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[first documentation of a neospora-induced "abortion storm" (exogenous transplacental transmission of neospora caninum) in a swiss dairy farm].in a swiss dairy farm (canton of geneva) consisting of 73 animals 8 abortions were observed within 2 weeks. serological and molecular biological analyses (pcr) on aborting dams, and abortion materials, respectively, revealed that the protozoan parasite neospora caninum was the causative agent. besides the 8 aborting animals, 12 other non-aborting heifers were found to be serologically positive for this parasite. all positive sera were further tested in an avidity-elisa to elucidate the recency o ...200515801622
neospora caninum: quantification of dna in the blood of naturally infected aborted and pregnant cows using real-time pcr.this study quantified neospora caninum dna in the blood and brain of pregnant and aborted heifers by monitoring pcr product formation in real-time using sybr green i, a double-stranded dna-binding dye. primers were designed to amplify a 188 bp product specific to n. caninum from the nc-5 gene fragment of n. caninum. similarly, a 71 bp product was amplified from the 28s rrna gene of bovine genomic dna that served as a control. agarose gel electrophoresis and analysis of the melting curve for pcr ...200515804378
serological responses to neospora caninum in experimentally and naturally infected water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis).the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) is an important natural host for neospora caninum. serologic responses to n. caninum were studied in experimentally and naturally infected water buffaloes in brazil. antibodies were assayed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) using a cut off value of 1:25. six buffaloes were each inoculated subcutaneously with 5 x 10(6) live culture-derived tachyzoites of the cattle illinois strain of n. caninum, and two calves were kept as uninoculated controls. ...200515817198
immunisation of mice against neosporosis with recombinant ncsrs2 iscoms.the coccidian parasite neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan, causing abortion in cattle in many countries around the world. in this study, the protective potential of the major n. caninum surface antigen ncsrs2, expressed in escherichia coli and formulated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms), was investigated in an experimental mouse model. the recombinant protein was specially designed for binding to iscoms via biotin-streptavidin interaction. two groups of 10 balb/c mice were i ...200515817199
relationship between type 1/type 2 immune responses and occurrence of vertical transmission in balb/c mice infected with neospora caninum.to examine the relationship between occurrence of vertical transmission and type 1/type 2 immune responses induced by neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice, pregnant (group 1 p) and non-pregnant mice (group 1 np) were inoculated with 2 x 10(6) of the n. caninum parasites and then we examined the vertical transmission rate and production of ifn-gamma and il-4. we also studied chronically infected mice, which were bred at 4 weeks or more after infection (group 2), and mice inoculated during pr ...200515817216
immune responses during pregnancy in heifers naturally infected with neospora caninum with and without immunization.this study was designed to identify changes in parasite-specific immune responses that occur during vertical transmission of neospora caninum and can be used as indicators of parasite reactivation in naturally infected heifers. ten heifers were unimmunized and 11 immunized with killed tachyzoites. one unimmunized heifer, which aborted at week 19 of gestation, had an increase in parasite-specific antibodies, mainly igg(2), from week 15 to week 19 and a concomitant decline in parasite-specific cel ...200515841416
feline cutaneous toxoplasmosis: a case report.a 9-year-old female, domestic short hair cat was presented with sudden onset of polyuria/polydipsia, and hundreds of cutaneous nodules. prior to referral, the cat had had four skin nodules that were treated with steroids. the four skin nodules then multiplied to form more than 100 ulcerated and nonulcerated nodules located all over the trunk. clinical evaluation revealed hypothermia and respiratory distress. cytology from both skin nodules and bronchoalveolar lavage showed macrophages and small ...200515842545
isolation of neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).attempts were made to isolate neospora caninum from naturally infected white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 110 deer killed during the 2003 hunting season in virginia region were used for the isolation of n. caninum. of these, brains from 28 deer that had nat titer of 1:200 were inoculated into interferon-gamma gene knock out (ko) mice. n. caninum was isolated from the tissues of three deer and all three isolates were mildly virulent to ko mice. only one of the isolates could b ...200515845280
occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in brazilian cervids kept in captivity.neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that causes disease in captive and domesticated animals and has been found in wild animals such as cervids. sera from 150 cervids of the genus mazama, were collected from 31 captive herds and 16 zoos from different brazilian regions and analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test for anti-n. caninum antibodies. positive reactions were found in 42% (63) of the samples and the titers varied from 50 to 51,200. of the 86 cervids from the captive herds, 38 ...200515845290
associations between pregnancy outcome and serological response to neospora caninum among a group of dairy heifers.to monitor pregnancy in a group of rising 2-year-old dairy heifers on a farm on which abortion due to neospora caninum was known to occur in previous years.200515846399
autofluorescence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum cysts in vitro.autofluorescence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum was studied by fluorescence microscopy during their differentiation from tachyzoites to bradyzoites in vitro using vero as host cells. stage conversion into bradyzoites and cysts was confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy and western blot analysis using sag1- and bag1-specific antibody, respectively. from day 4 postinfection (pi), pale blue autofluorescence of the bradyzoites and tissue cysts was observed with uv light at 330-385 nm, ...200515856866
detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in cattle by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with truncated ncsrs2 expressed in escherichia coli.the surface antigen 1-related sequence 2 of neospora caninum (ncsrs2) is considered as an immunodominant antigen. in this study, the gene encoding truncated ncsrs2 (ncsrs2t) lacking an n-terminal signal peptide and c-terminal hydrophobic regions was expressed in escherichia coli, and its diagnostic potential in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated. elisa could discriminate clearly between known n. caninum-positive and -negative sera from cattle. field serum samples collecte ...200515856900
development of neospora caninum cultured with human serum in vitro and in vivo.because there has been no report of symptomatic neospora caninum infection in humans, we examined the effect of human serum on the parasite's growth in either a bovine angioendothelial cell or caco-2 cell culture in vitro and in immunocompromised mice in vivo. there was no difference in intracellular parasite numbers between cells incubated with human serum at 24 hr after challenge and those incubated with fetal bovine serum (fbs), which has no titer for the anti-n. caninum agglutination antibod ...200515856911
identification of vaccine candidate peptides in the ncsrs2 surface protein of neospora caninum by using cd4+ cytotoxic t lymphocytes and gamma interferon-secreting t lymphocytes of infected holstein cattle.previously, our laboratory showed that holstein cattle experimentally infected with neospora caninum develop parasite-specific cd4+ cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. to identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine ctl and helper t-lymphocyte responses for vaccine development against bovine neosporosis, the tachyzoite major surface proteins ncsag1 and ncsrs2 were targeted. in whole tachyzoite antigen-expanded bovi ...200515731029
neosporosis in a young dog presenting with dermatitis and neuromuscular signs.a 16-week-old, male boxer dog developed multifocal nodular dermatitis followed by rapidly progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease. protozoal tachyzoites were demonstrated by aspiration and biopsy of dermal lesions. necropsy and histology revealed necrotising inflammation associated with intralesional protozoal organisms in various organs including the brain, heart, skeletal muscle and skin. serology suggested active infection with neospora caninum. immunohistochemistry provided a definitive ...200515736815
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in dogs and foxes in austria.sera from 1770 dogs and 94 red foxes from austria were examined for antibodies against neospora caninum using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). 3.6% of the dogs were seropositive with titres ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. dogs from rural areas were significantly more often seropositive for n. caninum than those from the urban area of vienna (5.3% versus 2.1%). there were no significant differences in sex or breed, but a slight increase in seropositivity with age was apparent, in ...200515740855
igg avidity pattern in cattle after ingestion of neospora caninum oocysts.the avidity (functional affinity) of specific antibodies are being used to estimate duration of bovine neospora caninum infection. here, we report for the first time the avidity pattern in cattle orally inoculated with n. caninum oocysts. in all, 16 pregnant cows and 7 calves were administered n. caninum oocysts. in the cows, the avidity increased during the early course of infection. in all but one, the avidity was < or = 35 during the first 6 weeks after infection and no cow had an avidity val ...200515740856
prevalence and transmission of neospora caninum within infected swedish dairy herds.in this long-term study, the changes in within-herd neospora caninum seroprevalences and the relative importance of horizontal and vertical parasite transmission in swedish dairy herds were investigated. the within-herd prevalences varied between 5.8% and 65.0% when the herds were first sampled. comparing the prevalences of year 2000 with those found 2-3 years later, nine out of 14 investigated herds had a similar or lower within-herd prevalence while five herds had an increased portion of serop ...200515740858
neospora caninum in pastured cattle: determination of climatic, environmental, farm management and individual animal risk factors using remote sensing and geographical information systems.a cross-sectional serological survey was conducted on cattle pasturing in an area of the southern italian apennines to evaluate the seroprevalence to neospora caninum, and to investigate the climatic, environmental, farm management, and individual animal factors that influence the distribution of this protozoan. blood samples were collected from 864 pastured cattle raised on 81 farms. serum samples were tested for antibodies to n. caninum using an elisa assay (herdcheck), idexx). a geographical ...200515740859
neospora abortions in dairy cattle: diagnosis, mode of transmission and control.to determine the contribution of neospora caninum to abortions on a dairy farm in nsw (australia), determine the mode of transmission and develop and trial a control option for infection.200515740860
the use of beef bull semen reduced the risk of abortion in neospora-seropositive dairy cows.there is an evidence that the epidemiology of neosporosis differs in dairy and beef cattle, such that beef cattle carry a lower risk of abortion. the aim of the present study was to establish whether artificial insemination using semen from beef bulls could reduce the risk of abortion in dairy cows seropositive for the neospora caninum parasite. our study was based on yearly serological screening for neosporosis and on the confirmation of neospora infection in aborted fetuses in two high-produci ...200515752268
general strategies for efficient adjuvant incorporation of recombinant subunit immunogens.we have previously reported strategies for escherichia coli production of recombinant immunogens fused to hydrophobic peptides or lipid tags to improve their capacity to be incorporated into an adjuvant formulation, e.g., immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). recently, we also explored the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin to achieve iscom association of recombinant immunogens. plasmodium falciparum,toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antigens have served as model immunogens ...200515755622
global protein expression analysis in apicomplexan parasites: current status.members of the phylum apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites that cause some of the most serious, and in some cases, deadly diseases in humans and animals. they include species from the genus plasmodium, toxoplasma, eimeria, neospora, cryptosporidium, babesia and theileria. the medical, veterinary and economic impact of these pathogens on a global scale is enormous. although chemo- and immuno-prophylactic strategies are available to control some of these parasites, they are inadequate. cu ...200515759314
seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in dairy cattle in saskatchewan.blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with > or = 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.200515759829
gerbil model of acute neosporosis.experimental infections with the nc-1 strain of neospora caninum were conducted in gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) to determine their acute responses to experimental intraperitoneal infection. five groups of five female gerbils were used and they were intraperitoneally infected with 1x10(6), 2x10(6), 3x10(6), 4x10(6) or 5x10(6) tachyzoites. gerbils in all groups developed clinical signs of neosporosis which consisted of inactivity 4-5 days post-inoculation. morbidity and mortality were observed ...200515631903
application of proteomics for comparison of proteome of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.protein profiles of two isolates of neospora caninum (kba-2 and jpa1) and toxoplasma gondii rh strain were investigated by proteomic approach. approximately, 78% of protein spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de) profiles and 80% of antigen spots on 2-de immunoblotting profiles were exhibited to share the same pi and m(r) between kba-2 and jpa1 of n. caninum. on the other hand, a total of 30 antigen spots of t. gondii were recognized on 2-de immunoblotting profile using rabbit antise ...200515652819
toltrazuril treatment to control diaplacental neospora caninum transmission in experimentally infected pregnant mice.we addressed the question whether diaplacental transmission of neospora caninum can be controlled by metaphylactic chemotherapy using toltrazuril or enrofloxacin. female c57/bl6 mice, infected on day 10 of pregnancy, were medicated for 6 consecutive days p.i. with 52.5 mg toltrazuril or - as an out-group control medication--16.7 mg enrofloxacin per kg body weight per day. other control groups received either infection but no medication or vice versa. toltrazuril treatment significantly reduced p ...200515700756
adaptation of a surface antigen-based elisa for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine milk.the aim of the present study was to determine whether an elisa based on a 38-kda surface antigen (ncsrs2) of neospora caninum tachyzoites could be used to examine bovine milk for antibodies against n. caninum. a total of 797 undiluted milk samples from n. caninum-infected herds were examined in the p38-elisa. milk results of individual animals were compared with those obtained by the same elisa for the corresponding serum samples. the linear correlation between milk and serum antibody results of ...200515703000
neospora caninum infection does not affect the fertility of dairy cows in herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions.this present study, was designed to establish whether neospora caninum infection affects the fertility of high-producing dairy cows, and was based on yearly serological screening for neosporosis and on the confirmation of n. caninum infection in aborted foetuses. assessment was made of 7518 artificial inseminations (ai) (applied to parous cows) performed in three herds. of these inseminations, 2540 (33.8%) resulted in pregnancy; 34% of which corresponded to seronegative cows (2226 of 6556 ai per ...200515703002
risk factors associated with neospora caninum abortion in ontario holstein dairy herds.the objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for neospora caninum-related abortions in ontario holstein dairy herds. a total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing dairy herd improvement (dhi) services, were divided into three groups. case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the animal health laboratory, university of guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respecti ...200515710518
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in local and imported cattle breeds in the kars province of turkey.this study investigates the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the province of kars in north-eastern turkey. a total of 301 serum samples, 228 from local breeds of cows with a history of recent abortion and the remaining 73 collected at random from simmental cows imported from germany or their offspring, were tested for anti-neospora antibodies by elisa. all the serum samples from local breeds were negative for n. caninum antibodies, apart from one which tested inconclusive. in cont ...200515563918
acute toxoplasmosis in three wild arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) from svalbard; one with co-infections of salmonella enteritidis pt1 and yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 2b.acute disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three wild arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) that were found dead in the same locality on svalbard (norway). the animals included one adult female and two 4-months-old pups. the adult fox was severely jaundiced. necropsy revealed multifocal, acute, necrotizing hepatitis, acute interstitial pneumonia, and scattered foci of brain gliosis, often associated with toxoplasma tachyzoites. one pup also had toxoplasma-associated meningitis. in addition, the l ...200515563924
applying biotin-streptavidin binding for iscom (immunostimulating complex) association of recombinant immunogens.we have previously reported strategies for escherichia coli production of recombinant immunogens fused to hydrophobic peptide or lipid tags to improve their capacity to be incorporated into an adjuvant formulation. in the present study, we have explored the strong interaction between biotin and sa (streptavidin) (k(d) approximately 10(-15) m) to couple recombinant immunogens to iscoms (immunostimulating complexes). two different concepts were evaluated. in the first concept, a his(6)-tagged sa f ...200515296488
[red fox (vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].red fox (vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. this review presents data from europe and poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (vulpes vulpes). the most common nematodes were geohelminths: uncinaria stenocephala, toxocara canis and toxocara leonina. as concerning trichinella genus t. britovi was found more often than t. spiralis. among tapeworms the following species were recorded: mesocestoides lineatus, taenia sp., and echinococcus ...200516838621
development of a practical immunochromatographic test with recombinant p50 for the diagnosis of babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.an immunochromatographic test (ict), using recombinant truncated p50 (p50t), for the detection of antibodies to babesia gibsoni was developed and evaluated. whereas all sera from specific pathogen-free dogs were clearly negative, all sera from dogs experimentally infected with b. gibsoni were clearly positive in the ict. in addition, the ict detected no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs experimentally infected with closely related parasites, b. canis canis, b. canis vogeli, and b. canis rossi ...200516336730
environmental effect on the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in pampas-deer (ozotoceros bezoarticus).sera obtained from pampas-deer (ozotoceros bezoarticus) captured in two different brazilian environments were analyzed for the presence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples were collected from 23 animals from a savanna area in the national park of emas, in the state of goiás, brazil. this area is surrounded by cultivated lands and allows very little contact between wild and domestic animals. another batch of samples was collected from 16 a ...200516112811
association between neospora caninum antibodies and blue tongue vaccination in dairy cows. 200516244963
neospora caninum infection in a free-ranging raccoon (procyon lotor) with concurrent canine distemper virus infection.during a canine distemper virus (cdv) outbreak in raccoons (procyon lotor) from cook county, illinois, a juvenile female suffering from seizures was killed and necropsied. gross and histologic findings of necrotizing encephalitis and proliferative bronchopneumonia were attributed to cdv infection and considered the cause of clinical signs. a section of cerebellum stained immunohistochemically for neospora caninum revealed an approximately 40 microm diameter, round to oval cyst with a 2- to 3-mic ...200517089776
antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in the pacific bottlenose dolphin (tursiops aduncus) from the solomon islands.serum samples from 58 pacific bottlenose dolphins (tursiops aduncus) from the solomon islands were tested for the igg antibody to toxoplasma gondii by the latex agglutination test (lat), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and immunoblotting. the elisa cut-off value was taken as od > or = 0.276, and the final dilution ratio, recognized as positive, was represented by the end titer. in 25 of 58 samples, no antibody activity was detected by lat and elisa. in 8 of 58 samples, anti-t. gondii ...200517089778
[survey of neospora caninum in cattle in some provinces in the eastern anatolian region.]this study was carried out in order to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in cattle in the elaziğ, malatya, muş and bingöl provinces from january 2003- may 2004. blood samples were collected from 513 cattle and 32 aborting cows that were of various breeds and ages in all provinces. sera were obtained from these animals and antibodies against n. caninum were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). a commercially available competitive elisa (celisa) kit (vmrd, i ...200517167738
detection of neospora caninum in the semen and blood of naturally infected bulls.a prospective study was designed to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood of eight bulls seropositive to n. caninum using nested-pcr procedures. positive semen and blood samples were bioassayed in a balb/c nu/nu mouse model. specific anti-n. caninum serological and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses were also studied. in parallel, five seronegative bulls acted as non-infected controls. all bulls were located in a collaborating ai centre and monitored for 22 weeks. s ...200515725454
phylogenetic congruence of sarcocystis neurona dubey et al., 1991 (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae) in the united states based on sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp).the objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeographical relationships of available sarcocystis neurona isolates from different localities in the united states. all 13 sarcocystis isolates from different hosts were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analyses using two published dna markers (25/396 and 33/54). the 334 bp sequence of the 25/396 marker of these isolates and besnoitia darlingi, b ...200516025209
effects of host maturity and prior exposure history on the production of neospora caninum oocysts by dogs.to investigate whether dogs shed neospora caninum oocysts more than once, five dogs with a previous history of shedding oocysts were fed infected bovine tissues. two of three dogs shed oocysts when they were re-exposed 18-20 months after the first challenge; two other dogs re-exposed earlier, only 8 months after the primary exposure, did not produce oocysts. these results suggest that dogs may become refractory to shedding n. caninum oocysts for a period approximately between 8 and 18 months aft ...200516029931
toxoplasma gondii-like organisms in skin aspirates from a cat with disseminated protozoal infection.an 8-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat was referred to the matthew j. ryan veterinary hospital of the university of pennsylvania with a 3-day history of lethargy, inappetance, hyperemic skin nodules, coughing, and vomiting. laboratory results included nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, and increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. cytology of the skin nodules revealed many spindle- to crescent-shaped proto ...200515902669
neospora caninum: adoptive transfer of immune lymphocytes precipitates disease in balb/c mice.neospora caninum is a recently described apicomplexan parasite first isolated from a dog in 1988 and has subsequently been shown to infect a wide range of mammals. in mice, neospora can cause primary pneumonia, myositis, encephalitis, radiculoneuritis, and pancreatitis. whereas, certain aspects of the host immune response to toxoplasma gondii have been well studied, not as much is known about the full immune response to neospora. this paper examines whether or not immune splenocytes are able to ...200515916811
antibodies to neospora caninum in stray cats from north italy.antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 282 stray cats coming from four colonies near turin (north-west italy). sera were tested using a neospora agglutination test (nat). seroprevalence was 24.8% at 1:80, 12.8% at 1:160 and 5.3% at 1:320 dilution. seroprevalence in females and males, in different colonies and in different age classes, did not differ significantly. our results confirm that domestic cats are exposed to n. caninum and the observed seroprevalences sugge ...200515919155
the effects of ponazuril on development of apicomplexans in vitro.we examined the effects of 5 microg/ml ponazuril treatment on developing tachyzoites of neospora caninum and merozoites of sarcocystis neurona to better determine the mode of action of this anticoccidial drug. both parasites develop asexually by endogenesis. neospora caninum was selected for study because it develops by endodyogeny, which results in two tachyzoites being produced internally, and s. neurona was selected because it develops by endopolygeny which results in many merozoites being pr ...200515926999
exploration of immunoblot profiles of neospora caninum probed with different bovine immunoglobulin classes.the present study was attempted to compare the neospora caninum (n. caninum) antigenic bands recognized by different bovine immunoglobulin classes. a total 10, 5, 2, and 6 antigenic bands were exhibited on immunoblot profiles against bovine igm, ige, iga, and igg, respectively. a 46 kda band was probed as a common antigenic band except iga; 69 kda band was bovine igm and ige; 33, 37, 55, and 79 kda bands were bovine igm and igg; 72 kda band was found igm and iga profiles. based on the analysis, ...200515933437
effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in costa rica.a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. cows (n=2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in costa rica were used in the study. the size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean=110, median=125). an indirect elisa was used to determine the serostatus of the cows towards neospora caninum. the effect of neosporosis on milk production was analysed by a mixed linear model. in additi ...200515936812
oocysts of neospora caninum, hammondia heydorni, toxoplasma gondii and hammondia hammondi in faeces collected from dogs in germany.faecal samples of 24,089 dogs were examined coproscopically in two veterinary laboratories in germany between march 2001 and october 2004. in 47 dogs, oocysts of 9-14 microm size were found. their morphology was similar to those of hammondia heydorni and neospora caninum. samples of 28 of these dogs were further examined by inoculation into gerbils: seven isolates induced a specific antibody response against antigens of n. caninum nc-1 tachyzoites. this response suggests that the isolates contai ...200516197949
subcellular fractionation and molecular characterization of the pellicle and plasmalemma of neospora caninum.a characteristic structural feature of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum is the presence of a triple-membrane pellicle, on the zoite stages of their complex life-cycle. here we report the results of electron microscopic studies which show that the pellicle is made of a typical plasmalemma covered on its cytoplasmic side by a system of flattened vesicles named the inner membrane complex. using methods described previously for the purification of pellicle and plasmalemma fractions from t. gon ...200516174411
evaluation of homologous, heterologous, and affinity conjugates for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus).use of serological tests in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in wild animals has several limitations, primarily the difficulty of obtaining species-specific reagents. wild canids, such as maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus), are highly predisposed to infection by toxoplasma gondii and, to a lesser extent, to neospora caninum. the aim of the present study was to evaluate homologous, heterologous, and affinity conjugates in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) and indirect fluorescent ...200516419770
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild animals.antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the united states by the neospora agglutination test (nat). antibodies (nat 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (ursus americanus). to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to n. caninum in bison and caribou. ...200516419771
differential detection of hammondia hammondi from toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction.hammondia hammondi and toxoplasma gondii are two related coccidian parasites, with cats as definitive hosts and warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. it is difficult to differentiate them by morphological and serological parameters. in the present study, primers were designed to specifically amplify the its-1 region of h. hammondi to differentiate it from t. gondii. attempts were made to detect the presence of h. hammondi dna in the tissues of mice infected with h. hammondi alone, as well ...200516153883
toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 (gra3) is a type i transmembrane protein that possesses a cytoplasmic dilysine (kkxx) endoplasmic reticulum (er) retrieval motif.studies using antibodies to immunolocalize the toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein gra3, have shown that this protein associates strongly with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (pvm). however, as there was no predicted membrane-spanning domain this highlighted an unanswered paradox. we demonstrate that the previously published sequence for gra3 is actually an artificial chimera of 2 proteins. one protein, of molecular weight 65 kda, shares the c-terminus with published gra3 and possesses ...200516149193
neospora caninum protein disulfide isomerase is involved in tachyzoite-host cell interaction.we have previously shown that treatment of neospora caninum tachyzoites with the aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin a reduces host cell invasion [naguleswaran, a., muller, n., hemphill, a., 2003. neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii: a novel adhesion/invasion assay reveals distinct differences in tachyzoite-host cell interactions. exp. parasitol. 104, 149-158]. pepstatin a-affinity-chromatography led to the isolation of a major band of approximately 52 kda which was identified as a homologu ...200516129440
in vitro efficacies of nitazoxanide and other thiazolides against neospora caninum tachyzoites reveal antiparasitic activity independent of the nitro group.the thiazolide nitazoxanide [2-acetolyloxy-n-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] (ntz) exhibits a broad spectrum of activities against a wide variety of intestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths, protozoa, and enteric bacteria infecting animals and humans. the drug has been postulated to act via reduction of its nitro group by nitroreductases, including pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. in this study, we investigated the efficacies of nitazoxanide and a number of other thiazolides against neospora ...200516127045
characterization of the b-cell immune response elicited in balb/c mice challenged with neospora caninum tachyzoites.activation of b cells occurring in hosts infected with protozoan parasites has been implicated either in protective or parasite-evasion immune-mediated mechanisms. intraperitoneal inoculation of neospora caninum tachyzoites into balb/c mice induces an acute response characterized by a rapid increase in the numbers of cd69-expressing peritoneal and splenic b cells. this early b-cell stimulatory effect preceded an increase in the numbers of total and immunoglobulin-secreting splenic b cells and a ...200516108816
identification and characterization of neospora caninum cyclophilin that elicits gamma interferon production.gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) response is essential to the development of a host protective immunity in response to infections by intracellular parasites. neosporosis, an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum, is fatal when there is a complete lack of ifn-gamma in the infected host. however, the mechanism by which ifn-gamma is elicited by the invading parasite is unclear. this study has identified a microbial protein in the n. caninum tachyzoite n. caninum cycl ...200516041025
immunization with native surface protein ncsrs2 induces a th2 immune response and reduces congenital neospora caninum transmission in mice.ncsrs2, a tachyzoite surface protein of neospora caninum, is an immunodominant protein with respect to induction of antibody production and has a role in attachment and invasion of host cells. native ncsrs2 was isolated from whole tachyzoite lysate antigen by affinity chromatography using ncsrs2 specific monoclonal antibody and used to immunize balb/c mice in a congenital transmission study. ncsrs2 was a highly conserved protein as indicated by comparison of deduced amino acid sequence obtained ...200516051244
occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) from the northern region of brazil.anti-neospora caninum antibodies were determined in sera of 196 water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) from three farms of the northern region of brazil, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibody titers were found in 139 (70.9%) buffaloes with dilution values ranging from > or =25 to <200 in 41 animals, > or =200 to <800 in 35 animals, and > or =800 in 63 animals. the number of animals presenting titers > or =800 was statistically higher (p<0.05). all farms presented positive animals, how ...200516051440
the host-parasite relationship in bovine neosporosis.infection with the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is thought to be a major cause of reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. cattle infected with the parasite are three to seven times more likely to abort compared to uninfected cattle. the parasite may be transmitted to cattle through the ingestion of oocysts that are shed in the faeces of acutely infected dogs (definitive host of n. caninum) or by congenital infection from mother to foetus via the placenta. interestingly, transplacental t ...200516098610
comparison of proteome and antigenic proteome between two neospora caninum isolates.this study was conducted to explore the relationship between two isolates of neospora caninum (n. caninum) (kba-2 and vmdl-1) using proteomics. to achieve the goal, proteins of n. caninum tachyzoite lysates of kba-2 and vmdl-1 were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de), stained with silver-nitrate and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) to compare protein profiles. in addition, proteins separated by 2-de wer ...200516098674
neospora caninum seropositivity and association with abortions in dairy cows in mexico.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection was estimated from a sample of 813 cattle from 20 dairy herds in five regions in mexico. the true prevalence of infection was estimated to be 42% (95% ci: 39, 46). seropositivity was associated with abortion (odds ratio (or)=2.0) and was higher among cows raised on-farm (41%), than among replacement cattle purchased outside the farm (28%). the ors relating abortion to seropositivity in individual herds ranged from 1.3 to 10. overall, 26% of the ab ...200516098675
the sylvatic cycle of neospora caninum: where do we go from here?bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection are a major cattle-production problem worldwide. the parasite is readily maintained in cattle populations by vertical transmission. the domestic dog excretes oocysts in its feces and, after sporulation, these oocysts are infectious to cattle. current control measures are aimed at culling infected cows and limiting the access of cattle to infective oocysts. the recent revelations that coyotes (canis latrans) can excrete n. caninum oocysts in thei ...200516098812
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in sika deer from eastern hokkaido, japan.brain and serum were collected from 120 and 12 free-ranging sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis), respectively, from six regions in eastern hokkaido during controlled hunts in the autumn of 2003. brains were tested for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were measured by means of a latex agglutination test. no brain tested positive for either type of dna, and no antibody to toxoplasma gondii was detected in serum, s ...200516107684
adaptation of neospora caninum isolates to cell-culture changes: an argument in favor of its clonal population structure.neospora caninum, a recently recognized protozoan parasite of animals, is considered to be a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide. although its life cycle is not completely known, recent studies suggest that the sexual stage occurs in dogs. the prevalence of sexual reproduction in n. caninum, however, is unknown. we investigated the ability of 3 n. caninum isolates (nc-1, nc-sweb1, and nc-liverpool) to propagate asexually for approximately 250 parasite generations in a cell line in which the ...200516108539
reduced infection and protection from clinical signs of cerebral neosporosis in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with recombinant microneme antigen ncmic1.ncmic1 is a 460 amino acid neospora caninum microneme protein implicated in host cell adhesion and invasion processes. in this study, we assessed the potential protectivity of ncmic1-based vaccination against experimental n. caninum infection in mice, employing both recombinant antigen vaccines and dna vaccines. recombinant ncmic1 (recncmic1) was expressed in escherichia coli as gluthatione-s-transferase-fusion protein. the corresponding ncmic1 cdna was cloned into the pcdna3.1 expression plasmi ...200516108562
neospora caninum antigens defined by antigen-dependent bovine cd4+ t cells.neosporosis is an important cause of pregnancy loss in cattle worldwide. the objective of the present study was to identify neospora caninum antigens as vaccine candidates using antigen-specific, short-term cd4+ t cells established from n. caninum-immunized and -challenged cows. whole n. caninum tachyzoite lysate was separated into 6 fractions by deae anion-exchange chromatography using high-pressure liquid chromatography (hplc). the cd4+ t-cell proliferation assay results indicated that antigen ...200516108548
use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to rapidly differentiate neospora caninum from toxoplasma gondii in an adult dog with necrotizing myocarditis and myocardial infarct.this report describes a 3-year-old male castrated mastiff dog that died unexpectedly with locally extensive, acute, necrotizing myocarditis and myocardial infarction. intralesional protozoal tachyzoites in the affected myocardium were confirmed to be neospora caninum by a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and immunohistochemistry. protozoal organisms were not identified in other tissues by histology, immunohistochemistry, or pcr. the multiplex pcr assay was used to quickly provide ...200516475515
proportion of abortions due to neosporosis among dairy cattle in japan.a retrospective cohort study was conducted to clarify the association between seropositive reactions to neospora caninum and subsequent reproductive disorders among dairy cattle in japan. a statistically significant association between neospora seropositive reactions and abortions was observed (p=0.016), and seropositive cattle were 6.1 times more likely to abort compared to seronegative cows. no significant differences were observed between seropositive reactions and other reproductive disorder ...200516327231
persistence of neospora caninum-specific immunoglobulin g antibodies in bovine blood and lung tissue stored at room temperature.blood and tissue samples obtained at necropsy from carcasses showing varying degrees of postmortem decomposition are sometimes used as sources of antibodies for serological tests, primarily in studies involving wild animals or in examination of aborted fetuses. to test the persistence of antibodies in blood and lung tissue kept at room temperature (approximately 20degreesc) for up to 48 and 118 days, respectively, serum and lung fluid from neospora caninum-infected and uninfected cattle were tes ...200516312237
use of avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and avidity western blot to discriminate between acute and chronic neospora caninum infection in cattle.avidity serological tests (avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [elisa] and avidity western blot) were developed and used to differentiate between acute (primary infection, reinfection, and recrudescence) and chronic neospora caninum infection in cattle. in addition, the pattern of immunoglobulin g (igg) avidity maturation against different specific antigens of n. caninum tachyzoites was studied. sequential serum samples were collected from cattle naturally and experimentally infected with ...200516312235
attachment and invasion of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum to epithelial and fibroblast cell lines in vitro.attachment and invasion of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum to a cat and a dog fibroblast cell line and 2 epithelial cell lines (a cat kidney and vero) were compared in vitro using fluorescence antibody methodology. in addition, trypsin treatment of tachyzoites was used to determine whether protein molecules were essential to the process of invasion. the results show that both t. gondii and n. caninum invaded all 4 cell lines, and that pre-treatment of t. gondii tachyzoites with trypsin ca ...200516255816
inhibitory activities of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase-targeted dihydroxyisoflavone and trihydroxydeoxybenzoin derivatives on sarcocystis neurona, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum development.several gene sequences of parasitic protozoa belonging to protein kinase gene families and epidermal growth factor (egf)-like peptides, which act via binding to receptor tyrosine kinases of the egf receptor (egfr) family, appear to mediate host-protozoan interactions. as a clue to egfr protein tyrosine kinase (ptk) mediation and a novel approach for identifying anticoccidial agents, activities against sarcocystis neurona, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum grown in bm and hct-8 cell cu ...200516251305
endogenous and exogenous transplacental infection in neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii.it is clear from researching the vertical transmission of neospora caninum in cattle that the terms 'vertical', 'congenital' and, indeed, 'transplacental' are inadequate for describing two extremely different situations that have fundamentally different immunological, epidemiological and control implications. a similar situation pertains to toxoplasma gondii in different hosts. we advocate the use of the terms 'endogenous transplacental infection (tpi)' to define foetal infection from a recrudes ...200516223599
[bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination].neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. the neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. dogs (canis familiaris) and coyotes (canis latrans) are the definitive hosts known at present. although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. the mechani ...200516502644
neospora caninum: antibodies directed against tachyzoite surface protein ncsrs2 inhibit parasite attachment and invasion of placental trophoblasts in vitro.polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to native neospora caninum tachyzoite surface protein ncsrs2 were generated and tested in vitro for their ability to neutralize tachyzoite attachment to and invasion of host cells. host cells included vero cells and a newly cloned, immortalized ovine trophoblast cell line obtained from primary cultures of ovine placenta. the ovine trophoblasts had morphology consistent with fetal trophoblasts and expressed mrna for interferon-tau, a marker for trophoblasts. n ...200616375893
[new practice guidelines for abortion in cattle due to neospora caninum?]. 200616514978
long-term passage of tachyzoites in tissue culture can attenuate virulence of neospora caninum in vivo.to determine whether prolonged in vitro passage would result in attenuation of virulence in vivo, neospora caninum tachyzoites were passaged for different lengths of time in vitro and compared for their ability to cause disease in mice. groups of balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 x 10(6) or 1 x 10(7) of low-passage or high-passage n. caninum tachyzoites. the mice were monitored for changes in their demeanour and body weight, and were culled when severe clinical symptoms of mur ...200616762097
seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. infections in swedish horses.sera from 414 swedish horses were investigated for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. by the t. gondii direct agglutination test (dat), and an neospora caninum iscom-elisa. five sera (1%) had a titre >1:40 in dat, but when analysed by immunoblotting against t. gondii antigens only two of them were positive, giving a seroprevalence of 0.5%. since the neospora iscom elisa had not been validated for equine sera it was used for an initial screening, and all sera with an ...200616517077
artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. the detection of neospora caninum dna in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. in this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable n. caninum tachyzoites (group a) and four control cows were insem ...200616542775
temporal distribution and parasite load kinetics in blood and tissues during neospora caninum infection in mice.the kinetics of neospora caninum loads in mice inoculated with nc-liv or nc-1 isolates were studied. the acute phase was characterized by parasitemia and the detection of parasite dna in several organs, whereas during the chronic phase, the parasite was detected mainly in the brain. mice infected with nc-liv developed clinical signs, showing higher brain parasite burdens than nc-1-infected mice.200616552086
precolostral serology in calves born from neospora-seropositive mothers.the present study was designed to exploratively determine (a) how many healthy calves, born from seropositive mothers, were also precolostrally seropositive; (b) how many precolostrally negative calves became postcolostrally positive; and (c) in these calves, how the igg1/igg2 situation developed pre- and postcolostrally. all calves were born from mothers that were determined to be seropositive in a conventional neospora caninum-elisa and by immunoblotting. when the diagnostic performance of the ...200616572335
identification of a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum in excretory-secretory products and its iga binding and enzymatic activities.a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum (ncpdi) with a molecular weight of 50kda was identified in tachyzoite lysate and excretory-secretory (es) products. the iga antibody in 58.0% of the individual cattle tear samples recognized the ncpdi, which suggests that the pdi-specific antibody may be involved in defense against parasites. in addition, pdi-specific inhibitors and ncpdi antiserum showed inhibitory effects on the growth of n. caninum tachyzoites. furthermore, the purified recomb ...200616574326
vaccination with gamma-irradiated neospora caninum tachyzoites protects mice against acute challenge with n. caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is a leading cause of bovine abortions worldwide. the efficacy of gamma-irradiated n. caninum strain nc-1 tachyzoites as a vaccine for neosporosis was assessed in c57bl6 mice. a dose of 528 gy of gamma irradiation was sufficient to arrest replication but not host cell penetration by tachyzoites. female c57bl6 mice were vaccinated with two intraperitoneal inoculations of 1 x 10(6) irradiated tachyzoites at 4-wk intervals. when stimulated with n. caninum ...200616579818
a prospective study of the effect of neospora caninum and bvdv infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru.we used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru, and its association with neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infections. between january 2002 and march 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. the serological status to n. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas bvdv status was assessed at the herd level thro ...200616597470
footpad reaction induced by neospora caninum tachyzoite extract in infected balb/c mice.little information is available regarding a delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction in neosporosis. in this study, we examined the elicitation of a dth reaction in mice infected with neospora caninum by inoculation of the footpad with tachyzoite antigens. the footpads of balb/c mice infected with n. caninum and those of non-infected were injected with either the tachyzoite extract, or paraformaldehyde-fixed tachyzoites. in mice inoculated with n. caninum antigens on day 7 p.i. swelling peak ...200616616423
neospora caninum in wildlife.neosporosis, which is caused by the coccidian parasite neospora caninum, is recognized as a major disease of domestic animals that causes high abortion rates in cattle and fatal neurological disease in dogs. a life cycle of n. caninum in wild animals (i.e. sylvatic) has long been suspected because neosporosis has been detected in several wildlife species. recently, the transmission of n. caninum has been confirmed in coyotes and white-tailed deer. the newly confirmed wild hosts and other wild an ...200616616642
neospora caninum igg avidity tests: an interlaboratory comparison.avidity tests can be used to discriminate between cattle that are acutely and chronically infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum. the aim of this study was to compare the igg avidity elisa tests being used in four european laboratories. a coded panel of 200 bovine sera from well documented naturally and experimentally n. caninum infected animals were analysed at the participating laboratories by their respective assay systems and laboratory protocols. comparing the numeric tes ...200616750301
humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril.neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important infectious organisms causing abortion and stillbirth in cattle. this parasite causes severe economical losses worldwide. infection is mostly passed vertically from mother to calf during pregnancy. under certain circumstances, an infection can lead to abortion, but in most cases it results in a chronically infected calf, which itself will represent the next endogenously infectious generation. so far, no reliable therapeutic or met ...200616628455
cellular and immunological basis of the host-parasite relationship during infection with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and domestic animals. however, in contrast to t. gondii, n. caninum represents a major cause of abortion in cattle, pointing towards distinct differences in the biology of these two species. there are 3 distinct key features that represent potential targets for prevention of infection or intervention against disease caused by n. caninum. firstly, tachyzoites a ...200616753081
performance characteristics and optimisation of cut-off values of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in the serum of cattle.to determine the performance characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) manufactured by institut pourquier (ip) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine sera.200616672180
investigation for presence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and brucella-species infection in killer whales (orcinus orca) mass-stranded on the coast of shiretoko, hokkaido, japan.twelve killer whale (orcinus orca) were hemmed in by ice floes, and nine died on the aidomari coast in the nemuro strait in rausu, shiretoko, hokkaido, japan on 8 february 2005. tissue samples collected from 8 whales were tested for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and brucella species dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. gamma-globulin isolated from blood samples by ammonium sulfate precipitation was tested for antibodies to these pathogens by means of agglutination tests and immun ...200616757901
diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in southern brazil.the protozoa neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. the objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in southern brazil with special reference to n. caninum infection. a total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. the cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with n. caninum. bacterial infection ac ...200616772136
neospora caninum associated with septic peritonitis in an adult dog.a 7-year-old, male neutered rhodesian ridgeback dog was referred to the university of california-davis veterinary medical teaching hospital with a 4-month history of peritonitis and episodic abdominal discomfort, lethargy, and weakness. marked abdominal distension with a prominent fluid wave was noted on physical examination. cytologic analysis of the abdominal fluid indicated a septic exudate with mixed bacteria and many protozoal zoites. differentials for the identity of the protozoal zoites i ...200616783720
identification of a dithiol-dependent nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in sarcocystis neurona.a putative nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase (ntpase) gene was identified in a database of expressed sequence tags (ests) from the apicomplexan parasite sarcocystis neurona. analysis of culture-derived s. neurona merozoites demonstrated a dithiol-dependent ntpase activity, consistent with the presence of a homologue to the tgntpases of toxoplasma gondii. a complete cdna was obtained for the s. neurona gene and the predicted amino acid sequence shared 38% identity with the two tgntpase isoforms f ...200616790243
seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in manitoba.of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres > or = 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.200616933557
neospora caninum antibodies in commercial fetal bovine serum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. in the process of propagating neospora in vitro and producing specific antibodies for development of diagnostic assays in the food supply, our laboratory identified the presence of bovine antibodies to n. caninum in fetal bovine sera. the sera were produced commercially and preferentially recommended for tissue culture use and monoclonal antibody production. seventeen different fetal bovine serum ...200616697531
neospora caninum immunoblotting improves serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum ranges among the major causes of infectious abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to improve the serodiagnostic tools by complementing a conventional elisa with a highly sensitive and species-specific n. caninum immunoblot. to evaluate this test combination, sera from several groups of cows were tested. the first group, consisting of experimentally infected calves, showed that immunoblot antibody reactivities were detectable 1 to 3 days earlier than those ...200616718512
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