[influenza virus a/anas acuta/primor'e/695/76 isolated from wild ducks in the ussr]. 197880886
blood parasites of mallard and pintail ducks from central alberta and the mackenzie delta, northwest territories.blood films from 60 mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and 67 pintail (a. acuta) ducks, collected in alberta and the mackenzie delta, northwest territories, during 1973 and 1974, were examined for blood parasites. twenty-two (37%) of the mallards and fourteen (21%) of the pintails were infected with one or more species of hematozoa. infections of leucocytozon simondi occurred more frequently (86%) than haemoproteus nettionis (22%) in the infected birds. trypanosoma avium occurred in one individual of ...1977410954
the opossum (didelphis virginiana) as a host for sarcocystis debonei from cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus, quiscalus quiscula).sarcocystis-infected muscles from ducks, cowbirds, and grackles were fed to cats, opossums, rats, and a dog. only the opossum (didelphis virginiana) was a suitable definitive host. all opossums that were fed sarcocystis-infected cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus and quiscalus quiscula) passed sporocysts in their feces. opossums that ate the cowbirds had prepatent periods of 5 and 10 days and remained patent for at least 105 days. opossums that ate the grackles became pat ...1978417165
[influenza virus a/anas acute/maritime territory/730/76(h3n2) isolated from wild ducks in the maritime territory].a strain a/anas acuta/primorie/730/76 was isolated in the autumn of 1976 from wild pintails in the primorskiy kray, ussr, and found by the h1 and neuraminidase activity inhibition test to be antigenically related to the reference a/hong kong/1/68 strain. the cft showed the a/anas acuta/primorie/730/76 strain to contain in its hemagglutinin 3 antigenic determinants: two common with the a/hong kong/1/68 strain and one the strain-specific, lacking in the human influenza viruses of the h3n2 antigeni ...1979506200
serological and virological investigations fo orthomyxovirus in birds in south-east asian area.we have previously reported that some species of migrating ducks (pintail, mallard, widgeon and falcated teal) possess in their sera antibodies against h antigens of human or avian influenza viruses. such findings have also been reported from other workers, and the appearance of new types of influenza viruses accompanied by outbreaks of new influenza pandemics, or circulation of influenza virus antigens in animals, birds and humans have been discussed on the basis of such findings. recently a nu ...1977604133
correlations of daily activity with avian cholera mortality among wildfowl.we tested the hypothesis that wildfowl activities can influence the risk of avian cholera (pasteurella multocida infection) for susceptible birds at centerville, humboldt county, california (usa). avian cholera mortality characteristics from past epizootics were correlated with variations in flock size, habitat use and 11 feeding and nonfeeding behaviors among six empirically defined groups of wildfowl: american coots (fulica americana), tundra swans (cygnus columbianus), american wigeon (anas a ...19911758019
characterization of the cdna coding for mouse plasminogen and localization of the gene to mouse chromosome 17.a full-length cdna coding for mouse plasminogen has been isolated and characterized. the cdna is 2720 bp in length (excluding the poly(a) tail) and contains a 24-bp 5' noncoding region, an open reading frame of 2436 bp, and a 3' noncoding region of 257 bp. the open reading frame codes for 812 amino acids and includes a signal peptide that is likely 19 amino acids in length and the mature protein of 793 amino acids. the calculated mr of mouse plasminogen is 88,706 excluding carbohydrate. there ar ...19902081600
auditory basis of maternal attachment in ducklings (anas platyrhynchos) under simulated naturalistic imprinting conditions.the presence of broodmates during the imprinting process results in peer imprinting that interrupts a visually mediated maternal attachment. we sought to determine the conditions in which group-trained mallard ducklings (anas platyrhynchos) acquire a maternal attachment. at 48 hr of age, ducklings were allowed to follow a vocal, stuffed mallard hen individually or in groups of 4. individual ducklings showed a preference for the silent, familiar mallard over an unfamiliar pintail. ducklings train ...19902364664
the avian influenza virus nucleoprotein gene and a specific constellation of avian and human virus polymerase genes each specify attenuation of avian-human influenza a/pintail/79 reassortant viruses for monkeys.reassortant viruses which possessed the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of wild-type human influenza a viruses and the remaining six rna segments (internal genes) of the avian a/pintail/alberta/119/79 (h4n6) virus were previously found to be attenuated in humans. to study the genetic basis of this attenuation, we isolated influenza a/pintail/79 x a/washington/897/80 reassortant viruses which contained human influenza virus h3n2 surface glycoprotein genes and various combinations of avian o ...19872441080
epizootiological features of avian cholera on the north coast of avian cholera (pasteurella multocida) epizootic was observed among wildfowl at the centerville gun club, humboldt county, california (usa) in january 1978. compared to their live populations and use of the area, coots (fulica americana) died in proportionately greater numbers than any other species. coots collected by gunshot were evaluated for sex and age composition, and morphometry from november 1977 through mid-january 1978 at this site. there was no substantial difference in the sex, age ...19892716104
lead poisoning of northern pintail ducks feeding in a tidal meadow contaminated with shot from a trap and skeet range. 19892920230
ecological studies on cyathocotyle bushiensis (digenea) and sphaeridiotrema globulus (digenea), possible pathogens of dabbling ducks in southern québec.over the past 20 yr, recurrent late-summer mortality of dabbling ducks in southern québec has been attributed to the digenean parasite cyathocotyle bushiensis. this study attempted to determine whether this parasite was still implicated in the epizootics, and examined aspects of the ecology of the parasite in the definitive host. comparison of prevalence and mean intensity of infection of all species of digenea between salvaged carcasses and hunter-shot ducks revealed that c. bushiensis and a se ...19883411699
evaluation of avian-human reassortant influenza a/washington/897/80 x a/pintail/119/79 virus in monkeys and adult volunteers.a reassortant influenza a virus was produced by mating an avian influenza a/pintail/alberta/119/79 (h4n6) virus with wild-type human influenza a/washington/897/80 (h3n2) virus. the avian-human influenza a reassortant virus contained the genes coding for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens of the human influenza wild-type virus and the six other rna segments (internal genes) of the avian influenza a virus donor. in the lower respiratory tract of squirrel monkeys, this avian-human ...19863722365
training ducklings in broods interferes with maternal imprinting.under natural conditions, if maternal imprinting is to occur it must occur in a social situation which includes the presence of broodmates. in the laboratory it has been shown that social rearing with siblings prior to maternal imprinting interferes with the establishment of maternal imprinting, whereas social experience with siblings after maternal imprinting enhances the imprinting experience. the present study examined the influence of social experience with broodmates during an imprinting tr ...19863803724
ingested lead shot in northern red-billed whistling ducks (dendrocygna autumnalis) and northern pintails (anas acuta) in sinaloa, mexico. 19873820422
temperature-dependent enzyme kinetics during avian ontogeny: malate dehydrogenase in the common crow (corvus brachyrhynchos) and the pintail (anas acuta). 19734711821
renal coccidiosis in mallard and pintail ducks. 19744844509
plasmodium octamerium n. sp., an avian malaria parasite from the pintail whydah bird vidua macroura. 19685719065
a survey of north american migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus.a survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (dp) virus was conducted in the mississippi and central flyways during 1982 and in the atlantic and pacific flyways during 1983. cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (anas platyrhynchos l.), black ducks (anas rubripes brewster), and pintails (anas acuta l.). in addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent dp outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterf ...19846099427
migratory waterfowl as flying reservoirs of yersinia species.intestinal contents of tufted ducks and faecal samples from two other species of migratory birds were examined for yersinia species of organisms. from 296 tufted ducks yersinia species were isolated from 10 (3.4 per cent), from 223 swans yersinia species were recovered from eight (3.6 per cent) but none were recovered from the faeces of 121 pintail ducks. since the isolates differed from each other in their biochemical characteristics and, or, o serotypes, yersinia infection in these migratory w ...19846522818
characterization of viruses which represent further distinct serotypes (pmv-8 and pmv-9) of avian paramyxoviruses.representatives of paramyxoviruses isolated from waterfowl in the u.s.a., goose/delaware/1053/76, and japan, pintail/wakuya/20/78, were shown to be serologically closely related but distinct from other avian paramyxoviruses. another isolate, from domestic ducks in the u.s.a., was shown to be representative of a further distinct serotype of avian paramyxoviruses. we propose that, in the current system of nomenclature these serotypes be designated pmv-8, for which the prototype strain would be pmv ...19836651534
head blebs: a new mutation on chromosome 4 of the mouse.the development effects and inheritance of a new mutation in the mouse, head blebs, gene symbol heb, are described. this mutation is similar to two other autosomal recessive mutations, eb and my. head blebs produces abnormal or missing eyes due to prenatal blebs, usually on the head, some fetal death, open eyelids, and folded retinas at birth. extra toes or ectopic brains are occasionally observed. affected adults usually have closed eyelids and atrophic eyes. head blebs is located on chromosome ...19816793660
selenium-vitamin e deficiency in captive wild ducks.seventy-five ducklings belonging to nine species of wild ducks were kept in a large floor pen. at about 8 weeks of age, a pintail and two shovelers showed clinical signs of anorexia, diarrhea, and leg weakness before death. gross pathologic alterations included a pale discoloration of gizzard musculature and pale streaks in the leg muscle. microscopic alterations in gizzard smooth-muscle cells included hyalinization, mineralization of sarcoplasmic debris in necrotic smooth-muscle fibers, and mac ...19836870728
avian botulism during late autumn and early spring in saskatchewan.two outbreaks of botulism in central saskatchewan in which mortality of waterfowl continued into late autumn and then recurred in the same marshes the following spring are described. small numbers of birds were involved in each instance. dabbling ducks (predominantly mallards, anas platyrhynchos and pintails, anas acuta) and american coots, fulica americana were affected most commonly in autumn, whereas only diving ducks (predominantly lesser scaup, aythya affinis) were found to be involved in s ...19836887447
trichobilharzia physellae (digenea: schistosomatidae) from endemic waterfowl on the high plains of trichobilharzia physellae were recovered from the liver and mesenteric veins of green-winged teal, anas creca, blue-winged teal, a. discors, and pintail, a. acuta, breeding on the high plains of texas. wild ducks naturally-infected with these schistosomes were emaciated with mild to severe atrophy of the breast musculature. the liver was considerably enlarged, pale and somewhat friable. numerous viable and dead t. physellae were recovered from the cut surface. on histologic examination, vi ...19827097873
virulence of avian influenza a viruses for squirrel monkeys.ten serologically distinct avian influenza a viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza a virus, a/udorn/307/72 (h3n2). in squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza a viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. the levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. two viruses, a/mallard/ny/6874/78 (h3n2) and a/pintail/alb/121/79 (h7n8), resembled the human virus in thei ...19827129631
comparative study of influenza virus h2 (asian) hemagglutinins isolated from human and avian sources.the hemagglutinin of an influenza virus isolated from a wild duck (pintail, anas acuta) in the ussr in 1976 had been found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the hemagglutinin of h2n2 viruses of human origin isolated in 1957. the hemagglutinins from viral preparations of the a/anas acuta/primorie/695/76 (h2nav2) and a/singapore/1/57 (h2n2) strains were purified by sds gel chromatography as the subunits ha1 and ha2. comparison of amino acid compositions and peptide maps of tryptic peptide ...19807193663
prevalence and intensity of typhlocoelum cucumerinum (digenea) in wild anatids of quebec, canada.the upper respiratory tracts of 534 wild anatids representing 20 species, shot during the 1976, 1977 and 1978 hunting seasons, were examined for typhlocoelum cucumerinum (rudolphi, 1809). typhlocoelum cucumerinum cymbium (diesing, 1850) were recovered from anas platyrhynchos, anas rubripes, anas acuta, anas discors and anas crecca. the maximum prevalence (16.7%) and intensity of infection (1.6) occurred in mallards (a. platyrhynchos). aythya valisineria and aythya marila harboured typhlocoelum c ...19807373728
altered pax gene expression in murine notochord mutants: the notochord is required to initiate and maintain ventral identity in the somite.we have characterised the patterning capacity of the notochord on the somite using the murine pax-1 gene as a ventral, and pax-3 as a dorsal molecular marker. as model systems we chose the four mouse notochord mutants brachyury curtailed (tc), danforth's short tail (sd), pintail (pt) and truncate (tc). their notochord either is initially absent or progressively degenerates. the use of these mutants enabled us to compare the effect of graded notochord deficiencies. all four mutants show premature ...19938155581
the os/+ mouse: a genetic animal model of reduced renal mass.the rop [ra/+ (ragged), os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and pt/+ (pintail)] mouse possessing the gene for oligosyndactylism (os) was evaluated as a potential genetic animal model of reduced renal mass. young male rop mice that were heterozygotes with respect to the os gene (os/+) and their normal homozygote litter mates (+/+) were used in the present study. approximately 50% fewer nephrons were present in the os/+ mice than in the +/+ mice. hypertrophic changes were detected in the epithelial cells in p ...19938430831
drug resistance and conjugative r plasmids in escherichia coli strains isolated from migratory waterfowl.we evaluated drug resistance and r plasmids of 554 stains of escherichia coli isolated from feces of migratory watefowl, including whistling swans (cygnus columbianus), pintails (anas acuta) and black-tailed gulls (larus crassirostris) collected from the san-in district, japan, between each november and march, 1983 to 1984, 1984 to 1985, and 1985 to 1986. seven antimicrobial agents were tested: dihydrostreptomycin (dsm), kanamycin, spectinomycin, ampicillin (abpc), oxytetracycline (otc), chloram ...19958592356
hormonal dynamics during mate choice in the northern pintail: a test of the 'challenge' hypothesisin previous mate choice experiments, we found no relationship between dominance rank and pairing success in male northern pintails, anas acutaonce chosen by a female, however, males became aggressive, initiated fights with higher-ranked males and quickly established dominance. in the present study, we tested a variation of the 'challenge' hypothesis, that the behavioural stimuli associated with acquiring and defending a mate induce an increase in testosterone level, which in turn facilitates agg ...19979398367
[helminth fauna anseriformes (aves) in the lodz zoological garden].in the years 1959-1990 429 birds on 30 species of anseriformes were examined post mortem at zoo lódź. the helminths were found in 108 birds (25.17%) of 19 species. in infected birds there were found 4 species of trematodes: one of them, catatropis verrucosa is in poland new for cygnus olor; 9 species of cestodes--7 of them are in poland new for examined hosts; namely: drepanidotaenia lanceolata for dendrocygna viduata, cygnus atratus, branta bernicla, and anas platyrhynchos; microsomacanthus par ...19979424942
the role of the notochord for epaxial myotome formation in the mouse.the vertebrate somite is the source of all trunk skeletal muscles. myogenesis in avian embryos is thought to depend on signals from notochord and neural tube for the epaxial muscles, and signals from lateral mesoderm and surface ectoderm for the hypaxial muscles. however, this hypothesis has to be tested because in mouse mutants lacking a notochord the presence of a fused myotome beneath the neural tube has been reported. we have compared the expression pattern of myogenic markers and markers fo ...199910512192
immunization of ducks for type c botulism.a single subcutaneous immunization with a vaccine used for protecting ranch mink (mustela vison) against type c botulism reduced morbidity and mortality in mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks challenged with approximately 4.5 x 10(4) and 2.25 x 10(4) mouse lethal doses (mld50), respectively, of botulinum toxin at 10 and 15 days post-immunization (pi). there was no significant protection at 5 days pi. protection persisted in mallards for 90 days pi. to simulate us ...199910574530
cross-protection and reassortment studies with avian h2 influenza order to assess the degree of immune cross-protection among avian h2 influenza virus strains, mice were immunised with beta-propiolactone-inactivated virus preparations and infected intranasally with mouse-adapted variant of a/black duck/new jersey/1580/78 (h2n3) strain. the experiments with 11 avian h2 strains revealed that both eurasian and american h2 avian influenza viruses exhibit either high or moderate degree of cross-protection. the grouping of the strains in accordance with their cro ...200010948982
characterization of northern pintail (anas acuta) ejaculate and the effect of sperm preservation on fertility.northern pintail duck semen and sperm traits were characterized, and the fertility of cold-stored spermatozoa was investigated using artificial insemination. excellent quality ejaculates containing high proportions of motile spermatozoa were collected from drakes within 20 s by a massage technique. semen was collected in beltsville poultry semen extender, pooled and cold-stored (4 degrees c) for 0, 24, 48 or 72 h. hens were inseminated with 100 microl twice a week, and eggs were assessed for fer ...200111226051
seasonal patterns of lh, testosterone and semen quality in the northern pintail duck (anas acuta).this study characterized seasonal changes in circulating lh and testosterone and in semen production and quality in the northern pintail duck. plasma lh and testosterone were measured in blood samples collected weekly throughout the year from eight males exposed to natural fluctuations in day length and temperature. semen quality was evaluated weekly in these same males from april-june, the months when spermatozoa were produced. semen quality (based on sperm concentration and normal morphology) ...200011302434
nutritional and bacteriological properties of some game duck carcasses.the aim of this work was to evaluate the body composition, bacteriological quality, proximate composition, amino acids content, total lipids fractionation, as well as fatty acids profile in breast and thigh meat (with skin) of males and females of two species of game ducks namely: pintail (anas acuta) and garganey (anas querquedula). the obtained results are as follows. the live weight of pentail and garganey females constituted 59.0 and 86.0% of male's weight in pintail and garganey, respective ...200111534470
the distribution of molybdenum in the tissues of wild ducks.the mo contents and the relations between mo and cu or cr contents were investigated in the organs of japanese wild ducks (spotbill duck, pintail, wigeon, scaup and tufted duck). the highest mo content in kidney and liver of the dabbling ducks were more than 30 microg g(-1) dry weight (microg g(-1) d. wt.), though that of diving ducks were less than 11 microg g(-1) d. wt. the contents were lower in the ducks migrating within japan, eurasia and north america than those in the birds migrating betw ...200212180653
autoregressive models for capture-recapture data: a bayesian this article, we incorporate an autoregressive time-series framework into models for animal survival using capture-recapture data. researchers modeling animal survival probabilities as the realization of a random process have typically considered survival to be independent from one time period to the next. this may not be realistic for some populations. using a gibbs sampling approach, we can estimate covariate coefficients and autoregressive parameters for survival models. the procedure is i ...200312926719
endocrine factors involved in the failure of pintail ducks anas acuta to reproduce in captivity. 196013735317
estimation of carcass fat and protein in northern pintails (anas acuta) during spring migration.foraging in stopover areas influences nutritional condition of birds during spring migration. our purpose was to determine if body mass, percent carcass water, and serum biochemistry would predict energy reserves (carcass fat and protein) in northern pintails (anas acuta) at a spring staging area, lake st. pierre in québec, canada (46 degrees 11 'n, 73 degrees 08 'w). northern pintails were collected during spring 1997 (14 april-9 may). in this staging area, body mass and percent body water succ ...200314567224
avian influenza viruses in minnesota ducks during 1998-2000.although wild ducks are known to be a major reservoir for avian influenza viruses (aiv), there are few recent published reports of surveillance directed at this group. predominant aiv hemagglutinin (ha) subtypes reported in previous studies of ducks in north america include h3, h4, and h6, with the h5, h7, and h9 subtypes not well represented in these host populations. the objective of this study was to determine whether these subtype patterns have persisted. each september from 1998 to 2000, cl ...200314575079
pituitary-gonadal axis and secondary sex characters in the spontaneously masculinized pintail, anas acuta (anatidae, aves), with special regard to the gonadotrophs.this paper describes some aspects of the pituitary gland, gonads, and secondary sex characters of unusual pintails, anas acuta, found in the wild. they were demonstrated to be females with partially masculinized plumage; i.e., their plumage showed various degrees of intersex, but the genital organs, syrinx, and electrophoretic pattern of sex-specific dna were of the female type. their left ovary underwent a marked involution and was associated with the mesonephros (the wolffian body), as was the ...200415094335
determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells.bismuth shotshells have been approved as a "nontoxic" alternative to lead in north america. approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. we report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (anas platyrhynchos, anas acuta, anas crecca, branta canadensis, chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 microg/g dw; ...200415276269
comparison of organochlorine compounds among fat, muscles, and livers of pintails (anas acuta) from lake hyoko, japan. 200415674726
linear social dominance hierarchy and corticosterone responses in male mallards and winter, dabbling ducks gather in large flocks and males compete not only for food resources but also for mates. setting up a social hierarchy is one way to reduce the costs of conflicts, but the position in the hierarchy has implications for individuals, for instance their susceptibility to conflict and interference, hence to social stress. we investigated relationships between linear social dominance and corticosterone levels, baseline levels and induced-stress response, in captive male mall ...200515777815
avian influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in wintering and resident ducks in texas.cloacal swabs were collected from teal (anas crecca, anas cyanoptera, anas discors), mottled duck (anas fulvigula) and northern pintail (anas acuta) in brazoria county, texas, usa, during february 2001, mottled ducks during august 2001, and blue-winged teal (a. discors) during february 2002. prevalence of avian influenza virus (aiv) infections during each sampling period were 11, 0, and 15%, respectively. the hemagglutinin (h) subtypes h2 and h7 were detected in both years, while the h8 subtype ...200516244076
low insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 expression is responsible for increased insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in mesangial cells from mice susceptible to glomerulosclerosis.mesangial cells (mc) isolated from glomerulosclerosis-prone ragged, olygosyndactilism, pintail (rop) mice retain a stable phenotype after exposure to elevated glucose concentrations, whereas mc from glomerulosclerosis-resistant c57bl/6 (c) mice do not. in nod and db/db mice, the stable phenotype induced by diabetes consists of autocrine activation of the igf-i signaling pathway. we hypothesized that high ambient glucose activates the igf-i pathway in rop but not in c mc. mc were propagated in ei ...200616556765
spring temperature, clutch initiation date and duck nest success: a test of the mismatch hypothesis.1. increases in average global temperature during the twentieth century have prompted calls for research on the effect of temperature variation on avian population dynamics. particular attention has been paid to the hypothesis that increased temperatures may affect a species' ability to shift their breeding efforts to match the phenology of their prey, and thus result in reduced reproductive success (the 'mismatch hypothesis'). 2. we used data from a long-term study of breeding ducks to investig ...200717184362
toxaphene and other organochlorine compounds in pintails (anas acuta) from saitama kamoba in japan during oct 2000-feb 2002. 200717492389
using rrt-pcr analysis and virus isolation to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus infections in ducks at minto flats state game refuge, alaska, during august 2005.this study describes surveillance for avian influenza viruses (aiv) in the minto flats state game refuge, high-density waterfowl breeding grounds in alaska. five hundred paired cloacal samples from dabbling ducks (northern pintail, mallard, green wing teal, and widgeon) were placed into ethanol and viral transport medium (vtm). additional ethanol-preserved samples were taken. of the ethanol-preserved samples, 25.6% were aiv rna-positive by real-time rt-pcr. the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminida ...200717541700
spring-harvested game birds from the western james bay region of northern ontario, canada: organochlorine concentrations in breast muscle.although studies have assessed organochlorine concentration in breast tissue (pectoral muscle) of fall-harvested game birds in canada, data for spring-harvested game birds are limited, especially for remote sub-arctic areas. taking into account that most traditional aboriginal diets include a large number of spring-harvested game birds, there is a need to assess organochlorine concentration in spring-harvested water birds with respect to suitability for human consumption. we examined organochlor ...200717675140
spring-harvested game birds in the western james bay region of northern ontario, canada: the amount of organochlorines in matched samples of breast muscle, skin, and abdominal fat.we examined matched-tissue samples (the right pectoral muscle plus the associated skin and fat was considered a breast portion) of 81 spring-harvested waterfowl and 19 summer-harvested godwits (limosa spp.) to assess the potential of these water birds contributing to the body burden of pcbs and ddt noted in first nation people of the western james bay region, northern ontario, canada. in general, the dabbling ducks (mallard duck, anas platyrhynchos; and northern pintail, a. acuta) had significan ...200818058032
characterization of newcastle disease virus isolated from northern pintail (anas acuta) in japan.a field isolate of newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolated from northern pintail (anas acuta) in tohoku district, northeast japan, was characterized. phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein indicated that the isolate belonged to genotype i and was closely related to isolates from the far east corresponded to the migration route for this bird species. the isolate had the typical avirulent cleavage site of the fusion protein (112)gkqgr*l(117). in addition, pathogenicity tests indicated the isol ...200718176032
surveillance of avian influenza viruses in northern pintails (anas acuta) in tohoku district, japan.among winter migratory waterfowl, northern pintails (anas acuta), in one of the largest flocks in tohoku district, northeast japan, were surveyed for influenza a viruses at five wintering sites in three prefectures, viz., aomori, akita, and miyagi. a total of 38 influenza a viruses were isolated from 2066 fecal samples collected during november 2006 through march 2007. the overall isolation rate was 1.84%. eleven different subtypes were isolated, including nine h5n2, seven h6n8, seven h10n1, fou ...200818459295
evaluation of newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light the present study a monoclonal antibody (mab 14a3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin y (igy) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum igy light chain of different duck species: muscovy duck (cairina moschata), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (dafila acuta). ...200818568660
geographical gradients in the population dynamics of north american prairie ducks.1. geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. to evaluate these, we used a hierarchical bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on popul ...200818631261
genetic evidence of intercontinental movement of avian influenza in a migratory bird: the northern pintail (anas acuta).the role of migratory birds in the movement of the highly pathogenic (hp) avian influenza h5n1 remains a subject of debate. testing hypotheses regarding intercontinental movement of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) viruses will help evaluate the potential that wild birds could carry asian-origin strains of hp avian influenza to north america during migration. previous north american assessments of lpai genetic variation have found few asian reassortment events. here, we present results from ...200819140989
complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus type 8 strains goose/delaware/1053/76 and pintail/wakuya/20/78.complete consensus genome sequences were determined for avian paramyxovirus type 8 (apmv-8) strains goose/delaware/1053/76 (prototype strain) and pintail/wakuya/20/78. the genome of each strain is 15,342 nucleotides (nt) long, which follows the "rule of six". the genome consists of six genes in the order of 3'-n-p/v/w-m-f-hn-l-5'. the genes are flanked on either side by conserved transcription start and stop signals, and have intergenic regions ranging from 1 to 30nt. the genome contains a 55nt ...200919341613
avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses from northern pintail in japan: isolation, characterization and inter-annual comparisons during 2006-2008.since wild ducks constitute a vital element in the epizootiology of avian influenza viruses (aivs) as well as avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) and play a key role in the ecology and inter-species transmission of these viruses, it is crucial to elucidate the diversity and prevalence of these viruses within these bird populations. this report shows the presence, antigenic diversity, and inter-annual prevalence variations of aivs in apparently healthy northern pintail (anas acta) wintering in japan. w ...200919463720
antibodies to flaviviruses in wild ducks captured in hokkaido, japan: risk assessment of invasive flaviviruses.recently, the distribution of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and west nile virus (wnv) has expanded into new territories. the invasion of wnv into japan is of great concern. the migration of birds is suggested to be involved in the expanded distribution of these flaviviruses. in this study, 92 wild ducks--20 anas poecilorhyncha (migratory breeders), 50 anas platyrhynchos (undetermined), 16 anas acuta (winter visitors), and 6 anas penelope (winter visitors)--were captured in autumn of 2005 and ...200919514809
phenotypic, genetic, and phylogeographical characterization of avian influenza virus subtype h5n2 isolated from northern pintail (anas acuta) in japan.intercontinental movements of northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks wintering in japan create a high-risk of both incursion and dispersion of avian influenza viruses (aivs) that circulate in the ducks' breeding grounds in siberia and alaska. this predisposition is likely amplified by bi-directional conveyance of aivs between japan and china. in this study, h5n2 viruses were characterized by means of ha cleavage site sequencing and found to be low pathogenic. through entire genome analysis, as well ...200919635509
the survey of h5n1 flu virus in wild birds in 14 provinces of china from 2004 to 2007.the highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in asia, and has spread to europe and africa recently. at present, effective monitoring and data analysis of h5n1 are not sufficient in chinese mainland.200919742325
haemagglutinin and neuraminidase characterization of low pathogenic h5 and h7 avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (anas acuta) in japan, with special reference to genomic and biogeographical aspects.pintails constitute an important host of avian influenza viruses (aivs). genetic, molecular, and antigenic characteristics of h5 and h7 aivs, which we isolated from northern pintails (anas acuta) wintering in japan, were analyzed and found to be linked to various ecological features, chiefly in terms of gene geography, as shaped by various migratory aquatic host species. although all the isolates were found to be of low pathogenicity (lp), we explored gene predispositions that may potentially un ...201019916042
nephron-deficient fvb mice develop rapidly progressive renal failure and heavy albuminuria involving excess glomerular glut1 and vegf.reduced nephron numbers may predispose to renal failure. we hypothesized that glucose transporters (gluts) may contribute to progression of the renal disease, as gluts have been implicated in diabetic glomerulosclerosis and hypertensive renal disease with mesangial cell (mc) stretch. the os (oligosyndactyly) allele that typically reduces nephron number by approximately 50%, was repeatedly backcrossed from rop (ra/+ (ragged), os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and pt/+ (pintail)) os/+ mice more than six tim ...201019918242
influenza a viruses in wild birds of the pacific flyway, 2005-2008.avian influenza viruses (aivs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. we investigated the prevalence and distribution of aivs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in north america along the pacific flyway, which is a major north-south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in alaska providing opportunities for mixing of eurasian and amer ...201020059316
intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (anas acuta) in alaska: examining the evidence through space and time.migration and population genetic data for northern pintails (anas acuta) and phylogenetic analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) viruses from this host in alaska suggest that northern pintails are involved in ongoing intercontinental transmission of avian influenza. here, we further refine this conclusion through phylogenetic analyses which demonstrate that detection of foreign lineage gene segments is spatially dependent and consistent through time. our results show detection of fore ...201020227102
pcbs and organochlorine pesticides in ducks of fereydoon-kenar wildlife refuge in iran.levels of organochlorine pesticides (ocps) and pcb were determined in three duck species: pintail (anas acuta), common teal (anas creaca), and mallard (anas platyhynchos). both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; mallard had the highest levels of pcbs [84.0 +/- 39.0 ng/g wet weight (ww)], and common teal showed the highest levels of ddts (561.0 +/- 220.0 ng/g ww). this exposure level is more than two orders of magnitude below provisional tolerable daily int ...201020419290
migration of waterfowl in the east asian flyway and spatial relationship to hpai h5n1 outbreaks.poyang lake is situated within the east asian flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses guangdong province, china, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1. the lake is the largest freshwater body in china and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. reports of hpai h5n1 in healthy wild ducks a ...201020521681
mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (anas spp.) in (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. influenza a virus appears to be especially susceptible to mx antiviral effects. we characterized exon 13 and the 3' utr of the mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. we observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variations. total nucleotide ...201020621205
interspecific exchange of avian influenza virus genes in alaska: the influence of trans-hemispheric migratory tendency and breeding ground sympatry.the movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of migratory tendency and sympatry with other infected individuals. to examine the roles of host migratory tendency and species sympatry on the movement of eurasian low-pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) genes into north america, we characterized migratory patterns and lpai viral genomic variation in mallards (anas platyrhynchos) of alaska in comparison with lpai diversity ...201021073586
surveillance and characterization of newcastle disease viruses isolated from northern pintail (anas acuta) in japan during 2006-09.a total of 38 newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates were obtained from 6060 fecal samples from northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks collected in the tohoku district in japan during 2006-09. one isolate from each sampling location and date was selected for a total of 38 isolates, then 15 of these were characterized for their pathogenicity by mean death time of minimum lethal dose (mdt/mld) using chicken embryos and by plaque formation on chicken embryo fibroblasts. furthermore, nine isolates were ...201121793438
evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at alaska peninsula coastal lagoons.avian influenza virus (aiv) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for steller's eiders (polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (anas acuta). aiv prevalence was 0.2% at izembek lagoon and 3.9% at nelson lagoon for steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at izembek lagoon. phylogenetic analysis of 13 aivs from steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% ...201121766196
cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective.abstract the spread of avian influenza viruses (aiv) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of aiv between breeding and wintering areas. this cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few aiv studies that present cross-seasonal information. a flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of aiv over l ...201121995264
gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species in the falkland islands.interspecific hybridization is common in plants and animals, particularly in waterfowl (anatidae). one factor shown to contribute to hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when two species occur in sympatry but one is rare. the hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," states that under such circumstances the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. here we report interspecific hybridization between two waterfowl species that coexist in broad sympatry and ...201121887236
interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among alaska dabbling ducks.the reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact lpai genomes among species and locations. to examine persistence of entire lpai genome constellations in alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome lpai viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (anas acuta), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), american green-winged teal (anas ...201121964597
Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis virus in wild birds captured in Korea.Climate change induced by recent global warming may have a significant impact on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. For example, the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has expanded into new regions. We surveyed the levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies against JEV (Family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in wild birds captured in Korea. Blood samples were collected from 1,316 wild birds including the following migratory birds: Oceanodroma castro (n = 4), Anas formo ...201122122903
genetic analysis of avian influenza viruses: cocirculation of avian influenza viruses with allele a and b nonstructural gene in northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks wintering in japan.the pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (h1n1), 1957 (h2n2), 1968 (h3n2), and 2009 (h1n1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (aivs). the nonstructural (ns) gene of aivs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. however, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in northern pintail (anas acuta) ducks wintering in japan. this study describes characteristics of pintail-originated h1n1, h1n2, h1n3, h5n2, h5n3, h5n9, and h7n7 viruses. most of the viruses wer ...201223320157
the epizootiology of anatid herpesvirus 1 infection in free-flying waterfowl: a comparison of latent and active infections among native waterfowl, captive-reared released ducks, and peridomestic or feral ducks.the epizootiology of anatid herpesvirus 1 (ahv-1) infection in waterfowl is poorly understood but apparently involves persistence of the virus in latently infected birds. epornitics have often occurred in captive waterfowl or semiwild ducks in parklike settings, and many wildlife professionals conclude that such ducks may be the source of infection for wild waterfowl. we assessed the prevalence of latent infection and viral shedding from four groups of waterfowl: naturally occurring populations ...201323778596
a single dose of an avian h3n8 influenza virus vaccine is highly immunogenic and efficacious against a recently emerged seal influenza virus in mice and ferrets.h3n8 influenza viruses are a commonly found subtype in wild birds, usually causing mild or no disease in infected birds. however, they have crossed the species barrier and have been associated with outbreaks in dogs, pigs, donkeys, and seals and therefore pose a threat to humans. a live attenuated, cold-adapted (ca) h3n8 vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the wild-type (wt) hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) genes from the a/blue-winged teal/texas/sg-00079/2007 (h3n8) ( ...201525903333
identification of type a influenza viruses from wild birds on the delmarva peninsula, 2007-10.wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the delaware-maryland-virginia (delmarva) peninsula region within the atlantic flyway were sampled as part of the early detection of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza (ai) in wild migratory birds program. the u.s. department of agriculture (usda) and state wildlife agencies submitted 7858 samples for ai virus (aiv) testing by real-time reverse transcription pcr (rrt-pcr) to the university of delaware poultry health system from april 2007 to march 2011. virus ...201728301233
surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in egypt, 2003-09.migratory (particularly aquatic) birds are the major natural reservoirs for type a influenza viruses. however, their role in transmitting highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses is unclear. egypt is a "funnel" zone of wild bird migration pathways from central asia and europe to eastern and central africa ending in south africa. we sought to detect and isolate avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in egypt. during september 2003-february 2009, the us naval medical research unit numb ...201222740532
neospora caninum in wild waterfowl: occurrence of parasite dna and low antibody titers.thirty-five adult waterfowl (14 males and 21 females) representing various orders and species were sampled during the hunting season from 2015 to 2016. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected by ifat on blood samples, while heart and brain were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of neospora caninum dna. twelve birds (34.3%) (6 anas crecca , 3 anas platyrhynchos , 2 anas penelope , 1 anas acuta ) showed antibodies versus n. caninum , while 10 animals out of 35 (4 a. crecca , 2 ...201727805842
avifauna in the panipat region, haryana (india).avifaunal study was carried out in the panipat region, haryana (india) at 56 locations. 91 birds species were observed during the study, of which, 39 species were aquatic. house sparrow was found to be dominant followed by bank myna, house crow and indian myna. among the aquatic birds, cattle egret was dominant followed by common pochard, pintail and blackwinged stilt. encounter rates of the birds were related to the dominant indices of each species. species diversity index was found to be 10.25 ...201021114110
survey for west nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, usa.detection of west nile virus (wnv) in ducks has been reported in north america in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with wnv in wild ducks in north america. from 2004-06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught american wigeon ( anas americana ), mallard ( anas platyrhyn ...201626981693
inactivation of avian influenza virus h1n1 by photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.a novel photocatalyst - ilumio (platinum-loaded tungsten oxide) - was evaluated for its anti-influenza virus activity with the avian isolate a/northern pintail/miyagi/1472/08 (h1n1). under a fluorescent lamp of 1000lx in the absence of ultraviolet light, the virus was inactivated to below the detection limit i.e. >5.3log inactivation within 2h. this photocatalyst can be used for coating walls, tables, and other surfaces to decrease virus infectivity associated with surfaces. this would be desira ...201020302898
phylogenetic analysis of newcastle disease viruses isolated from waterfowl in the upper midwest region of the united states.this study was conducted to characterize newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates obtained from waterfowl from the upper midwest region of the united states. a total of 43 ndvs were isolated by inoculation of cloacal samples in embryonated chicken eggs. these isolates were obtained from 24 mallards, seven american green-winged teals, six northern pintails, four blue-winged teals, and two wood ducks. partial sequences of fusion gene were analyzed to determine the pathotypes and genotypes involved.200919891788
mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in fereydunkenar international wetland (iran).mercury (hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. this paper examined hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on fereydunkenar international wetland (in 2013). mean hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (greylag goose). significant d ...201627838877
identification of migratory bird flyways in north america using community detection on biological networks.migratory behavior of waterfowl populations in north america has traditionally been broadly characterized by four north-south flyways, and these flyways have been central to the management of waterfowl populations for more than 80 yr. however, previous flyway characterizations are not easily updated with current bird movement data and fail to provide assessments of the importance of specific geographical regions to the identification of flyways. here, we developed a network model of migratory mo ...201627411247
six, not two, species of acisoma pintail dragonfly (odonata: libellulidae).the dragonfly genus acisoma is revised based on adult male morphology and coi sequence data. six species are recognised, including the new species a. attenboroughi sp. nov. diagnoses and a key to males of all species and illustrations of all relevant characters are provided. a. inflatum, a. variegatum and a. trifidum are confined to continental africa, while a. panorpoides is restricted to asia. a. ascalaphoides is known only from threatened littoral forest fragments on the east coast of madagas ...201627394858
[highly pathogenic avian influenza--monitoring of migratory waterfowl].since 1979, the group belonging to departments of veterinary microbiology, veterinary public health and the avian zoonoses research centre, faculty of agriculture, tottori university is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from siberia and/or northern china. they have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. serotype of the isolates is various; some h5 and h7 and human types of viruses were also ...200617037371
at least 1 in 20 16s rrna sequence records currently held in public repositories is estimated to contain substantial anomalies.a new method for detecting chimeras and other anomalies within 16s rrna sequence records is presented. using this method, we screened 1,399 sequences from 19 phyla, as defined by the ribosomal database project, release 9, update 22, and found 5.0% to harbor substantial errors. of these, 64.3% were obvious chimeras, 14.3% were unidentified sequencing errors, and 21.4% were highly degenerate. in all, 11 phyla contained obvious chimeras, accounting for 0.8 to 11% of the records for these phyla. man ...200516332745
intergenic ha-na interactions in influenza a virus: postreassortment substitutions of charged amino acid in the hemagglutinin of different our previous studies influenza a virus reassortants having neuraminidase (na) gene of a/ussr/90/77 (h1n1) strain and hemagglutinin (ha) genes of h3, h4 and h13 subtypes were shown to produce a low virus yield and to exhibit a strong tendency to virion aggregation. more detailed studies with the use of a h3n1 reassortant and its high-yield non-aggregating variants revealed that na of a/ussr/90/77 strain is inefficient in the removal of the terminal sialic acid residues from the virion componen ...200010725545
[gene analysis and phenotypic characteristic of highly-reproductive reassortants, containing the gene for bird influenza virus subtype h2 hemagglutinin].a series of reassortant clones with antigenic formulae h2n1 and h2n3 were produced by genetic reassortment performed with the use of an avian influenza virus, a/pintail duck/primorie/695/76 (h2n3) and a high-yield reassortant strain x-67. preliminary identification of the parent origin of np and ns genes for 5 reassortants was performed by comparison of the mobilities of virus-specific proteins in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the parent origin of genes of internal and nonstructural protei ...200010695039
virulence of six strains of duck plague virus in eight waterfowl species.susceptibility of new world waterfowl to the lake andes strain of duck plague virus (dpv) was assessed by intramuscular inoculation of adult muscovies (cairina moschata), mallards (anas platyrhynchos), canada geese (branta canadensis), wood ducks (aix sponsa), redheads (aythya americana), gadwalls (anas strepera), blue-winged teal (anas discors), and pintails (anas acuta). the relative virulence of dpv strains isolated from five united states and one canadian location was established in muscovie ...19968827671
avian influenza virus prevalence in migratory waterfowl in the united states, 2007-2009.we analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (aivs), in the united states from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). the goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. apparent prevalence of aiv was highest in the pacific flyway in 2007-2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the mississippi flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the atlantic flyw ...201425618997
evaluation of blood and muscle tissues for molecular detection and characterization of hematozoa infections in northern pintails (anas acuta) wintering in california.information on the molecular detection of hematozoa from different tissue types and multiple years would be useful to inform sample collection efforts and interpret results of meta-analyses or investigations spanning multiple seasons. in this study, we tested blood and muscle tissue collected from northern pintails (anas acuta) during autumn and winter of different years to evaluate prevalence and genetic diversity of leucocytozoon, haemoproteus, and plasmodium infections in this abundant waterf ...201324533322
gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species on the subantarctic island of south georgia.hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (anatidae). one factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. according to the hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. we report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the subantarctic and south ...201324367536
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