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isoelectric analysis of some australian elapid snake venoms with special reference to phospholipase b and hemolysis.venoms of the australian elapid snakes austrelaps superbus and pseudechis colletti were analyzed in an electrofocusing column. a. superbus venom, little studied in the past, was found to have a mouse i.p. lethal potency of 0.48 mg/kg and to contain at least four lethal components. venoms of both species had relatively high direct hemolytic activity for washed rabbit erythrocytes, as contrasted with venoms from 23 other species of snakes that were not hemolytic under the conditions used. among ve ...19863775799
comparison of the in vitro neuromuscular activity of venom from three australian snakes (hoplocephalus stephensi, austrelaps superbus and notechis scutatus): efficacy of tiger snake antivenom.1. tiger snake antivenom, raised against notechis scutatus venom, is indicated not only for the treatment of envenomation by this snake, but also that of the copperhead (austrelaps superbus) and stephen's banded snake (hoplocephalus stephensi). the present study compared the neuromuscular pharmacology of venom from these snakes and the in vitro efficacy of tiger snake antivenom. 2. in chick biventer cervicis muscle and mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations, all venoms (3-10 microg/ml) produ ...200312603339
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
morbidity and mortality of reptiles admitted to the australian wildlife health centre, healesville sanctuary, australia, 2000-13.medical records of 931 reptiles admitted to the australian wildlife health centre, healesville sanctuary, healesville, victoria, australia, from 2000 to 2013 were reviewed to determine the causes of morbidity and mortality. thirty-nine species were presented; the most common were the common long-neck turtle (chelodina longicollis; n = 311, 33.4%), the eastern bluetongue lizard (tiliqua scincoides; n = 224, 4.1%), the blotched bluetongue lizard (tiliqua nigrolutea; n = 136, 14.6%), and the lowlan ...201526161722
characterization of monomeric and multimeric snake neurotoxins and other bioactive proteins from the venom of the lethal australian common copperhead (austrelaps superbus).envenomation by australian copperheads results mainly in muscle paralysis largely attributed to the presence of postsynaptic α-neurotoxins. however, poorly reversible neurotoxic effects suggest that these venoms may contain snake presynaptic phospholipase a2 neurotoxins (spans) that irreversibly inhibit neurotransmitter release. using size-exclusion liquid chromatography, the present study isolated the first multimeric span complex from the venom of the australian common copperhead, austrelaps s ...201323500536
molecular cloning and characterization of a complement-depleting factor from king cobra, ophiophagus hannah.cobra venom factor (cvf) is an anti-complement factor existing in cobra venom. cvf proteins have been purified from the venoms of naja haje, naja siamensis, naja atra, naja kaouthia, naja naja, naja melanoleuca and austrelaps superbus, but only three full-length cdna sequences of cvf are available. in the present work, a cobra venom factor termed ovf was purified from the crude venom of ophiophagus hannah by successive gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography steps. the p ...201222561424
cloning and characterisation of novel cystatins from elapid snake venom glands.snake venoms contain a complex mixture of polypeptides that modulate prey homeostatic mechanisms through highly specific and targeted interactions. in this study we have identified and characterised cystatin-like cysteine-protease inhibitors from elapid snake venoms for the first time. novel cystatin sequences were cloned from 12 of 13 elapid snake venom glands and the protein was detected, albeit at very low levels, in a total of 22 venoms. one highly conserved isoform, which displayed close se ...201121172403
complement c3 isoforms in austrelaps superbus.complement c3 plays a pivotal role in both classical and alternate pathways. lower organisms (urochordates and fishes) have multiple isoforms whereas higher organisms have a single c3 gene. in cobras, a closely related protein cobra venom factor (cvf) is expressed in their venom gland. we have recently shown that austrelaps superbus contains two isoforms (avf-1 and avf-2) of cvf-like proteins in the venom gland. to understand the origin of these proteins and their similarity to c3 protein, we ex ...200818262580
phospholipase a(2) with platelet aggregation inhibitor activity from austrelaps superbus venom: protein purification and cdna cloning.four phospholipase a(2) (pla(2)) enzymes (superbins a, b, c, and d) with varying platelet aggregation inhibitor activities have been purified from austrelaps superbus by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. purity and homogeneity of the superbins have been confirmed by high-performance capillary zone electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. the electron spray ionization mass spectrometry data showed that their molecular masses range ...200010700385
molecular isoforms of cobra venom factor-like proteins in the venom of austrelaps superbus.cobra venom factor (cvf) is characteristic of the elapid cobras and has not been reported from venoms of any other families of snakes. during our search for novel proteins, we isolated a polypeptide from the venom of the snake austrelaps superbus (lowland copperhead) that showed structural similarity to c-terminal segment of the alpha-chain of cvf and hence named as avfalphac (avf-a. superbus venom factor). cdna sequence of avfalphac and its precursor indicated the presence of two isoforms of cv ...200717412383
functional expression and characterization of a recombinant phospholipase a2 from sea snake lapemis hardwickii as a soluble protein in e. coli.three full-length phospholipase a(2) (pla(2)) cdnas from sea snake lapemis hardwickii venom were cloned and sequenced in our previous study. in order to investigate their biological functions, we established a fusion expression system for pla(2)-9 in e. coli. the open reading frame encoding mature peptide of pla(2)-9 was subcloned into the vector ptrx. the trx-pla(2)-9 fusion protein was expressed as a soluble protein by iptg induction at 23 degrees c. the fusion protein was purified with metal- ...200312727275
identification of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of three australian copperheads (austrelaps spp.) and the efficacy of tiger snake antivenom to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.the venom of the australian lowlands copperhead, austrelaps superbus, produces significant and potentially lethal neurotoxic paralysis in cases of clinical envenomation. however, little is known about the neurotoxic components within this venom or venoms from the related alpine copperhead (austrelaps ramsayi) or pygmy copperhead (austrelaps labialis). using the isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, all austrelaps venoms were found to exhibit potent and rapid inhibition of ne ...201121854797
isolation and purification of superbins i and ii from austrelaps superbus (copperhead) snake venom and their anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects.two proteins with anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities were purified from austrelaps superbus (copperhead) venom by gel filtration, ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatographic methods. these purified proteins were designated superbins i and ii. superbin i was homogeneous, as indicated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, with a mol. wt of 13,252.3 +/- 1.6, whereas superbin ii contained two closely related proteins of mol. wts 13,235.5 +/- 1.1 and 13,212.9 +/- 1.2. both superbins ...19979278973
purification and characterisation of a snake venom phospholipase a2: a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation.an inhibitor of human platelet aggregation was identified from the venom of an australian copperhead snake, austrelaps superba, as a novel phospholipase a2. the inhibitor was purified to homogeneity by chromatography on q-sepharose, s-sepharose and c8 reverse phase hplc. the purified phospholipase a2 has a molecular weight of 15 kda as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). n-terminal sequence analysis of the platelet inhibitor revealed 70-80% sequence ...19938362372
effects of the venom of the australian copperhead snake (austrelaps superba) on the isolated atrium and ear artery of the rabbit. 1979473239
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