TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from itu municipality, são paulo.capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the largest rodents found in south america. the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in 170 free-living capybaras in a residential park area in itu municipality, são paulo state, brazil. serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for t. gondii (ifat ≥ 1:16) and n. caninum (ifat ≥ 1:50). among the 170 samples analyzed, 10% (17/170) and 0% (0/17 ...201626982562
changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. the majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. however, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. in this study, mice were infected with n. caninum (strain nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. mice infected with n. caninum showed impaired l ...201626971577
effect of different ecosystems and management practices on toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in wild ruminants in spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. however, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. we studied the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four nat ...201626967135
canine cutaneous neosporosis in brazil.the clinical signs of infection in dogs with neospora caninum are usually associated with neurological disorders and are seen in young dogs. in this brief case report we observed multifocal ulcerative and exudative skin nodules on the neck and pelvic limbs of a 10-year-old cocker spaniel dog. infection with n. caninum was diagnosed on the basis of cytology and examination of skin tissues by pcr. the dog initially responded to treatment with clindamycin and then relapsed; the dog died. infection ...201626949109
experimental neospora caninum infection in pregnant dairy heifers raises concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in foetal fluids.plasma concentrations of pag-1 are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of placental/foetal well-being, while those of pag-2 may be an indicator of abortion risk in neospora caninum-infected cows. studies have shown that n. caninum infection modifies pag-1 and pag-2 patterns in maternal blood plasma. however, no prior work has examined the effects of n. caninum infection on concentrations of pags in foetal fluids. in this study, pag-1, pag-2 and ph levels were determined in the amniotic ...201626936628
n-terminal fusion of a toll-like receptor 2-ligand to a neospora caninum chimeric antigen efficiently modifies the properties of the specific immune response.immunoprophylactic products against neosporosis during pregnancy should induce an appropriately balanced immune response. in this respect, opri, a bacterial lipoprotein targeting toll like receptor (tlr)2, provides promising adjuvant properties. we report on the manipulation of the innate and the t-cell immune response through the fusion of opri with the neospora caninum chimeric protein mic3-1-r. in contrast to mic3-1-r, opri-mic3-1-r significantly activated bone-marrow dendritic cells from naï ...201626932317
neospora caninum: chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. in the present study, the effect of n. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. cd1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the ncis491 isolate, wh ...201626921042
frequency of neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group a: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group b: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group c: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf o ...201626921037
repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.the three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against neospora caninum infection. all four compounds inhibited the proliferation of n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with ic50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (ic50 = 3 and 4.9 nm, respectively). however, in a neosporosis mouse m ...201626883424
neospora caninum seropositivity and reproductive risk factors in dogs.despite the importance of neospora caninum in veterinary medicine, knowledge of distribution of neosporosis in dog populations in some countries is still poor. the aims of the present study were to determine the occurrence of anti-n. caninum antibodies in one-hundred dogs living in cattle farms or dog breedings in central italy and to evaluate the risk factors associated with seropositivity. the incidence of reproductive system disorders (e.g. infertility after first pregnancy) was also evaluate ...201626873272
neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in british columbia, canada.the protozoan pathogen neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. to evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in british columbia, canada. retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the animal health centre, abbotsford, british columbia, a provinci ...201626872927
experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at 40 (g1), 90 (g2) and 120 (g3) days of gestation. infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. foetal death occurred in g1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in g2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). goats in g2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). g ...201626864744
experimental neospora caninum infection modifies trophoblast cell populations and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 dynamics in pregnant dairy heifers.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (pag-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while pag-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. in prior work, natural n. caninum infection was found to modify plasma pag-1 and pag-2 patterns ...201626801588
herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern poland.a serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern poland. ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of poland (podlaskie, 47 herds and łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. a simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). a total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. the animals were scree ...201626751872
relation between neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: risk factors and pathogenesis of disease.neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. this study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against n. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (ifa) in order to detect antibodies a ...201626747583
systemic and local immune responses in sheep after neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation.besides its importance in cattle, neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. we have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10(6) nc-spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. in the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. serological analysis revealed earlier and higher ifn-γ and igg responses in ewes infected at early (g1) and mid (g2) gestati ...201626739099
serology-based diagnostics for the control of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan neospora caninum is a primary infectious cause of abortion in cattle that causes significant economic losses worldwide. because effective vaccines and licensed pharmacological treatments are currently unavailable, control measures rely on biosecurity and management practice. serological diagnosis plays a crucial role in the identification of infected animals and several tests have been developed. however, owing to the particular dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and to the ...201626711188
seroprevalence of antibody to ncsag1 antigen of neospora caninum in cattle from western java, indonesia.neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from western java, indonesia. serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) on the basis of recombinant ncsag1. the overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampl ...201626256492
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in free ranging chickens (gallus domesticus).recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. free range chickens expose to infection with n. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. we studied n. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. one hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. antibodies to n. caninum were found in ...201627605795
identification of latent neosporosis in sheep in tehran, iran by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the <i>nc-5</i> gene.little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of neospora caninum in sheep (ovis aries). in this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for n. caninum dna by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the nc-5 gene. neospora caninum dna was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. the parasite's dna was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. no clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfec ...201627543149
cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. however, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. in this study, th1 (ifn-γ), th2 (il4) and t reg (il-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time pcr using the taqman approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate nc-spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. in prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and ...201627523950
genetic characterization of neospora caninum from aborted bovine foetuses in aguascalientes, mexico.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping. currently, the most extensive study reported is based on the n. caninum genotyping of 96 samples from four countries on two continents (spain, argentina, germany and scotland) that demonstrate different ...201627692324
neospora caninum activates p38 mapk as an evasion mechanism against innate immunity.due to the high prevalence and economic impact of neosporosis, the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapies against this parasite has been a priority in the field and is crucial to limit horizontal and vertical transmission in natural hosts. limited data is available regarding factors that regulate the immune response against this parasite and such knowledge is essential in order to understand neospora caninum induced pathogenesis. mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) govern ...201627679624
fusion of foreign t-cell epitopes and addition of tlr agonists enhance immunity against neospora caninum profilin in cattle.we demonstrated recently that immunization with recombinant neospora caninum profilin (rncpro) induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice. the aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response elicited by rncpro in cattle and assess a strategy to enhance its immunogenicity, combining the addition of t-cell epitopes and immune modulators. we developed a chimeric recombinant profilin fused to functional t-cell epitopes present in the n-terminal sequence of vesicular st ...201627512980
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red foxes in slovakia.sera or meat juices of 177 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) originated from the localities of a human-influenced landscape (group 1) and 126 foxes from the protected mountain region (group 2) of slovakia, collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using indirect elisa and neospora caninum by competitive elisa. the tissue and uncoagulated blood samples were examined for the presence of the parasite's dna. the total seropositivity to t. gondii was 62.7 ...201627787208
unusual presentation of neosporosis in a neonatal puppy from a litter of bulldogs.a 17-day-old bulldog puppy died soon after presentation for weakness and tachypnoea. gross lesions included diffuse pulmonary oedema and a region of myocardial pallor that resembled an infarct. inflammation was observed histopathologically in many organs, with numerous clusters of intracellular protozoa that stained positively using neospora caninum immunohistochemistry. myocarditis was severe and had associated necrosis of individual myocytes, but the tissue was not infarcted. the bitch had an ...201627785796
protozoal infections of the cornea and conjunctiva in dogs associated with chronic ocular surface disease and topical describe five cases of protozoal keratitis or conjunctivitis in dogs with chronic preexisting ocular surface disease treated with long-term immunosuppression.201626037023
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red deer from central italy.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are cosmopolite protozoan parasites impacting on human and animal health. in particular, t. gondii commonly infects human beings and all warm-blooded animals, while n. caninum is responsible for bovine abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. the aim of the presented survey was to evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of these parasites in the most numerous italian red deer population. the sera of 60 red deer (cervus elaphus) inhabiting central italy (4 ...201628030947
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in goats from north-western spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are protozoans involved in reproductive failure especially in ruminant livestock. the objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of both parasites in goats from north-western spain and to study the influence of some factors on seropositivity.201628030928
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, espirito santo, brasil.the aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding córrego do veado biological reserve, espírito santo state, brazil. the reserve is one of the last lowland atlantic forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. the presence of igg antibodies was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for t. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and n. can ...201627925068
serosurvey for leishmania spp., toxoplasma gondii, trypanosoma cruzi and neospora caninum in neighborhood dogs in curitiba-paraná, brazil.neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in curitiba, southern brazil. blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) for leishmania sp ...201627925057
the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp and trypanosoma evansi, respectively. toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies aga ...201627876900
seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in nakuru district, kenya.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum (nc) and its risk factors in farm dogs in kenya.201627847430
canine neutrophil extracellular traps release induced by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum in vitro.neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. the canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum (n. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. however, the effects of n. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (nets) formation remain unclear. in the present study, n. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine nets formation was observed by scanning ...201627843440
mucosal immunization confers long-term protection against intragastrically established neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy and beef cattle farms worldwide. although vaccination is widely regarded as the preferable strategy to prevent neosporosis no commercial vaccine is currently available. we have previously shown that intranasal immunization with an n. caninum antigen extract enriched in hydrophobic proteins plus cpg adjuvant protected mice against intragastrically established neosporosis. nevertheless, ...201627814932
immunization with neospora caninum profilin induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice.profilins are actin-binding proteins that regulate the polymerization of actin filaments. in apicomplexan parasites, they are essential for invasion. profilins also trigger the immune response of the host by activating tlrs on dendritic cells (dcs), inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this study we characterized for the first time the immune response and protection elicited by a vaccine based on neospora caninum profilin in mice. groups of eight balb/c mice received either ...201626551412
serological detection and epidemiology of neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum antibodies in cattle in southern egypt.neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum are intracellular protozoan parasites that are distributed worldwide and of major economical concern in cattle industry. n. caninum can cause abortion storms and high culling rates, whereas c. parvum has zoonotic implications and can cause diarrhea in calves. there are currently no data on the prevalence of neosporosis and cryptosporidiosis in humans or animals in southern egypt. prevalence of these two infections was determined in a sample of cattle f ...201627377768
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
myd88 and functionally related genes are associated with multiple infections in a model population of kenyan village dogs.the purpose of this study was to seek associations between immunity-related molecular markers and endemic infections in a model population of african village dogs from northern kenya with no veterinary care and no selective breeding. a population of village dogs from northern kenya composed of three sub-populations from three different areas (84, 50 and 55 dogs) was studied. canine distemper virus (cdv), hepatozoon canis, microfilariae (acantocheilonema dracunculoides, acantocheilonema reconditu ...201627655108
molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella canis and ehrlichia canis in dogs.given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of brucella canis, ehrlichia canis, neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. this study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for t. gondii, 52.4% for n. caninum and 59.5% for b. canis. e. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. pregnancy is an important physiological condition fo ...201627865263
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in aborting dairy cows.bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bhv-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. in this study a retrospective pcr examination of 100 extracted dna samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of bhv-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections bhv-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same samp ...201628092611
evaluation of bovine abortion cases and tissue suitability for identification of infectious agents in california diagnostic laboratory cases from 2007 to 2012.establishing a definitive cause of bovine abortion is a challenging problem faced by veterinary practitioners and diagnosticians. detection of an infectious or noninfectious source for abortion may facilitate interventions that mitigate future fetal loss in the herd. the purposes of this study were to identify the most common causes of bovine abortion in cases submitted to the california animal health and food safety laboratory system, davis (cahfs) from 2007 to 2013 and to determine if detectio ...201626679514
molecular phylogeny of toxoplasmatinae: comparison between inferences based on mitochondrial and apicoplast genetic sequences.phylogenies within toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpc) and beta subunit of rna polymerase (rpob), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome b (cytb) were analyzed. laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites sarcocystis falcatula and sarcocys ...201627007245
besnoitia besnoiti lytic cycle in vitro and differences in invasion and intracellular proliferation among isolates.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti, reduces productivity and fertility of affected herds. besnoitiosis continues to expand in europe and no effective control tools are currently available. experimental models are urgently needed. herein, we describe for the first time the kinetics of standardised in vitro models for the b. besnoiti lytic cycle. this will aid to study the pathogenesis of the disease, in the screening for vaccine targets and drugs potentially useful fo ...201626928430
characterization of an igg monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii infects animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. its oocysts and tissue cysts are important for the horizontal transmission of this parasite. the oocyst and tissue cyst walls are crucial for the ability of the parasite to persist in the environment or in animal tissues, respectively. however, the composition of these walls is not well understood. we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed against wall components using mice immunized with oocyst ant ...201626836446
naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: differential distribution of parasites in the skin of chronically infected cattle.bovine besnoitiosis is caused by besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. in the acute stage of besnoitiosis, cattle suffer from pyrexia, swollen lymph nodes, anorexia and subcutaneous edema. in the chronic stage, tissue cysts are formed in a variety of tissues including the skin. knowledge about the distribution of tissue cysts of different parts of the skin of infected animals is scarce. four chronically infected cattle were euthan ...201626801602
endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (balaenoptera musculus, b. physalus, b. borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.a number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (balaenoptera musculus), fin (balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) from the azores islands, portugal. in total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (b. physalus); n = 4 (p. macrocephalus); n = ...201626593736
is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. these interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. this study determined the infectiousness of trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qpcr), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. ...201627198799
host mitochondrial association evolved in the human parasite toxoplasma gondii via neofunctionalization of a gene toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other animals, host mitochondrial association (hma) is driven by a gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (maf1) proteins. however, the importance of maf1 gene duplication in the evolution of hma is not understood, nor is the impact of hma on parasite biology. here we used within- and between-species comparative analysis to determine that the maf1 locus is duplicated in t. gondii and its nearest extant re ...201626920761
serological survey on some pathogens in wild brown hares (lepus europaeus) in central determine the exposure of wild brown hares [lepus europaeus (l. europaeus), pallas] to anaplasma phagocytophilum (a. phagocytophilum), borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) sensu lato, encephalitozoon cuniculi (e. cuniculi), leishmania sp., neospora caninum (n. caninum) and toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii).201627261855
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
fatal pyogranulomatous myocarditis in 10 boxer puppies.over a period of 5 years, 10 pure-bred boxer puppies, 9-16 weeks old, were presented with a history of sudden death and were diagnosed with pyogranulomatous myocarditis. the myocarditis was characterized by a mixed infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils and macrophages. in our retrospective study, original case records and archived materials were examined. all dogs were positive for borrelia burgdorferi on immunohistochemistry (ihc). there was no evidence of infectious agents in formal ...201626965234
parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in albania. blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for albania, a country located in the balkan peninsula in southeast europe. recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in albania. to provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between march 2010 and april 2011 in tirana, albania, were s ...201626453093
immunopathological features of canine myocarditis associated with leishmania infantum infection.myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa neospora caninum, trypanosoma cruzi, babesia canis, and hepatozoon canis. however, although cardiac disease due to leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. the aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc classes i and ii in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy f ...201627413751
ectopic expression of a neospora caninum kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in toxoplasma and plasmodium.regulated proteolysis is known to control a variety of vital processes in apicomplexan parasites including invasion and egress of host cells. serine proteases have been proposed as targets for drug development based upon inhibitor studies that show parasite attenuation and transmission blockage. genetic studies suggest that serine proteases, such as subtilisin and rhomboid proteases, are essential but functional studies have proved challenging as active proteases are difficult to express. protei ...201525803874
a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.meningoencephalitis (me) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. clinically, me has both infectious and non-infectious causes. in the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqpcr) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (blastomyces dermatitidis, cryptococcus spp., neospora caninum, borrelia burgdorferi, bartonella spp., toxoplasma gondii, ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [cdv]). ...201526040611
a serosurvey for selected pathogens in greek european wild boar.serum samples, collected from 94 european wild boar (sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health.201526392908
transcriptome and histopathological changes in mouse brain infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. it can cause nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and a variety of neuronal symptoms are observed, particularly in dogs. however, the pathogenic mechanism, including the relationship between the parasite distribution and the clinical signs, is unclear. in this study, to understand the pathogenic mechanism of neosporosis, parasite distribution and lesions were assessed in the brain of mice infected with ...201525604996
serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas.201526609692
neospora caninum - associated abortions in slovak dairy farm.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. this study aimed to determine the seropositivity to n. caninum using indirect elisa and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in slovakia.201525904951
anti-neospora caninum and anti-sarcocystis spp. specific antibodies cross-react with besnoitia besnoiti and influence the serological diagnosis of bovine besnoitiosis.bovine besnoitiosis control remains a challenge because the disease continues to spread and control relies solely on accurate diagnosis coupled to management measures. however, recent studies have reported that routinely used elisas may raise a high number of false-positive results. herein, cross-reactions between besnoitia besnoiti antigens and anti-neospora caninum and/or anti-sarcocystis spp.-specific antibodies were studied in an in house elisa since n. caninum and sarcocystis spp. are close ...201526386830
a small-molecule cell-based screen led to the identification of biphenylimidazoazines with highly potent and broad-spectrum anti-apicomplexan in vitro screening of the anti-apicomplexan activity of 51 compounds, stemming from our chemical library and from chemical synthesis, was performed. as a study model, we used toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii), expressing β-galactosidase for the colorimetric assessment of drug activity on parasites cultivated in vitro. this approach allowed the validation of a new series of molecules with a biphenylimidazoazine scaffold as inhibitors of t. gondii growth in vitro. hence, 8 molecules significantly i ...201525462254
[a duplex pcr method for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi].to develop a duplex pcr assay for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi.201526245119
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
association of histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from brazil.this study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of brazil. fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. pcr/rt-pcr assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1), listeri ...201525480485
herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern china.although the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in china, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. thus, from september 2013 to december 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determin ...201526231838
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in la pampa, argentina.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. the aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of argentina (la pampa, province). an average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. a total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- neospora caninum igg using an indirect-elisa and 302 seropositive-elisa sera were re-examined using an avidity-elisa proce ...201526203996
survey for infectious disease in the south american fur seal (arctocephalus australis) population at punta san juan, peru.the peruvian population of the south american fur seal ( arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. one of the largest rookeries for this species in peru is located within the punta san juan marine protected area (15°22's, 75°12'w). to better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques in novembe ...201526056875
isolation and proteomic analysis of rhoptry-enriched fractions from cryptosporidium parvum.rhoptries are unique secretory/excretory organelles that are found exclusively in the apicomplexa, and their contents are discharged at the time of invasion and are critical in the establishment of productive infection. several rhoptry proteins have been identified in toxoplasma gondii, plasmodium falciparum and neospora caninum and have been linked not only with the parasites' adhesion and invasion processes but also with their intracellular pathways. to date, only one cryptosporidium parvum rh ...201526587492
development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays based on its-1 for rapid detection of toxoplasma gondii in pork.the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method that rapidly amplifies dna with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. in this study, we established a lamp assay with six primers targeting a highly conserved region of toxoplasma gondii its-1 sequence. the amplification protocol completes within 30 min under isothermal condition in a 65°c water bath while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with dna templates of neospora caninum, eimeri ...201525624074
coxiella burnetii shedding by farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever. currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human q fever cases. however, a human case of q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with c. burnetii and ascertain the implicat ...201524127840
phylogeny, morphology, and metabolic and invasive capabilities of epicellular fish coccidium goussia fill the knowledge gap on the biology of the fish coccidian goussia janae, rna extracted from exogenously sporulated oocysts was sequenced. analysis by trinity and trinotate pipelines showed that 84.6% of assembled transcripts share the highest similarity with toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. phylogenetic and interpretive analyses from rna-seq data provide novel insight into the metabolic capabilities, composition of the invasive machinery and the phylogenetic relationships of this par ...201526599727
secreted effectors in toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host-pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. however, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of t. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (hammondia hammondi and neospora caninum) is unknown. these unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host ra ...201525655311
dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.the present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respi ...201526012856
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii serodiagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus carriers.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii belong to the sarcocystidae family, and both have one definitive and various intermediary hosts. owing to their weak immune systems, immunocompromised persons might be prone to opportunistic infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti- n. caninum and anti- t. gondii antibodies in immunocompromised individuals.201526516966
in vitro cultivation of hammondia heydorni: generation of tachyzoites, stage conversion into bradyzoites, and evaluation of serologic cross-reaction with neospora caninum.hammondia heydorni was in vitro isolated from oocysts shed by three dogs using a finite cell line from embryonal bovine heart (kh-r). the oocysts were purified and suspended in 2% potassium dichromate or 2% sulphuric acid for sporulation for 2-5 days at room temperature. the parasites were confirmed as h. heydorni by pcr using specific primers (js4/js5) and by negative reaction for neospora caninum employing the primers np6+/np21+. h. heydorni sporulated oocysts (1 × 10(6)) from each dog were in ...201525887985
effect of exposure to neospora caninum, salmonella, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo on the economic performance of irish dairy herds.the objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (l. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for salmonella and l. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. the production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mort ...201525704967
in vitro and in vivo effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 in the related cyst-forming apicomplexans toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.we report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (bki-1294) in cultures of virulent neospora caninum isolates nc-liverpool (nc-liv) and nc-spain7 and in two strains of toxoplasma gondii (rh and me49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. in these parasites, bki-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) ranging from 20 nm (t. gondii rh) to 360 nm (n. caninum nc-liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzo ...201526248379
evaluation of neospora caninum truncated dense granule protein 2 for serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dogs.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, and it primarily affects cattle and dogs. an infection by n. caninum causes fetal abortion and neonatal mortality. previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that n. caninum dense granule antigen 2 (ncgra2) has potential for serodiagnosis of n. caninum. consequently, we expressed the truncated ncgra2 (ncgra2t), which lacks a signal peptide. we compared the serodiagnostic performances of recombinant ncgra2t with that ...201526172405
[risk factors of increased abortions in dairy herds - a statistical analysis].to examine whether dairy herds with and without abortion problems differ in their management and prevalence of antibodies against various pathogens, through collecting and analysing data from these herds.201526166195
infection by neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of brazil.neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of ji-paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. for this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody te ...201526154960
integration of rna-seq and proteomics data with genomics for improved genome annotation in apicomplexan parasites.while high quality genomic sequence data is available for many pathogenic organisms, the corresponding gene annotations are often plagued with inaccuracies that can hinder research that utilizes such genomic data. experimental validation of gene models is clearly crucial in improving such gene annotations; the field of proteogenomics is an emerging area of research wherein proteomic data is applied to testing and improving genetic models. krishna et al. [proteomics 2015, 15, 2618-2628] investiga ...201526152714
mic3, a novel cross-protective antigen expressed in toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.microneme protein 3 (mic3) is an important adhesion molecule expressed by toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum that plays a crucial role in invasion. in our study, we found that recombinant tgmic3 (rtgmic3) was recognized by both t. gondii-reactive sera and hyper-immune serum against n. caninum. polyclonal antibodies against tgmic3 reacted with n. caninum by western blot and immunofluorescence assay (ifa). these results indicate that mic3 is a novel cross-reactive antigen expressed in n. canin ...201526141436
comparative analysis of apicoplast-targeted protein extension lengths in apicomplexan general, the mechanism of protein translocation through the apicoplast membrane requires a specific extension of a functionally important region of the apicoplast-targeted proteins. the corresponding signal peptides were detected in many apicomplexans but not in the majority of apicoplast-targeted proteins in toxoplasma gondii. in t. gondii signal peptides are either much diverged or their extension region is processed, which in either case makes the situation different from other studied api ...201526114107
serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern australia.the aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern australia.201526113353
dose-dependent effects of experimental infection with the virulent neospora caninum nc-spain7 isolate in a pregnant mouse model.pregnant balb/c mice have been widely used as an in vivo model to study neospora caninum infection biology and to provide proof-of-concept for assessments of drugs and vaccines against neosporosis. the fact that this model has been used with different isolates of variable virulence, varying infection routes and differing methods to prepare the parasites for infection, has rendered the comparison of results from different laboratories impossible. in most studies, mice were infected with similar n ...201526104964
use of elisa based on ncsrs2 of neospora caninum expressed in pichia pastoris for diagnosing neosporosis in sheep and dogs.neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. in the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein ncsrs2 of n. caninum expressed in pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. we observed that the elisa test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. we ...201526083692
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in farmed sika deer (cervus nippon) in china.neospora caninum is a worldwide protozoan that can induce neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. the objective of the present investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in farmed sika deer in china as little is known of this host-parasite relationship. a total of 1800 serum samples were collected during 2013 and 2014 from farmed sika deer in the major production areas of liaoning, jilin and heilongjiang provinces.assa ...201526073107
experimental neospora caninum infection in domestic bird's embryonated date, there are no reports regarding comparison between different bird species in neospora. caninum infection. in the present study 70 embryonated eggs from quail, partridge, broiler and egg laying chickens were divided into 7 groups equally. six groups in each species were inoculated with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg in the chorioallantoic membrane and the seventh group was considered as control. the mortality rates and clinic ...201526064008
sarcocystis spp. infection in two red panda cubs (ailurus fulgens).two neonatal male red panda (ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. one animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. to further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (tem), immunohistochemistry (ihc), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. ihc was negative ...201526054654
serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.the aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (no) and advanced oxidation protein products (aopp) in serum of goats naturally infected by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. thus, it was measured nox and aopp levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for t. gondii and n. caninum [negative control group (a)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositi ...201526031474
prevalence and distribution of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the northern territory of australia.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the northern territory (nt) of australia has never been determined. a total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the nt government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the northern territory were tested by commercial elisa for anti-n. caninum antibodies. the water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence o ...201525992666
genetic diversity of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. in this study, using nc5 and its1 nested pcr, n. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in tehran, iran. these specimen (nc-iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different m ...201525988829
neospora caninum: the first demonstration of the enteroepithelial stages in the intestines of a naturally infected dog.a 1.5-month-old kangal breed puppy from a dairy cattle farm died after showing severe diarrhoea and incoordination. necropsy examination revealed multifocal pulmonary consolidation and necrosis and fibrinohaemorrhagic enteritis. microscopically, there was necrotic and purulent bronchopneumonia, myocarditis and non-purulent encephalitis. in the jejunum and ileum there was villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia with oocyst-like and schizont-like structures in the epithelia. immunohistochemically, n ...201525981437
a review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of neospora caninum infection in wildlife.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. this protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. in recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the n. ca ...201525973393
molecular detection of neospora caninum in house sparrows (passer domesticus) in iran.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite with a wide range of intermediate bird hosts. there is little information describing the prevalence and genetic characterization of n. caninum in bird hosts worldwide and in iran. in this study, a total of 217 brain samples of house sparrow (passer domesticus) were examined for n. caninum presence by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the nc-5 gene. n. caninum dna was detected in 3.68% (8/217) of sparrows. sequencing of the nc5 geno ...201525971651
identification and characterization of a microneme protein (ncmic6) in neospora caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexa parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis. as described for other members of apicomplexa, microneme proteins (mics) play a key role in attachment and invasion of host cells by n. caninum. herein we identified n. caninum microneme protein 6 (ncmic6) that is orthologous to toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 6 (tgmic6). the open reading frame of the ncmic6 gene is 984 bp and encodes a 327 amino acid peptide. sequence analysis showed that ncmic6 included a sig ...201525956399
buparvaquone is active against neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.the naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for neospora caninum infection. in 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited n. caninum tachyzoite replication (ic50 = 4.9 nm; ic100 = 100 nm). however, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nm buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. parasiticida ...201525941626
evaluation of recombinant neospora caninum antigens purified from silkworm larvae for the protection of n. caninum infection in mice.three antigens (ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3) from neospora caninum were expressed using the bmnpv bacmid system in silkworm larvae and purified from the hemolymph. from 20 silkworm larvae, 1.5, 1.2 and 1.4 mg of purified recombinant ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3 were obtained, respectively. when each purified recombinant antigen was immunized with freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) to mice, recombinant ncsag1 induced a th2 immune response in immunized mice and produced a sag1-specific antibody. in the ...201525935502
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