the bacterial communities of drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries.drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. this diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of drosophila. since the bacterial microbiota of drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with d. suzukii are distinct from that of other drosophila. using 16s rdna pcr and illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult ...201425101226
wolbachia do not live by reproductive manipulation alone: infection polymorphism in drosophila suzukii and d. subpulchrella.drosophila suzukii recently invaded north america and europe. populations in hawaii, california, new york and nova scotia are polymorphic for wolbachia, typically with <20% infection frequency. the wolbachia in d. suzukii, denoted wsuz, is closely related to wri, the variant prevalent in continental populations of d. simulans. wsuz is also nearly identical to wolbachia found in d. subpulchrella, plausibly d. suzukii's sister species. this suggests vertical wolbachia transmission through cladogen ...201425156506
plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. as many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from d. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (kms) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for d. suzukii flies. most essential ...201626893197
oral delivery of dsrna by microbes: beyond pest control.rna interference (rnai) by oral delivery of dsrna in insects has great potential as a tool for integrated pest management (ipm), especially with respect to addressing the need to reduce off-target effect and slow down resistance development to chemical insecticides. employing the natural association existing between insect and yeast, we developed a novel method to enable the knock down of vital genes in the pest insect drosophila suzukii through oral delivery of species-specific dsrna using gene ...201628042376
genome of drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila.drosophila suzukii matsumura (spotted wing drosophila) has recently become a serious pest of a wide variety of fruit crops in the united states as well as in europe, leading to substantial yearly crop losses. to enable basic and applied research of this important pest, we sequenced the d. suzukii genome to obtain a high-quality reference sequence. here, we discuss the basic properties of the genome and transcriptome and describe patterns of genome evolution in d. suzukii and its close relatives. ...201324142924
conservation of olfactory avoidance in drosophila species and identification of repellents for drosophila suzukii.flying insects use olfaction to navigate towards fruits in complex odor environments with remarkable accuracy. some fruits change odor profiles substantially during ripening and related species can prefer different stages. in drosophila species attractive odorants have been studied extensively, but little is understood about the role of avoidance pathways. in order to examine the role of the avoidance cue co2 emitted from fruit on behavior of two species with different ripening stage preferences ...201526098542
adding yeasts with sugar to increase the number of effective insecticide classes to manage drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) in cherry.drosophila suzukii is a major pest of cherry in the western united states. we evaluated whether the addition of sugary baits could improve the efficacy of two classes of insecticides not considered to be sufficiently effective for this pest, diamides and spinosyns, in laboratory and field trials in cherry.201626454150
disruptions of the genes involved in lysine biosynthesis, iron acquisition, and secondary metabolisms affect virulence and fitness in metarhizium robertsii.based on genomic analysis, polyketide synthase (pks) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) pathways account for biosynthesis of the majority of the secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium robertsii. to evaluate the contribution of these pathways to m. robertsii fitness and/or virulence, mutants deleted for mrppta, the sfp-type 4' phosphopantetheinyl transferase gene required for their activation were generated. δmrppta strains were deficient in pks and nrps ...201727876630
biological activity of bacillus thuringiensis in drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).whole-culture extracts of bacillus thuringiensis berliner strains were assayed against larval and adult drosophila suzukii (matsumura), an important invasive pest of many thin-skinned soft fruit crops in north america. of the 22 serovars tested versus larval d. suzukii, strains of bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis, kurstaki, thompsoni, bolivia, and pakistani caused high (75 to 100%) first-instar mortalities. pupal mortality, measured as a failure of adults to emerge, varied with serovar. ...201627106227
wolbachia-mediated protection against viruses in the invasive pest drosophila suzukii.the maternally inherited bacterium wolbachia is well known for spreading in natural populations by manipulating the reproduction of its arthropod hosts, but can also have mutualist effects that increase host fitness. in mosquitoes and drosophila some wolbachia strains can lead to an increase in survival of virus-infected insects, and in most cases this is associated with reduced accumulation of the virus in host tissues. we investigated if the wolbachia strain wsuz, which naturally infects droso ...201627144810
associations of yeasts with spotted-wing drosophila (drosophila suzukii; diptera: drosophilidae) in cherries and raspberries.a rich history of investigation documents various drosophila-yeast mutualisms, suggesting that drosophila suzukii similarly has an association with a specific yeast species or community. to discover candidate yeast species, yeasts were isolated from larval frass, adult midguts, and fruit hosts of d. suzukii. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (trflp) technology and decimal dilution plating were used to identify and determine the relative abundance of yeast species present in fruit ...201222582060
further screening of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes as control agents for drosophila suzukii.drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the uk. to date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress d. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. however, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing d. suzukii. therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. the following entomopath ...201627294962
ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via rna interference.rna interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. in laboratory experiments, double-stranded rna (dsrna) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsrna targeting y-tubulin in drosophila suzukii. our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. yeast is naturally fo ...201626931800
olfactory specialization in drosophila suzukii supports an ecological shift in host preference from rotten to fresh has been demonstrated that drosophila suzukii is capable of attacking ripening fruit, making it a unique species within a fly family named for their attraction towards the fermentation products associated with rotten fruits, vinegar, and yeast. it also has been hypothesized that d. suzukii is more attracted to the volatiles associated with the earlier ripening stages of fruit development, and in turn, that d. suzukii is less attracted to fermented food resources, especially when compared with ...201525618323
effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in berry crops.field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae). during the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a pherocon ...201425195443
seasonal monitoring for drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in california commercial raspberries.native to southeast asia, drosophila suzukii (matsumura) prefer to oviposit on ripe fruit and have become an important pest of california raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) since their detection in santa cruz county, ca, in 2008. preliminary management guidelines included d. suzukii monitoring recommendations, though there was little available information on seasonal occurrence and potential lures for use in raspberries. to address this issue, we trapped adult d. suzukii weekly for 2 yr (including bo ...201424865227
g protein coupled receptors as targets for next generation pesticides.there is an on-going need for the discovery and development of new pesticides due to the loss of existing products through the continuing development of resistance, the desire for products with more favourable environmental and toxicological profiles and the need to implement the principles of integrated pest management. insect g protein coupled receptors (gpcrs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behaviour, including reproduction, osmoregulation, growth and development. ...201526226649
seasonal and regional presence of hymenopteran parasitoids of drosophila in switzerland and their ability to parasitize the invasive drosophila suzukii.since its introduction into europe the invasive drosophila suzukii has established and spread widely, thereby entering habitats populated by native drosophila species and their natural enemies. the highly prolific d. suzukii will likely interact with these species as a competitor, host or prey. to investigate potential interactions of d. suzukii with parasitoids, a field survey was conducted across several fruit-growing regions in switzerland in two consecutive years. eight species of hymenopter ...201728098183
development of an attract-and-kill strategy for drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae): evaluation of attracticidal spheres under laboratory and field conditions.drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. originally from asia, d. suzukii has successfully invaded the united states and the european and south american countries. at present, calendar-based insecticide applications are used to combat d. suzukii. here, we evaluate a behaviorally based attract-and-kill management technique using attracticidal spheres to reduce d. suzukii infestations in raspberries. in laboratory ...201728334362
drosophila larvae food intake cessation following exposure to erwinia contaminated media requires odor perception, trpa1 channel and evf virulence factor.when exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. on one hand, as elegantly exemplified in drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. on the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. however, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been ra ...201728232220
polyamines in brown rice vinegar function as potent attractants for the spotted wing drosophila.vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. apple cider vinegar (acv) and brown rice vinegar (brv) are used as lures to detect drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [swd], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture drosophila melanogaster, respectively. in the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of brv and acv to swd in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a ...201727591976
the biochemical adaptations of spotted wing drosophila (diptera: drosophilidae) to fresh fruits reduced fructose concentrations and glutathione-s transferase activities.spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura, is an invasive and economically damaging pest in europe and north america. the females have a serrated ovipositor that enables them to infest almost all ripening small fruits. to understand the physiological and metabolic basis of spotted wing drosophila food preferences for healthy ripening fruits, we investigated the biological and biochemical characteristics of spotted wing drosophila and compared them with those of drosophila melanogaste ...201626921228
species diversity in the parasitoid genus asobara (hymenoptera: braconidae) from the native area of the fruit fly pest drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii (matsumura), commonly known as spotted wing drosophila (swd), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. the chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to d. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. alternatively, within integrated pest management protocols for d. suzukii, b ...201626840953
crispr/cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the white and sex lethal loci in the invasive pest, drosophila suzukii.drosophila suzukii (commonly called spotted wing drosophila) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit (e.g. blueberries, strawberries). a high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. in this study we have used the crispr/cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the d. suzukii white (w) and sex lethal (sxl) genes. hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant gen ...201626721433
non-crop plants used as hosts by drosophila suzukii in europe.the invasive spotted wing drosophila drosophila suzukii, a fruit fly of asian origin, is a major pest of a wide variety of berry and stone fruits in europe. one of the characteristics of this fly is its wide host range. a better knowledge of its host range outside cultivated areas is essential to develop sustainable integrated pest management strategies. field surveys were carried out during two years in italy, the netherlands and switzerland. fruits of 165 potential host plant species were coll ...201628275324
overwintering survival of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) and the effect of food on adult survival in california's san joaquin valley.the overwintering survival and development of drosophila suzukii matsumura were investigated in california's san joaquin valley. drosophila suzukii were exposed to overwintering conditions in cages hung in a citrus orchard, and the pupae were buried in the soil. eggs exposed from late november to january did not survive; a low percentage (<3%) of larvae and pupae developed into adults. survival of pupae was significantly higher when buried in the soil than on the citrus tree. from late january t ...201626654917
the wide potential trophic niche of the asiatic fruit fly drosophila suzukii: the key of its invasion success in temperate europe?the asiatic fruit fly drosophila suzukii has recently invaded europe and north and south america, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. in order to study the potential trophic niche of d. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, h ...201526581101
the sexually dimorphic behaviour of adult drosophila suzukii: elevated female locomotor activity and loss of siesta is a post-mating response.the polyphagous drosophila suzukii is a highly invasive species that causes extensive damage to a wide range of berry and stone fruit crops. a better understanding of its biology and especially its behaviour will aid the development of new control strategies. we investigated the locomotor behaviour of d. suzukii in a semi-natural environment resembling a typical summer in northern england and show that adult female d. suzukii are at least 4-fold more active during daylight hours than adult males ...201526486360
morphological markers for cryopreservation in the embryonic development of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) is an invasive pest recently reported in europe whose spread into new areas has caused severe economic damage to many agricultural crops. there are serious concerns about the currently available chemical insecticides because of their low efficacy in controlling the species and their environmental impact; so, several studies have focused on environmentally safe strategies. the sterile insect technique (sit), which requires colony maintenance ...201526470330
cold hardiness of winter-acclimated drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) adults.drosophila suzukii matsumura, often called spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic vinegar fly that is native to southeast asia and was first detected in the continental united states in 2008. previous modeling studies have suggested that d. suzukii might not survive in portions of the northern united states or southern canada due to the effects of cold. as a result, we measured two aspects of insect cold tolerance, the supercooling point and lower lethal temperature, for d. suzukii summer-morph p ...201526317777
loss of drosophila pheromone reverses its role in sexual communication in drosophila suzukii.the drosophila pheromone cis-11-octadecenyl acetate (cva) is used as pheromone throughout the melanogaster group and fulfils a primary role in sexual and social behaviours. here, we found that drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest that oviposits in undamaged ripe fruit, does not produce cva. in fact, its production site, the ejaculatory bulb, is atrophied. despite loss of cva production, its receptor, or67d, and cognate sensillum, t1, which are essential in cva-mediated behaviours, were fully fun ...201525716789
development, reproductive output and population growth of the fruit fly pest drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) on artificial diet.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) is a fruit pest of asian origin that invaded north america in 2008. despite the widespread economic impact of this species, much of the biology and general life history of this pest remains largely unknown. under optimal laboratory conditions (22 degrees c, approximately 25% relative humidity), we measured development, survival, fecundity, hatch rate, and sex ratio of a north american ecotype of d. suzukii. life history traits were used to ...201425195427
drosophila suzukii: the genetic footprint of a recent, worldwide invasion.native to asia, the soft-skinned fruit pest drosophila suzukii has recently invaded the united states and europe. the eastern united states represents the most recent expansion of their range, and presents an opportunity to test alternative models of colonization history. here, we investigate the genetic population structure of this invasive fruit fly, with a focus on the eastern united states. we sequenced six x-linked gene fragments from 246 individuals collected from a total of 12 populations ...201425158796
integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.native to southeast asia, drosophila suzukii (matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the u.s., canada, and europe. since current d. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expre ...201323861907
drosophila suzukii contains a peptide homologous to the drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide and functional in both species.a peptide homologous to the drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide (sp) was isolated from drosophila suzukii accessory glands and its amino acid sequence determined. the d. suzukii peptide contains 41 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 5100 da. comparison of the sequences reveals strong homologies in the n-terminal and c-terminal parts of the peptides. in the d. suzukii sex-peptide, however, five additional amino acids are inserted after amino acid 7. based on the sequence of the ...19938353518
host status and fruit odor response of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. it is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. our study sought to determine whether d. suzukii use mulberries (morus spp.) and figs (ficus carica (l.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of d. suzukii emerging from them. we also sought to determine whethe ...201324020313
erythritol and lufenuron detrimentally alter age structure of wild drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) populations in blueberry and blackberry.we report on the efficacy of 0.5 m (61,000 ppm) erythritol (e) in truvia baking blend, 10 ppm lufenuron (l), and their combination (le) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of drosophila suzukii (matsumura) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (vaccinium virgatum) and blackberries (rubus sp.). formulations included the active ingredients (lufenuron, erythritol, or both), sugar (in control and erythritol treatments), and dawn hand-soap applied to plants with pressurized 3-g ...201728334255
draft genome sequence of tatumella sp. strain ucd-d_suzukii (phylum proteobacteria) isolated from drosophila suzukii we present the draft genome of tatumella sp. strain ucd-d_suzukii, the first member of this genus to be sequenced. the genome contains 3,602,931 bp in 72 scaffolds. this strain was isolated from drosophila suzukii larvae as part of a larger project to study the microbiota of d. suzukii.201424762940
analysis of virus susceptibility in the invasive insect pest drosophila suzukii.the invasive insect pest drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes massive agricultural damage in north america and europe (cini et al., 2012). environmentally sustainable strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of this species, and entomopathogenic viruses offer one potential solution for global crop protection. here we report the status of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the susceptibility of d. suzukii to three model insect viruses: drosophila c virus, ...201728666960
two pests overlap: drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to halyomorpha halys (hemiptera: pentatomidae).drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) and brown marmorated stink bug, halyomorpha halys (stål) (hemiptera: pentatomidae), are global economic pests that may co-occur on small fruits. we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to h. halys affected subsequent host use by d. suzukii. laboratory no-choice and choice tests presented d. suzukii with h. halys-fed and unfed raspberries and blueberries immediately or 3 d after h. halys feeding. resulting d. suzukii eggs, or larvae a ...028575326
evaluation of food-based attractants for drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).the drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) is a highly invasive species attacking a wide range of ripening soft-skinned fruits. a series of laboratory choice tests were conducted to determine whether different levels of rice vinegar affected attraction of merlot wine to d. suzukii, as well as to compare attractiveness of two common fermentation food baits: wine-vinegar and yeast-sugar water mixtures. the relative attraction of various combinations was used to develop a bait whos ...028575202
reproductive status of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) females influences attraction to fermentation-based baits and ripe fruits.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) is an invasive species that is a devastating pest of soft-skinned fruit crops. although much effort has been directed toward developing traps and attractants to monitor for d. suzukii, current monitoring tools do not reliably predict fruit infestation. the objective of this study was to determine if d. suzukii females at different developmental stages are differentially attracted to monitoring traps with fermentation-based baits and ripe fruits. females were collec ...028541540
cost-benefit analysis of controlling the spotted wing drosophila (drosophila suzukii (matsumura)) spread and infestation of soft fruits in trentino, northern italy.we assessed the economic impact of the invasive pest drosophila suzukii (matsumura) on the soft fruit industry (strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries) in trentino, northern italy, using cost-benefit analysis. a conventional integrated pest management (ipm) based on insecticide, mass trapping and cultural measures is compared to an upgraded ipm strategy based on exclusion netting. costs and benefits associated with the change between the two are estimated in order to evaluate t ...028523823
isolating spermathecae and determining mating status of drosophila suzukii: a protocol for tissue dissection and its applications.the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae), is an emerging invasive pest, which attacks a wide variety of fruits and berries. although previous studies have focused on different aspects of d. suzukii reproductive biology, there are no protocols available for determining the mating status of d. suzukii females and drosophilids in general. in this study, a step-by-step protocol for tissue dissection, isolating spermathecae, and determining the mating status of females ...028287438
economic impact of the introduction and establishment of drosophila suzukii on sweet cherry production in switzerland.first detected in switzerland in 2011, the invasive drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. control of d. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. however, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemishe ...028208692
diel periodicity of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) under field conditions.drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. however, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by d. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. the primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of d. suzukii and their reproductive success under field co ...028187140
geographic variation in the spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae), based on mitochondrial dna sequences.the spotted-wing drosophila (swd), drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae), is an economically damaging pest that feeds on most thin-skinned fruits. it was originally native to a few asian countries, including korea, but is now found in north america and europe. in this study, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial (mt) coi and nd4 genes from a total of 195 individuals collected mainly from korea. we then combined genbank-registered coi sequences from all ancestral-range and introduced-r ...028129731
strawberry accessions with reduced drosophila suzukii emergence from fruits.drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females' ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. to search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate o ...028066452
laboratory bioassays with three different substrates to test the efficacy of insecticides against various stages of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).rapid worldwide spread and polyphagous nature of the spotted wing drosophila drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae) calls for efficient and selective control strategies to prevent severe economic losses in various fruit crops. the use of insecticides is one option for management of this invasive pest insect. efficacy of insecticides is usually assessed first in laboratory bioassays, which are compounded by the cryptic nature of d. suzukii larvae and the fact that fruits used in bi ...028042104
effects of postharvest cold storage on the development and survival of immature drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in artificial diet and fruit.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) attacks a wide range of host plants, including crops such as blueberries, cherries, caneberries, and strawberries. we evaluated the influence of three temperatures (1.1, 3.9, and 5.0 °c) and four exposure durations (6, 12, 24, and 72 h) that were selected to represent typical grower practices on survival and development time of immature d. suzukii in artificial diet and one temperature and duration (1.67 °c for 72 h) in fruit (blueberries a ...028039427
economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (matsumura), in the california raspberry industry.the spotted wing drosophila (swd), drosophila suzukii (matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. swd infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. this analysis estimates economic losses in the california raspberry industry that have resulted from the swd invasion.027943618
bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria.the pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (aab) are important components. here, we investigated the bacterial and aab components of the invasive pest drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. aab were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 an ...027886661
the making of a pest: insights from the evolution of chemosensory receptor families in a pestiferous and invasive fly, drosophila suzukii.drosophila suzukii differs from other melanogaster group members in their proclivity for laying eggs in fresh fruit rather than in fermenting fruits. olfaction and gustation play a critical role during insect niche formation, and these senses are largely mediated by two important receptor families: olfactory and gustatory receptors (ors and grs). earlier work from our laboratory has revealed how the olfactory landscape of d. suzukii is dominated by volatiles derived from its unique niche. signal ...027530109
susceptibility of selected boreal fruits and berries to the invasive pest drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii matsumara has recently emerged as a major invasive pest species in soft-skinned fruits in berries throughout north america and europe. its distribution has spread so rapidly that little is known of the extent of fruit susceptibility, particularly in boreal regions. populations of d. suzukii increase dramatically in late summer in boreal regions, concurrent with fruiting seasons for commercially and culturally significant fruits and berries. we tested fruit preference and susce ...027447732
exclusion netting delays and reduces drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) infestation in raspberries.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) is a new frugivorous pest of raspberries and other soft fruits in north america, causing infestation of fruit at harvest time. control of this pest has primarily been through the application of broad-spectrum insecticides to prevent oviposition and larval development, and there is an urgent need for alternative approaches. over two growing seasons, we compared d. suzukii control in a research planting with insecticide and exclusion treatmen ...027417641
toxicities and effects of insecticidal toxic baits to control drosophila suzukii and zaprionus indianus (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii is a primary insect pest that causes direct damage to fruits with a thin epidermis such as strawberries, cherries and blueberries. in strawberry fields, the co-occurrence of d. suzukii and zaprionus indianus has increased production losses. this study evaluated the toxicities and effects of insecticidal baits to control adults and larvae of both d. suzukii and z. indianus.027353338
field evaluation of an oviposition deterrent for management of spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, and potential nontarget effects.spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), is a polyphagous, invasive pest of small fruits. current management relies heavily on chemical insecticides, and an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to alternative management approaches that reduce the need for these chemical insecticides. a novel deployment method for repelling drosophila suzukii, thereby reducing d. suzukii oviposition in fall-bearing red raspberry, was evaluated in the field. infes ...027247303
fumigant and contact toxicity of 22 wooden essential oils and their major components against drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (eos) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (swd), drosophila suzukii were examined. analyses by gc, gc-ms, and nmr led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from gaultheria fragrantissima, croton anistatum, illicium verum, liquidamabar orientalis, cinnamomum cassia, rosa damasena, and santalum album, respectively. in fumigant toxicity test, g. fragrantissima, c. anistat ...027742359
biological activity of myrtaceae plant essential oils and their major components against drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).the spotted-wing drosophila (swd), drosophila suzukii (matsumura), is a globally invasive and serious pest of numerous soft-skinned fruit crops. assessments were made of fumigant and contact toxicities of 12 myrtaceae plant essential oils (eos) and their components. for determining the mode of action of major components of active eos, their activities against acetylcholinesterase (ache) and glutathione s-transferase (gst) were also assessed.027607409
effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, drosophila this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. in a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05m doses after feeding for 7days. when sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on ...028390875
seasonal reproductive biology of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in temperate climates.drosophila suzukii (matsumura; diptera: drosophilidae) is a key pest of sweet cherry and small fruits worldwide. the present studies were designed to describe the reproductive physiology in both sexes, through dissections of their reproductive organs. we extensively dissected female d. suzukii throughout the season from 2013 to 2016 and classified the reproductive status flies based on five recognizable ovarian maturation stages: 1) no ovaries; 2) unripe ovaries 3) ripening eggs in ovarioles; 4) ...201729281089
temperature-related development and population parameters for drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.temperature-related studies were conducted on drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae: drosophilini). from 10-28°c, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, vaccinium corymbosum l. (ericales: ericaceae), and cherries, prunus avium (l.) l. 1755 (rosales: rosaceae), important commercial hosts of d. suzukii. temperature had a significant influence on d. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to ...201424612968
developing drosophila suzukii management programs for sweet cherry in the western united states.the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), is a newly introduced pest of sweet cherry on the west coast of north america which produces about 97% of the value of the us sweet cherry crop. d. suzukii initially caused considerable economic loss to cherry growers, who were unaware of this new pest. little control information was available at the time of initial infestation. pest control studies were initiated to examine the materials, timings and application ...201121919187
robust manipulations of pest insect behavior using repellents and practical application for integrated pest agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (ipm) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. this may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. we explore the literature for success stories using repellents in ipm and we ...201728981656
evaluating a push-pull strategy for management of drosophila suzukii matsumura in red raspberry.drosophila suzukii matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits that lays its eggs in growing fruit. current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under investigation, such as attract-and-kill and the use of oviposition deterrents. here, we evaluated two behavioral control approaches in combination as a push-pull strategy using laboratory and field assays.201828714131
behavioral response of spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura, to aversive odors and a potential oviposition deterrent in the field.drosophilia suzukii matsumura is an invasive pest insect that lays its eggs in the fruit of several commercially grown crops. an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to its management. repellant odors were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field.201625973596
pupation behavior and predation on drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) pupae in maine wild blueberry fields.drosophila suzukii (matsumura; diptera: drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in north america, including wild blueberries (vaccinium angustifolium aiton) in maine. despite its presence in the continental united states for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in maine's wild blueberry fields. experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation ...201729029219
diurnal activity of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in highbush blueberry and behavioral response to irrigation and application of insecticides.spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), is an invasive vinegar fly that has become a primary direct pest of berry crops worldwide. we conducted 2 yr of behavioral studies in blueberry plantings to determine how fly activity varied throughout the day. observations of diurnal activity of adult d. suzukii found the greatest activity in the morning hours between 0600 and 0800 hours, when the majority of flies were on the berries. flies were also active in the ...201728961749
evaluation of attractants for monitoring drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii matsumura is an economically important pest of soft and small fruit crops. unlike other drosophilid flies, d. suzukii is capable of infesting ripe and partially ripe fruit, which poses a significant pest management challenge, as there is no tolerance for infested or damaged fruit in the marketplace. as a result, producers in many regions rely on calendar-scheduled insecticide applications for d. suzukii management. in order to develop an integrated pest management approach, be ...201728444365
use of early ripening cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping to manage drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in vaccinium corymbosum (ericales: ericaceae).use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (matsumura). fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. most 'earliblue', 'bluetta', and 'collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. most fruit from 'bluejay', 'blueray', and 'bluehaven' were also harvested before the first w ...201426309275
oviposition efficacy of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. blueberry was introduced into japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to d. suzukii were first reported in 2002. the objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (vaccinium corymbosum l.) and rabbiteye ...201324020291
potential of muscadine grapes as a viable host of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in blueberry-producing regions of the southeastern united states.spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), is an economically important invasive pest of many soft- and thin-skinned fruits in the united states. this pest has recently threatened blueberry production, a multimillion dollar industry in the southeastern united states. muscadine grapes are often planted in mixed-crop production systems with blueberries. although d. suzukii can oviposit in intact soft-skinned grapes, it has yet to be investigated whether muscadi ...201626921227
drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) contributes to the development of sour rot in grape.this research aimed to more clearly describe the interactions of drosophila suzukii (matsumura; diptera: drosophilidae) with microorganisms that may contribute to spoilage or quality loss of wine grapes during harvest. experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory experiments and under field conditions to determine these effects. laboratory trials determined the role of insect contact and oviposition to vector spoilage bacteria onto wine grapes. in the field, the roles of key organoleptic ...201729202199
drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) and its potential impact to wine grapes during harvest in two cool climate wine grape production regions.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) is a global pest attacking various berry crops. d. suzukii lays eggs in damaged and in intact wine grape berries of the most soft-skinned varieties. here, we describe the relative host utilization of different wine grape cultivars grown in northern italy and oregon. assessments of host berry utilization were performed in both field and laboratory settings. results were correlated to physiological changes occurring during grape berry development starting at véraison ...201526470240
the susceptibility of small fruits and cherries to the spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii.the spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura, is native to asia and was first detected in the north american mainland and europe in 2008-2010. drosophila suzukii is a serious economic pest to stone and small fruits because the female lays eggs within ripening fruit on a plant before harvest, which can lead to crop loss. the aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, raspberries and strawberries to d. suzukii among various rip ...201121710685
the genomes of four meyerozymacaribbica isolates and novel insights into the meyerozymaguilliermondii species complex.yeasts of the meyerozyma guilliermondii species complex are widespread in nature and can be isolated from a variety of sources, from the environment to arthropods to hospital patients. to date, the species complex comprises the thoroughly studied and versatile m. guilliermondii, and the hard to distinguish m. caribbica, and candida carpophila here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of four m. caribbica isolates, identified with the most recent molecular techniques, derive ...201829311113
efficacy of commercially available invertebrate predators against drosophila suzukii.drosophila suzukii has been recorded in the uk since the end of 2012. to date, reports of serious damage have been rare. previous research has demonstrated that there are chemicals available within the uk that are efficient in dealing with d. suzukii. however, few effective chemicals for use by the organic sector have been identified; equally the addition of "new" insecticides into previously stable ecosystems can have negative impacts upon natural enemies and so disrupt control strategies that ...201426462951
adaptation to new nutritional environments: larval performance, foraging decisions, and adult oviposition choices in drosophila suzukii.understanding how species adapt to new niches is a central issue in evolutionary ecology. nutrition is vital for the survival of all organisms and impacts species fitness and distribution. while most drosophila species exploit rotting plant parts, some species have diversified to use ripe fruit, allowing earlier colonization. the decomposition of plant material is facilitated by yeast colonization and proliferation. these yeasts serve as the main protein source for drosophila larvae. this dynami ...201728592264
the evolution of olfactory gene families in drosophila and the genomic basis of chemical-ecological adaptation in drosophila the evolution of olfactory genes correlates with adaption to new ecological niches is still a debated topic. we explored this issue in drosophila suzukii, an emerging model that reproduces on fresh fruit rather than in fermenting substrates like most other drosophila we first annotated the repertoire of odorant receptors (ors), odorant binding proteins (obps), and antennal ionotropic receptors (airs) in the genomes of two strains of d. suzukii and of its close relative drosophila biarmipes w ...201627435796
reducing drosophila suzukii emergence through inter-species competition.drosophila suzukii has dispersed widely from its native asian range since 2008. its arrival in the uk is resulting in economic losses in soft- and stone-fruit crops caused by larvae feeding on the flesh of ripening fruit. although a large amount of research has been directed at controlling this pest, it is presently unknown how this invasive species interacts with native drosophila species.201729266721
olfactory detection of a bacterial short-chain fatty acid acts as an orexigenic signal in drosophila melanogaster larvae.microorganisms inhabiting fermenting fruit produce chemicals that elicit strong behavioral responses in flies. depending on their ecological niche, individuals confer a positive or a negative valence to a chemical and, accordingly, they trigger either attractive or repulsive behaviors. we studied the case of bacterial short-chain fatty acids (scfa) that trigger opposite behaviors in adult and larvae of drosophila melanogaster. we determined that scfa-attractive responses depend on two larval exc ...201729079812
fermentation for disinfesting fruit waste from drosophila species (diptera: drosophilidae).economic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the drosophila suzukii (matsumura) have become severe. removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor d. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from d. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12-20 °c. soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of drosophila melanogaster (meigen) or d. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels ...201728881957
renal neuroendocrine control of desiccation and cold tolerance by drosophila suzukii.neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. however, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in drosophila suzukii. the close phylogenetic relationship of d. suzukii with drosophila melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in d. suzukii.201728714258
invasive drosophila suzukii facilitates drosophila melanogaster infestation and sour rot outbreaks in the do invasive pests affect interactions between members of pre-existing agrosystems? the invasive pest drosophila suzukii is suspected to be involved in the aetiology of sour rot, a grapevine disease that otherwise develops following drosophila melanogaster infestation of wounded berries. we combined field observations with laboratory assays to disentangle the relative roles of both drosophila in disease development. we observed the emergence of numerous d. suzukii, but no d. melanogaster flie ...201728405407
the making of a pest: the evolution of a fruit-penetrating ovipositor in drosophila suzukii and related species.evolutionary innovation can allow a species access to a new ecological niche, potentially reducing competition with closely related species. while the vast majority of drosophila flies feed on rotting fruit and other decaying matter, and are harmless to human activity, drosophila suzukii, which has a morphologically modified ovipositor, is capable of colonizing live fruit that is still in the process of ripening, causing massive agricultural damage. here, we conducted the first comparative analy ...201424573846
comparison of commercial lures and food baits for early detection of fruit infestation risk by drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae).drosophila suzukii (matsumura; diptera: drosophilidae) is one of the most serious invasive pests of berries and cherries worldwide. several adult monitoring systems are available to time foliar application of insecticides with the expectation of detecting the presence of d. suzukii before they infest susceptible crops. we tested this by comparing four different trapping systems based on two homemade baits, apple cider vinegar (acv) or fermenting dough, and two fermentation volatile-based commerc ...201829365137
non-crop host sampling yields insights into small-scale population dynamics of drosophila suzukii (matsumura).invasive, polyphagous crop pests subsist on a number of crop and non-crop resources. while knowing the full range of host species is important, a seasonal investigation into the use of non-crop plants adjacent to cropping systems provide key insights into some of the factors determining local population dynamics. this study investigated the infestation of non-crop plants by the invasive drosophila suzukii (matsumura), a pest of numerous economically important stone and small fruit crops, by samp ...201829301358
effect of low-oxygen conditions created by modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) in sweet cherries.modified atmosphere packaging (map) creates a low-oxygen (o2) environment that can increase the shelf life of fresh produce by decreasing respiration and the growth of pathogens. low oxygen may also increase insect tolerance to irradiation (ir), and the use of map with products treated by ir to control quarantine pests before export may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae) is a quarantine pest of stone and sma ...201729267933
development and use of a piggybac-based jumpstarter system in drosophila suzukii.spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest that primarily attacks fresh, soft-skinned fruit. although others have reported successful integration of marked piggybac elements into the d. suzukii genome, with a very respectable transgenesis rate of ∼16%, here we take this work a step further by creating d. suzukii jumpstarter strains. these were generated through integration of a fluorescent-marked minos element carrying a heat shock protein 70-driven piggybac transposase gen ...201729194761
genome comparisons indicate recent transfer of wri-like wolbachia between sister species drosophila suzukii and d. subpulchrella.wolbachia endosymbionts may be acquired by horizontal transfer, by introgression through hybridization between closely related species, or by cladogenic retention during speciation. all three modes of acquisition have been demonstrated, but their relative frequency is largely unknown. drosophila suzukii and its sister species d. subpulchrella harbor wolbachia, denoted wsuz and wspc, very closely related to wri, identified in california populations of d. simulans. however, these variants differ i ...201729187976
improved capture of drosophila suzukii by a trap baited with two attractants in the same device.the improvement of trap-lure combinations is an important part of integrated pest management programs that involve monitoring pests for timely insecticide applications, or for their use in control strategies such as mass trapping or bait stations. in this study improvements in the capture of drosophila suzukii were not observed following the inclusion of different color stimuli with respect to a red-black stripe cup trap. this red-black stripe trap with a hemispherical dome-shaped lid had a sign ...201729149190
field monitoring of drosophila suzukii and associated communities in south eastern france as a pre-requisite for classical biological control.the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in europe and america. among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. in the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of france using traps and deliberate field exposures of d ...201729144440
peptidergic control in a fruit crop pest: the spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii.neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. a pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (tdvdhvflrfamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved ...201729125862
oviposition activity of drosophila suzukii as mediated by ambient and fruit temperature.the invasive pest drosophila suzukii was introduced to southern europe in 2008 and spread throughout central europe in the following years. precise reliable data on the temperature-dependent behavior of d. suzukii are scarce but will help forecasting and cultivation techniques. depending on physico-chemical properties, surface temperature of objects may differ from ambient temperatures, determining physical activity, and affect oviposition on or into substrate, determining preimaginal developmen ...201729121635
genetic variability in italian populations of drosophila suzukii.drosophila suzukii is a highly destructive pest species, causing substantial economic losses in soft fruit production. to better understand migration patterns, gene flow and adaptation in invaded regions, we studied the genetic structure of d. suzukii collected across italy, where it was first observed in 2008. in particular, we analysed 15 previously characterised simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers to estimate genetic differentiation across the genome of 278 flies collected from nine populati ...201729096606
insertion sequence polymorphism and genomic rearrangements uncover hidden wolbachia diversity in drosophila suzukii and d. subpulchrella.ability to distinguish between closely related wolbachia strains is crucial for understanding the evolution of wolbachia-host interactions and the diversity of wolbachia-induced phenotypes. a useful model to tackle these issues is the drosophila suzukii - wolbachia association. d. suzukii, a destructive insect pest, harbor a non-ci inducing wolbachia 'wsuz' closely related to the strong ci-inducing wri strain. multi locus sequence typing (mlst) suggests presence of genetic homogeneity across wsu ...201729093474
reduced drosophila suzukii infestation in berries using deterrent compounds and laminate polymer flakes.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) is a recent invasive pest of soft fruits in north and south america and europe. control relies on frequent applications of synthetic insecticides. additional tactics are needed for development of an effective integrated pest management program. study objectives were to evaluate the repellency and oviposition deterrent capability of compounds in plant essential oils and the effect of select compounds on infestation rates in strawberries, using laminate polymer flake ...201729088060
toxicity to and egg-laying avoidance of drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) caused by an old alternative inorganic insecticide preparation.the application of synthetic insecticides remains the most used tool for the management of spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae). however, management of this pest in the organic production of soft-skinned fruits is a complex task due to the restricted number of registered products. here, we assess the toxicity of lime sulfur and evaluate whether lime sulfur-treated strawberry plants affected the oviposition and development of d. suzukii.201729064624
evaluation of off-season potential breeding sources for spotted wing drosophila (drosophila suzukii matsumura) in has been suggested that fruit wastes including dropped and unharvested fruits, and fruit byproducts (i.e., pomace) found in fruit plantings and cideries or wine-making facilities could serve as potential off-season breeding sites for spotted wing drosophila (drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae)). this idea, however, has yet to be widely tested. the goal of our study was to determine the potential of dropped fruit and fruit wastes as fall spotted wing drosophila breeding resou ...201729045660
temperature-dependent sex-reversal by a transformer-2 gene-edited mutation in the spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii.female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using crispr/cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/crispr-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. ds-tra-2 ts2 mutants developed as normal fertile xx and xy adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °c, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °c) chrom ...201728959033
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