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seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in bos javanicus ('bali cattle') from indonesia.a cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain first information on the presence of neospora caninum infection in bos javanicus ('bali cattle'), the predominant beef cattle in the eastern islands of indonesia. serum samples were collected from 438 bali cattle of two age classes (<2 years, >2 years) and both genders at three slaughterhouses in the bali island, and examined for n. caninum-specific antibodies using native ncsrs2 (p38 antigen) as an elisa antigen. the estimated overall seroprevale ...201019533406
a4d12 monoclonal antibody recognizes a new linear epitope from sag2a toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, identified by phage display bioselection.toxoplasma gondii surface is coated by closely related antigens that belong to srs (sag-1 related sequences) superfamily. two tachyzoite-specific srs antigens, sag1 and sag2, are immunodominant proteins that apparently modulate the virulence of infection by inducing the host immune response against tachyzoites during the acute phase. in this study, we described a conformationally insensitive monoclonal antibody (a4d12mab) that recognizes a linear epitope shared by two isoforms of p22 that is exp ...201019261354
some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.the aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with neospora caninum. in heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (rh) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant he ...201019210662
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain).the prevalence of antibodies to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum were investigated by the direct agglutination test (dat) and celisa, respectively, in 160 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 177 sheep and 178 cattle sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain). the seroprevalence for t. gondii was 13.7% in roe deer, 57% in sheep and 7.3% in cattle. the seroprevalence for n. canimum was 6.8%, 10.1% and 24.1% in roe deer, sheep and cattle, respectively. statistically sig ...201019482324
plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells are early producers of il-12 in neospora caninum-infected mice.neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite causative of clinical infections in a wide range of animal hosts. the maturation and activation of splenic conventional dendritic cells (cdcs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) were studied here in balb/c mice challenged intraperitoneal with n. caninum tachyzoites. the number of cdcs was found to decrease in the spleen of the infected mice 12 h and 2 days after the parasitic challenge, whereas at day 5 after infection it was significantly above that ...201019755980
associations between reproductive performance and seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral-diarrhea virus, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and neospora caninum in canadian dairy cows.our objective was to investigate effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (blv), type 1 bovine viral-diarrhea virus (bvdv), mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), and neospora caninum (nc), and their possible interactions, on reproductive efficiency (specifically, first-service conception [fsc], and calving interval [ci]) in dairy cows. the sample population included up to 30 randomly selected animals from 179 randomly selected farms in five provinces in canada, from w ...201020015556
risk factors associated with neospora caninum seropositivity in randomly sampled canadian dairy cows and herds.our objective was to determine cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with seropositivity for neospora caninum in a large number of randomly selected canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). serum samples were obtained from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 240 herds using monthly milk testing, within 6 of ...201020018395
risk factors associated with neospora caninum seropositivity in sheep from the state of alagoas, in the northeast region of brazil.the aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with neospora caninum seropositivity in sheep from the state of alagoas, in the northeast region of brazil. twenty-six herds were selected, and blood samples were collected from 343 animals > 6-mo-old. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used for serological diagnosis of n. caninum infection. epidemiological questionnaires were applied for each herd to identify the risk factors associated with infection. thirty-three (9. ...201019799489
neospora caninum excreted/secreted antigens trigger cc-chemokine receptor 5-dependent cell migration.neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is an obligate intracellular parasite considered to be a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. most studies concerning n. caninum have focused on life cycle, seroepidemiology, pathology and vaccination, while data on host-parasite interaction, such as host cell migration, mechanisms of evasion and dissemination of this parasite during the early phase of infection are still poorly understood. here we show the ability of excre ...201020060395
protection against lethal neospora caninum infection in mice induced by heterologous vaccination with a mic1 mic3 knockout toxoplasma gondii strain.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are closely related, obligate intracellular parasites infecting a wide range of vertebrate hosts and causing abortion and neonatal morbidity and mortality. several lines of evidence suggest that cross immunity between these two pathogens could be exploited in the design of strategies for heterologous vaccination. we assessed the ability of an attenuated strain of t. gondii ("mic1-3ko strain") conferring strong protection against chronic and congenital toxop ...201019995895
toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host micrornas.the apicomplexan parasite toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. here we have investigated whether toxoplasma modulates the levels of host micrornas (mirnas) during infection.201020090903
prevalence of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum in capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from são paulo state, brazil.little is known about the importance of capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of são paulo, brazil, were examined for antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to t. cruzi epimastigotes. none of the samples ...201020020808
intraperitoneal and intra-nasal vaccination of mice with three distinct recombinant neospora caninum antigens results in differential effects with regard to protection against experimental challenge with neospora caninum tachyzoites.recombinant ncpdi(recncpdi), ncrop2(recncrop2), and ncmag1(recncmag1) were expressed in escherichia coli and purified, and evaluated as potential vaccine candidates by employing the c57bl/6 mouse cerebral infection model. intraperitoneal application of these proteins suspended in saponin adjuvants lead to protection against disease in 50% and 70% of mice vaccinated with recncmag1 and recncrop2, respectively, while only 20% of mice vaccinated with recncpdi remained without clinical signs. in cont ...201019835644
neospora caninum: early immune response of rat mixed glial cultures after tachyzoites infection.neospora caninum causes neurologic disease in dogs and abortion in cattle. little is known about the immune response of the cns against this protozoan. the aim of this study was to evaluate production of il-6, il-10, tnf-alpha, ifn-gamma, and no in rat mixed glial cell cultures infected by n. caninum. ifn-gamma was not observed. the mean cytokine released after 24 and 72 h of infection were 3.8+/-0.6 and 3.7+/-0.6 pg tnf-alpha/mg protein and 2.7+/-0.69 and 4.1+/-0.64 pg il-10/mg protein, respect ...201020045699
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in sparrows (passer domesticus) in the northeast of brazil.toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes high rates of infection in mammals and birds. sparrows (passer domesticus) are synantropic birds which are distributed worldwide. they serve as intermediate hosts for the parasite but are quite resistant to toxoplasmosis. the aims of this study were to determine the frequency of t. gondii infection in sparrows using serologic and molecular tests, and to investigate related parasites, such as neospora canin ...201019879051
conventional and molecular diagnostic testing for the acute neurologic patient.the aim of this review is to describe and evaluate both conventional and molecular diagnostic testing utilized in dogs and cats with acute neurologic diseases. various types of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) are explored along with novel molecular diagnostic testing that ultimately may prove useful in the critical care setting.201020230434
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeastern china.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in china's northeastern heilongjiang province was surveyed between 2007 and 2008. in total, 540 serum samples of dairy cattle from 9 counties were examined for antibodies to n. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in dairy cattle was 13.3% (72/540). the seroprevalence of n. caninum in aborting cows (14.9%) was slightly higher than that in nonaborting cows (10.3%). dairy cattle with 5 pregna ...201019895158
members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites.numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. unlike bacteria and viruses, toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (mic). the microneme adhesive repeat (mar) domain of t. gondii mic1 (tgmic1) recognizes sialic acid (sia), a key determi ...201019901027
investigation of neospora caninum, hammondia sp., and toxoplasma gondii in tissues from slaughtered beef cattle in bahia, brazil.neospora caninum, hammondia sp., and toxoplasma gondii are parasites with morphological and genetic similarities. n. caninum and t. gondii are important abortive agents of cattle and sheep, respectively, and may infect numerous animal species. hammondia sp. is not known to induce disease in animals, but may cause confusion in the identification of closely related coccidia. the aim of this study was to investigate infection rates caused by n. caninum, hammondia sp., and t. gondii in beef cattle u ...201019943064
a second generation multiplex pcr for typing strains of neospora caninum using six dna targets.genetic diversity of neospora caninum was investigated through a study of repetitive sequences found in the genome of this species. twenty different loci were studied, and three were identified that varied in repeat content amongst isolates. no relationship was found between the copy number of repetitive sequences present and host type or geographical location from which the isolates were derived. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for multilocus-strain typing using three microsatellites and th ...201019683051
first identification of neospora caninum by pcr in aborted bovine foetuses in romania.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in romania is reported. nine aborted foetuses were collected from a dairy farm. the foetal age of foetuses was between 3 and 7 months. a 7-month-old foetus was mummified. n. caninum dna nc-5 region was amplified from samples extracted from brain tissues of three (33.3%) aborted foetuses. the foetal ages of pcr positive foetuses were 3, 4 and 7 months (mummified). no specific lesions or tissue cysts were found to th ...201019953273
fetal death in cows experimentally infected with neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. most of the n. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, result in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses. in the present study, the distribution of parasites and pathogenesis of infection in both dams and fetuses after inoculation with 10(7) culture derived tachyzoites of n. caninum nc-illinois cattle str ...201020089361
flock-level seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, neospora caninum among sheep and goats in northern jordan.during the period january 2002 to december 2003, serum samples were collected from 104 small ruminant flocks consisting of 18 sheep flocks, 27 goat flocks and 59 mixed flocks containing both sheep and goats in northern jordan. only female animals were sampled. at least 5 females aged over 2 years per flock per species were sampled and examined for anti-neospora caninum antibodies using elisa. to increase the chances of detecting positive flocks, sick or older ewes were sampled. also, n. caninum ...201019923025
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies and its consequences for reproductive parameters in dairy cows from dakar-senegal, west africa.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies and its effects on reproductive parameters in cows in intensive dairy herds in dakar. randomised blood samples were taken for serology from 196 cows in four herds with a history of sporadic abortion. all of the sera were assayed for antibodies against n. caninum, candida guillermondii, coxiella burnetii, and chlamydophila sp. the associations between serostatus and reproductive parameters (abortion, number o ...201019997972
serologic profiles for sarcocystis sp. and neospora caninum and productive performance in naturally infected beef calves.sarcocystis sp. and neospora caninum infections affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. the objective of the present study was to trace serologic profiles for sarcocystis sp. and n. caninum in naturally infected beef calves and analyze their relationship with transmission routes and productive performance. samples were collected in two cow-calf operations located in buenos aires province, argentina. in farm 1, 43 calves were bled and weighed three times. in farm 2, 69 calves w ...201020101411
identification of neospora caninum proteins regulated during the differentiation process from tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage by dige.identification of differentially expressed proteins during neospora caninum tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion processes may lead to a better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms developed by this important parasite of cattle. in the present work, a differential expression proteomic study of tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages was accomplished for the first time by applying dige technology coupled with ms analysis. up to 72 differentially expressed spots were visualized (1.5-fold in relative abunda ...201020162558
meningoencephalitis associated with sarcocystis spp. in a free-living japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus).a free-living, young adult, male japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) was rescued in gifu, japan in march 2009. the animal was weak and emaciated with neurological signs that included head tilt, tremor and tic. the brain showed no gross abnormality at necropsy, but microscopically there was severe meningoencephalitis associated with protozoa, which were morphologically consistent with the asexual developmental stage of sarcocystis spp. the protozoa were immunohistochemicall ...201020163802
stress-driven stage transformation of neospora caninum.neosporiosis, a serious disease caused by the apicomplexan intracellular parasite neospora caninum, is considered to be one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. it is associated with potentially serious complications such as abortion, stillbirth and maternal infertility. to survive in fluctuating physiological and immunological environments, n. caninum has evolved a diverse set of regulatory mechanisms that govern various adaptive responses. the most intriguing paradigm in n. c ...201020165871
failure of a vaccine using immunogenic recombinant proteins rncsag4 and rncgra7 against neosporosis in mice.the development of an effective vaccine against neospora caninum infection in cattle is an important issue due to the significant economic impact of this parasitic disease worldwide. in this work, the immune response, safety and efficacy of different vaccine formulations using the n. caninum recombinant proteins rncsag4 (the first bradyzoite-specific protein assayed as a vaccine) and rncgra7 were evaluated in mouse models. the survival curves of pups from all vaccinated groups showed a slight de ...200919782735
microsatellite markers for the molecular characterization of neospora caninum: application to clinical samples.we report here on the development of a nested pcr procedure for the application of neospora caninum microsatellite markers to clinical samples. genotyping technology by fluorescently labelled dna fragment analysis was used in combination with dna sequencing for those markers which show additional snps or complex repetitive sequences. twenty-nine dna samples from naturally infected bovine aborted foetuses from two regions of spain where n. caninum had been detected by nested pcr of the its1 rrna ...200919720464
fecal and molecular survey of neospora caninum in farm and household dogs in mashhad area, khorasan province, iran.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dog is the definitive host for n. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. a total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting hammondia neospora-like oocysts (hnlo) by mini parasep sf fecal parasite ...200919967094
toxoplasmosis and other intestinal coccidial infections in cats and dogs.toxoplasma gondii and related coccidians are intracellular protozoan parasites. coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites normally found in the intestinal tract. virtually all warm blooded animals, including humans are commonly infected with coccidians. this article reviews the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infections in cats and dogs related to isospora spp, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. much remains to be learned concerning the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis.200919932360
histopathological and clinical investigations in neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.to date, despite the limited information about the role of birds in neospora caninum infection, there are no reports regarding the role of broiler chickens. in the present study, an experimental infection with n. caninum nc-1 isolate was conducted in embryonated eggs from 70 lohman broiler chickens randomly divided into seven equal groups. at 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated via chorioallantoic (ca) liquid with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of ta ...200919854577
[preliminary application of pcr-based assay for the detection of neospora caninum in bovine aborted fetus].to establish a pcr diagnostic method based on nc-5 gene of neospora caninum, for being used to detect neospora in brain tissues of bovine aborted fetus.200919856504
comparison between immunohistochemistry and two pcr methods for detection of neospora caninum in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue of bovine fetuses.the objective of this study was to identify the presence of the parasite by comparing immunohistochemistry (ihc) with two polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods for the detection of the pnc5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) of n. caninum in brain tissue of bovine fetuses that had previously been fixed in formalin and paraffin-embedded. in 29 out of 48 brains (60.4%), microscopic lesions consistent with neospora infection were observed, and 21 of the 29 cases (72.41%) were posit ...200919515495
diagnosis of neospora caninum in bovine fetuses by histology, immunohistochemistry, and nested-pcr.neospora caninum, a cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle, was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and nested-pcr, using primers from the nc5 region of the genomic dna (pcr plus) and primers from the its1 region of the ribosomal dna (pcr jb). a total of 105 fetal samples sent to the centro de pesquisa e desenvolvimento de sanidade animal do instituto biológico from january 2006 to may 2008 were examined for evidence of n. caninum. histological examination revealed 71.4% with non-sup ...200920040203
[inquiry of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in dairy cattle, dogs and rural workers of the south-west region of mato grosso state].considering the importance of neosporosis in the animal health and production, the frequency of antibodies to neospora caninum was evaluated in dairy cattle of the southwestern region of mato grosso state, brazil, in addition to serum samples obtained from dogs and humans living in the farms. a total of 1036 serum samples were analyzed, from which 932 were from dairy bovine females, 37 from dogs and 67 from humans, from 24 farms and examined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). reac ...200920040187
[factors associated the seropositivity for babesia, toxoplasma, neospora e leishmania in dogs attended at nine veterinary clinics in the municipality of lavras, mg].the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and evaluate the infuence of age, sex and breed in seropositivity anti-babesia canis, toxoplasma gondii, leishmania (l.) chagasi and neospora caninum, by means of the indirect immunofuorescence antibody test (ifat), in serum samples collected from dogs attended in nine private veterinary clinics in municipality of lavras, minas gerais, brazil, from august 2000 to april 2002. of 300 dogs, 73.3% were seropositive (ifat>or=1:80) to b. cani ...200920040191
the first finding of neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in slovakia.neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, neospora caninum, closely related to toxoplasma gondii. the parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. the aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. sera of 382 sheep, mainly the improved valachian and merino ...200919540672
development of an indirect elisa test using a purified tachyzoite surface antigen sag1 for sero-diagnosis of canine toxoplasma gondii infection.the aim of this study was to use affinity purified 30 kda toxoplasma gondii surface antigen (sag1) in an indirect elisa and to compare it with an existing indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). 245 serum samples were collected from dogs from three adjacent iranian provinces. ifat examination revealed positive results in 73 dogs, with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1024. a suitable elisa cut-off was determined by roc analysis in comparison with ifat. results showed a relative sensitivity and s ...200919556064
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and coexistence with toxoplasma gondii in dogs.neospora caninum is a protozoal agent causing abortion and infertility problems in dairy cattle. the objective of the present study was to detect the seroprevalence of n.caninum in dogs and its co-existence with toxoplasma gondii in some rural and urban regions of kirikka-le province. a total of 121 blood samples were examined with indirect immunoflorescent antibody test to detect the presence of n.caninum igg antibodies. the seropositivity of n.caninum was 28.9% in dogs. the seropositivity rate ...200919598086
comparison of indirect elisa based on recombinant protein ncsrs2 and ifat for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. the purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant ncsrs2 is a suitable indirect elisa antigen for determining specific immune response to n. caninum in sheep. a total of 441 serum samples were subjected to ifat and rncsrs2 based-elisa, with both tests performing similarly. the sensitivity and specificity of indirect elisa were 98. ...200919602311
first identification of sarcocystis tenella (railliet, 1886) moulé, 1886 (protozoa: apicomplexa) by pcr in naturally infected sheep from brazil.sarcocystis tenella is a dog-sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. this parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. the present study was initially aimed to determine toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other apicomplexa parasites in 602 brazilian sheep. twenty of these sheep were positive with antibodies to t. gondii by mat and ifat-igg tests, p ...200919647370
first epidemiological study on exposure to neospora caninum in different canine populations in the algiers district (algeria).neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. dogs act as final hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. they can also harbour the extraintestinal stage of the parasite and this may be associated with a fairly rare neuromuscular condition. the sera of 781 dogs from the algiers district were screened by ifat for the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies. these dogs were distributed into four populations: local stray dogs, police dogs, dogs from breeding kennels and fa ...200919723590
dynamics of heat shock protein 70 concentrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte lysates during pregnancy in lactating holstein-friesian cows.the aim of this study was to characterize the dynamics of the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 kda (hsp70) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of lactating holstein-friesian dairy cows (bos taurus) during pregnancy. the detection of pregnancy was carried out and blood samples collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 of gestation from 46 cows (11 primiparous and 35 pluriparous, 34 seropositive and 12 seronegative to neospora caninum). peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated by densi ...200919729195
risk factors associated with neospora caninum infections in cattle in argentina.from 2003 through 2007, serum samples from 5594 dairy and beef heifers and cows in argentina were assessed to quantify the association between presence of neospora caninum antibodies and history of abortion, type of exploitation, and age category of animals. animals with a history of abortion were 85% more likely (p<0.01) to be positive to n. caninum than animals without a record of abortion. for a given category (age) of animals, being in a dairy operation increased the odds of being n. caninum ...200919216028
effects of crossbreed pregnancies on the abortion risk of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows.previous studies have shown that the use of beef bull semen significantly reduces the rate of abortions due to neospora caninum in artificially inseminated (ai) seropositive dairy cows. in addition, certain beef breeds could be more resistant to n. caninum infection and abortion than others. the aim of the present study was to determine whether different crossbreed pregnancies, those derived from limousin, charolais, piedmontese or belgian blue semen, carry different risks of abortion in neospor ...200919464119
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle ranches with high abortion rate: special emphasis to serologic co-existence with toxoplasma gondii, brucella abortus and listeria monocytogenes.the aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle ranches with higher abortion rates and co-existence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, brucella abortus, and listeria monocytogenes antibodies. the blood samples were collected from dairy cows with history of abortion (n=234) as well as from pregnant cows that were (n=323) kept in the same ranches. n. caninum seroprevalence was 10.77% (60/557). the co-existence rate of n. caninum seropositivity with t. ...200919592171
early postabortion recovery of neospora-infected lactating dairy cows.this study was designed to assess the reproductive performance of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows (bos taurus) after abortion. the population examined was composed of 92 aborting cows subsequently subjected to at least one artificial insemination (ai) attempt. of these animals, 68 were n. caninum seropositive and 24 were seronegative. only animals producing at least 25 kg milk at the estrus after abortion were inseminated. normal uterine involution was verified at first ai after abortion in ...200919595443
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is involved in defense against neospora caninum in human and bovine cells.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii. in nature this parasite is found especially in dogs and cattle, but it may also infect other livestock. the growth of n. caninum, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, is controlled mainly by the cell-mediated immune response. during infection the cytokine gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) plays a prominent role in regulating the growth of n. caninum in natural and experimental disease. the present study showed ...200919620347
detection, quantifications and pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) in cattle.toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based anti-protozoal agent with highly specific actions against apicomplexan group of organisms, which are undergoing intensive investigation. toltrazuril sulfone may have clinical application in the treatment of neospora. caninum and other protozoal infections in cattle. to evaluate absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics of toltrazuril sulfone in cattle, a sensitive validated quantitative high-pressure liquid chromatography method ...200919646093
association of bola drb3 and dqa1 alleles with susceptibility to neospora caninum and reproductive outcome in quebec holstein cattle.the bola drb3 and dqa1 genes are part of the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii in cattle. these genes are highly polymorphic and have been associated with resistance to several diseases, such as mastitis, bovine leukemia virus (blv) and dermatophilis. sequenced based typing of these genes has been carried out extensively from blood samples; however it is often impractical or expensive to obtain such samples. repositories of well-characterized serum from cattle are readily available ...200919646818
detection of neospora caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by nested pcr and elisa and seroprevalence in beijing and tianjin, china.neospora caninum infection is a significant cause of abortion in cattle. we investigated the tissue distribution of n. caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by a nested pcr assay, and compared the nested pcr with elisa in the diagnosis of n. caninum infection. in total, 26 aborted fetuses and 813 blood samples were collected from 8 dairy herds in beijing (n=212) and tianjin (n=601), china. fifteen fetuses (57.7%) were tested n. caninum-positive by the nested pcr. n. caninum dna ...200919660160
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in feral cats (felis silvestris catus) in majorca, balearic islands, spain.felids are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts. antibodies to t. gondii and neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (felis silvestris catus) captured in baited traps during authorized predator control campaigns in majorca, balearic islands, spain. antibodies to t. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (mat) were found in 50 (84.7%) of 59 cats with m ...200919665309
genetic diversity amongst isolates of neospora caninum, and the development of a multiplex assay for the detection of distinct strains.infection with neospora caninum is regarded as a significant cause of abortion in cattle. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the biology of this parasite. in this study, mini and microsatellite dnas were detected in the genome of n. caninum and eight loci were identified that each contained repetitive dna which was polymorphic among different isolates of this parasite. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of genetic variation within n ...200919496247
endogenous and exogenous transplacental transmission of neospora caninum - how the route of transmission impacts on epidemiology and control of disease.vertical transmission of the protozoan parasite, neospora caninum is highly efficient and can take two forms - endogenous transplacental transmission resulting from activation of the quiescent bradyzoite stage during pregnancy or exogenous transplacental transmission resulting from ingestion of oocysts during pregnancy. calves born carrying infection derived from either endogenous or exogenous transplacental transmission are capable of infecting their offspring when they start to breed. this rev ...200919691862
pigeons (columba livia) are a suitable experimental model for neospora caninum infection in birds.neospora caninum infections in chickens have been recently described by epidemiological and experimental approaches, and these birds may be considered natural intermediate hosts of the parasite. it has been postulated that other bird species might perform this role in wildlife as well. to better understand the sylvatic life cycle of n. caninum, further studies are required. in that sense, this work aimed to observe infection kinetics in pigeons experimentally infected with n. caninum. experiment ...200919027237
neospora caninum associated with epidemic abortions in dairy cattle: the first clinical neosporosis report in turkey.neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite, has been considered as one of the most important etiological agents responsible for abortion in dairy cattle throughout the world since it was first identified in dogs in 1988. in this report, characteristics of neosporosis, detected in a dairy cow ranch having epidemic abortions as high as 18.4%, were described. blood samples were collected from 25 infertile or aborted dairy cattle, 6 calves born in 2006 and 40 heifers that were born in 2005 and raised in ...200919028014
looks can deceive: molecular identity of an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite in australian gliders.two yellow-bellied gliders (petaurus australis) had an intraerythrocytic parasite closely related to the cyst-forming coccidia (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae). the parasitaemia persisted for 3 months or more but was observed to clear within 3 years in captivity. the parasite appears not to significantly debilitate its infected host. traditionally, using morphological identification, the intraerythrocytic parasite would have been classified within the hepatozoon species typically found in red blood ...200919028015
first isolation of neospora caninum from the faeces of a dog from portugal.we report the in vitro isolation of neospora caninum from the faeces of a naturally infected 8-year-old male stray boxer from portugal. vero cell cultures were infected using parasite stages obtained after oral inoculation of gamma-interferon knockout mice with 10(2) sporulated oocysts. the isolate was identified by microscopical examination, as well as histological, immunological and molecular methods including a dna-microsatellite-based typing technique, and was subsequently named nc-p1. the d ...200919036520
factors affecting plasma prolactin concentrations throughout gestation in high producing dairy cows.the aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between plasma concentrations of prolactin and the following factors throughout gestation in lactating dairy cows: photoperiod, season, milk production, neospora caninum-seropositivity, twin pregnancy, and plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1), progesterone and cortisol. pregnancy was diagnosed by trans-rectal ultrasonography on day 40 post-insemination and by palpation per rectum on days 90, 1 ...200919036554
myeloid differentiation factor 88 is required for resistance to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that causes major economic impact on cattle raising farms, and infects a wide range of warm-blooded hosts worldwide. innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection against this parasite are still unknown. in order to investigate whether myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is required for resistance against n. caninum, genetically deficient mice (myd88(-/-)) and wild type littermates were infected with live tachyzoites and the resistance to in ...200919341611
molecular comparison of neospora caninum oocyst isolates from naturally infected dogs with cell culture-derived tachyzoites of the same isolates using nested polymerase chain reaction to amplify microsatellite markers.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion. the infection can be transmitted transplacentally or by ingestion of oocysts shed by definitive hosts. there are few reports of dogs naturally shedding n. caninum oocysts and only some oocyst isolates were transferred into cell culture. the aim of the present study was to analyse n. caninum oocysts from the faeces of naturally infected dogs using a microsatellite-based typing technique and to compare them with cell culture-deri ...200919084341
canine inflammatory myopathy associated with leishmania infantum infection.inflammatory myopathy associated with several infectious diseases occurs in dogs including those caused by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis. however, muscle disease due to leishmania infection has been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to examine the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc class i and ii in muscle biopsies obtained from 15 male beagle dogs from a breeder group with an established diagnosis of leishm ...200919084398
canine and bovine neospora caninum control sera examined for cross-reactivity using neospora caninum and neospora hughesi indirect fluorescent antibody tests.neospora caninum is a well known protozoan parasite of domestic and wild animals. neospora hughesi is a closely related protozoan with an unknown life cycle, host range, and infection prevalence. many serologic surveys of n. caninum have been performed without consideration of potential cross-reactions with n. hughesi, which could confound results. the aim of this study was to investigate whether postexposure sera from animals experimentally infected with n. caninum exhibit significant reactivit ...200918613752
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in sheep in the czech republic.in the czech republic, serum from 547 sheep coming from nine farms was examined for antibodies against parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum by screening elisa. antibodies against t. gondii were found in 325 sheep (59%) with prevalence ranging from 11% to 96% in different farms. antibodies against n. caninum were found in 63 sheep (12%) with prevalence ranging from 4% to 21% in different farms. mixed infections were found in 53 sheep (10%). it was the first evidence of n. caninum anti ...200919181450
detection of neospora caninum from farm-bred young blue foxes (alopex lagopus) in china.neospora caninum has been detected in several wild mammalian species, i.e., deer, coyotes, dingoes, and foxes. farm-bred foxes were rarely reported to be affected by the parasite. in this study, we detected for the first time the infection of n.caninum in farm-bred young blue foxes (alopex lagopus) in china. neospora-like tissue cysts were observed in brains and kidneys of the foxes by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. one hundred and three sera from the clinically normal v ...200919194087
toltrazuril treatment of congenitally acquired neospora caninum infection in newborn mice.c57bl/6 mice were infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites during pregnancy, yielding a transplacental infection of developing fetuses. subsequently, congenitally infected newborn mice were treated either once or three times with toltrazuril (or placebo) at a concentration of 31.25 mg compound per kg body weight. both toltrazuril and placebo treatment had no negative effect on newborns, as noninfected treated pups developed normally without differences in mortality and morbidity to matching no ...200919205743
neospora caninum in dairy herds in schleswig-holstein, germany.the aim of a cross-sectional survey performed between november 2005 and april 2006 was to obtain actual information on the occurrence of neospora (n.) caninum infection in dairy cows of schleswig-holstein. it was planned to examine tank-milk of about 35% of the approximately 6,000 dairy herds in schleswig-holstein for n. caninum-specific antibodies using a p38-tank-milk elisa. this test is able to detect a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence of > 10%. only 20 (1.0%) out of 1,950 tank-milk samp ...200919226934
a unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in toxoplasma gondii.the genome of the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces l-dopa. the encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to l-dopa. the catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but con ...200919277211
seroprevalence and spatial distribution of neospora caninum in a population of beef cattle.a cross-sectional serological survey for neospora caninum was carried out in swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to n. caninum. the study included 18.5% of all swedish beef herds. spatial autocorrelation was assessed by calculating moran's i and cluster detection was performed using lisa- and spatial scan statisti ...200919709771
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from iowa and minnesota using four serologic tests.the white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in the us. sera from white-tailed deer from minnesota and iowa were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by four serologic tests including the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test (cut-off 1:25), neospora caninum agglutination test (cut-off 1:25), an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and western blot (wb). sera were also tested for antibodies ...200919285809
experimental infection with a low virulence isolate of neospora caninum at 70 days gestation in cattle did not result in foetopathy.the nc-spain 1h isolate of neospora caninum, which was newly obtained from the brain of a congenitally asymptomatic infected calf, demonstrated a reduced in vitro tachyzoite yield and viability rate, as well as low virulence in mouse models. the objective of the present study was to determine the ability of this isolate to induce foetal death in a pregnant bovine model. for this purpose, 13 naïve pregnant heifers were divided into three groups and were experimentally challenged with either 10(7) ...200919497257
dose-titration challenge of young pregnant sheep with neospora caninum tachyzoites.pregnant ewe lambs (7-8 months old at breeding) were inoculated intravenously at 90 days after joining with the ram with 50, 5 x 10(3), 10(6), or 10(8)neospora caninum tachyzoites and outcomes were compared to a control group. seroconversion was measured by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) at fortnightly intervals and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at 28 days post-challenge. seroconversion (by ifat) occurred in all animals except for 2 sheep in the lowest dose group, inclu ...200919501968
serologic screening for neospora caninum, france. 200919523316
a serological survey of infectious disease in yellowstone national park's canid community.gray wolves (canis lupus) were reintroduced into yellowstone national park (ynp) after a >70 year absence, and as part of recovery efforts, the population has been closely monitored. in 1999 and 2005, pup survival was significantly reduced, suggestive of disease outbreaks.200919756151
neospora caninum and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells: parasite survival, proliferation, and induction of cytokine expression.dendritic cells (dcs) represent the first line defence of the innate immune system following infection with pathogens. we exploratively addressed invasion and survival ability of neospora caninum, a parasite causing abortion in cattle, in mouse bone marrow dcs (bmdcs), and respective cytokine expression patterns. immature bmdcs were exposed to viable (untreated) and nonviable parasites that had been inactivated by different means. invasion and/or internalization, as well as intracellular surviva ...200919527452
the development of immune responses in balb/c mice following inoculation with attenuated or virulent neospora caninum tachyzoites.balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either 5 x 10(6) live virulent (group 1) or 5 x 10(6) live attenuated (group 2) tachyzoites, or vero cells (group 3). animals were killed at 0, 14, 28 and 42 days post-inoculation (p.i.), with the remaining mice receiving a lethal challenge on day 48 p.i. serum, spleen and brain samples were collected post-mortem to examine humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as pathological lesions and to quantify parasite loads. on day 14 ...200919527455
disease threats to the endangered iberian lynx (lynx pardinus).the iberian lynx, (lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. to determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 24 egyptian mongooses (herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (genetta genetta) and 2 eurasian badgers (meles meles) in the are ...200918555712
molecular approaches to diversity of populations of apicomplexan parasites.apicomplexan parasites include many parasites of importance either for livestock or as causative agents of human diseases. the importance of these parasites has been recognised by the european commission and resulted in support of the cost (cooperation in science and technology) action 857 'apicomplexan biology in the post-genomic era'. in this review we discuss the current understanding in 'biodiversity and population genetics' of the major apicomplexan parasites, namely the eimeria spp., crypt ...200918983997
risk factors associated with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis seropositivity in canadian dairy cows and herds.our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in a large number of randomly selected canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum (nc). serum samples from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 315 herds from seven provinces were tested for antibodies against blv, ...200918692926
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from federal district, central region of brazil.serum samples from 1028 sheep were collected from 32 herds within federal district, in the central region of brazil. the samples were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) using sera diluted 1:64 and 1:50 as cut-off values for the detection of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, respectively. the observed prevalence for t. gondii infection was 38.22% (26.81%<ci 0.95<49.62%), and the titers ranged from 64 to 65536. the observed prevalence for n. caninum infe ...200918726165
effects of a transferring antibody against neospora caninum infection in a murine model.we investigated the roles of a transferring antibody against neospora caninum infection based on a murine model using recombinant vaccinia virus carrying ncsrs2 gene. higher levels of anti-ncsrs2 antibody were detected in surviving offspring from vaccinated dams than controls while the transferring anti-ncsag1 antibody was detected in the surviving offspring from unvaccinated dams. after mating, the female mice with transferring antibody against n. caninum were challenged with the parasites in m ...200919056179
infection of primary canine duodenal epithelial cell cultures with neospora caninum.according to current knowledge, sexual development of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum takes place in the canine intestine. however, to date there is no information on the interaction between the parasite and the canine intestinal epithelium, and, next to the clinical and in vivo research tools, an in vitro model comprised of canine intestinal cells infected with n. caninum would be very helpful for investigations at the cellular level. following the isolation of cells of neonatal cani ...200918821824
natural breeding with bulls experimentally infected with neospora caninum failed to induce seroconversion in dams.four bulls and 56 heifers seronegative to neospora caninum were used to determine the feasibility of venereal transmission in bovine neosporosis under natural conditions. bulls were experimentally infected with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites. two of them with the nc-1 isolate and the other two with the nc-spain-7 isolate. after 13 months of initial infection, each bull was re-infected with the same isolate and dose. the experiments were carried out from march to september during 2006 and 2007 ...200918962878
comparison of two pcr protocols for the detection of neospora caninum dna in rodents.the objective of the present study was, due to increasing interest in the epidemiological role of small mammals as potential reservoir of neospora caninum, to compare two different pcr protocols for the diagnosis of n. caninum in rodents. we tested tissue samples from 50 house mice (mus musculus), 50 rats (rattus norvegicus) and 35 field mice (apodemus sylvaticus). two different pcr protocols based on primer pairs, np4-np7 and np6plus-np21plus, were used for diagnosis on these samples. while the ...200919036521
proteomes and transcriptomes of the apicomplexa--where's the message?the apicomplexa have some of the most comprehensive and integrated proteome datasets of all pathogenic micro-organisms. coverage is currently at a level where these data can be used to help predict the potential biological function of proteins in these parasites, without having to defer to measurement of mrna levels. transcriptomic data for the apicomplexa (microarrays, expressed sequence tag (est) collections, serial analysis of gene expression (sage) and massively parallel signature sequencing ...200918996390
cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs.marked eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis (eme) is rarely reported in dogs and the cause is usually undetermined. long-term prognosis for dogs with cerebrospinal fluid (csf) eosinophilia is variable.200919210314
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in beef cattle in three southern states of mexico.the aims of the present study were to examine the seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef herds from three southern states of mexico and determine the association with several risk factors. a cross-sectional serological survey for neospora caninum was carried out by sampling a total of 596 animals from 31 herds in chiapas, veracruz, and yucatan states and tested using an elisa assay (idexx) to detect anti-n. caninum antibodies. the overall prevalence was 11.6%, (95% ci: 0.93-0.14), however, the pr ...200919016341
neospora caninum, potential cause of abortions in dairy cows: the current serological follow-up in slovakia.neosporosis is considered to be a contributing risk factor for abortions in dairy cows and other farm animals and has negative economic impact on their breeding. in respect of the rapid spread of neosporosis in herds throughout the world, our aim was to detect the prevalence of anti-neospora antibodies in cows post-abortion (pa) (pa group n=716) and in cows without any reproduction problems (control group n=247) on large breeding farms from eastern slovakia. the overall mean seropositivity in pa ...200919019551
isolation and characterization of a bovine isolate of neospora caninum with low virulence.neospora caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the brain of an asymptomatic naturally infected calf with precolostral-specific antibodies. the new isolate, named nc-spain 1h, was identified as a member of the n. caninum species based on its internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1) sequence and was genetically characterized using microsatellite markers. multilocus analysis showed that nc-spain 1h was genetically different from other n. caninum isolates. we compared the in vitro tachyzoite yield and ...200919027235
detection of hammondia heydorni and related coccidia (neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii) in goats slaughtered in bahia, brazil.hammondia heydorni is a coccidian parasite with an obligatory two host life cycle, with dogs and foxes as definitive hosts, and a number of intermediate hosts, including goats. while infection by this parasite seems to be unassociated with any clinical signs, infection by the closely related parasites neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii can result in abortion, stillbirths and low yielding in caprine herds. the aim of this work was to investigate the frequency of goats infected with h. heydorn ...200919278786
crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a south american canid, as a definitive host for hammondia heydorni.hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. dogs and other canids as red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for h. heydorni. sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that ...200919303215
targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors for anti-malarial therapy.it is now clear that histone acetylation plays key roles in regulating gene transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the acetylated form inducing gene expression while deacetylation silences genes. recent studies have identified roles for histone acetyltransferases (hats) and/or histone deacetylases (hdacs) in a number of parasites including entamoeba histolytica, toxoplasma gondii, schistosoma mansoni, cryptosporidium sp., leishmania donovani, neospora caninum, and plasmodium falciparu ...200919355992
neospora caninum--how close are we to development of an efficacious vaccine that prevents abortion in cattle?neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle around the world. although the clinical signs of disease in both dogs and cattle have now been recognised for over 20years, treatment and control options are still limited, despite the availability of a commercial vaccine in some countries of the world. the case for an efficacious vaccine has not been convincingly waged by farmers, veterinarians and other members of the agricultural and rural communities. in recent times, ho ...200919497326
[use of the real time rt-pcr for immune related gene expression quantitation in experimentally infected neospora caninum bovine calves].neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. the real-time rt-pcr technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during n. caninum infection. holstein and nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected con ...200919500454
frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum in dairy cattle.sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum infections in cattle are common throughout the world, and cause important economical losses. n. caninum can be transmitted horizontally by ingestion of oocysts or vertically from the infected dam to the fetus via the placenta. vertical transmission for s. cruzi is infrequent and horizontal transmission is considered the most important route of infection. the objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for ...200919070964
immunization with oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped dense granule protein 7 protects dams and offspring from neospora caninum infection in mice.the present study demonstrates that the subcutaneous administration of neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 (ncgra7) entrapped in liposomes coated with mannotriose strongly induces the parasite-specific t-helper type 1 immune response and humoral antibody in mice. although anti-ncgra7 immunoglobulin g1 antibody production was induced in mice injected with ncgra7 alone, the dams and offspring were never protected from n. caninum infection. the immunization of mice with liposome-entrapped ncgr ...200919357313
stage-specific expression of nc sag4 as a marker of chronic neospora caninum infection in a mouse model.neospora caninum infection persists throughout the life of its intermediate host due to the conversion of tachyzoites to slowly dividing bradyzoites that encyst in the brain. this event results in persistent n. caninum infection in bovine herds and partially explains the poor efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents and vaccine formulations. thus, there is a need for greater understanding of the tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite conversion mechanisms. here we studied for the first time the transcription ...200919402941
cpg-odn combined with neospora caninum lysate, but not with excreted-secreted antigen, enhances protection against infection in mice.cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) have shown to be potent immunoadjuvants for several pathogens, but there is limited information concerning their use in immunization protocols against neosporosis. this study aimed to evaluate the potential of cpg-odn combined with neospora lysate antigen (nla) or excreted-secreted antigen (ncesa) to induce protective immune response against neospora caninum infection in mice. c57bl/6 mice were vaccinated subcutaneously three times at 2-week intervals with nla, nl ...200919428863
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