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neospora caninum igg avidity tests: an interlaboratory comparison.avidity tests can be used to discriminate between cattle that are acutely and chronically infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum. the aim of this study was to compare the igg avidity elisa tests being used in four european laboratories. a coded panel of 200 bovine sera from well documented naturally and experimentally n. caninum infected animals were analysed at the participating laboratories by their respective assay systems and laboratory protocols. comparing the numeric tes ...200616750301
[search for neospora caninum dna in bull semen using pcr ].neospora caninum represents one of the most frequent abortifaciant organisms worldwide. the parasite is diaplacentally transmitted from the pregnant cow to the fetus, where it normally leads to the delivery of a healthy, however persistently infected calf. abortion thus is a relative rare event. the transmission of bovine neosporosis occurs in more than 90% of the cases vertically due to the endogenous reactivation of a persistently infected mother. exogenous infections are therefore responsible ...200617024977
detection of immunoglobulin g antibodies to neospora caninum in humans: high seropositivity rates in patients who are infected by human immunodeficiency virus or have neurological disorders.considering that little is known about the epidemiology of neospora caninum infection in humans, particularly in populations with high toxoplasma gondii infection rates, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies to n. caninum in t. gondii-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. a total of 256 serum samples divided into four groups (61 samples from human immunodeficiency virus [hiv]-positive patients, 50 samples from patients with neurological disorders, 91 samples fro ...200616426004
identification of a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum in excretory-secretory products and its iga binding and enzymatic activities.a protein disulfide isomerase of neospora caninum (ncpdi) with a molecular weight of 50kda was identified in tachyzoite lysate and excretory-secretory (es) products. the iga antibody in 58.0% of the individual cattle tear samples recognized the ncpdi, which suggests that the pdi-specific antibody may be involved in defense against parasites. in addition, pdi-specific inhibitors and ncpdi antiserum showed inhibitory effects on the growth of n. caninum tachyzoites. furthermore, the purified recomb ...200616574326
neospora caninum immunoblotting improves serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum ranges among the major causes of infectious abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to improve the serodiagnostic tools by complementing a conventional elisa with a highly sensitive and species-specific n. caninum immunoblot. to evaluate this test combination, sera from several groups of cows were tested. the first group, consisting of experimentally infected calves, showed that immunoblot antibody reactivities were detectable 1 to 3 days earlier than those ...200616718512
prevalence of neospora caninum infection in sardinian dairy farms (italy) detected by iscom elisa on tank bulk milk.neospora caninum is a heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidian closely related to toxoplasma gondii and is considered one of the major causes of abortions in cattle worldwide. the present work aims to update the epidemiological trend of n. caninum of dairy cattle in sardinia island, western mediterranean (italy). for this reason, we used the newest enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) methodology that exploits immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) principle and allows us to point out the infection in th ...200616323023
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in camels (camelus dromedarius) in mashhad, iran.one hundred twenty camels were blood-sampled and used to evaluate serological screening for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) in mashhad, iran, during years 2004-2005. of the 120 camels, antibodies to n. caninum were found in three in titers of 1:20 and in four in titers of 1:40 using whole n. caninum tachyzoites as ifat slide (vmrd inc., pullman, wa 99163, usa). antibodies to t. gondii were found in three camels in titers 1:20 and in t ...200616425066
characterization of the immune response in the placenta of cattle experimentally infected with neospora caninum in early gestation.a serial examination of three groups of cattle infected intravenously (iv) (group 1, n=8) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2, n=8) with live neospora caninum tachyzoites or with vero cells (group 3, n=8) at 70 days' gestation was carried out and the nature of the inflammatory responses in the placenta and the presence of parasite antigen were analysed. immune cells expressing cd3, cd4, cd8, gamma delta (gammadelta) t-cell receptors (tcr), cd79alpha cytoplasmic (cy) (b cells) and nkp46 [natural kill ...200616997005
neospora caninum: antibodies directed against tachyzoite surface protein ncsrs2 inhibit parasite attachment and invasion of placental trophoblasts in vitro.polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to native neospora caninum tachyzoite surface protein ncsrs2 were generated and tested in vitro for their ability to neutralize tachyzoite attachment to and invasion of host cells. host cells included vero cells and a newly cloned, immortalized ovine trophoblast cell line obtained from primary cultures of ovine placenta. the ovine trophoblasts had morphology consistent with fetal trophoblasts and expressed mrna for interferon-tau, a marker for trophoblasts. n ...200616375893
cellular and immunological basis of the host-parasite relationship during infection with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and domestic animals. however, in contrast to t. gondii, n. caninum represents a major cause of abortion in cattle, pointing towards distinct differences in the biology of these two species. there are 3 distinct key features that represent potential targets for prevention of infection or intervention against disease caused by n. caninum. firstly, tachyzoites a ...200616753081
seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, neospora caninum, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivity.a province-wide, cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), neospora caninum (nc), bovine leukemia virus (blv), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) genotypes 1 and 2 (bvdv1 and bvdv2) infection in dairy cattle herds in alberta was conducted. among adults, the seroprevalence of map, nc, and blv was 9.1%, 18.5%, and 26.9%, respectively. for map, based on a herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows, 58.8% ...200617078247
supranational comparison of neospora caninum seroprevalences in cattle in germany, the netherlands, spain and sweden.herd, within-herd and animal prevalences for neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle were compared between four countries. in randomly selected herds from regions of germany, the netherlands, spain and sweden that were representative for the cattle production of these countries, all animals > or = 2 years were examined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) with high test specificity (> 98.0%). in a previous study, the elisas had been validated against each other. single ...200616417972
[reaction of bovine endothelial cells in vitro to coccidia (eimeria bovis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum) infections as the expression of a non-adaptive immune response].eimeria (e.) bovis sporozoites as well as toxoplasma (t.) gondii and neospora (n.) caninum tachyzoites can invade bovine endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro and develop to next stage meronts within 15-20 and 3-4 days, respectively. the latter differences suggest different immune evasion strategies, particularly concerning innate reactions. realtime rt-pcr techniques were used to determine transcript levels of genes relevant in this sense, i.e. adhesion molecule, chemokine, growth factor gm-csf, c ...200617009708
effect of neospora caninum-serostatus on culling, reproductive performance and milk production in dutch dairy herds with and without a history of neospora caninum-associated abortion epidemics.we quantified the effect of neospora caninum (nc)-serostatus on culling and (re)production in 83 herds randomly selected from the dutch dairy herd population (random group) and in 17 herds that had experienced an abortion epidemic associated with nc infection (epidemic-abortion group). in the random group, a single whole-herd blood sampling was done during the spring of 2003, while in the epidemic-abortion group whole-herd blood sampling was done repeatedly at least once a year starting after th ...200616949168
simulating the impact of four control strategies on the population dynamics of neospora caninum infection in swiss dairy cattle.a dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to assess the impact of different putative control strategies on the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in female swiss dairy cattle. the model structure comprised compartments of "susceptible" and "infected" animals (si-model) and the cattle population was divided into 12 age classes. a reference model (model 1) was developed to simulate the current (status quo) situation (present seroprevalence in switzerland 12%), taking into account avai ...200616962190
a clinical, evidence-based approach to infectious causes of infertility in beef cattle.infertility is the diminished or absent capacity to produce viable offspring. infections that reduce ovulation rates, fertilization rates, embryonic survival rates, fetal survival rates or perinatal survival rates result in observed infertility in beef cows. reproductive pathogens include leptospira, campylobacter, hemophilus, brucella, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, tritrichomonas foetus, and neospora caninum. infectious infertility can be prevented or controlled with approp ...200616725187
diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. the diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. in the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable n. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.200616730126
distribution of antibodies against neospora caninum, bvdv and bhv-1 among cows in brazilian dairy herds with reproductive disorders.neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv-1) are worldwide spread pathogens associated with reproductive problems in cattle. the present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of these three pathogens in two dairy herds with distinct reproductive managements from triângulo mineiro, minas gerais state, brazil. the herds were not vaccinated against either n. caninum, bvdv or bhv-1. blood samples were collected and analyzed for presence of specific ant ...200617196123
influence of the stage of pregnancy on neospora caninum distribution, parasite loads and lesions in aborted bovine foetuses.in the present work we have studied in neospra caninum aborted bovine foetuses the influence of foetal age (first, second and third gestational periods) on parasite distribution by nested pcr, parasite loads by real-time pcr and n. caninum associated lesions. for this purpose, a total of 220 aborted foetuses were analysed and detection of n. caninum infection was accomplished by nested-pcr in brain, heart and liver, detecting the presence of the parasite in 72 (32.7%) bovine foetuses. when the d ...200616023188
comparison of different methods for the solubilisation of neospora caninum (phylum apicomplexa) antigen.parasite antigens are of interest both for the development of better diagnostic tools and potential subunit vaccines. particularly, relevant in this regard are membrane proteins as the first point of contact between host and parasite. here, four different methods for the extraction and solubilisation of neospora caninum proteins were evaluated by comparing protein yield, specific antigenicity and relative protein abundance in the electrophoresis profile. extraction with sds and sulphobetaines (s ...200616289567
validation of a commercially available celisa test for canine neosporosis against an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat).a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa, vmrd) was validated for the detection of neospora caninum antibodies in the serum of dogs, using as a reference test an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat, fuller). a partial verification approach was used. a total of 618 dogs were screened with celisa and a subset of positive and negative sera (n=237) were then tested with ifat. naïve relative sensitivity (se(nv)) and naïve relative specificity (sp(nv)) of cel ...200616293328
identification and molecular cloning of the neospora caninum sag4 gene specifically expressed at bradyzoite stage.here, we identify and clone the ncsag4 gene, orthologue to the toxoplasma gondii tgsag4 gene, and the first reported gene to be expressed specifically during the neospora caninum bradyzoite stage. to isolate ncsag4, we designed degenerate oligonucleotides based on the tgsag4 protein amino acid sequence. a 312-bp dna fragment was amplified by pcr from n. caninum genomic dna, whose sequence showed 65% identity to tgsag4 gene over 257 bp. ncsag4 gene sequence was obtained by pcr genome walking. nuc ...200616303187
occurrence of neospora caninum in dogs and its correlation with visceral leishmaniasis in the urban area of campo grande, mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines, and is described as causing neuromuscular alteration and death in dogs. visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an infectious disease that affects both humans and animals, being caused by protozoan parasites of the genus leishmania, of which leishmania (leishmania) chagasi is found in brazil -- transmitted by sand flies, such as lutzomyia longipalpis, in most of the american ...200616310954
prevalence of sarcocystis neurona and neospora spp. infection in horses from brazil based on presence of serum antibodies to parasite surface antigen.sera from 961 horses from brazil were tested for antibodies against the major surface antigens snsag4 and nhsag1 to determine the seroprevalence of sarcocystis neurona and neospora hughesi, respectively. antibodies against snsag4 were detected in 669 (69.6%) of the horses, while antibodies against nhsag1 were detected in only 24 (2.5%) of the horses. these serologic results suggest that there is a high concentration of s. neurona in the environment of brazil, which results in marked exposure of ...200616310955
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle herds in mashhad area, iran.a seroepidemiology study of neospora caninum was conducted in mashhad area, khorasan province, iran on 337 cattle from 30 dairy using elisa. all herds had seropositive cattle and antibodies were formed in 46% of the cattle. abortion was significantly associated with seropositivity of cattle. the highest risk of abortion was observed in the 1-2-year-old cows. our results indicate that neospora infection is widespread in iran.200616289861
diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in southern brazil.the protozoa neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. the objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in southern brazil with special reference to n. caninum infection. a total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. the cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with n. caninum. bacterial infection ac ...200616772136
molecular identity of the electrophoretic pattern and the major cross-reacting immunogens of toxoplasma gondii (rh strain) and neospora caninum.the complex electrophoretic profile of the antigenic components of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum was studied. t. gondii (rh strain) trophozoite's antigens were resolved by gel electrophoresis under denaturating condition. resolved polypeptides were tested by immunoblotting against hyper-immune serum prepared in boscat rabbits. immunoblot analysis revealed 6 reactive bands, which are 158, 111, 102, 86, 55 and 33 kda, out of 10 antigenic bands of the parasite. concerning n. caninum tropho ...200616605107
footpad reaction induced by neospora caninum tachyzoite extract in infected balb/c mice.little information is available regarding a delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction in neosporosis. in this study, we examined the elicitation of a dth reaction in mice infected with neospora caninum by inoculation of the footpad with tachyzoite antigens. the footpads of balb/c mice infected with n. caninum and those of non-infected were injected with either the tachyzoite extract, or paraformaldehyde-fixed tachyzoites. in mice inoculated with n. caninum antigens on day 7 p.i. swelling peak ...200616616423
immunodiagnosis of besnoitia besnoiti infection by elisa and western blot.besnoitia besnoiti, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis. this infection may dramatically affect body condition and lead to irreversible infertility in males, resulting in important economical losses in livestock production. identification of serologically positive animals is of major relevance to elaborate appropriate measures of control. while identification of clinical cases is relatively easy to carry out, the finding of sub ...200616822616
astroglial cells in primary culture: a valid model to study neospora caninum infection in the cns.the protozoan neospora caninum has a veterinary importance because it causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular alterations in dogs. we infected rat astrocytes, in vitro, with different concentrations of n. caninum. astrocytes responded to infection by producing the pro-inflammatory cytokine tnf-alpha and the neurotoxic-free radical no, 24 and 72 h post-infection. these data suggest that astrocytes, which are essential for brain function, are targets for the parasite and this represents a prac ...200616828168
a nationwide survey on seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in south america. however, no data on the prevalence of n. caninum infection have been available in this country. the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of n. caninum infection in beef cattle in uruguay through a nationwide survey. a two stage samp ...200616621288
humoral immune reaction of newborn calves congenitally infected with neospora caninum and experimentally treated with toltrazuril.neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important infectious organisms causing abortion and stillbirth in cattle. this parasite causes severe economical losses worldwide. infection is mostly passed vertically from mother to calf during pregnancy. under certain circumstances, an infection can lead to abortion, but in most cases it results in a chronically infected calf, which itself will represent the next endogenously infectious generation. so far, no reliable therapeutic or met ...200616628455
neospora caninum antibodies in commercial fetal bovine serum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. in the process of propagating neospora in vitro and producing specific antibodies for development of diagnostic assays in the food supply, our laboratory identified the presence of bovine antibodies to n. caninum in fetal bovine sera. the sera were produced commercially and preferentially recommended for tissue culture use and monoclonal antibody production. seventeen different fetal bovine serum ...200616697531
pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. it is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. the pathogenesis of abortion due to neospora is complex and only partially understood. losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. parasitaemi ...200616712863
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) from urban sydney, australia.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) has well adapted to increasing urbanization, resulting in greater interaction with humans and their domestic pets. wildlife species in urban areas face a higher risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens and may be affected by parasites hosted by cats (toxoplasma gondii) or dogs (neospora caninum), yet it is unknown to what extent urban t. vulpecula are exposed to these parasites. antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of 142 a ...200616729682
performance characteristics and optimisation of cut-off values of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in the serum of cattle.to determine the performance characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) manufactured by institut pourquier (ip) for the detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in bovine sera.200616672180
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections of bovine endothelial cells induce endothelial adhesion molecule gene transcription and subsequent pmn adhesion.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important, closely related coccidian parasites infecting a broad spectrum of hosts and host cells. infections underly a complex immunological regulation; however, little is known on innate immune reactions to these parasites. to investigate interactions between infected cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (pmn), pmn adhesion to tachyzoite-infected bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvecs) under physiological flow conditions and adhesion ...200616730378
neospora caninum and leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in ontario.no significant association existed between neospora caninum titer and serostatus to leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in ontario. leptospira titer increased with parity. amongst herds not vaccinated against leptospira, the proportions of herds with > or = 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.200616734373
the prevalence of neospora caninum and co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis in naturally occurring mammal populations.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. little is known about the extent of neospora/toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. using nested pcr techniques, based on primers from the nc5 region of n. caninum and sag1 for t. gondii, the prevalence of n. caninum and its co-infection with t. gondii were investigated in populations of mus domesticus, rattus norvegic ...200616393351
evaluation of an iscom elisa used for detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in bulk milk.the intracellular parasite neospora caninum is increasingly recognized as an important cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. presence of specific antibodies indicates infection, and the immunostimulating complex (iscom) enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) has previously been evaluated for use on individual milk and sera. in the present study, this test is investigated for use on bulk milk. in this study, 124 herds were used to analyse the relationship between within-herd prevalences based on ...200616417934
investigation for presence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and brucella-species infection in killer whales (orcinus orca) mass-stranded on the coast of shiretoko, hokkaido, japan.twelve killer whale (orcinus orca) were hemmed in by ice floes, and nine died on the aidomari coast in the nemuro strait in rausu, shiretoko, hokkaido, japan on 8 february 2005. tissue samples collected from 8 whales were tested for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and brucella species dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. gamma-globulin isolated from blood samples by ammonium sulfate precipitation was tested for antibodies to these pathogens by means of agglutination tests and immun ...200616757901
variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in milk during lactation in dairy cows.a longitudinal study was performed to investigate the variations of neospora caninum antibody levels in individual milk during lactation as well as the association between antibody levels in serum and milk. serum and milk samples of 15 milking cows were collected between february 2003 and september 2004 in three smallholder dairy farms in khon kaen province in northeast thailand. all samples were analyzed for presence of antibodies by an n. caninum iscom elisa test kit and the results were given ...200616842923
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from western amazon, brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.for evaluation of the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the state of rondônia, western amazon, brazil. an inquiry was applied in each farm. sera were examined by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were anal ...200616857319
intrauterine neospora caninum inoculation of heifers.here, we studied the potential of neospora caninum tachyzoites to infect heifers when administered in utero by artificial insemination via contaminated semen. eighteen primiparous cyclic heifers were hormonally synchronized and artificially inseminated. nine of them, which were inseminated with semen containing 10(7) live n. caninum nc-1 isolate-tachyzoites, reacted with seroconversion and a specific ifn-gamma response. moreover, n. caninum dna was demonstrated by a nested-pcr in the blood of al ...200616288958
detection of neospora caninum tachyzoites in canine cerebrospinal fluid. 200616594603
seroprevalences of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. sera from 556 animals, from 13 czech and slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: eurasian wolf (canis lupus lupus), maned ...200616387445
fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in a puppy with eosinophilia and eosinophilic peritoneal effusion.a 3-month-old male golden retriever puppy was evaluated for lethargy and fever of 2-days duration. results of a cbc and biochemical profile revealed marked eosinophilia (6.3 x 10(3)/microl; reference interval 0.1-1.2 x 10(3)/microl), moderate thrombocytopenia, and increased activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. hepatomegaly and peritoneal effusion were found using abdominal ultrasound. peritoneal fluid analysis revealed eosinophilic inflammation ...200616967426
neospora caninum: serological follow-up in dairy cows during pregnancy.we conducted a longitudinal study to follow-up the anti-neospora caninum serologic status in 30 initially seropositive and 83 initially seronegative cows during their pregnancy. study cows were blood-sampled every other month during pregnancy until parturition. blood serum samples were screened for anti-n. caninum antibodies by elisa. cows that seroconverted were re-tested by immunoblot as a confirmation test. among 30 seropositive cows, 28 cows remained seropositive during the whole pregnancy, ...200616469449
multilocus microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic diversity in neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a world-wide parasite that causes neuromuscular disorders in dogs and bovine abortion. biological diversity among isolates has been proved in both in vivo and in vitro studies. in contrast, little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. microsatellite sequence analysis constitutes a suitable tool that has been used for the genetic analysis of other apicomplexan parasites. in this report, we describe the identification and analysis of 13 microsatellite loci from ...200616883994
comparison of neospora caninum distribution, parasite loads and lesions between epidemic and endemic bovine abortion cases.it has been suggested that the abortion herd pattern could influence bovine foetal neosporosis. here, a comparison of (i) neospora caninum dna-detectability by pcr, (ii) n. caninum-associated lesions and (iii) parasite loads in target organs was made between epidemic and endemic abortion cases. we observed that n. caninum dna was predominantly detected in more than one organ in the foetuses from herds with epizootic rather than endemic abortion cases (p<0.05, fisher f-test). the highest parasite ...200616884852
seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. infections in swedish horses.sera from 414 swedish horses were investigated for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and neospora sp. by the t. gondii direct agglutination test (dat), and an neospora caninum iscom-elisa. five sera (1%) had a titre >1:40 in dat, but when analysed by immunoblotting against t. gondii antigens only two of them were positive, giving a seroprevalence of 0.5%. since the neospora iscom elisa had not been validated for equine sera it was used for an initial screening, and all sera with an ...200616517077
if control of neospora caninum infection is technically feasible does it make economic sense?recent work on neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that causes abortions in dairy cattle has focused on a number of different control options. modelling has suggested the most effective options for control but the present paper argues that the most effective option might not necessarily be optimal from an economic point of view. decision trees, using published quantitative data, were constructed to choose between four different control strategies. the costs of these interventions, such as 'te ...200616893606
dynamics of transcription of immunomodulatory genes in endothelial cells infected with different coccidian parasites.sporozoites of eimeria bovis and tachyzoites of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are able to invade and to replicate in endothelial cells. here we report on responses of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (buvec) in vitro to these coccidial infections by determining mrna levels of the cxc chemokines gro-alpha, il-8 and ip-10, the cc chemokines mcp-1 and rantes and of gm-csf, cox-2 and inos relative to the level of housekeeping gene (gapdh) transcription. t. gondii and n. caninum tachy ...200616930845
seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in manitoba.of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres > or = 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.200616933557
diagnostic significance of neospora caninum dna detected by pcr in cattle serum.a nested pcr that successfully detected neospora caninum dna in serum of cattle was used for investigation of selected abortion cases and in a study of healthy pregnant cows at an abattoir. n. caninum dna was not detected in serum from antibody positive dams that aborted due to n. caninum, but was present in serum of some antibody negative dams that aborted due to other causes. n. caninum dna was also found in the serum of about half of the animals that aborted of undetermined cause, but was not ...200616934934
vaccination with gamma-irradiated neospora caninum tachyzoites protects mice against acute challenge with n. caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is a leading cause of bovine abortions worldwide. the efficacy of gamma-irradiated n. caninum strain nc-1 tachyzoites as a vaccine for neosporosis was assessed in c57bl6 mice. a dose of 528 gy of gamma irradiation was sufficient to arrest replication but not host cell penetration by tachyzoites. female c57bl6 mice were vaccinated with two intraperitoneal inoculations of 1 x 10(6) irradiated tachyzoites at 4-wk intervals. when stimulated with n. caninum ...200616579818
a prospective study of the effect of neospora caninum and bvdv infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru.we used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in arequipa, peru, and its association with neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infections. between january 2002 and march 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. the serological status to n. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas bvdv status was assessed at the herd level thro ...200616597470
nationwide seroprevalence of neospora caninum among dairy cattle in japan.serum samples from 2420 clinically healthy dairy cattle, randomly selected from stored sera in 18 districts of japan, were tested for the presence of neospora caninum antibodies using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (titer > or =1:200). nationwide seroprevalence is estimated at 5.7% (139/2420). seropositive cattle were detected in all surveyed districts despite the evidence of confirmed case reports of bovine neosporosis, showing that n. caninum is widely distributed throughout japan. age- ...200616207513
the protozoan neospora caninum directly triggers bovine nk cells to produce gamma interferon and to kill infected fibroblasts.natural killer (nk) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in response to cytokines, like interleukin 12 (il-12). we demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of neospora caninum, a toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of ifn-gamma from purified, il-2-activated bovine nk cells. this response occurred independently of il-12 but was increased ...200616428740
low seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild canids in israel.the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of neospora caninum as well as the relationship between n. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to n. caninum in wild canids. sera samples were collected from 114 free rangi ...200616436314
protecting babies: vaccine strategies to prevent foetopathy in neospora caninum-infected cattle.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is a significant infectious abortifacient agent in cattle. despite the fact that it is a member of a well described taxonomic group, it is a relatively newly discovered parasite and its biology is not yet fully understood. cattle become infected either congenitally via transplacental transmission or post-natally by ingesting oocysts derived from the definitive host; dogs and coyotes are the only definitive hosts that have been described ...200616441503
clinical sarcocystis neurona, sarcocystis canis, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum infections in dogs.sarcocystis neurona, sarcocystis canis, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. we investigated one breeder's 25 basset hounds for these infections. in addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as s. canis infections were studied retrospectively. schizonts resembling those of s. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-s. neurona antibodies, were found i ...200616458431
application of repeated bulk milk testing for identification of infection dynamics of neospora caninum in thai dairy herds.in this prospective study, repeated bulk milk tests were evaluated to establish the neospora caninum antibody status and to describe infection dynamics and changes in prevalence of n. caninum in thai dairy herds. bulk milk from 418 herds in northeast thailand were collected at three consecutive samplings, in december 2002 (sampling 1), april (sampling 2) and december 2003 (sampling 3). all samples were analysed for presence of n. caninum antibodies by iscom elisa, and the optical density values ...200616406330
neospora caninum: infection induced il-10 overexpression in rat astrocytes in vitro.the effect of neospora caninum, a parasite that causes abortion and neuromuscular changes, has been investigated on a major population of neural cells, the astrocytes. highly enriched astroglial primary cultures obtained from neonatal rats were infected after 21 days of culture. astroglial reactivity, il-10 and ifn-gamma expression, and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase activity, metabolization of tetrazolium salt, and trypan blue exclusion assay) have been investigated after 24 and 72 h of ...200616332369
[new practice guidelines for abortion in cattle due to neospora caninum?]. 200616514978
in vitro isolation and characterisation of the first canine neospora caninum isolate in australia.neospora caninum was isolated and established in vitro from the skin lesion of a naturally infected dog. the identity of the parasite was evaluated by immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat), microscopy, western blotting and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). n. caninum dna was detected in the whole blood, serum, skin lesion, rectal scrapings and faeces of the infected dog utilising a nested pcr targeting the nc-5 gene of n. caninum. antigenic and genetic characterisation of the isolate, designated ...200616487658
canine neosporosis in hungary: screening for seroconversion of household, herding and stray dogs.in order to assess the seroprevalence of canine neosporosis 651 blood samples were collected from 586 household, 41 herding and 24 stray dogs, at small animal clinics in four large cities and other places of hungary. nineteen (2.9%) showed positivity in the ifat with titres between 1:80 and 1:10240. two dogs with high titres of antibodies to neospora caninum had neuromuscular signs (imbalance, tremor) and a further one developed papulomatous, ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis. there was no c ...200616490318
pcr detection of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and encephalitozoon cuniculi in brains of wild carnivores.neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and encephalitozoon cuniculi are important pathogens with affinity to the central nervous system of many animals. 240 brains of wild carnivores were examined by pcr-based diagnosis. the presence of n. caninum dna was confirmed in 4.61% (7/152) red foxes (vulpes vulpes). dna of t. gondii was found in 4.92% (3/61) martens (martes sp.) and in 1.32% (2/152) red foxes. dna of e. cuniculi was determined in 3.28% (2/61) martens and in one examined european otter (lut ...200616472923
herd-level risk factors for neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy farms in southern brazil.a cross-sectional study was used to test the relationship between herd seroprevalence to neospora caninum and various potential herd-level risk factors in 60 dairy farms located in two distinct regions in southern brazil. thirty farms were randomly selected from within each region. a questionnaire was designed to summarize each farm's production system as it might relate to n. caninum transmission. the questionnaire contained 105 closed questions relating to general characteristics of the farms, ...200616343669
neospora caninum in wildlife.neosporosis, which is caused by the coccidian parasite neospora caninum, is recognized as a major disease of domestic animals that causes high abortion rates in cattle and fatal neurological disease in dogs. a life cycle of n. caninum in wild animals (i.e. sylvatic) has long been suspected because neosporosis has been detected in several wildlife species. recently, the transmission of n. caninum has been confirmed in coyotes and white-tailed deer. the newly confirmed wild hosts and other wild an ...200616616642
precolostral serology in calves born from neospora-seropositive mothers.the present study was designed to exploratively determine (a) how many healthy calves, born from seropositive mothers, were also precolostrally seropositive; (b) how many precolostrally negative calves became postcolostrally positive; and (c) in these calves, how the igg1/igg2 situation developed pre- and postcolostrally. all calves were born from mothers that were determined to be seropositive in a conventional neospora caninum-elisa and by immunoblotting. when the diagnostic performance of the ...200616572335
artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. the detection of neospora caninum dna in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. in this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable n. caninum tachyzoites (group a) and four control cows were insem ...200616542775
temporal distribution and parasite load kinetics in blood and tissues during neospora caninum infection in mice.the kinetics of neospora caninum loads in mice inoculated with nc-liv or nc-1 isolates were studied. the acute phase was characterized by parasitemia and the detection of parasite dna in several organs, whereas during the chronic phase, the parasite was detected mainly in the brain. mice infected with nc-liv developed clinical signs, showing higher brain parasite burdens than nc-1-infected mice.200616552086
serological survey of neospora caninum in dogs in the czech republic and a long-term study of dynamics of antibodies.the main aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum dogs from the czech republic and to examine the dynamics of antibody titers during a long-term period. for this purpose, sera of 858 dogs were examined for the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). four groups of dogs of various origins were included in the survey: the first group (a, n=470) comprised dogs purchased by the czech army ...200716956728
evaluation of serological tests for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs: optimization of cut off titers and inhibition studies of cross-reactivity with toxoplasma gondii.diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in dogs is based on serological assays such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). this study evaluated two serological tests (ifat and elisa) for the detection of igg antibodies to n. caninum in 300 serum samples of dogs through the optimization of cut off titers by using the two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (tg-roc) curve. in addition, the identification of major cross-reactive antigens ...200716973287
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in non-carnivorous wildlife from spain.serum samples from 1034 non-carnivorous wildlife from spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). high agreement was observed between results in both techniques (kappa value higher than 0.9). prevalences of n. caninum antibodies positive by both techniques were 11.8% of 237 red deer (cervus elaphus), 7.7% of 13 barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), 6.1% of 33 ro ...200716962706
the first detection of neospora caninum dna in the colostrum of infected cows.limited data is available on the vertical transmission of neospora caninum via the colostrum. the results of our previous research revealed the presence of n. caninum dna in the milk of seropositive cows. the aim of the present work is to demonstrate parasite dna in colostrum samples. a polymerase chain reaction using np21 and np6 primers was applied to dna isolated from the colostrum sediment in order to amplify the corresponding genomic nc-5 region. the expected 328-bp product was obtained in ...200717024360
evaluation of four serological techniques to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) on prince edward island, canada.the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the performance and agreement of serological assays (elisa, ifat, neospora caninum agglutination test and immunoblot) using reference sera and field sera from foxes and coyotes and (2) to estimate the n. caninum seroprevalence in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada. with fox and coyote reference sera the test performance of the elisa, ifat and ib was excellent (100% sensitivity and specificity). nat showed a low sensitivity (50%). s ...200717223270
plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations during gestation in neospora-infected dairy cows.the aim of this study was to determine whether plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (pag-1) concentrations in pregnancy are affected by persistent neospora caninum infection in dairy cows. the data analyzed were derived from 22 multiparous cows: 16 n. caninum-seropositive and 6 n. caninum-seronegative animals (used as controls). three of the 16 seropositive cows aborted during the study period and the corresponding data were analyzed separately. pregnancy diagnoses were performed on day 40 ...200717010415
first report of neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in mashhad area, iran.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan which causes abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study was designed to assess the importance of bovine neosporosis for causing abortion in iranian cattle. infection was primarily diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), complemented with histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc). one hundred brains of aborted bovine fetuses were collected from iranian dairy herd between 2003 and 2005 in mashhad area. n. caninum was detected by pcr in t ...200717024355
analysis of the immune response to neospora caninum in a model of intragastric infection in mice.to study experimental neospora caninum infection initiated at the gastrointestinal tract, toll-like receptor 4- and functional il-12rbeta2 chain-deficient c57bl/10 sccr mice were challenged intragastrically with 5 x 10(6) n. caninum tachyzoites. all parasite-inoculated mice eventually died with disseminated infection. in contrast, immunocompetent balb/c mice challenged with 1 x 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric (i.g.) or the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route remained alive for at least ...200717187652
neospora caninum: high susceptibility to the parasite in c57bl/10sccr mice.c57bl/10sccr mice, lack toll-like receptor 4 and a functional interleukin-12 receptor. taking this into account, susceptibility of these mice to neospora caninum infection was assessed comparatively to that of immunocompetent c57bl/10scsn mice. c57bl/10sccr mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 5x10(5)n. caninum tachyzoites showed a high susceptibility to this parasite. all infected c57bl/10sccr mice were dead by day 8 post-infection whereas all control c57bl/10scsn mice survived this parasitic ...200716889774
immunization of cattle with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum confers protection against fetal death.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. it is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a t-helper-cell type 1 response involving cd4(+) cytotoxic t cells and gamma interferon. cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection in the mother causing congenital infection or abortion and by ingestion of oocysts, which, if it occurs during gestation, can also result in a ...200717145943
apical membrane antigen 1 is a cross-reactive antigen between neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, and the anti-ncama1 antibody inhibits host cell invasion by both parasites.the cross-reactive antigens of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are important in the exploration to determine the common mechanisms of parasite-host interaction. in this study, a gene encoding n. caninum apical membrane antigen 1 (ncama1) was identified by immunoscreening of a n. caninum tachyzoite cdna expression library with antisera from mice immunized with recombinant t. gondii apical membrane antigen 1 (tgama1). ncama1 was encoded by an open reading frame of 1695 bp, which encoded a p ...200717156863
serologic study of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms in tehran, iran.a few studies have been done on the seroepidemiology of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy and beef cattle farms in iran, which suggested the presence of n. caninum in these areas, but there is no published information directed on the presence or epidemiology of this organism in the dogs in iran. to investigate anti-n. caninum antibodies in household dogs and dogs living in cattle farms, 100 blood samples were collected: 50 from dogs living in dairy and beef cattle farms and 50 from house ...200717120042
neospora caninum detected in feral rodents.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of neosporosis was investigated by assaying brain tissue of feral mice (mus musculus) and rats (rattus norvegicus) for neospora caninum. both mouse and rat brain tissue were extracted for total dna, and subjected to two different n. caninum-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. a portion of brain tissue from the mice and rats were also assayed for n. caninum in gerbils or gamma-interferon gene knockout (ko) mice. of the 105 feral mice tes ...200716997474
serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle using a recombinant tncsrs2 protein-based elisa.the truncated ncsrs2 gene (tncsrs2) by removal of the n-terminal hydrophobic sequence was cloned into the pgex-6p-1 plasmid and subsequently expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein. the purified recombinant tncsrs2 protein was specific to neospora caninum and was used in an elisa for the diagnosis of neosporosis. there was a good agreement between tnctsrs2-based elisa and three commercially available diagnostic kits (idexx elisa, hipra elisa and vmrd ifat). three hundred da ...200716989950
comparison of serological methods for the diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in cattle.the aims of this study were to evaluate the performance and agreement of various commercial and in-house neospora caninum antibody assays used in dairy cattle in north america, and to investigate reproducibility of two assays performed in different laboratories. from 1998 to 2005, three enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas, a competitive elisa-vmrd inc., an indirect elisa-biovet inc., and another indirect elisa-herdchek idexx corp.), two indirect fluorescent antibody tests (ifats, vmrd inc ...200716989951
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in the people's republic of china.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the people's republic of china. serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in china. all sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and t. gondii by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and an indirect agglutination test (iat), respectively. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum ...200717010521
the ncgra7 gene encodes the immunodominant 17 kda antigen of neospora caninum.a neospora caninum 17-19 kda antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by n. caninum. to identify the proteins making up the p17 fraction, we screened a new n. caninum tachyzoite cdna library with an affinity-purified antibody against p17 (apa17). we isolated several cdna clones with 100% sequence identity to the ncgra7 gene. this previously described gene enco ...200717032479
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in hungarian red foxes (vulpes vulpes).in the present study we have investigated the seroprevalence to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in 337 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from 16 out of 19 counties in hungary. the foxes were originally collected within a national vaccination program against rabies. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in as many as 228 (68%) of the foxes using a commercial direct agglutination test (dat). in an indirect iscom elisa, five foxes (1.5%) were positive for antibodies against n ...200717045742
survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpes virus 1 coinfection in cattle.a seroprevalence survey of neospora caninum and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) was conducted in cattle pasturing in an area of the southern italian apennines to investigate the coinfection of these two pathogens. blood samples were collected from 948 pastured cattle raised on 81 farms. sera were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and to bhv-1 using an elisa assay and a neutralization test, respectively. out of the 81 farms sampled, 63 (77.8%) were positive for n. caninum and 80 (98.8%) for bhv-1. ...200717053931
immunoanalysis of three litters born to a doberman bitch infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a tissue cyst-forming coccidium that may cause neuromuscular disorders in dogs. infected bitches can transmit the parasite to their pups in utero. vertical transmission may occur after primary infection during pregnancy and in subsequent pregnancies. the reason why only a few pups develop clinical neosporosis is unknown. we obtained sera from a doberman bitch and its offspring delivered in three litters. the bitch had a titer of 1:640 in an indirect fluorescent antibody test ...200717096148
multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis), tristram's jird (meriones tristrami) and wagner's gerbil (gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute neosporosis.to test the different sensitivity of rodents of the subfamily murinae and gerbillinae, wagner's gerbils (gerbillus dasyurus), tristram's jirds (meriones tristrami) and multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis) were inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites. clinical signs of neosporosis appeared in all inoculated animals. histopathological examination confirmed the presence of tachyzoites in brains, lungs, skeletal muscle, myocardium, liver, in serosa of stomach and intestines, and in vesicular ...200717134728
pcr-rflp for the detection and differentiation of the canine piroplasm species and its use with filter paper-based technologies.canine piroplasmosis is an emerging disease worldwide, with multiple species of piroplasm now recognised to infect dogs. a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) assay was developed for the detection and differentiation of each of the piroplasm species currently known to infect dogs on the basis of the 18s ribosomal rna gene. the assay can potentially amplify and discriminate between theileria annae, theileria equi, babesia conradae, babesia gibsoni, ...200717127005
optimization of the use of c57bl/6 mice as a laboratory animal model for neospora caninum vaccine studies.the development and testing of vaccines for neospora caninum in mice require challenge studies to demonstrate a reduction in clinical signs or prevention of vertical transmission of the parasite after vaccination. genetic susceptibility to n. caninum varies with the strain of mice. in this study, c57bl/6 mice were evaluated as a model for neospora vaccine studies. a lethal challenge model was developed and the ld(50) was determined to be 1.5 x 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites/mouse, delivered intrape ...200717306460
experimental neosporosis in bulls: parasite detection in semen and blood and specific antibody and interferon-gamma responses.to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood, and the development of specific antibody and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses in experimentally infected bulls.200717316779
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
immunogenicity and protective effect against murine cerebral neosporosis of recombinant ncsrs2 in different iscom formulations.recombinant ncsrs2, a major immunodominant surface antigen of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum, was used as a model antigen to compare the immunogenicity of iscoms prepared according to three different methods. two ncsrs2 fusion proteins were used, one that was biotinylated upon expression in escherichia coli and linked to ni2+-loaded iscom matrix (iscom without any protein) via a hexahistidyl (his6)-tagged streptavidin fusion protein, and another that contained both a his6- ...200717280751
characterization of the fetuin-binding fraction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and its potential involvement in host-parasite interactions.terminal sialic acid residues on surface-associated glycoconjugates mediate host cell interactions of many pathogens. addition of sialic acid-rich fetuin enhanced, and the presence of the sialidiase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid reduced, the physical interaction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites with vero cell monolayers. thus, neospora extracts were subjected to fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography in order to isolate components potentially interacting wi ...200717291396
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