TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) fetus.a near-full-term alpaca (vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. on histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex ...201425000722
diagnosis and treatment of neospora caninum--associated dermatitis in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) with concurrent toxoplasma gondii infection.a 3-mo-old red fox (vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of one leg. histologic examination of skin lesion biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites. the protozoa stained positively with antibodies to neospora caninum but not to toxoplasma gondii. treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.) for 1 mo completely resolved lesions ...201425000720
neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. a long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for n. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. a total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. t ...201424986462
metabolic footprinting of extracellular metabolites of brain endothelium infected with neospora caninum in vitro.the survival of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum depends on its ability to adapt to changing metabolic conditions of the host cell. thus, defining cellular and metabolic changes in affected target tissues may aid in delineating pathogenetic mechanism. we undertook this study to assess the metabolic response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hbmecs) to n. caninum infection in vitro.201424973017
prevalence and correlates of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in portugal.neosporosis, caused by neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. this study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to n. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland portugal. a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between s ...201424972327
two distinct populations of bovine il-17⁺ t-cells can be induced and wc1⁺il-17⁺γδ t-cells are effective killers of protozoan has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. initially thought to be cd4 t-cell-derived, the sources of il-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. mechanisms for inducing il-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of tgf-β1, il-6 and/or il-1β. using culture protoco ...201424961164
neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. a n. caninum competitive elisa was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 differ ...201424957000
first isolation of neospora caninum from blood of a naturally infected adult dairy cow in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but the isolation of a viable parasite from an abortus is difficult, and viable n. caninum has not been isolated from any host in china. in the present study, peripheral blood samples were collected from a jugular vein of an adult dairy cow that had aborted; the cow was seropositive to n. caninum antibodies by elisa. white blood cells were separated and seeded onto vero cell monolayer cultures for parasite isolation. tachyzo ...201424945568
rop18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) and neospora caninum (n. caninum) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. a secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (rop18) was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among differ ...201424927100
experimental ruminant models for bovine neosporosis: what is known and what is present, bovine neosporosis is an important worldwide concern because of its wide geographic distribution and economic impact. abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine neosporosis in both dairy and beef cattle. ruminant challenge models are critical to evaluate potential vaccine candidates to help tackle bovine neosporosis and to study pathogenesis and host responses to infection. several research groups have developed ruminant models of neospora caninum infection independently of others, ...201424926962
genetic characterisation of neospora caninum strains from clinical samples of zebuine foetuses obtained in abattoirs in goiás, brazil.the neospora caninum microsatellite markers were applied to clinical samples. genotyping technology involving fluorescently labelled dna fragment analysis was used in combination with dna sequencing for markers with complex repetitive sequences. nineteen dna samples from 15 brains and four hearts of naturally infected non-aborted zebuine foetuses from abattoirs in goiás, brazil. n. caninum had been detected in these foetuses by nested-pcr of the internal transcribed spacer-1 rrna region, and the ...201424893690
maternal and fetal immune response patterns in heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum in the second trimester of pregnancy--a descriptive study.fetal and maternal immune responses 3, 6 and 9 weeks post infection (wpi) were investigated in cows experimentally infected with neospora caninum on day 110 of gestation. descriptive analysis showed that the fetuses had lower percentages of spleen t cell subpopulations (cd3+, cd4+ and cd8+) at 6 wpi compared to 3 wpi and/or 9 wpi, with the lowest percentages observed in a dead fetus found upon euthanasia at that time. increased expression of most cytokines over levels recorded at 3 and 9 wpi wer ...201424880649
macrophage depletion prior to neospora caninum infection results in severe neosporosis in mice.we observed that murine macrophages showed greater activation and increased interleukin 6 (il-6), il-12p40, and interferon gamma (ifn-γ) production during neospora caninum infection. many macrophages migrated to the site of infection. furthermore, macrophage-depleted mice exhibited increased sensitivity to n. caninum infection. this study indicates that macrophages are required for achieving protective immunity against n. caninum.201424872515
statistical evaluation of a commercial neospora caninum competitive elisa in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta.neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. in the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. however, there are a number of s ...201424861013
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic south american camelids of the peruvian andes.the objective of this study was to investigate the presence of toxoplasma gondii- and neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic south american camelids (sac) (llamas and alpacas) from the peruvian andes through a cross-sectional study. a wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main sac production areas of peru was selected. immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum imm ...201424859240
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cats from the czech republic.sera of 414 cats coming from different parts of the czech republic were tested for n. caninum antibodies. sera samples were collected during years 2002-2011. n. caninum antibodies were detected by a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) with cut off ≥30% inhibition. samples positive in celisa were confirmed by an indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); titre ≥50 was considered positive. in total, 137 (33%) cats reacted positively in celisa; n. caninum a ...201424827111
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in northern provinces, thailand.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis, recognized as a major cause of bovine abortion around the world. thailand is a developing agricultural country located in southeast asia. livestock developments particularly in dairy cows of this country have been hampered by low productivity including milk and slow growth rate due to the impact of many pathogens including n. caninum. currently, there is no effective method for control of neosp ...201424827103
red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in romania are carriers of toxoplasma gondii but not neospora caninum.brain samples from 182 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from romania were examined using a standard pcr technique. results provide evidence of toxoplasma gondii (11 foxes=6.0%) and neospora caninum (1 fox=0.5%) dna in red foxes from romania. no coinfections were found.201424807364
neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.the aim of this study was to investigate how neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. a convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the northeast of argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus crossbreeds) ...201424792747
neospora caninum versus brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in ethiopia: a case control study.this case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of neospora caninum and brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. the study was carried out between october 2011 and june 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of ethiopia. two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. the presence of antibody to n. caninum was screened usin ...201424781154
association of antibodies against neospora caninum in mares with reproductive problems and presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor.sera from 112 mares from 5 horse-breeding farms was examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), as well as from dogs and cattle present on these properties for the presence of antibodies to n. caninum. among the 112 mares, 35 had a history of reproductive problems in the last breeding season and 77 had no reproductive problems. the rates of seroprevalence of n. caninum in mares with and without a history of re ...201424731383
comparison of an elisa assay for the detection of adhesive/invasive neospora caninum tachyzoites.neospora caninum belongs to the phylum apicomplexa, the causative agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle production. a common feature among apicomplexan parasites is the invasive process driven mostly by the parasite. as a first evaluation of candidate molecules that play a possible role by interfering in this invasive process, the in vitro invasion assay is a fast and direct way to screen future agonists or antagonists. this work involved the development of a new cell c ...201424728359
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from northeast, brazil.the aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate t. gondii from slaughtered pigs in paraíba state, brazil. a total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. an indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of t. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. a total of 50 g of bra ...201424703253
changes in purine levels associated with cellular brain injury in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum.the present study was carried out in order to assess the possible alterations in purine levels of brain, associated neuronal lesions in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum. for that, gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated with nc-1 strain of n. caninum, composing two different experiments: experiment i (ei) and experiment ii (eii), where purine levels were measured along with the histopathologic study, on days 7 (ei), 15 and 30 (eii), post-infection (pi). as a result, ...201424702899
isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of neospora caninum china yanbian strain.the aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the neospora caninum infections in china.201425678924
management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.a survey of management practices in 309 irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. a previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. association analy ...201424661904
detection of neospora caninum-dna in feces collected from dogs in shenyang (china) and its1 phylogenetic analysis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects many domestic and wild animals. dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and involved in transmitting infections to intermediate hosts by shedding oocysts. to investigate the epidemiology of dog neosporosis in china, 212 dog feces specimens in shenyang were screened by nested-pcr using nc5 primers and confirmed by n. caninum its1 pcr. the positive rate of n. caninum dna was 34.90% (74/212). there were no significant correlations ...201425047704
epidemiology of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in rattus rattus in absence of domestic reservoir and definitive hosts.isolated environments are privileged settings to study transmission of infection. montecristo is a small island where no wild or domestic carnivores are present. invasive black rats rattus rattus (n=78) were captured and tested by pcr for leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we wanted to test, for these parasites, the existence of a sylvatic cycle independent of reservoir or definitive hosts. none of the rats tested positive by pcr for either t. gondii or n. caninum. we r ...201424295953
differential locus expansion distinguishes toxoplasmatinae species and closely related strains of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii is a human obligate intracellular parasite that has infected over 20% of the world population and has a vast intermediate host range compared to those of its nearest relatives neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi. while these 3 species have highly syntenic genomes (80 to 99%), in this study we examined and compared species-specific structural variations, specifically at loci that have undergone local (i.e., tandem) duplication and expansion. to do so, we used genomic sequenc ...201424496792
evaluation of spore wall protein 1 as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of farmed foxes using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the sequence encoding swp1 was cloned from the genome of encephalitozoon cuniculi. recombinant swp1 (rswp1) was expressed in escherichia coli and used to detect e. cuniculi infections in farmed foxes and dogs with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in the present study. the sera of foxes infected with e. cuniculi could be distinguished from the sera of foxes infected with toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum using the elisa. in total, 198 fox samples ...201424830821
a neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rncsag1, rnchsp20 and rncgra7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (iscoms) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of neospora caninum. twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group a animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins ...201425467890
cloning and expression of neospora caninum dense-granule 7 in e. coli.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan which induces abortion, still birth and neuromuscular disorders in cattle and is an important problem in dairy and beef industry worldwide. the dense granule protein 7 (gra7) of n. caninum is an immune-dominant protein shared by both tachyzoite and bradyzoites. this study was conducted to produce recombinant gra7 of n. caninum using a plasmid with high level of expression of this protein in e. coli. for this purpose, a segment of n. caninum ...201424808652
neospora caninum infection as a cause of reproductive failure in a sheep flock.neospora caninum has been detected only sporadically in cases of ovine abortion, and it has therefore traditionally been considered as an unimportant parasite in small ruminants. this study was carried out with the aim of identifying the pathogen causing serious reproductive problems on a commercial sheep farm. sera from all rams and ewes tested negative for antibodies against border disease virus, schmallenberg virus and coxiella burnetii, and infections by these agents were therefore ruled out ...201425158756
serosurvey on schmallenberg virus and selected ovine reproductive pathogens in culled ewes from southern spain.after the first case of schmallenberg virus (sbv) was reported in southern spain (march 2012), a retrospective serological study was carried out in extensive sheep flocks from nearby areas to assess the history of exposure to sbv and other selected ovine reproductive pathogens (chlamydophila abortus, coxiella burnetii, border disease virus 'bdv', toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum). secondly, the presence of antibodies was investigated in meat juice samples against selected pathogens to vali ...201424219149
epidemiology of reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain: a comparative serological study.the aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of five major reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain. two thousand four hundred serum samples were collected from 44 flocks, and several factors were studied to assess their influence on seropositivity. farms that tested seropositive for more than one pathogen were common (84.1%), but seroprevalence was high only for toxoplasma gondii (38.1%), and low for the other four pathogens, namely, ...201424685472
abortion in cattle due to infection with staphylococcus aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the lombardy and emilia-romagna experimental zooprophylactic institute in parma, italy. the serum was negative for neospora caninum, coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), brucella abortus, and brucella melitensis. fetal tissues and placental cotyledo ...201425292193
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.filter-paper (fp) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. previous work indicated that nobuto fp samples from caribou and reindeer (rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (≥ 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for brucella spp., neospora caninum, and west nile virus. the same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect elisas for brucella spp., bovine he ...201424499329
health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic south american camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten andean communities at the salinas y aguada blanca reserve, province of arequipa, southern peru. samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (fmd), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), brucellosis, bl ...201424492977
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: detecting antibodies to neospora caninum, west nile virus, and five bovine viruses in reindeer.we compared nobuto filter paper (fp) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). serum and fp samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008-2009. sample pairs (serum and fp eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for neospora caninum and west nile virus (wnv); indirect elisa (ielisas) for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), pa ...201424484497
serological cross-reactivity of trypanosoma cruzi, ehrlichia canis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and babesia canis to leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs.the aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens.201424603745
pathogens of zoonotic and biological importance in roe deer (capreolus capreolus): seroprevalence in an agro-system population in france.antibody prevalence for several infectious and parasitic diseases in a population of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) inhabiting a mixed agricultural landscape (south of france) has been analyzed. serological analyses with elisa in 245 animals captured from 2008 to 2012 has been performed. we found a high prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (46.4%), chlamydophila abortus (17.27%) and coxiella burnetii (11.26%) compared to other studies in europe. seroprevalence varied strongly among years for t. gondi ...201424576494
using open-access taxonomic and spatial information to create a comprehensive database for the study of mammalian and avian livestock and pet infections.what are all the species of pathogen that affect our livestock? as 6 out of every 10 human pathogens came from animals, with a good number from livestock and pets, it seems likely that the majority that emerge in the future, and which could threaten or devastate human health, will come from animals. only 10 years ago, the first comprehensive pathogen list was compiled for humans; we still have no equivalent for animals. here we describe the creation of a novel pathogen database, and present outp ...201423906393
infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the manchega sheep breed: health constraints for conservation purposes.conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. the black variety of manchega sheep (bms), and endangered breed endemic to south-central spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. however, several pathogens circulating in bms flocks may be shed with semen and threaten bms preservation. theref ...201425066603
prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, and babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil. a total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and s ...201424563780
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
the gatekeeper residue and beyond: homologous calcium-dependent protein kinases as drug development targets for veterinarian apicomplexa parasites.specific roles of individual cdpks vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. a comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (sar) of neospora caninum, eimeria tenella and babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (cdpks) together with those of plasmodium falciparum, cryptosporidium parvum and toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (bkis). structural modelling and experimental ...201424927073
generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the united states, europe and australia. furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. in fact the biotech companies i ...201425140515
pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in western alberta: does transmission route matter?in southwestern alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. to assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (ma ...201424517283
serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the central valley of costa rica.blood samples from 181 equines from the central valley of costa rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. the presence of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), west nile virus (wnv), influenza a virus (iav), equine viral arteritis virus (evav), babesia caballi, theileria equi, neospora ca ...201426623349
survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from albania.albania is a country on the western part of the balkan peninsula. the mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in albania. however, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in albania is scarce.201424517118
neospora caninum and wildlife.bovine neosporosis caused by neospora caninum is among the main causes of abortion in cattle nowadays. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. serological evidence in domestic, wild, and zoo animals indicates that many species have been exposed to this parasite. however, many aspects of the life cycle of n. caninum are unknown and the role of wildlife in the life cycle of n. caninum is still not completely elucidated. in north america, there are data consistent with a sylvatic cyc ...201327335866
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in slovakia.parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum i ...201324338316
evaluation of a real-time pcr assay based on the single-copy sag1 gene for the detection of toxoplasma gondii.real-time pcr-based detection of toxoplasma gondii is very sensitive and convenient for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. however, the performance of the pcr assays could be influenced by the target gene chosen. here we evaluate a real-time pcr assay using double-stranded dna dyes (sybr(®) green i assay) with a new set of primers targeting the sag1 gene for the fast and specific detection of t. gondii. the assay showed higher sensitivity than conventional pcr protocols using t. gondii dna as template. t ...201323867074
library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways: a manually curated database for metabolic pathways of apicomplexan parasites.the library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways (lamp, is a web database that provides near complete mapping from genes to the central metabolic functions for some of the prominent intracellular parasites of the phylum apicomplexa. this phylum includes the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and theileriosis-diseases with a huge economic and social impact. a number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced, but the accurate annotation of gene function remains challe ...201323193253
combination of monoclonal antibodies improves immunohistochemical diagnosis of neospora caninum.histological analysis is commonly used for a conclusive diagnosis of neosporosis. immunohistochemistry (ihc) using monoclonal (mab) and polyclonal (pab) antibodies can improve diagnosis; however, the use of pab may induce cross-reactivity with other related parasites. the aims of this study were to compare the performance of mabs and their combinations with that of pab in ihc and evaluate the usefulness of mab to identify neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine fetal tissues. for this purpo ...201323927916
novel tools for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic bovine besnoitiosis.diagnosis of acute bovine besnoitiosis is a major diagnostic problem. we developed diagnostic tests to serologically diagnose and differentiate acute and chronic cases of bovine besnoitiosis using affinity purified antigens of besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites in immunoblots and in both, a conventional elisa and an avidity elisa. sera of acutely and chronically infected cattle were investigated using these tests. acutely infected cattle initially recognised an antigen of 74 kda relative molecular m ...201323160022
a transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the canary islands, spain.the canary islands contain the most important dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) population in the european union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental europe and latin america. we investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 canarian camel sera. selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by pcr. sera were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus (btv; 0%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv; 0%), camelpox virus (c ...201323992795
evaluation of cross immunity and histopathological findings in experimentally infected balb/c mice with neospora caninum and besnoitia caprae.caprine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of goats. neospora caninum, another coccidian parasite of worldwide distribution, infects several animal species and is a major cause of abortion in cattle. combined infections of n. caninum and besnoitia caprae can occur in geographical areas endemic for both species of parasite in goats. this experiment was conducted to investigate the possible cross-immunity between these two infections in experimentally infected balb/c mice.201323682267
seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is caused by the protozoan leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of brazil. the present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to analyze l. infantum, ehrlichia spp., babesia canis, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in ilha solteira, sp, brazil. the seroprevalence rates of anti-l. infantum, anti-ehrlichia, anti-b. canis, anti-t. gondii and ...201324252965
babesia divergens and neospora caninum apical membrane antigen 1 structures reveal selectivity and plasticity in apicomplexan parasite host cell cell invasion by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium (malaria) and toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), requires a step-wise mechanism unique among known host-pathogen interactions. a key step is the formation of the moving junction (mj) complex, a circumferential constriction between the apical tip of the parasite and the host cell membrane that traverses in a posterior direction to enclose the parasite in a protective vacuole essential for intracellular survival ...201323169033
the absence of zoonotic agents in invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) in belgium and the netherlands.exotic invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) are considered to exert a considerable negative impact on native amphibian communities. this can be due to competition and predation, but they are also a notorious source of the infectious diseases chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis, affecting amphibian populations globally. little is known regarding their carriage of other microbial agents that might be transferred to humans or other animals. in this study we determined the occurrence of the amp ...201324162797
detection of antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., and apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the northeast of argentina.water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the northeast of argentina (nea). however, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. the aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the nea. serum samples were tested for b. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, leptospira spp. by ...201323765549
serologic survey of infectious diseases in populations of maned wolf (chrysocyon brachyurus) and crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) from aguas emendadas ecological station, brazil.domestic dogs are reservoirs for many infectious diseases and may represent a potential source of infection for wild canid populations. a serologic investigation of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella abortus, and leptospira spp. was conducted on three maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) and seven crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous), all free-living, at the aguas emendadas ecological station (esecae), federal district, brazil, between february and october 2006. out of th ...201323505716
contribution of leptospira, neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in new zealand.the profitability of beef breeding farms in new zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. the aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), neospora caninum (n. caninum), leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo (hardjo), and leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cas ...201323932894
characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor.the present study is the first characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (ncmif). blast-n analysis of ncmif revealed high similarity (87%) to the toxoplasma gondii mif. ncmif was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli in 3 forms, ncmif (mature protein), ncmifm (mutation of proline-2 to glycine), and ncmifhis (addition of a polyhistidine tag at the n-terminus). none of these recombinant ncmifs (rncmif) had tautomerase, oxidoreductase, or immunologic regulatory ...201323850997
cloning, nucleotide sequencing and bioinformatics study of ncsrs2 gene, an immunogen from iranian isolate of neospora caninum.neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. ncsrs2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of n. caninum which is considered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or dna vaccine against neosporosis. as no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of n. caninum in iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in iran.201323682269
neospora caninum surface antigen (p40) is a potential diagnostic marker for cattle neosporosis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids as well as many warm-blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against n. caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. so, there is currently an urgent need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detecting n. caninum in animals. the n. caninum 40-kd surface antigen (p40), similar to ncs ...201323435920
gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene bag1.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. the aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the n. caninum orthologue (ncbag1) of the toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein tgbag1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with tgbag1. ncbag1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to tgbag1. a p ...201323245337
simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum in abortion material of ruminants by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum are responsible for reproductive diseases and are closely linked with high abortion rates in ruminants. furthermore, c. burnetii and chlamydia spp. have zoonotic potential. a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., c. burnetii, and n. caninum. the detection of beta-actin as internal control in the same pcr reaction provides additional information about sample quality by ...201323942900
geographical distribution modelling for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cattle farms in northeastern spain.maximum entropy ecological niche modelling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographical range and to investigate clusters of infections for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle farms in catalonia, northeastern spain, using the maxent and satscan programs, respectively. the geographical distribution of neospora and coxiella with the highest level of probability (p > 0·60) covers central catalonia and spreads towards northeastern catalonia which contains a ...201322370223
fecal shedding of toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada.knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) in prince edward island, canada. identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 h ...201323568915
encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in invasive eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus in northwestern italy.sylvilagus floridanus is a lagomorph introduced for hunting purposes from north america to europe where, in certain areas like northern italy, its population reached high densities. brain, kidney and skeletal muscle of 144 eastern cottontail rabbits s. floridanus were examined by pcr for encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. dna of e. cuniculi was found with a prevalence of 9.72% (ci 95% 0.058-0.156). t. gondii and n. caninum dna was detected in 2.08% (ci 95% 0.0071-0 ...201323747104
structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors.the widespread protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ropks), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase rop5. the extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood.201323742205
t and b lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: leishmania chagasi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.visceral leishmaniasis is a disease with great variability regarding the clinical manifestations in humans and dogs. chronically infected dogs may develop neurological disorders, however, there are few reports that characterize the lesions and make clear the pathogenesis of the canine cerebral leishmaniasis. concomitant with leishmania chagasi, dogs may be infected by opportunistic pathogens, such as toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, which may contribute to the occurrence of lesions in the ...201323758819
first isolation of hammondia heydorni from dogs in china.fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in china from march 2010 to november 2011. in 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. their morphology was similar to those of hammondia heydorni and neospora caninum. sporulated hammondia/neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 km mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. oocysts were no ...201323731857
characterisation of full-length mitochondrial copies and partial nuclear copies (numts) of the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i genes of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, hammondia heydorni and hammondia triffittae (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae).genomic dna was extracted from three oocyst isolates of hammondia triffittae from foxes and two oocyst isolates of hammondia heydorni from dogs, as well as from cell culture-derived tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii (rh strain) and neospora caninum (nc-liverpool strain), and examined by pcr with primers targeting the cytochrome b (cytb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox1) genes in order to characterise both genes and, if possible, the remainder of the mitochondrial genome of these speci ...201323358734
temporal trends in bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.bulk milk samples were collected from 309 irish dairy herds at four time points during 2009 and tested for antibodies to salmonella spp., n. caninum, and l. hardjo, three abortifacient agents in irish dairy herds. of the 312 study herds, 49% vaccinated against salmonella and 76% vaccinated against l. hardjo. in unvaccinated herds, the overall prevalence of antibody positive herds was 49% for salmonella, 19% for n. caninum and 86% for l. hardjo. there was no association between both testing posit ...201323117041
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs.toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. the present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from brotas city, são paulo state, brazil. blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. the serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). the fischer ...201324688530
development of maternal and foetal immune responses in cattle following experimental challenge with neospora caninum at day 210 of gestation.this study examined the immunological responses of pregnant cattle and their foetuses following an experimental challenge with live neospora caninum tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation. animals were bled prior to and weekly throughout the experiment and sacrificed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post inoculation (dpi). at post mortem examination, samples of lymph nodes and spleen were collected from both dam and foetus for immunological analysis. subcutaneous (sc) inoculation over the left prefemoral ...201324090114
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (blv) and neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies against blv were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% ci = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (p = 0.56). both tests identified ...201324082160
an outbreak of sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary.a total of 5 psittacine birds in an enclosed zoological exhibit, including 2 princess parrots and 3 cockatoos of 2 different species, developed severe central nervous system clinical signs over a 2-3-month period and died or were euthanized. histologically, all birds had a lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa consistent with a sarcocystis species in addition to intramuscular tissue sarcocysts. by immunohistochemical staining, merozoites in brain and tissue c ...201324081928
development and standardization of dot - elisa for detection of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and comparison with standard indirect elisa and direct agglutination test (dat).neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicomplexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world.201325516747
seroprevalence and risk factors of neospora spp. in donkeys from southern some european countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in southern italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (martina-franca, amiata, sicilian-grey, ragusano, sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). sera were tested by a compet ...201324050943
quails are resistant to infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the aim of this study was to characterize the role of quails (coturnix coturnix japonica) as intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. fifty-eight 20-day old quails were individually identified with numbered rings and kept in cages adequate for the species. the birds were fed commercial feed and distilled water ad libitum. they were weighed daily during the first month and every seven days from then on. the birds were randomly distributed into 3 groups; 40 quails (group a) and 8 quails (group b) ...201324041486
neospora caninum and reproductive wastage in extensively managed queensland beef compare reproduction in extensively managed, tropically adapted beef cows that were either seropositive or seronegative to neospora caninum.201323980832
in vitro effects of novel ruthenium complexes in neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.upon the screening of 16 antiproliferative compounds against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, two hydrolytically stable ruthenium complexes (compounds 16 and 18) exhibited 50% inhibitory concentrations of 18.7 and 41.1 nm (t. gondii) and 6.7 and 11.3 nm (n. caninum). to achieve parasiticidal activity with compound 16, long-term treatment (22 to 27 days at 80 to 160 nm) was required. transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the rapid impact on and ultrastructural alterations in both p ...201323979747
identification of a highly antigenic region of subtilisin-like serine protease 1 for serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion in cattle; hence, accurate diagnosis of this pathogen is important to the cattle farming industry. our previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that the n. caninum subtilisin-like serine protease 1 (ncsub1) has potential as a serodiagnostic tool for neospora. consequently, we expressed two fragments containing five ncsub1 tandem repeat copies covering amino acids (aa) 524 to 843 (ncsub1t) and 555 to 679 (ncsub1tr) ...201323966554
suspension culture of neospora caninum by theileria annulata-infected cell line.there are some limiting aspects of scaling up the neospora caninum tachyzoites in continuous cell lines, particularly as related to the absence of surface attachment. in this study, suspension cell culture of theileria annulata-infected lymphoblastoid (til) was used as a host cell for the continous production of n. caninum tachyzoites. the numbers of free tachyzoites in the medium supernatant were showed regularly increased up to the day 6 post-cultivation. transmission electron microscopy demon ...201323959501
genetic diversity and geographic population structure of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite genotyping analysis.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (mss). mss may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in n. caninum, which have been poorly defined. in this ...201323940816
mucosal and systemic t cell response in mice intragastrically infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.the murine model has been widely used to study the host immune response to neospora caninum. however, in most studies, the intraperitoneal route was preferentially used to establish infection. here, c57bl/6 mice were infected with n. caninum tachyzoites by the intragastric route, as it more closely resembles the natural route of infection through the gastrointestinal tract. the elicited t-cell mediated immune response was evaluated in the intestinal epithelium and mesenteric lymph nodes (mln). e ...201323937079
immune response and protection provided by live tachyzoites and native antigens from the nc-6 argentina strain of neospora caninum in pregnant heifers.the aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of live tachyzoites and native antigen extract obtained from the nc-6 argentina strain against vertical transmission of neospora caninum, following experimental challenge in pregnant heifers with the nc-1 strain. sixteen pregnant heifers were divided in 4 groups of 4 animals, each receiving different inoculation before mating: group a animals were intravenously (iv) inoculated with 6.25×10(7) live tachyzoites ...201323932455
expression, purification and antigenicity of neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.infection of neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. in this study, n. caninum surface antigen 1 (sag1) and sag1-related sequence 2 (srs2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. expressed sag1 and srs2 clearly showed antigenicity against n. caninum-positive ...201323102762
detection of neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in great britain.samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (mustela furo), 83 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 70 european polecats (mustela putorius), 65 american mink (neovison vison), 64 eurasian badgers (meles meles) and 9 stoats (mustela erminea), from around great britain. dna was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested its1 pcr for neospora caninum. the results from the pcr demonstrated that neospora specific dna was detected in all species of wild carnivo ...201323102760
investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. the only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. this study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. a sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: american mink (mustela vison), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), pine martens (martes martes), badgers (meles meles), stoats (mustela erminea), otters (lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (mustela ...201323068142
low rates of neospora caninum infection reactivation during gestation are observed in both chronically and congenitally infected mice.endogenous transplacental transmission (entt) of neospora caninum is the most common route of infection in cattle and occurs as a consequence of a reactivation of n. caninum infection that may lead to abortion or to the birth of congenitally infected calves. the reactivation of n. caninum infection was studied during the gestation of chronically infected dams and, for the first time, in their congenitally infected pups. balb/c mice were infected with nc-spain 7 (group 1) or nc-spain 3h (group 2) ...201323058003
differential effects of intranasal vaccination with recombinant ncpdi in different mouse models of neospora caninum this study, mice were vaccinated intranasally with recombinant n. caninum protein disulphide isomerase (ncpdi) emulsified in cholera toxin (ct) or cholera toxin subunit b (ctb) from vibrio cholerae. the effects of vaccination were assessed in the murine nonpregnant model and the foetal infection model, respectively. in the nonpregnant mice, previous results were confirmed, in that intranasal vaccination with recncpdi in ct was highly protective, and low cerebral parasite loads were noted upon ...201323046358
reproductive disorders in relation to neospora caninum, brucella spp. and bovine viral diarrhoea virus serostatus in breeding and dairy farms of central and southern ethiopia.abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. this study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv), brucella spp., and neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in ethiopia. dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. the over ...201323034138
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.toxoplasma and neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. in order to investigate the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep ...201324103737
study on outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows in tabriz (northwest iran) by serological, molecular and histopathologic determine neospora caninum (n. caninum) as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy cows by elisa, pcr and pathological methods in tabriz, northwest of iran.201324144024
neospora caninum: activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between n. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche) during the acute ...201324140613
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