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seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in india.neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of n. caninum infection in cattle in india. serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in punjab, india, were tested for n. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cow ...200718314683
parasitic infections in dairy cattle around hanoi, northern vietnam.in northern vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. in the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around hanoi. a total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. copro ...200818328629
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in different dog populations in spain.in this study, neospora caninum seroprevalence and some associated risk factors were investigated in four different dog populations in spain. n. caninum seropositivity was significantly higher in farm dogs (51%, 51/100) (p<0.001) and lower in household dogs (2.9%, 3/102) (p<0.0001). the seroprevalence in hunting (23%, 23/100) and stray (24.5%, 23/94) dogs was moderate, and no significant differences were observed between these two populations (p>0.05). a significantly higher number of dogs showe ...200818241992
natural postnatal neospora caninum infection in cattle can persist and lead to endogenous transplacental infection.a serological follow-up study of 3.5 years duration was done of a dairy herd that had experienced a mass seroconversion to neospora caninum following a point source exposure shortly before the 17th of january 2000. a total of 913 blood samples of 244 animals at seven sampling dates were used to investigate the seroprevalence dynamics in the herd. most postnatally infected cattle remained seropositive during the period of investigation but 11 animals became seronegative after 6-27 months indicati ...200818280662
high seroprevalence of neospora caninum in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees (ne spain).antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees, north-eastern spain. sera from 53 red foxes (29 male and 24 female) were tested using a neospora agglutination test (nat). seroprevalence at dilutions of 1/40, 1/80 and 1/160 was 69.8%, 47.2% and 7.5%, respectively. sex differences were significant only at a dilution of 1:40. the high seroprevalence observed in red fox suggests that this species is highly exposed to n. caninum in this area.200818280664
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in dogs in india.neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide, and dogs are an important risk factor for n. caninum infection in cattle. antibodies to n. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the punjab state, india, using commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa and found in 16.8% of the animals. the prevalence of n. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in rural dogs (21.4%, 27 of 126) than city dogs (6.9%, 4 of 58). to our knowle ...200818372658
models for experimental infection of dogs fed with tissue from fetuses and neonatal cattle naturally infected with neospora caninum.three models were designed to investigate the development and enteroepithelial phase of neospora caninum in dogs, and to induce oocyst production by the parasite. in the first model, three dogs were fed raw fetal bovine tissue on two occasions. the bovine fetal tissue had been stored at 4 degrees c for 14 days and 16 days, respectively, and had tested positive for neosporosis using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. in the second model, nine dogs from the beginning of the experiment until ...200818395346
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection of cats in hungary.blood samples were collected from 330 cats in hungary in order to evaluate their seroconversion to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 47.6%, the prevalence being 22.4% among urban, 50% among suburban and 61.3% among rural animals. significantly more cats had high ifat titres (1:640 to 1:5120) in the countryside. female cats were more frequently infected with t. gondii than males (53.3% vs. 39.3%) ...200818401958
host cells participate in the in vitro effects of novel diamidine analogues against tachyzoites of the intracellular apicomplexan parasites neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii.the in vitro effects of 19 dicationic diamidine derivatives against the proliferative tachyzoite stages of the apicomplexan parasites neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii were investigated. four compounds (db811, db786, db750, and db766) with similar structural properties exhibited profound inhibition of tachyzoite proliferation. the lowest 50% inhibitory concentrations were found for db786 (0.21 microm against neospora and 0.22 microm against toxoplasma) and db750 (0.23 microm against neospor ...200818362190
evolutionary origin of the protozoan parasites histone-like proteins (hu).the histone-like proteins (hu) belong to a family of dna architectural proteins that stabilize nucleoprotein complexes. we found a putative hu protein (tgglmhmm_3045) in toxoplasma gondii genome that was homologous to the bacterial hu protein. this putative sequence was located in the scaffold tgg_995361 of the chromosome 10. the sequence included the prokaryotic bacterial histone-like domain, kfgslglrrrgervarnprt (id number ps00045). hu protein sequences were also found in plasmodium falciparum ...200818430986
effects of re-infection with neospora caninum in bulls on parasite detection in semen and blood and immunological responses.three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with neospora caninum were re-infected intravenously with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 isolate at 300 days post-infection to investigate the presence of n. caninum in semen and blood, and the associated immune responses. in parallel, three bulls with experimentally induced primary infection with n. caninum and three non-infected bulls were also monitored. re-infected and infected bulls showed an intermittent presence of n ...200818336895
vaccination of mice with recombinant ncrop2 antigen reduces mortality and cerebral infection in mice infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.rhoptry antigens are involved in a variety of cellular functions related to host cell invasion, formation of the parasitophorous vacuole and parasite-host cell interplay. the cdna sequence of one of these antigens, ncrop2 was identified from neospora caninum expressed sequence tags (ests), amplified by reverse transcription-pcr, expressed in escherichia coli as a (his)(6)-tagged recombinant protein (recncrop2) and purified over ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. both recncrop2 and antibodies direct ...200818495126
seroprevalence of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis sp. in llamas (lama glama) from jujuy, argentina.llamas (lama glama) are south american camelids described as intermediate hosts of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis aucheniae. due to the potential role of these protozoan infections as a cause of economic losses, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for t. gondii, n. caninum and sarcocystis sp. in llamas from argentina. serum samples from 308 llamas (>2 years old) were collected between 2005 and 2007. a total of 55 farms located in six departments of juju ...200818495344
upregulation of cytokines is detected in the placentas of cattle infected with neospora caninum and is more marked early in gestation when fetal death is observed.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum causes fetal death after experimental infection of pregnant cattle in early gestation, but the fetus survives a similar infection in late gestation. an increase in th1-type cytokines in the placenta in response to the presence of the parasite has been implicated as a contributory factor to fetal death due to immune-mediated pathological alterations. we measured, using real-time reverse transcription-pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the levels of ...200818362132
the development and evaluation of a nested pcr assay for detection of neospora caninum and hammondia heydorni in feral mouse tissues.the development of a novel nested polymerase chain reaction is described and used for detecting the presence of neospora caninum and hammondia heydorni dna in dna extracted from feral rodent tissues. a unique strategy was used for design of an assay that could be adapted for detecting dna from more than one member of toxoplasmatinae simultaneously with a minimal number of additional steps. the level of sensitivity described for this assay is comparable to real time-pcr and other nested pcr assay ...200818420378
frequency of detectable serum igg concentrations in precolostral calves.to determine the prevalence of detectable serum igg concentrations in calves prior to ingestion of colostrum and to assess whether a detectable igg concentration was related to dam parity, calf birth weight, calf sex, season of calving, or infectious agents that can be transmitted transplacentally.200818518660
detection of neospora caninum in dog organs using real time pcr systems.neospora caninum is a parasite responsible for paresis in dogs. the dog can harbour enkysted parasites in several organs. the detection of n. caninum was performed using 3 different real time pcr systems all amplifying the nc5 dna region. one system was based on sybrgreen, one on plexor technology and the last on taqman probe. comparison of the three methods indicated that the detection limit was 1 equivalent genome on pure dna but that this detection limit increased in the presence of foreign d ...200818502585
[occurrence of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in dogs of botucatu range micro region, state of são paulo, brazil].neosporosis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoon neospora caninum, which is recognized as an important cause of bovine abortion and canine neuropathy. considering the isolation of n. caninum and the frequent serology in bovines of our region, the objectives of the present trial were to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies anti-n. caninum in dogs of the botucatu range micro region, in the state of são paulo, and its association with gender, age and origin (urban area--exclusively from th ...200818554432
disease threats to the endangered iberian lynx (lynx pardinus).the iberian lynx, (lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. to determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 24 egyptian mongooses (herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (genetta genetta) and 2 eurasian badgers (meles meles) in the are ...200918555712
lack of serologic evidence of neospora caninum in humans, england.retrospective testing of 3,232 serum samples from the general population and 518 serum samples from a high-risk group showed no evidence of human exposure to neospora caninum in england. results were obtained by using immunofluorescence antibody testing and elisa to analyze frequency distribution.200818507920
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii in wild waterfowl in chukotka, kamchatka, russia and hokkaido, japan.antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were assayed by elisa in 22 experimentally inoculated domestic ducks. in addition, a serological assay was carried out at obihiro, hokkaido, japan, in 2004 and 2005, on 221 wild ducks of 5 species: anas platyrhynchus (n = 111); a. poecilorhyncha (n = 27); a. acuta (n = 58); a. penelope (n = 16); and a. crecca (n = 9). assays were also conducted using sera from 197 wild geese of 2 species, i.e., anser albifrons (n = 162) and ans. fabalis (n = 35). birds were collec ...200818576786
encephalitis in aborted bovine fetuses associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 infection.brain tissue from 12 aborted bovine fetuses submitted to the wisconsin veterinary diagnostic laboratory revealed histologic lesions that consisted of glial nodules and variable degrees of mononuclear inflammation, microhemorrhage, neuronal necrosis, and cerebral cortical cavitation. a diagnosis of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) abortion had been made in all of these cases through multiple testing modalities. brain tissue from 8 of the 12 fetuses was immunohistochemically stained with a monoclonal ...200818460615
ncgra2 as a molecular target to assess the parasiticidal activity of toltrazuril against neospora caninum.the treatment of neospora caninum infection in the bovine host is still at an experimental stage. in contrast to the in vivo situation, a wide range of compounds have been intensively investigated in cell-culture-based assays. tools to demonstrate efficacy of treatment have remained conventional including morphological and cell biological criteria. in this work, we present a molecular assay that allows the distinction between live and dead parasites. live parasites can be detected by measuring t ...200818549517
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
occurrence of neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from são paulo state, brazil.capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical america. antibodies to neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the state of são paulo, brazil, were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer >or=1:25) and found in 20 (9.4%), with titers of 1:25 in 4, 1:50 in 7, and 1:100 in 9 animals. this is the first report of occurrence of n. caninum antibodies in capybaras.200818605804
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from grenada, west indies.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in grenada, west indies. using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) of the 107 dogs, with titers of 1:25 in 17, 1:50 in 19, 1:100 in 7, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200 or higher in 4. seroprevalence increased with age from 2.2% in dogs <6 mo old to 18.9% in dogs older than 2 ...200818605807
canine and bovine neospora caninum control sera examined for cross-reactivity using neospora caninum and neospora hughesi indirect fluorescent antibody tests.neospora caninum is a well known protozoan parasite of domestic and wild animals. neospora hughesi is a closely related protozoan with an unknown life cycle, host range, and infection prevalence. many serologic surveys of n. caninum have been performed without consideration of potential cross-reactions with n. hughesi, which could confound results. the aim of this study was to investigate whether postexposure sera from animals experimentally infected with n. caninum exhibit significant reactivit ...200918613752
influence of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice during pregnancy in post-natal development.the influence of neospora caninum infection during pregnancy on the post-natal period has been poorly investigated. in a previous study, we suggested that infection with n. caninum during pregnancy could affect the normal post-natal development of the offspring. for this reason, in the present work we evaluated the influence of n. caninum infection in pregnant balb/c mice at days 0, 7 and 14 of gestation (groups a, b and c, respectively) on the post-natal development of the offspring from birth ...200818586405
sarcocystis neurona: molecular characterization of enolase domain i region and a comparison to other protozoa.sarcocystis neurona causes protozoal myeloencephalitis and has the ability to infect a wide host range in contrast to other sarcocystis species. in the current study, five s. neurona isolates from a variety of sources, three sarcocystis falcatula, one sarcocystis dasypi/s. neurona-like isolate, and one besnoitia darlingi isolate were used to compare the enolase 2 gene segment containing the domain i region to previously sequenced enolase genes from neospora caninum, neospora hughesi, toxoplasma ...200818625501
the differential protein expression profiles and immunogenicity of tachyzoites and bradyzoites of in vitro cultured neospora caninum.we report a study on the variations in the protein expression profiles of tachyzoites and bradyzoites of neospora caninum. the in vitro stage conversion of n. caninum-infected vero cells was induced by continuous treatment of infected cultures with 70 mum sodium nitroprusside (snp) for up to 9 days. the stage conversion indicated by the expression of the bradyzoite-specific antigen bag1 was analyzed by immunofluoresence assay. morphological changes between tachyzoites and bradyzoites and localiz ...200818597117
toxoplasma rhoptries: unique secretory organelles and source of promising vaccine proteins for immunoprevention of toxoplasmosis.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite classified in the phylum apicomplexa, which includes numerous notable human and animal pathogens (plasmodium species, cryptosporidium species, neospora caninum, etc.). the invasive stages of apicomplexans are characterized by the presence of an apical complex composed of specialized cytoskeletal and secretory organelles, including rhoptries. rhoptries, unique apical secretory organelles shared exclusively by all apicomplexan paras ...200818670609
[epidemiological and financial considerations for the control of neospora caninum on swiss dairy farms].neospora caninum is widely recognized as one of the most important abortifacients in cattle and causes substantial financial losses to bovine livestock production. this study aimed to calculate the losses caused by n. caninum on swiss dairy farms and to evaluate the efficacy and profitability of the control strategies culling, not breeding replacements and chemotherapy of calves on farm level. three different farm sizes with high, medium and low herd prevalences were defined. epidemiological and ...200818605018
the differentiation of transcription between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of in vitro cultured neospora caninum.interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of neospora caninum plays a pivotal role in transmission of the parasite. although significant efforts have been made toward understanding the mechanisms that trigger and control stage conversion of the parasite, little is known about this process. we used annealing control primer (acp)-based polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique to characterize the differences in transcription between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum. the in vitro ...200818618147
the role of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in spontaneous bovine abortion in argentina.the aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in spontaneous bovine abortions in argentina. based on histopathological results, 70 presumptive cases of apicomplexan protozoal abortion from a total of 666 cases of spontaneous bovine abortion submitted to the national institute of agrarian technology, balcarce, from 1999 to 2007 were included in this study. n. caninum infection was diagnosed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) ...200818691819
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).deer are considered important intermediate hosts for the coccidian parasites, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. antibodies to n. caninum and t. gondii were determined in sera of 42 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and 43 black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from washington state, usa, using direct agglutination test with specific antigens. a titer of 1:25 was considered diagnostic for both parasites. n. caninum antibodies were found in 7 of 42 mule deer and 8 of 43 b ...200818650016
toxoplasma gondii rhoptry discharge correlates with activation of the early growth response 2 host cell transcription factor.toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite that can cause severe disease in fetuses and immune-compromised patients. rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules, which are secretory organelles unique to toxoplasma and other apicomplexan parasites, play critical roles in parasite growth and virulence. to understand how these organelles modulate infected host cells, we sought to identify host cell transcription factors triggered by their release. early growth response 2 (egr2) is a host ...200818678671
generation and infection of bovine pbmc-derived dendritic cells with neospora caninum. 200818683066
occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in dogs from pernambuco, northeast brazil.a serological survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from the state of pernambuco. a total of 625 serum samples of dogs (289 from paulista, 168 from amaraji and 168 from garanhuns) were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody assay for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. a total of 177 (28.3%; ic 95%, 24.9-32.1) samples were positive. the seropositivity rates found in paulista, amaraji and garanhuns were 26% (ic 95%, 21-31.4), 26.2% ...200818723288
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum infection in dogs found in dairy farms and urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico.the objective of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of neospora caninum infection in dogs in close contact with dairy cattle and dogs from urban areas of aguascalientes, mexico, as well as to estimate the possible association between age, gender and size of these groups and seroprevalence. sera were obtained from samples of 152 dogs in dairy farms and 116 in the urban area, and were subjected to elisa test. general seroprevalence reached 32%, while the seroprevalence in farm dogs (4 ...200818722716
neospora caninum: detection in wild rabbits and investigation of co-infection with toxoplasma gondii by pcr analysis.neospora caninum is an important pathogen of cattle causing significant economic loss. there is much current interest in wild animal reservoirs for this parasite. the role of the rabbit in this is currently unknown. dna samples from the brains of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected from the malham area of the yorkshire dales were investigated by species-specific pcr for the presence of n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii. we found prevalences of n. caninum of 10.5% (6/57) and t. gondii o ...200818703054
evaluation of recombinant proteins of neospora caninum as vaccine candidates (in a mouse model).abortion, resulting from infections by the parasite neospora caninum, is a major cause of economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries of cattle-producing countries of the world. vaccination as a means of preventing abortion and/or infection represents a viable control strategy; indeed a commercial vaccine is available in some countries, albeit of unknown efficacy. the commercial vaccine is based on inactivated tachyzoites of n. caninum but other approaches based on lysates and recombinan ...200818789996
risk factors associated with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis seropositivity in canadian dairy cows and herds.our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in a large number of randomly selected canadian dairy herds, controlling for important confounding variables and co-infections with bovine leukemia virus (blv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum (nc). serum samples from 30 randomly selected cows, where available, in 315 herds from seven provinces were tested for antibodies against blv, ...200918692926
serological survey of neospora caninum infection among dogs in japan through species-specific elisa.a seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection among dogs in japan was conducted using species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant surface antigen (nc-sag1t). among 1,206 dogs examined, 126 dogs (10.4%) from 30 prefectures from hokkaido to okinawa were positive to n. caninum infections, which were more frequently detected in females than males. siberian huskies showed the highest positive rate compared with the other breeds. dogs with pyometra and diabetes mel ...200818772569
infection of primary canine duodenal epithelial cell cultures with neospora caninum.according to current knowledge, sexual development of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum takes place in the canine intestine. however, to date there is no information on the interaction between the parasite and the canine intestinal epithelium, and, next to the clinical and in vivo research tools, an in vitro model comprised of canine intestinal cells infected with n. caninum would be very helpful for investigations at the cellular level. following the isolation of cells of neonatal cani ...200918821824
natural breeding with bulls experimentally infected with neospora caninum failed to induce seroconversion in dams.four bulls and 56 heifers seronegative to neospora caninum were used to determine the feasibility of venereal transmission in bovine neosporosis under natural conditions. bulls were experimentally infected with 10(8) live n. caninum tachyzoites. two of them with the nc-1 isolate and the other two with the nc-spain-7 isolate. after 13 months of initial infection, each bull was re-infected with the same isolate and dose. the experiments were carried out from march to september during 2006 and 2007 ...200918962878
studies on neospora caninum dna detection in the oocytes and embryos collected from infected cows.neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle over the world. one of the methods of preventing vertical transmission within the herd is to avoid breeding replacement heifers from infected dams. another procedure suggested and recommended by the international embryo transfer society (iets) is embryo transfer (et) from infected dams into uninfected recipients. oocytes and embryos taken from seropositive cows were examined for the presence of neospora caninum dna. a modified pcr protocol using ...200818977601
isolation and genetic characterization of neospora caninum from asymptomatic calves in spain.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming parasite that causes abortion in cattle. despite this parasite's ubiquitous distribution and wide host range, the number of n. caninum isolates obtained to date is limited. in vitro isolation of the parasite is arduous and often unsuccessful. in addition, most isolates have been obtained from clinically affected hosts and therefore could be biased towards more virulent isolates. in this report, an improved isolation approach from transplacentally infected newbo ...200818980700
molecular approaches to diversity of populations of apicomplexan parasites.apicomplexan parasites include many parasites of importance either for livestock or as causative agents of human diseases. the importance of these parasites has been recognised by the european commission and resulted in support of the cost (cooperation in science and technology) action 857 'apicomplexan biology in the post-genomic era'. in this review we discuss the current understanding in 'biodiversity and population genetics' of the major apicomplexan parasites, namely the eimeria spp., crypt ...200918983997
proteomes and transcriptomes of the apicomplexa--where's the message?the apicomplexa have some of the most comprehensive and integrated proteome datasets of all pathogenic micro-organisms. coverage is currently at a level where these data can be used to help predict the potential biological function of proteins in these parasites, without having to defer to measurement of mrna levels. transcriptomic data for the apicomplexa (microarrays, expressed sequence tag (est) collections, serial analysis of gene expression (sage) and massively parallel signature sequencing ...200918996390
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep from federal district, central region of brazil.serum samples from 1028 sheep were collected from 32 herds within federal district, in the central region of brazil. the samples were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) using sera diluted 1:64 and 1:50 as cut-off values for the detection of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, respectively. the observed prevalence for t. gondii infection was 38.22% (26.81%<ci 0.95<49.62%), and the titers ranged from 64 to 65536. the observed prevalence for n. caninum infe ...200918726165
neospora caninum, potential cause of abortions in dairy cows: the current serological follow-up in slovakia.neosporosis is considered to be a contributing risk factor for abortions in dairy cows and other farm animals and has negative economic impact on their breeding. in respect of the rapid spread of neosporosis in herds throughout the world, our aim was to detect the prevalence of anti-neospora antibodies in cows post-abortion (pa) (pa group n=716) and in cows without any reproduction problems (control group n=247) on large breeding farms from eastern slovakia. the overall mean seropositivity in pa ...200919019551
spatial analysis of neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from sweden.the national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of neospora caninum infected dairy herds in sweden were investigated. the study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. test-positive herds were found in all parts of sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%). the presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the moran's i test. possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying ...200819021107
isolation and characterization of a bovine isolate of neospora caninum with low virulence.neospora caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the brain of an asymptomatic naturally infected calf with precolostral-specific antibodies. the new isolate, named nc-spain 1h, was identified as a member of the n. caninum species based on its internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1) sequence and was genetically characterized using microsatellite markers. multilocus analysis showed that nc-spain 1h was genetically different from other n. caninum isolates. we compared the in vitro tachyzoite yield and ...200919027235
pigeons (columba livia) are a suitable experimental model for neospora caninum infection in birds.neospora caninum infections in chickens have been recently described by epidemiological and experimental approaches, and these birds may be considered natural intermediate hosts of the parasite. it has been postulated that other bird species might perform this role in wildlife as well. to better understand the sylvatic life cycle of n. caninum, further studies are required. in that sense, this work aimed to observe infection kinetics in pigeons experimentally infected with n. caninum. experiment ...200919027237
neospora caninum associated with epidemic abortions in dairy cattle: the first clinical neosporosis report in turkey.neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite, has been considered as one of the most important etiological agents responsible for abortion in dairy cattle throughout the world since it was first identified in dogs in 1988. in this report, characteristics of neosporosis, detected in a dairy cow ranch having epidemic abortions as high as 18.4%, were described. blood samples were collected from 25 infertile or aborted dairy cattle, 6 calves born in 2006 and 40 heifers that were born in 2005 and raised in ...200919028014
looks can deceive: molecular identity of an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite in australian gliders.two yellow-bellied gliders (petaurus australis) had an intraerythrocytic parasite closely related to the cyst-forming coccidia (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae). the parasitaemia persisted for 3 months or more but was observed to clear within 3 years in captivity. the parasite appears not to significantly debilitate its infected host. traditionally, using morphological identification, the intraerythrocytic parasite would have been classified within the hepatozoon species typically found in red blood ...200919028015
usefulness of rncgra7- and rncsag4-based elisa tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis.bovine reproductive failure caused by the parasite neospora caninum is a major problem and is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. currently, appropriate control measures depend on the predominant transmission route in a particular herd. therefore, the development of diagnostic tools capable of discriminating between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection is a major challenge in the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. here, two recombinant protein-based ...200818814972
a four year longitudinal sero-epidemiology study of neospora caninum in adult cattle from 114 cattle herds in south west england: associations with age, herd and dam-offspring pairs.neosporosis caused by the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, is an economically important cause of abortion, stillbirth, low milk yield, reduced weight gain and premature culling in cattle. consequently, a seroepidemiological study of n. caninum antibodies was conducted in england with 29,782 samples of blood taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds visited on three occasions at yearly intervals. herds were categorised into lower (< 10%) and higher (> or = 10%) median herd seroprevalence. hiera ...200818793402
factors affecting plasma prolactin concentrations throughout gestation in high producing dairy cows.the aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between plasma concentrations of prolactin and the following factors throughout gestation in lactating dairy cows: photoperiod, season, milk production, neospora caninum-seropositivity, twin pregnancy, and plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1), progesterone and cortisol. pregnancy was diagnosed by trans-rectal ultrasonography on day 40 post-insemination and by palpation per rectum on days 90, 1 ...200919036554
seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in beef cattle in three southern states of mexico.the aims of the present study were to examine the seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef herds from three southern states of mexico and determine the association with several risk factors. a cross-sectional serological survey for neospora caninum was carried out by sampling a total of 596 animals from 31 herds in chiapas, veracruz, and yucatan states and tested using an elisa assay (idexx) to detect anti-n. caninum antibodies. the overall prevalence was 11.6%, (95% ci: 0.93-0.14), however, the pr ...200919016341
frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum in dairy cattle.sarcocystis cruzi and neospora caninum infections in cattle are common throughout the world, and cause important economical losses. n. caninum can be transmitted horizontally by ingestion of oocysts or vertically from the infected dam to the fetus via the placenta. vertical transmission for s. cruzi is infrequent and horizontal transmission is considered the most important route of infection. the objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of horizontal and vertical transmission for ...200919070964
first isolation of neospora caninum from the faeces of a dog from portugal.we report the in vitro isolation of neospora caninum from the faeces of a naturally infected 8-year-old male stray boxer from portugal. vero cell cultures were infected using parasite stages obtained after oral inoculation of gamma-interferon knockout mice with 10(2) sporulated oocysts. the isolate was identified by microscopical examination, as well as histological, immunological and molecular methods including a dna-microsatellite-based typing technique, and was subsequently named nc-p1. the d ...200919036520
comparison of two pcr protocols for the detection of neospora caninum dna in rodents.the objective of the present study was, due to increasing interest in the epidemiological role of small mammals as potential reservoir of neospora caninum, to compare two different pcr protocols for the diagnosis of n. caninum in rodents. we tested tissue samples from 50 house mice (mus musculus), 50 rats (rattus norvegicus) and 35 field mice (apodemus sylvaticus). two different pcr protocols based on primer pairs, np4-np7 and np6plus-np21plus, were used for diagnosis on these samples. while the ...200919036521
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from mossoró, rio grande do norte, brazil.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with a variety of hosts, responsible for reproductive problems and economic losses in sheep flocks. neospora caninum was recently identified and its clinical presentation in sheep is similar to that of toxoplasmosis, which can cause repeated abortions, though less frequently in this species. in order to confirm the prevalence of these agents in the city of mossoró, rio grande do norte, brazil, 409 serum samples from adult sheep (364 females ...200919091473
molecular comparison of neospora caninum oocyst isolates from naturally infected dogs with cell culture-derived tachyzoites of the same isolates using nested polymerase chain reaction to amplify microsatellite markers.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion. the infection can be transmitted transplacentally or by ingestion of oocysts shed by definitive hosts. there are few reports of dogs naturally shedding n. caninum oocysts and only some oocyst isolates were transferred into cell culture. the aim of the present study was to analyse n. caninum oocysts from the faeces of naturally infected dogs using a microsatellite-based typing technique and to compare them with cell culture-deri ...200919084341
canine inflammatory myopathy associated with leishmania infantum infection.inflammatory myopathy associated with several infectious diseases occurs in dogs including those caused by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis. however, muscle disease due to leishmania infection has been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to examine the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc class i and ii in muscle biopsies obtained from 15 male beagle dogs from a breeder group with an established diagnosis of leishm ...200919084398
effects of a transferring antibody against neospora caninum infection in a murine model.we investigated the roles of a transferring antibody against neospora caninum infection based on a murine model using recombinant vaccinia virus carrying ncsrs2 gene. higher levels of anti-ncsrs2 antibody were detected in surviving offspring from vaccinated dams than controls while the transferring anti-ncsag1 antibody was detected in the surviving offspring from unvaccinated dams. after mating, the female mice with transferring antibody against n. caninum were challenged with the parasites in m ...200919056179
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum antibodies in sheep in the czech republic.in the czech republic, serum from 547 sheep coming from nine farms was examined for antibodies against parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum by screening elisa. antibodies against t. gondii were found in 325 sheep (59%) with prevalence ranging from 11% to 96% in different farms. antibodies against n. caninum were found in 63 sheep (12%) with prevalence ranging from 4% to 21% in different farms. mixed infections were found in 53 sheep (10%). it was the first evidence of n. caninum anti ...200919181450
short report: prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in northern egypt.in view of the worldwide importance of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and the limited data on the seroprevalence of these parasites in egypt, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies in rabbits, cattle, and humans. we used elisa methods based on surface antigen 2 of t. gondii (tgsag2t) and surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1t). high seroprevalence of t. gondii (51.49%) was detected in pregnant women, and antibodies to n. caninum wer ...200919190225
keratoconjunctivitis associated with toxoplasma gondii in a dog.a 12-year-old pug presented with a 3-mm corneal mass od. the dog was currently being treated for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (kcs) and pigmentary keratitis ou. a superficial keratectomy followed by cryotherapy was performed od. a histopathologic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and suppurative keratitis was made and the lesion resolved. two months later, a yellow/tan conjunctival mass, diffuse chemosis and conjunctival thickening was discovered od. necrotizing conjunctivitis with protozoal paras ...200919152600
characterization of tissue distribution and histopathological lesions in neospora caninum experimentally infected gerbils.gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with neospora caninum tachyzoites to examine parasite distribution and histological lesions at different time points over a 9-day period of infection. gerbils were sacrificed 12 h post-infection (pi), then daily intervals up to day 9 pi. the parasite was detected by pcr assay targeting the nc5 sequence of n. caninum. the parasite was not found in any organs until day 5 pi, however, from day 8 pi onwards, they were detected ...200919172297
evaluation of a srs2 sandwich commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in bovine and canine sera.neospora caninum is a parasite responsible for abortion in cows and neuromuscular disease in dogs. serology is the most widely used technique to evaluate the prevalence of n. caninum in different host populations. a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on the use of an anti-srs2 monoclonal antibody was evaluated against the indirect fluorescent antibody test for 100 canine sera and against a well-characterized elisa for 102 bovine sera. in cattle sera, the relative sensitivit ...200919139509
specific anti-neospora caninum igg1 and igg2 antibody responses during gestation in naturally infected cattle and their relationship with gamma interferon production.gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) production has been attributed a protective role against abortion in neospora-infected dairy cows. this study investigate possible relationships between plasma levels of the n. caninum-specific immunoglobulin (ig) isotypes igg1 and igg2 and ifn-gamma production throughout gestation in dairy cows naturally infected with the parasite. data were obtained from 31 pregnant neospora-seropositive animals. blood samples were collected on gestation days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 ...200919201036
detection of neospora caninum from farm-bred young blue foxes (alopex lagopus) in china.neospora caninum has been detected in several wild mammalian species, i.e., deer, coyotes, dingoes, and foxes. farm-bred foxes were rarely reported to be affected by the parasite. in this study, we detected for the first time the infection of n.caninum in farm-bred young blue foxes (alopex lagopus) in china. neospora-like tissue cysts were observed in brains and kidneys of the foxes by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. one hundred and three sera from the clinically normal v ...200919194087
risk factors associated with neospora caninum infections in cattle in argentina.from 2003 through 2007, serum samples from 5594 dairy and beef heifers and cows in argentina were assessed to quantify the association between presence of neospora caninum antibodies and history of abortion, type of exploitation, and age category of animals. animals with a history of abortion were 85% more likely (p<0.01) to be positive to n. caninum than animals without a record of abortion. for a given category (age) of animals, being in a dairy operation increased the odds of being n. caninum ...200919216028
some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.the aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with neospora caninum. in heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (rh) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant he ...201019210662
toltrazuril treatment of congenitally acquired neospora caninum infection in newborn mice.c57bl/6 mice were infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites during pregnancy, yielding a transplacental infection of developing fetuses. subsequently, congenitally infected newborn mice were treated either once or three times with toltrazuril (or placebo) at a concentration of 31.25 mg compound per kg body weight. both toltrazuril and placebo treatment had no negative effect on newborns, as noninfected treated pups developed normally without differences in mortality and morbidity to matching no ...200919205743
current trends in follow-up of trophoblastic function in ruminant species.during the pregnancy of ruminants, different hormones and proteins are secreted by placenta or corpus luteum allowing the follow up of gestation. among them, progesterone (p4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) were proposed as laboratory tools to establish or to confirm pregnancy diagnosis. in last years, pag assay also provided useful information for researchers working in programs focused on the follow up of trophoblastic function. concentrations of pag appeared as altered after the ...200819261972
[frequency of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais].the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in cows and fetuses from municipalities of southern minas gerais. a total of 559 serum samples of cows of the a bank of sera formed from of serum samples collected at 18 dairy farms, distributed for seven municipalities of the lavras micro region, southern minas gerais, and 575 serum samples of cows and 503 serum samples of fetuses were collected at slaughter house of campo belo, mg. serum samples were ...200819265576
frequency of antibodies against neospora caninum in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from paraná state, southern brazil.antibodies to neospora caninum were analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), in stray and domiciled dogs from urban, periurban and rural areas from curitiba, paraná state, brazil. of the total of 556 dogs, 18.17% (101) were positive for n. caninum (titer 50). frequency of antibody was 12.71 in urban, 15.73 in periurban, and 25.38% in rural dogs. rural dogs had a significantly higher frequency of antibodies than urban dogs (p<0.05). there were no significant differences between t ...200819265582
a unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in toxoplasma gondii.the genome of the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces l-dopa. the encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to l-dopa. the catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but con ...200919277211
cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs.marked eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis (eme) is rarely reported in dogs and the cause is usually undetermined. long-term prognosis for dogs with cerebrospinal fluid (csf) eosinophilia is variable.200919210314
seroprevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from iowa and minnesota using four serologic tests.the white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in the us. sera from white-tailed deer from minnesota and iowa were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by four serologic tests including the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test (cut-off 1:25), neospora caninum agglutination test (cut-off 1:25), an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and western blot (wb). sera were also tested for antibodies ...200919285809
a4d12 monoclonal antibody recognizes a new linear epitope from sag2a toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, identified by phage display bioselection.toxoplasma gondii surface is coated by closely related antigens that belong to srs (sag-1 related sequences) superfamily. two tachyzoite-specific srs antigens, sag1 and sag2, are immunodominant proteins that apparently modulate the virulence of infection by inducing the host immune response against tachyzoites during the acute phase. in this study, we described a conformationally insensitive monoclonal antibody (a4d12mab) that recognizes a linear epitope shared by two isoforms of p22 that is exp ...201019261354
myeloid differentiation factor 88 is required for resistance to neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that causes major economic impact on cattle raising farms, and infects a wide range of warm-blooded hosts worldwide. innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection against this parasite are still unknown. in order to investigate whether myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is required for resistance against n. caninum, genetically deficient mice (myd88(-/-)) and wild type littermates were infected with live tachyzoites and the resistance to in ...200919341611
targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors for anti-malarial therapy.it is now clear that histone acetylation plays key roles in regulating gene transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the acetylated form inducing gene expression while deacetylation silences genes. recent studies have identified roles for histone acetyltransferases (hats) and/or histone deacetylases (hdacs) in a number of parasites including entamoeba histolytica, toxoplasma gondii, schistosoma mansoni, cryptosporidium sp., leishmania donovani, neospora caninum, and plasmodium falciparu ...200919355992
immunization with oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped dense granule protein 7 protects dams and offspring from neospora caninum infection in mice.the present study demonstrates that the subcutaneous administration of neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 (ncgra7) entrapped in liposomes coated with mannotriose strongly induces the parasite-specific t-helper type 1 immune response and humoral antibody in mice. although anti-ncgra7 immunoglobulin g1 antibody production was induced in mice injected with ncgra7 alone, the dams and offspring were never protected from n. caninum infection. the immunization of mice with liposome-entrapped ncgr ...200919357313
detection of hammondia heydorni and related coccidia (neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii) in goats slaughtered in bahia, brazil.hammondia heydorni is a coccidian parasite with an obligatory two host life cycle, with dogs and foxes as definitive hosts, and a number of intermediate hosts, including goats. while infection by this parasite seems to be unassociated with any clinical signs, infection by the closely related parasites neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii can result in abortion, stillbirths and low yielding in caprine herds. the aim of this work was to investigate the frequency of goats infected with h. heydorn ...200919278786
neospora caninum in dairy herds in schleswig-holstein, germany.the aim of a cross-sectional survey performed between november 2005 and april 2006 was to obtain actual information on the occurrence of neospora (n.) caninum infection in dairy cows of schleswig-holstein. it was planned to examine tank-milk of about 35% of the approximately 6,000 dairy herds in schleswig-holstein for n. caninum-specific antibodies using a p38-tank-milk elisa. this test is able to detect a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence of > 10%. only 20 (1.0%) out of 1,950 tank-milk samp ...200919226934
neospora caninum and complex vertebral malformation as possible causes of bovine fetal mummification.bovine neosporosis, caused by neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle. we postulated that neosporosis could lead to fetal death and mummification. fifteen mummified fetuses were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the mutation in the bovine slc35a3 gene that causes complex vertebral malformation (cvm) and the pnc-5 gene which identifies n. caninum infection. dna was extracted from the mummified fetuses and the sex of the mummies was determined by pcr. the cvm mutation ...200919436446
vaccination with recombinant ncrop2 combined with recombinant ncmic1 and ncmic3 reduces cerebral infection and vertical transmission in mice experimentally infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.we investigated the protective potential of recombinant his-tagged antigens recncmic1, recncmic3 and recncrop2, applied either as single vaccines or as vaccine combinations, in balb/c mouse models for cerebral and fetal infection. subsequently, mice were mated and challenged by i.p. inoculation of 2 x 10(6)neospora caninum tachyzoites at day 7 of pregnancy. the mortality and morbidity of adult mice (non-pregnant and dams) and of the newborn pups was studied for a period of 40 days following birt ...200919447110
cpg-odn combined with neospora caninum lysate, but not with excreted-secreted antigen, enhances protection against infection in mice.cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) have shown to be potent immunoadjuvants for several pathogens, but there is limited information concerning their use in immunization protocols against neosporosis. this study aimed to evaluate the potential of cpg-odn combined with neospora lysate antigen (nla) or excreted-secreted antigen (ncesa) to induce protective immune response against neospora caninum infection in mice. c57bl/6 mice were vaccinated subcutaneously three times at 2-week intervals with nla, nl ...200919428863
crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a south american canid, as a definitive host for hammondia heydorni.hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. dogs and other canids as red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for h. heydorni. sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that ...200919303215
stage-specific expression of nc sag4 as a marker of chronic neospora caninum infection in a mouse model.neospora caninum infection persists throughout the life of its intermediate host due to the conversion of tachyzoites to slowly dividing bradyzoites that encyst in the brain. this event results in persistent n. caninum infection in bovine herds and partially explains the poor efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents and vaccine formulations. thus, there is a need for greater understanding of the tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite conversion mechanisms. here we studied for the first time the transcription ...200919402941
effects of crossbreed pregnancies on the abortion risk of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows.previous studies have shown that the use of beef bull semen significantly reduces the rate of abortions due to neospora caninum in artificially inseminated (ai) seropositive dairy cows. in addition, certain beef breeds could be more resistant to n. caninum infection and abortion than others. the aim of the present study was to determine whether different crossbreed pregnancies, those derived from limousin, charolais, piedmontese or belgian blue semen, carry different risks of abortion in neospor ...200919464119
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain).the prevalence of antibodies to the protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum were investigated by the direct agglutination test (dat) and celisa, respectively, in 160 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 177 sheep and 178 cattle sharing pastures in galicia (northwest spain). the seroprevalence for t. gondii was 13.7% in roe deer, 57% in sheep and 7.3% in cattle. the seroprevalence for n. canimum was 6.8%, 10.1% and 24.1% in roe deer, sheep and cattle, respectively. statistically sig ...201019482324
experimental infection with a low virulence isolate of neospora caninum at 70 days gestation in cattle did not result in foetopathy.the nc-spain 1h isolate of neospora caninum, which was newly obtained from the brain of a congenitally asymptomatic infected calf, demonstrated a reduced in vitro tachyzoite yield and viability rate, as well as low virulence in mouse models. the objective of the present study was to determine the ability of this isolate to induce foetal death in a pregnant bovine model. for this purpose, 13 naïve pregnant heifers were divided into three groups and were experimentally challenged with either 10(7) ...200919497257
immunogenicity of a dna vaccine expressing the neospora caninum surface protein ncsrs2 in mice.the immunogenicity of a dna vaccine expressing the surface protein ncsrs2 of neospora caninum was studied in balb/c mice. the ncsrs2-encoding dna was obtained by pcr amplification of the ncsrs2 orf gene from the p43 plasmid encoding the n. caninum surface protein ncsrs2, ligated to the mammalian expression vector pcdna3.1/zeo(+) and propagated in e. coli dh5alpha to produce the n. caninum ncsrs2 dna vaccine. balb/c mice were immunised by two intramuscular injections of the dna vaccine with or wi ...200919457773
genetic diversity amongst isolates of neospora caninum, and the development of a multiplex assay for the detection of distinct strains.infection with neospora caninum is regarded as a significant cause of abortion in cattle. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the biology of this parasite. in this study, mini and microsatellite dnas were detected in the genome of n. caninum and eight loci were identified that each contained repetitive dna which was polymorphic among different isolates of this parasite. a multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of genetic variation within n ...200919496247
dose-titration challenge of young pregnant sheep with neospora caninum tachyzoites.pregnant ewe lambs (7-8 months old at breeding) were inoculated intravenously at 90 days after joining with the ram with 50, 5 x 10(3), 10(6), or 10(8)neospora caninum tachyzoites and outcomes were compared to a control group. seroconversion was measured by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) at fortnightly intervals and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at 28 days post-challenge. seroconversion (by ifat) occurred in all animals except for 2 sheep in the lowest dose group, inclu ...200919501968
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