yr-old neonates, with high probabil ...201121506867
coxiella burnetii seropositivity is highly stable throughout gestation in lactating high-producing dairy cows.the aims of this study were to analyse, in high-producing dairy cows, plasma coxiella burnetii antibody titres and seroconversion throughout gestation, along with possible factors affecting such titres. the study was performed on 65 lactating pregnant non-aborting animals in a commercial holstein-friesian dairy herd in northeastern spain. blood samples for antibody determinations were collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. by general linear model (glm) repeated measures an ...201121507080
dna barcoding identifies eimeria species and contributes to the phylogenetics of coccidian parasites (eimeriorina, apicomplexa, alveolata).partial (∼780bp) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and near complete nuclear 18s rdna (∼1,780bp) sequences were directly compared to assess their relative usefulness as markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of coccidian parasites (phylum apicomplexa). fifteen new coi partial sequences were obtained using two pairs of new primers from rigorously characterised (sensu reid and long, 1979) laboratory strains of seven eimeria spp. infecting chickens as well as ...201121515277
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leishmania spp. infections and risk factors for cats from brazil.the seroprevalence of infection by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leishmania spp. was detected through an indirect immunofluorescence in 70 cats from the andradina municipality, são paulo state, brazil. anti-t. gondii antibodies (titer >64) were detected in 15.7% (11/70) of animals, whereas positivity for n. caninum (titer 16) was not observed in any animal. of the cats from urban and rural areas, 10.4% (5/48) and 27.2% (6/22) were positive for t. gondii, respectively. breed, age, food ...201121626423
extensive production of neospora caninum tissue cysts in a carnivorous marsupial succumbing to experimental neosporosis.abstract: experimental infections of sminthopsis crassicaudata, the fat-tailed dunnart, a carnivorous marsupial widely distributed throughout the arid and semi-arid zones of australia, show that this species can act as an intermediate host for neospora caninum. in contrast to existing models that develop relatively few n. caninum cysts, dunnarts offer a new animal model where active neosporosis is dominated by tissue cyst production. the results provide evidence for a sylvatic life cycle of n. c ...201121635733
gray wolf (canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for neospora caninum.the gray wolf (canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for neospora caninum. neospora-like oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of three of 73 wolves from minnesota examined at necropsy. n. caninum-specific dna was amplified from the oocysts of all three wolves. oocysts from one wolf were infective for the gamma interferon gene knock out (ko) mice. viable n. caninum (designated ncwolfus1) was isolated in cell cultures seeded with tissue homogenate from the infected ...201121640485
high seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in the common raven (corvus corax) in the northeast of recent years, multiple cases of aggressive behavior of common ravens (corvus corax) have been reported by farmers in catalonia (ne spain), including attacking of newborn animals and consumption of dead foetuses. in the present study, seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum was determined from 113 legally trapped and released common ravens. t. gondii antibodies were found in 91 (80.5%; ci 95%:72-87) of 113 sera tested by the modified agglutination test. antibodies to n. caninu ...201121645913
anti-neospora caninum antibodies in milk in relation to production losses in dairy cattle.a comprehensive field study was carried out with the following objectives: (a) to assess the usefulness of individual and bulk tank milk analysis for determining neospora caninum serostatus in individual cows and herds, and (b) to study the associations between n. caninum infection status (based on milk testing), and several productive and reproductive parameters in the animals. antibodies were detected with a commercially available elisa test (bio k 192/5). analysis of paired serum and milk sam ...201121645937
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in free-range chickens (gallus domesticus) from the americas.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for n. caninum and felids for t. gondii. feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with t. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. in the present study we studied seroprevalence of n. caninum in free range chickens from different countries in america as an indicator of soil contamination due to n. caninum oocysts. antibodies to n. caninum we ...201121676546
survey for natural neospora caninum infection in wild and captive birds.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that presents worldwide distribution and is mainly implicated as responsible for bovine abortion. although the presence of birds in cattle-raising properties is positively correlated to higher infection rates, very little has been described about the role of these animals in the parasite's life cycle. in that sense, this work aimed to investigate the serological and histological positivity of different avian species sampled in its natural habitat or in ca ...201121680099
neosporosis in a captive parma wallaby (macropus parma).infection with neospora caninum has been diagnosed in a variety of animal species; however, reports in marsupials are rare. a captive parma wallaby (macropus parma) died suddenly and was subjected to necropsy examination. the main finding was necrotizing myocarditis associated with protozoan parasites. the protozoa were identified as n. caninum by use of immunohistochemistry and partial gene sequence analysis. neospora and toxoplasma should be considered a possible cause of disease in captive ma ...201121689827
neosporosis in animals--the last five years.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as toxoplasma gondii. since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. this review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals b ...201121704458
cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110ôçâdays of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why only some animals abort remain unclear. the immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the foetus. in this study, cytokine gene expression, analysed by real-time rt-pcr, at the maternal (caruncle) and foetal placenta (cotyledon) of heifers infected at 110ôçâdays of gestation by intravenous inoculat ...201121711362
epizootiologic investigations of selected abortive agents in free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in the early 2000s, several colonies of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in switzerland ceased growing or began to decrease. reproductive problems due to infections with abortive agents might have negatively affected recruitment. we assessed the presence of selected agents of abortion in alpine ibex by serologic, molecular, and culture techniques and evaluated whether infection with these agents might have affected population densities. blood and fecal samples were collected from 651 ibex in 14 col ...201121719818
presence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leishmania infantum in dogs from piau+¡.this study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and leishmania infantum in dogs attended at the veterinary hospital of the federal university of piau+¡, northeastern brazil, where there are no reports of the occurrence of n. caninum and t. gondii in dogs. serum samples from 530 dogs of genders, different ages and breeds from the municipality of teresina and nearby towns were analyzed using three indirect fluorescent antibody tests, each one tar ...201121722484
neospora caninum is associated with abortion in algerian cattle.abstract neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. however, little information is available for algeria. accordingly, 799 cattle from 87 farms in the north and northeast of algeria were enrolled in a seroepidemiological survey. an indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) revealed a seroprevalence of 19.6%. the animals were divided into 3 groups according to their breed: imported european cattle, local breeds, and crossed animals (european x local). seroprevalences were ...201121728878
epidemiology and impact of neospora caninum infection in three queensland tropical dairy herds.this study investigated the epidemiology of neospora caninum in three tropical dairy herds in north queensland, australia. all animals in the herds were bled, and the sera were tested by elisa for n. caninum antibodies. herd records were examined, and the number of calves carried to term and the number of abortions which occurred over the lifetime of each animal were recorded to determine the abortion rate for each animal. pedigrees were constructed for two of the herds to investigate whether ve ...201121736635
results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in germany between 2003 and a retrospective study, the results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from 8,560 cats and 24,677 dogs between january 2003 and december 2010 in germany were analysed. 30.4 % of the examined dogs and 22.8 % of the cats were infected with endoparasites. the examination of the faecal samples from dogs revealed stages of giardia spp. (18.6 %), toxocara canis (6.1 %), toxascaris leonina (0.6 %), ancylostomatidae (2.2 %), trichuris vulpis (1.2 %), capillaria spp. (1.3 %), crenosoma v ...201121739375
prevalence and co-infection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in apodemus sylvaticus in an area relatively free of cats.summarythe protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. as cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. this study investigates the prevalence of t. gondii in a natural population of apodemus sylvaticus collected from an area with low cat densi ...201121756421
emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in belgian cattle herds.bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum. the disease can also be transmitted to humans. outbreaks in cattle have been described in many european countries. in belgium, infections caused by a. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in belgium. the first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern belgium. clinical signs included hyperthermia, p ...201121771546
the snsag merozoite surface antigens of sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. the s. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (sag)/sag1-related sequence (srs) gene family of toxoplasma gondii. expression of the sag/srs proteins in t. gondii and another related parasite neospora caninum is lif ...201121775062
recncmic3-1-r is a microneme- and rhoptry-based chimeric antigen that protects against acute neosporosis and limits cerebral parasite load in the mouse model for neospora caninum order to achieve host cell entry, the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum relies on the contents of distinct organelles, named micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, which are secreted at defined timepoints during and after host cell entry. it was shown previously that a vaccine composed of a mixture of three recombinant antigens, corresponding to the two microneme antigens ncmic1 and ncmic3 and the rhoptry protein ncrop2, prevented disease and limited cerebral infection and transplacen ...201121787824
a survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection in urban rodents from brazil.abstract toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and other warm blooded animals; it uses feral and domestic cats as the definitive hosts. neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals whose life cycle is very similar to t. gondii, but uses canids as definitive hosts. small rodents play an important role in the life cycle of t. gondii and a few findings indicated that they may be natural intermediate hosts for n. caninum. the present study was aimed at identifying infe ...201121790367
experimental treatment of neospora caninum-infected mice with the arylimidamide db750 and the thiazolide nitazoxanide.the cationic arylimidamide db750 and the thiazolide nitazoxanide had been shown earlier to be effective against neospora caninum tachyzoites in vitro with an ic(50) of 160nm and 4.23µm, respectively. in this study, we have investigated the effects of db750 and nitazoxanide treatments of experimentally infected balb/c mice, by applying the drugs either through the oral or the intraperitoneal route. in experiment 1, administration of db750 (2mg/kg/day) and nitazoxanide (150mg/kg/day) started alrea ...201121803039
comparative efficacy of immunization with inactivated whole tachyzoites versus a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture against neosporosis in mice.summarythe worldwide economic impact of neospora caninum infection has caused the development of effective vaccines to become one of the main goals in the field of neosporosis research. in this study, the protection conferred by antigens from inactivated whole tachyzoites (tz) and a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture (tz-bz) of n. caninum (nc-spain7 isolate) incorporated into a water-in-oil emulsion (w/o) and aluminium hydroxide-ginseng extract (al/g) was evaluated in mouse models of congenital and c ...201121810300
selection of neospora caninum antigens stimulating bovine cd4+ve t cell responses through immuno-potency screening and proteomic approaches.abstract: neospora caninum is recognised worldwide as a major cause of bovine infectious abortion. there is a real need to develop effective strategies to control infection during pregnancy which may lead to either abortion or congenital transmission. due to the intracellular nature of the parasite, cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses involving cd4+ve, cd8+ve, tcr+ve t cells and nk cells, as well as production of ifn-gamma, are thought to be important for protective immunity. in this study we a ...201121813001
transgenic neospora caninum strains constitutively expressing the bradyzoite ncsag4 protein proved to be safe and conferred significant levels of protection against vertical transmission when used as live vaccines in present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine to prevent vertical transmission or abortion associated with neospora caninum infection in cattle. different vaccine formulations have been assayed, and live vaccines have shown the most promising results in terms of protection. previously, transgenic n. caninum tachyzoites expressing the bradyzoite stage-specific ncsag4 antigen in a constitutive manner (nc-1 sag4(c)) were obtained and showed a reduced persistence of parasite in inoculated m ...201121816191
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs in the czech republic.summaryin the czech republic, sera from 551 clinically healthy adult slaughtered pigs (females, 6-8 months old) were collected during the first half of june in 2010. sera were tested for toxoplasma gondii-specific igg antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 50% s/p were considered as positive. the same samples were also analysed for neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 30 ...201121819636
presence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum dna in the brain of wild birds.toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species and can cause mortality in some bird hosts. although t. gondii has been isolated from various species of birds, the role of many different species of wild birds in the epidemiology of t. gondii remains unknown. neospora caninum, a closely related parasite to t. gondii, has been recently confirmed to infect domestic chickens and wild birds such as house sparrows (passer domesticus). the present study reports the presence of t. gondi ...201121831525
cytokine gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neospora caninum naturally infected dams throughout gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but it is not known why some infected animals suffer abortion while others do not. an essential role in protective immunity against n. caninum has been proposed for th1 cytokines such as ifn-γ and il-12 although cytokine patterns in n. caninum infected pregnant cattle have been scarcely addressed. in this study, gene expression of the cytokines ifn-γ, il-12, il-10, il-4 and tnf-α was analyzed by real time rt-pcr in peripheral blood mononucl ...201221846584
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep and goats in pakistan.abstract the purpose of the present study was to obtain seroepidemiological information on the neospora caninum infection status of sheep and goats in different areas of punjab province and azad kashmir (pakistan). a cross-sectional study, using a competitive elisa showed an overall 27.7% (35 of 128) (95% ci ? 7.7%) and 8.6% (13 of 142)(95% ci ? 4.6%) seroprevalence of n. caninum antibodies in sheep and goats, respectively. the difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations wa ...201121854220
first report of neospora caninum infection in cattle in sudan.a cross-sectional survey was conducted in sudan to determine sero-prevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in non-vaccinated dairy herds and to assess importance of the disease. blood samples were collected from a total of 262 animals from 25 herds. sera were tested for antibodies against n. caninum using elisa test. the prevalence rates of n. caninum antibodies in cattle were high both at herd level (44%) and at individual animal level (10.7%). herd level infection ...201121898183
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