pseudomonas pseudomallei: ii. laboratory and experimental studies in animals.the cultural, biochemical characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from four cases of melioidosis admitted to ramathibodi hospital are described. the organisms were gram-negative bacilli often with bipolar staining. the colonies were wrinkled when incubated for long periods. the characteristic non-specific uptake of dye from media into the colonies and their musty or earthy odour rendered them easily distinguishable from other organisms. all stra ...197549930
melioidosis antibodies in commonwealth soldiers.titres of melioidosis haemagglutinating antibodies of 1/40 or more were found in 18 of 905 british, australian, and new zealand soldiers serving in west malaysia. previous mild unsuspected melioidosis seemed to be responsible for these positive titres, which were more common in men exposed to surface water at work and during recreation. this accords with the current view that soil and surface water is the normal habitat of pseudomonas pseudomallei, the causal organism. pyrexia of unknown origin ...197654528
identification of pseudomonas pseudomallei in the clinical laboratory.ninety-one strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei were tested in the api 20e system and in equivalent conventional tests. except for utilisation of citrate there was good correlation between api and conventional tests. seven-digit profiles were constructed from each strain after 48 hours' incubation, and numerical codes 2 006 727, 2 206 706, 2 206 707, and 2 206 727 accounted for 77% of strains tested. api 20 e, in combination with tests for heat stability of alkaline phosphatase, resistance to col ...1979381328
an improved screening technique for isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from clinical specimens.a selective medium consisting of trypticase soy agar with 4% glycerol, 5 mg/l crystal violet, 50 mg/l neutral red and 4 mg/l of gentamicin was devised for isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from clinical specimens. absorption of neutral red was found to be suitable for differentiating this organism from other bacteria, while gentamicin was effective in selecting ps. pseudomallei from organisms commonly found in clinical material. the medium was more suitable for screening clinical specimens t ...1979460953
isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from clay layers at defined depths.twelve strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei were isolated from the soil and water of a sheep paddock over a two-year period. the organism was recovered from the clay layer of the soil profile as well as from water that seeps into this layer during the "wet" season. five isolates were obtained before the commencement of the "wet" season; environmental factors appear to play an important role in the survival of ps. pseudomallei during the "dry" season. lower isolation rates were recorded than those ...1979507042
nosocomial infection due to pseudomonas pseudomallei: two cases and an epidemiologic study.pseudomonas pseudomallei was recovered from urine specimens of two patients who acquired the organism after they were admitted to a hospital in a region in which it is endemic. both patients were diabetic and both had urethral catheters passed while they were hospitalized. samples of soil taken from the hospital grounds yielded an isolate of p. pseudomallei that was identical biochemically and by antibiogram to the two isolates recovered from the urine specimens of the two patients. the two pati ...1979542764
[phagocytability of pseudomonas pseudomallei].experiments were conducted on the cell culture of macrophages of animals significantly differing by the extent of resistance to melioidosis; the presence of correlation between the extent of the animal natural immunity and the intensity of dying of the microbes in the test system was demonstrated. the causative agent of melioidosis proved to be more resistant to phagocytosis with guinea pig macrophages than e. coli. ps. aeruginosa and a. mallei. it was impossible to establish any relationship be ...1978665019
melioidosis in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).a case of melioidosis in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) kept as a pet in townsville is described. this case was characterised by liver necrosis with both a heterophil and mononuclear cell inflammatory response associated with giant cells. pseudomonas pseudomallei was isolated by blood plate culture and guinea pig inoculation. this is the first case of melioidosis reported in a native bird in australia.1978687299
melioidosis presenting as prostatitis--a case report from sabah.previous reports of melioidosis in sabah are reviewed and a detailed account of a case, presenting as prostatitis, in a 40-year-old british male is given. the history suggested that the organism, pseudomonas pseudomallei, was transmitted by a fly which entered the eye. diagnosis was delayed and treatment presented some difficulty, the organism being relatively insensitive to amplicillin and gentamicin. co-trimoxazole was the most effective, followed by minocycline. cure was eventually achieved a ...1978725999
wound infection by an indigenous pseudomonas pseudomallei-like organism isolated from the soil: case report and epidemiologic study.a 27-year-old farmer in the oklahoma panhandle was pinned under his overturned tractor for 2 hr and received superficial and deep lacerations. he contracted an infection of a pelvic wound with an organism that had cultural and biochemical characteristics identical to those of pseudomonas pseudomallei. identical organisms were recovered from soil taken from the site of the accident. the organism isolated from the wound proved to be less virulent in guinea pigs than usual laboratory strains of p. ...1977833442
adsorption of pseudomonas pseudomallei cytophilic antibodies onto rabbit alveolar macrophages.cytophilic antibody has been demonstrated in sera from rabbits immunized with pseudomonas pseudomallei. this antibody passively adsorbed onto normal rabbit alveolar macrophages rendered the macrophages agglutinable by p. pseudomalei antigens and capable of displaying 'rosette' formation with polysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes.1976974906
interaction between pseudomonas pseudomallei and cultured rabbit peritoneal macrophages.the interaction between two strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei of different virulence with normal and immune rabbit peritoneal macrophages was compared in vitro. phagocytic activity of macrophages and bacterial survival within macrophages were dependent upon the virulence of the bacterial strain and the immune status of the macrophages. virulent bacteria were more resistant than the less virulent strain to phagocytosis and destruction. immune macrophages were more phagocytic and bactericidal th ...1976987839
terminal exacerbation of chronic melioidosis in new south wales.a fatal case of melioidosis, thought to be the third recorded from new south wales, is presented. infection probably occurred in queensland. the patients presented with a subcutaneous abscess complicated by pyaemia, extensive lung involvement and septicaemic shock. the diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed shortly before death, by isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from blood, pus swabs and tracheal aspirates. there is a need for greater awareness of this disease in persons who have resid ...1976994967
a retrospective serological suvey of royal marines previously exposed to pseudomonas pseudomallei in south east asia.following the suggestion that it was possible that cases of melioidosis amongst those who had been exposed abroad in the past, might be escaping notice, 487 royal marines were examined by indirect haemagglutination studies. four hundred and eleven of these subjects had served for variable times in areas where melioidosis has been known to occur in indonesia and malaya, between 1960 and 1974, occupied in activities in the jungle and paddy fields during which exposure to the disease was to be expe ...19761006764
[pseudomonas pseudomallei infections: clinical and bacteriologic significance (author's transl)]. 19761021817
[the in vitro sensitivity of 24 strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei to antibiotics (author's transl)]. 19761021818
surveillance of some infectious diseases among aircrew personnel in southeast asia.a 2-year analysis of specimens among aircrew personnel in southeast asia is reported. stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites and enteric bacteria, blood smears for blood parasites, and sera tested for transaminases (sgot) and antibodies to entamoeba histolytica, toxoplasma gondii, chikungunya and japanese encephalitis viruses, rickettsia tsutsugamushi, leptospira sp. and pseudomonas pseudomallei. one to four specimens each were obtained from 537 adult males and 20 females. there ...19751100040
differentiation between pseudomonas cepacia and pseudomonas pseudomallei in clinical bacteriology.if only conventional laboratory tests are used, the widely occurring species pseudomonas cepacia may, due to its variability, sometimes be difficult to differentiate from the dangerous pathogen pseudomonas pseudomallei. in a comparative study using fresh isolates it is shown that animal inoculation seems to be a useful additional method in the differentiation. also the determination of the ability to utilize selected carbon sources such as starch, hydroxybenzoate and uracil is helpful in reachin ...19751155112
pulmonary melioidosis. observations in thirty-nine cases.during the 6-year period from 1965 through 1970, 39 patients with pulmonary melioidosis were treated at fitzsimons army medical center. although this is a disease with a well-defined endemic area that does not include the united states, cases will no doubt continue to be seen in this country. these cases may result from acute infection in the endemic area, with subsequent travel to this country, or from delayed reactivation of a latent infection acquired months or years earlier. given the potent ...19751163890
human-to-human transmission of pseudomonas pseudomallei.melioidosis, the clinical manifestation of infection with pseudomonas pseudomallei, has occurred infrequently in american citizens; almost all reported cases have been in vietnam veterans, usually associated with respiratory disease. a vietnam veteran from mississippi developed chronic prostatitis, with no other clinical manifestations, during service in vietnam, and p. pseudomallei was isolated from prostatic secretions 2 years after his return to the united states. the patient had had sexual c ...19751174405
bovine melioidosis in south-eastern queensland.acute fatal infection with pseudomonas pseudomallei caused pneumonia, placentitis and endometritis in a pregnant cow. pneumonia was also present in the foetal lung. mononuclear cell response with extensive karyorrhexis occurred in maternal and foetal lung and the same cellular pathology, but with diffuse distribution, was responsible for plaques on the endometrium. a more chronic disease with encapsulated caseous lesions in the lung, together with arthritis, occurred in a bull on the same proper ...19751191141
[demonstration of pseudomonas pseudomallei (whitmore's bacillus) in the mud of iranian ricefields (author's transl)].whitmore bacillus had killed a horse and a mule in a herd bred for serum production in 1970 (baharsefat and amjadi). out of 157 soil samples from rice fields in northern iran it was possible to isolate 19 times pseudomonas pseudomallei (types i and ii) possessing a very high pathogenicity for animals. attempts at an evaluation of the human incidence of the disease.19751243750
a case of human melioidosis originating in south-west western report the first human case of autochthonous melioidosis in temperate australia (latitude 31 degrees 10's) and to describe the extent of the presence of the causative agent, pseudomonas pseudomallei, in southwest western australia.19921279367
an outbreak of melioidosis in imported primates in outbreak of melioidosis, a bacterial infection caused by pseudomonas pseudomallei, was identified in a batch of feral cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) imported to britain from the philippines. thirteen confirmed or possible cases occurred among a batch of 50 animals. subsequent investigations revealed that the infection was uncommon among imported primates from a variety of sources, although three other cases were identified in monkeys imported from indonesia. the majority of the affe ...19921279882
structure of the polysaccharide chains of pseudomonas pseudomallei lipopolysaccharides.the pathogenic bacterium pseudomonas pseudomallei strain 57576 produces two partially o-acetylated o-antigenic polysaccharides (ps-i and ps-ii). methylation analysis and 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including noe experiments, showed ps-i to have the structure [formula: see text] and ps-ii to have the structure [formula: see text] where 6dmanhep is the unusual higher sugar 6-deoxy-d-manno-heptose. ps-ii is produced also by p. pseudomallei strains 100 and 110, and ps-i and o-deacetylated ps-ii by ...19921280183
melioidosis: when in doubt leave the quinolone alone! 19921280318
identification of oklahoma isolate as a strain of pseudomonas pseudomallei.based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and nutritional characteristics, cellular fatty acid and lipid composition, ubiquinone-8 as the major respiratory quinone, guanine-plus-cytosine content of dna, dna-dna homology value, and sequence alignment of 16s rrna nucleotides, oklahoma isolate was reidentified as a strain of pseudomonas pseudomallei.19921283773
proposal of burkholderia gen. nov. and transfer of seven species of the genus pseudomonas homology group ii to the new genus, with the type species burkholderia cepacia (palleroni and holmes 1981) comb. nov.based on the 16s rrna sequences, dna-dna homology values, cellular lipid and fatty acid composition, and phenotypic characteristics, a new genus burkholderia is proposed for the rna homology group ii of genus pseudomonas. seven species in this group were transferred to the new genus. thus seven new combinations, burkholderia cepacia (palleroni and holmes 1981), burkholderia mallei (zopf 1885), burkholderia pseudomallei (whitmore 1913), burkholderia caryophylli (burkholder 1942), burkholderia gla ...19921283774
pseudomonas pseudomallei and melioidosis in china.though melioidosis has been reported since 1912, it is still a new problem for most chinese physicians and medical scientists. because of the lack of understanding and clinical experiences in melioidosis, none had been reported until 1990 in the mainland of china. in view of china's open policy and health work the natural foci of pseudomonas pseudomallei in south china, ie. hainan, guangdong and guangxi provinces, should be given sufficient concern. efforts should be made in training physicians ...19921283844
[the effect of the acid exopolysaccharide produced by the causative agent of melioidosis on macrophage function].acid exopolysaccharide of the melioidosis agent, isolated from the slime of alysogenic strain of pseudomonas pseudomallei svbdo-141 inhibits the capture of sheep erythrocytes--55fe by mouse peritoneal macrophages. administration of the sheep erythrocytes--55fe, sensibilized by acid exopolysaccharide was proved not to have an antiphagocytic effect. inhibition of phagocytic macrophagal activity depends on the conditions of isolation of acid exopolysaccharide.19921284090
the prevalence of the indirect hemagglutination test for melioidosis in children in an endemic area.the indirect hemaglutination test for melioidosis was studied in 295 children who live in the northeastern part of thailand. sixty-seven children (22.7%) were healthy children who came to the well baby clinic. two hundred and twenty-eight children (77.3%) came to the hospital because of some illnesses other than melioidosis. eighty-three percent of the children had an iha titer of at least 1:10 or greater. twenty-two percent had an iha titer of 1:80 or greater. the prevalence of positive iha tit ...19921284319
cerebral abscesses due to pseudomonas pseudomallei.two cases of cerebral abscesses caused by pseudomonas pseudomallei are reported. the first case, a 51-year-old women had a sudden onset of progressive right hemiparesis and right facial palsy and died within 7 days. postmortem examination disclosed brain abscess in association with disseminated infection outside the central nervous system. the second case, a 9-year-old boy displayed cerebral abscesses as an isolated manifestation. recovery occurred after treatment with ceftazidime. review of the ...19921284675
use of endotoxin antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of p. pseudomallei infections (melioidosis).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with endotoxin preparations of p. pseudomallei as antigen was developed for detection of igg antibodies specific to melioidosis. forty-seven sera of bacteriologically confirmed melioidosis patients, 55 non-melioidosis sera and 50 sera of healthy blood donors from non-endemic areas were subjected to this assay in comparison with indirect hemagglutination assay (iha). the data were treated by receiver operating characteristics analysis. the sensitivity, ...19921284831
serosurveillance for pseudomonas pseudomallei infection in thailand.a nation-wide survey was conducted to see the prevalence of serosensitivity to pseudomonas pseudomallei antigens by indirect hemagglutination (iha) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) for igg and igm. serum samples were collected from blood donors in eight selected areas and bacteriologically confirmed melioidosis patients in ubon ratchathani province. the distribution patterns of antibody titers were compared among the survey areas with cut-off points set at 1:160 for iha, 1:4 for ifa-ig ...19921284879
serosurveillance for double infection with pseudomonas pseudomallei in tuberculous patients.the serosensitivity to pseudomonas pseudomallei antigen in pulmonary tuberculous patients was surveyed in ubon ratchathani province, a melioidosis-endemic and tuberculosis-prevalent area in thailand. indirect hemagglutination assay (iha) and indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) for igm and igg were employed for the measurement of antibody levels, with cut-off points set at 1:160, 1:8, and 1:32, respectively. retrospective protocol survey of clinical data was also conducted. from these studies, ...19921284880
[the determination of the location of the antigens of the causative agent of melioidosis at the ultrastructural level by using monoclonal antibodies].the indirect immunoperoxidase method with the use of monoclonal antibodies has been employed to determine the localization of antigens of melioidosis agents. the formed reaction products were then detected by the electron microscopic analysis. the most important in melioidosis pathogenesis antigens 6 and 8 (ag 6 and ag 8) were determined to localize on the cell wall and in the capsule-like mucous layer, respectively. monoclonal antibodies to ag 8 due to their marked cross-linking properties prom ...19921374832
prolonged elevation of interleukin-8 and interleukin-6 concentrations in plasma and of leukocyte interleukin-8 mrna levels during septicemic and localized pseudomonas pseudomallei infection.patients suffering from serious bacterial infection present to the hospital after early inflammatory events, such as release of tumor necrosis factor (tnf), have been initiated. the role of other cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (il-8), a neutrophil chemoattractant and activator, in the pathophysiology of human sepsis is not well characterized, and there are only limited data on il-6. we studied serial concentrations of tnf, il-6 (involved in the acute-phase response), and il-8 in plasma and leu ...19921375198
rapid differentiation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from pseudomonas cepacia.the minitek disc system was utilized for the differentiation of pseudomonas pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, from ps. cepacia. the system was simple to use, inexpensive, and furnished rapid, clear-cut test results after 4 h. this procedure is suitable for differentiating soil bacteria presumptively identified as ps. pseudomallei, ps. cepacia or flavobacteria, and for the rapid confirmation of the presumptive identification of either ps. pseudomallei or ps. cepacia obtained by co ...19921376128
endotoxin of pseudomonas pseudomallei detected by the body weight-decreasing reaction in mice and comparison of it with those of p. cepacia and p. aeruginosa.the heat-treated whole cells, culture supernatants, and extracted endotoxin preparations of pseudomonas pseudomallei were examined for endotoxin by the mouse body weight-decreasing (bwd) test. the experiments were conducted also with those of p. cepacia and p aeruginosa. endotoxin was detected in all the samples of p. pseudomallei. endotoxin of p. cepacia was detected in whole cells, but not in culture supernatant. the bwd activity of p. aeruginosa was 30 times as high as that of p. pseudomallei ...19921379309
keratitis in free-ranging koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) on magnetic island, townsville.seventy free-ranging koalas (phascolarctos cinereus) from magnetic island (queensland, australia) underwent an ocular examination, blood collection and serological examination for chlamydia psittaci antibodies, and an examination of their teeth and genitalia. in 12 koalas long-standing unilateral keratitis was noted and in another 10 animals long-standing bilateral keratitis was observed. all animals were seronegative for chlamydia psittaci and apart from some nasal discharge and a variety of as ...19921380994
[the interaction of the causative agent of melioidosis with the host's alveolar macrophages].studies were carried out on guinea pigs and albino rats, intranasally infected with p. pseudomallei c-141. the cells of bronchovesicular exudate were obtained from animals 1, 4 and 24 hours after infection. electron microscopy was applied to study the process of interaction of the agent and alveolar macrophages. bacteria were shown to form a capsule which permitted avoiding phagocytosis, when entering the host respiratory system. microbes that failed to form a capsule were absorbed by macrophage ...19921383676
[transformation of pathogenic pseudomonas by plasmid dna].the possibility has been shown of the genetical transformation of pseudomonas mallei strains by the purified dna of the plasmids rsf1010, pes154, pbs222 and pbr325. the frequency of transformation varied from 1.2 x 10(1) to 2.0 x 10(2) depending on the plasmid dna and transformation technique used in the experiments. pseudomonas pseudomallei cells could not be transformed by the methods described in the paper.19921383699
homogeneity of lipopolysaccharide antigens in pseudomonas antiserum raised against a single strain of pseudomonas pseudomallei reacted equally in a whole cell agglutination test, an indirect haemagglutination (iha) test and an elisa with a panel of 12 strains of the species which had been isolated from human beings and animals in various parts of the far east and australia between 1923 and 1990. absorption of the serum with either of two strains removed all reactivity of the serum with other strains. phenol-water extracted lipopolysaccharide (lps) f ...19921385539
prevalence of antibodies to pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin and whole cell antigens in military personnel in sabah and sarawak, malaysia.sera from 420 military personnel serving in sabah and sarawk, malaysia, were tested for antibodies to pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin and whole cell antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure (elisa). data showed that 54.4% of serum samples were positive for antibodies to p. pseudomallei exotoxin and 65.7% were positive for antibodies to the whole cell antigens. samples gave much lower titers for anti-exotoxin antibodies compared to titers against crude whole cell antigens. the in ...19921474938
neurological melioidosis: seven cases from the northern territory of australia.pseudomonas pseudomallei, which causes melioidosis, is most commonly associated with pulmonary infection. we describe seven patients who developed a neurological syndrome as the predominant manifestation of melioidosis: this syndrome was characterized by peripheral motor weakness (mimicking guillain-barré syndrome), brain-stem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and respiratory failure. neurological melioidosis occurred in the absence of demonstrable foci of infection in the central nervous system ...19921617057
removal of copper ion by pseudomonas spp.copper-resistant pseudomonas sp. 41y, pseudomonas pseudomallei 13-1 and pseudomonas aeruginosa 7 were used in the present study. when the latter two organisms were added to copper-containing 1/3 strength tryptic soy broth, more than 99.5% of the copper ion was removed from the medium within 24 h. if copper solution was added to hog waste slurry, a reduction in the copper ion concentration could be detected only when the added bacteria started to grow in it, whereas in a mineral medium supplement ...19921631243
pseudomonas pseudomallei infection in camels. 19921642603
pseudomonas pseudomallei resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics due to alterations in the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase.pseudomonas pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is generally susceptible to some of the newer extended-spectrum cephalosporins or to combinations of a beta-lactam and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. resistance to these agents may, however, emerge during treatment. we report on alterations in the chromosomal beta-lactamase associated with the development of resistance. three resistance patterns resulted from three different mechanisms in the strains investigated. derepr ...19911718214
case report: septicemic melioidosis following near drowning. 19911719647
[the properties of the extracellular alkaline phosphatase of the causative agent of melioidosis].after growing p. pseudomallei vpa on solid medium extracellular alkaline phosphatase with a molecular weight of 93,000 amu was isolated, and practically purified from the extract of this medium by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, subsequent gel chromatography and concentration on membrane filters. the optimum conditions for enzymatic reaction were found to be ph 9.0 and a temperature of 50 degrees c. the enzyme was resistant to freezing and to heating at a temperature of up 60 degrees c for ...19911719719
heat-stable and heat-labile components of nonspecific acid phosphatase detected in pseudomonas a whole cell assay system with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate, strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei showed a two-peak pattern in ph activity curve of acid phosphatase, suggesting the presence of two enzyme components different in ph optimum (4.2 and 5.2). the component of 5.2 ph optimum was detected in the outer membrane fraction and the activity was resistant to heating at 70 c for 30 min. the other component of 4.2 ph optimum was heat-labile. no substantial difference was observed in t ...19911720181
growth and survival of pseudomonas pseudomallei in acidic environments.a study was made on the growth and survival of pseudomonas pseudomallei in culture environments differing in nutrients, initial ph, and aeration, in comparison with pseudomonas cepacia and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the observations led us to a view that p. pseudomallei has the highest adaptability to acidic environments among the three species. unlike the other species, it grew in heart infusion broth of initial ph 4.5 under aeration and survived keeping a high level (10(9) per ml) of viable count ...19911720182
melioidosis in a patient from bangladesh.a 54 year old bangladeshi man presented with a history and chest x-ray appearances suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. following deterioration 4 weeks later, he required ventilation. although a blood culture isolate was subsequently found to be pseudomonas pseudomallei, it was initially misidentified and dismissed as a contaminant. further cultures demonstrated the organism, but the patient died, despite treatment with ceftazidime. the case illustrates the importance of taking a detailed trave ...19911721711
gold blot for detection of immunoglobulin m (igm)- and igg-specific antibodies for rapid serodiagnosis of blot tests for rapid serodiagnosis of melioidosis were developed and evaluated with sera from 40 melioidosis patients and 159 normal controls. the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 88%, respectively, for the immunoglobulin m (igm) test and 100 and 91%, respectively, for the protein a test for igg. combination of the igm gold blot and protein a gold blot yielded 97.5% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity. the tests were rapid and simple.19911723079
development of resistance to ceftazidime and co-amoxiclav in pseudomonas pseudomallei. 19911723404
[the parasitism characteristics of the causative agent of melioidosis in the host cells].the electron microscopic study of the damaged areas of the lungs, liver, spleen and lymph nodes of guinea pigs infected with two p. pseudomallei virulent strains c-141 and 100 has revealed that this organism is a facultative intracellular parasite and exhibits tropism to reticuloendothelial cells of the body, parasitizing both in "professional" phagocytes (mononuclear, phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and "nonprofessional" phagocytes (capillary endotheliocytes, splenic and lymph-node re ...19911724859
[the role of the surface antigens of pseudomonas pseudomallei in the pathogenesis of melioidosis].as established with the use of electron-immunochemical techniques, glycoprotein antigen 6 is the outer membrane component of p. pseudomallei cell wall, while glycoprotein antigen 8 is localized on the cell surface as a capsule-like formation. antigen 6 plays no perceptible role in the realization of the pathogenic properties of the infective agent, but serves as a reliable sign in the differentiation of p. pseudomallei strains into serovars. subcultures, defective in the synthesis of antigen 8, ...19911724862
[problems of resistance of the causative agent of melioidosis to antibiotics].it was shown that the pathogen causing melioidosis was highly resistant to antibiotics including beta-lactams. antibiotic sensitive mutants of p. pseudomallei were isolated after mutagenesis induced by nitrosoguanidine. permeability for 3h-tetracycline and tetracycline sensitivity of the mutant cells was respectively 3 and 20 times as high as those of the initial parent strain. gas liquid chromatography revealed quantitative and qualitative changes in separate sugars of the lipopolysaccharide st ...19911725248
fatty acid profile and acid phosphatase activity of fresh isolates of pseudomonas pseudomallei.eighty-one fresh isolates of pseudomonas pseudomallei from melioidosis patients were subjected to the analysis for the fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography (glc) and ph-dependent pattern of nonspecific phosphatase activity. all the test strains were identical in the glc profile showing the three peaks of characteristic hydroxy acids (3-oh 14:0, 2-oh 16:0, 3-oh 16:0) and the two prominent peaks of cyclopropane acids (17:0 delta, 19:0 delta). they had also basically the same ph-depe ...19911725884
demonstration of acid phosphatase activity in antigenic glycoprotein fractions obtained from the culture filtrate of pseudomonas pseudomallei.pseudomonas pseudomallei, the causative microorganism of melioidosis, was grown in mueller-hinton liquid medium, and glycoprotein fractions were separated from the culture filtrate by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel-filtration with sephadex g-75, and column chromatography with deae-cellulose. the fractions revealed acid phosphatase activity, and reacted to the sera from melioidosis patient in gel-diffusion precipitation assay.19911725885
substrate response in acid phosphatase activity of pseudomonas pseudomallei and pseudomonas cepacia, with special reference to tyrosine phosphatase.the substrate response in acid phosphatase activity of pseudomonas pseudomallei and pseudomonas cepacia was examined with different phosphate esters including hexose phosphates and phosphoaminoacids in a whole cell assay system. the enzymatic activity against each substrate was evaluated in terms of percent activity to that against para-nitrophenyl phosphate set as 100. a remarkable finding was that the phosphatase reaction was the highest with phosphotyrosine or phosphoserine as substrate showi ...19911725886
[the level of spontaneous phage production and sensitivity to melioidosis phages of museum cultures of pseudomonas pseudomallei].the phage-producing activity and sensitivity of museum cultures of a melioidosis agent to melioidosis phages have been studied. most cultures show spontaneous phage-production, though its level differs in strains. some of the melioidosis cultures demonstrate lack of phages. the fact that these strains have different sensitivity to chloroform lysate of cultures producing phages indicates their possible lysogenic state. electron microscopy has shown the presence of at least tow morphological types ...19911726444
ceftazidime monotherapy for pulmonary melioidosis in a traveler returning from thailand.a patient with deteriorating pulmonary melioidosis rapidly recovered after treatment with ceftazidime. to prevent possible relapses, an oral maintenance regimen of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for a period of three months. melioidosis is caused by pseudomonas pseudomallei. it is an insidious disease because of its variable clinical presentation, possible long-term asymptomatic carriage, broad-spectrum resistance to first-line antibiotics, and high mortality rate. as in our pati ...19921735289
serodiagnosis of melioidosis in singapore by the indirect haemagglutination test.melioidosis is endemic in singapore, with diagnosis dependent upon both bacteriological culture and serodiagnosis. using the polysaccharide (melioidin)-sensitized turkey red cells in the indirect haemagglutination test (ihat), 20 (100%) of the pseudomonas pseudomallei culture-positive cases were detectable by the ihat with titles ranging from 1:16 to 1:32, 768. eight of these patients who died within a few days after the ihat was performed had titres ranging from 1:16 to 1:1028. five culture-neg ...19911775994
amoxycillin-clavulanic acid treatment of melioidosis.melioidosis is a serious infection with high acute mortality, and a high rate of relapse despite protracted antimicrobial treatment. the current recommended conventional oral treatment regimen is a 4-drug combination of high-dose chloramphenicol, doxycycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole given for between 6 weeks and 6 months. we have evaluated prospectively the use of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, to which pseudomonas pseudomallei is consistently sensitive in vitro, for the oral maintenance ...19911781006
siderophore production by pseudomonas pseudomallei.eighty-four strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from patients with melioidosis were examined for siderophore production. all the strains were shown to produce siderophore both on chrome azurol s agar plates and in liquid medium under iron-deficient conditions. chemical assays indicated that the siderophore belongs to the hydroxamate class. addition of iron to the culture medium resulted in increased culture growth with markedly decreased yield of siderophore. siderophore produced by str ...19911825486
parapharyngeal space melioidosis in a diabetic.pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram negative organism causing melioidosis, is found in tropical and subtropical regions. it may manifest as a pulmonary lesion, osteomyelitis, soft tissue abscesses, abscesses in various organs or in septicaemic form. melioidosis of the parapharyngeal space has not been reported so far. a case of melioidosis of the parapharyngeal space which was successfully treated by drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy is reported here. melioidosis should be suspected in seve ...19911875146
pyaemia in pigs.pyaemia is by far the most important cause of condemnation in pigs slaughtered in singapore abattoirs. between 1983 and 1987, 1757 from a total of 4,899,731 pigs were condemned by meat inspectors for pyaemia, accounting for 0.036% of the total condemnations. the common post-mortem findings of affected pigs during the 5-year period are presented. abscesses were most commonly seen in the liver (22%), spleen (21%), gastrohepatic lymph node (20%) and bronchial lymph node (17%). pseudomonas pseudomal ...19911878769
pseudomonas pseudomallei and sudden unexplained death in thai construction workers. 19901975356
pseudomonas pseudomallei and sudden unexplained death in thai construction workers. 19901978101
melioidosis. forgotten, but not gone!melioidosis, infection by the soil bacterium pseudomonas pseudomallei, has the potential for prolonged latency with recrudescence into an acute, often fulminating, and fatal infection. although the organism is never found in north america, infection is endemic in areas of southeast asia, and populations of service personnel exposed during the vietnam war and southeast asian immigrants are at risk of severe recrudescent disease. diagnosis, however, has been missed or delayed because of lack of fa ...19912001144
pseudomonas pseudomallei, a common pathogen in thailand that is resistant to the bactericidal effects of many antibiotics.the purpose of this investigation was to identify newer antimicrobial agents that may be useful in the therapy of melioidosis. the in vitro susceptibilities of 199 clinical isolates of pseudomonas pseudomallei to 22 antibiotics were determined by standard disk diffusion, and those to 13 antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. over 90% of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, piperacillin, ceftazidime, ticarcillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, and carumona ...19912039198
pseudomonas pseudomallei: danger in the paddy fields. 19912068733
[the morphological characteristics of mucoid variants of pseudomonas pseudomallei].two types of mucoid colonies formed by p. pseudomallei cultivated on solid culture media have been studied by the method of electron cytochemistry. the intercellular material of primary mucoid colonies has been found to positively react with ruthenium red, which is indicative of its polysaccharide nature. slime is the product secreted by p. pseudomallei and participates in the formation of the pseudocapsule and colonies. the intercellular material seems to be a sum of biopolymers based on the pr ...19902075764
the use of bone marrow culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis.we have evaluated prospectively the contribution of bone marrow culture to the diagnosis of melioidosis. bone marrow (bmc) and blood cultures (bc) were collected concurrently from 105 patients with suspected acute, severe melioidosis. 67 patients were subsequently proved to have the disease whilst other significant organisms were isolated from these specimens in 5 cases. overall, 67.2% of bc and 64.2% of bmc from melioidosis patients grew pseudomonas pseudomallei. time to positivity did not diff ...19902091358
ultrastructural changes in some pathogenic bacteria after treatment with ethylendiamintetraacetic acid.the ultrastructure of pseudomonas pseudomallei, pseudomonas aeruginosa. yersinia pseudotuberculosis, salmonella typhimurium, listeria monocytogenes was studied after treatment with edta. the study established that the most sensitive species were: pseudomonas pseudomallei and pseudomonas aeruginosa. in the case of listeria monocytogenes changes were not observed. typical ultrastructural changes in the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane were established by means of ultrathin sections, as well ...19902129076
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin m specific antibody for the diagnosis of melioidosis.indirect hemagglutination (iha) is commonly used for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. however, in endemic areas, high background titers in normal populations and occasional low titers in patients with septicemic melioidosis prompted a search for a more sensitive and more specific method of serodiagnosis. an indirect fluorescent-antibody test for immunoglobulin m (igm) specific antibody to pseudomonas pseudomallei was more sensitive and more specific, but fluorescence microscopes are rarely availabl ...19902199494
evaluation of a modified complement fixation test and an indirect hemagglutination test for the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in pigs.a complement fixation test modified by the addition of porcine serum and an indirect hemagglutination test were used to detect antibodies to pseudomonas pseudomallei in pigs. these tests together with cultural examinations were carried out with 250 pigs. the sensitivity and specificity values were 79.3 and 99.5% and 82.8 and 93.2% for the modified complement fixation and hemagglutination tests, respectively. when results from the combination of both tests were considered, the values were 86.2 an ...19902203818
blood culture techniques for the diagnosis of melioidosis.the effects of variations in laboratory technique on the speed and sensitivity of isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from blood were evaluated prospectively. pseudomonas pseudomallei was isolated from 154 of 546 cultures from 325 patients with suspected or confirmed melioidosis. subcultures after 12 to 24 and 36 to 48 hours of incubation were positive in 52.3% and 80.8% respectively. the yields from 20 ml (blood to broth ratio 1:4) and 50 ml (blood to broth ratio 1:10) brain heart infusion br ...19902226493
production of hemolysin and other extracellular enzymes by clinical isolates of pseudomonas hundred clinical isolates of pseudomonas pseudomallei from humans were tested for their ability to produce extracellular, biologically active substances which are thought to contribute to the virulence of pseudomonas species. all isolates produced at least on extracellular enzyme; 91 strains were positive for lecithinase, lipase, and protease; but none was positive for elastase. ninety-three strains produced a hemolysin which was detectable around the heavy growth on saline-washed sheep eryt ...19902229359
the use of selective media for the isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei in clinical practice.ashdown's selective-differential agar medium, with or without preenrichment in selective broth, was evaluated for the isolation of pseudomonas pseudomallei from 1972 clinical specimens obtained from 643 subjects in northeast thailand; 226 patients proved to have meliodosis. the use of ashdown's medium significantly increased the frequency of recovery of p. pseudomallei from sites or specimens with an extensive normal flora (throat, rectum, wounds and sputum) as compared to the recovery on blood ...19902231678
isolation of indigenous larvicidal microbial control agents of mosquitos: the malaysian experience.a nationwide screening program searching for microbial control agents of mosquitos was initiated in malaysia in 1986. a total of 725 samples were collected and 2,394 bacterial colonies were isolated and screened for larvicidal activity. from such screening, 20 bacillus thuringiensis, 6 b. sphaericus, 1 clostridium bifermentans and 2 pseudomonas pseudomallei larvicidal isolates were obtained. of these, a new b. thuringiensis named as subspecies malaysianensis was found, while the c. bifermentans ...19902237596
[classify species of pseudomonas pseudomallei into serotypes].species of p. pseudomallei can be classified into two serotypes, serotype i and serotype ii, based on whether or not it contains a thermolabile antigen beside a thermostable one. under the condition of lack of typing serum, by means of serum absorption test, we recognized a strain which contains a major thermolabile antigen. the antigen was purified by sephadex g-200, and it was used to inoculate rabbits. with the immunoserum at hand, we identified 68 of the domestic chinese strains and 6 of ali ...19902251832
melioidosis: epidemiology and antibiogram of cases in singapore.there has been an increased incidence of melioidosis in singapore. the disease affects mainly males, older patients and a disproportionately higher number of indians and malays. possible predisposing illness include diabetes mellitus. most patients are bacteraemic. mortality rate is 72% for bacteraemic patients, as compared to 32% for non-bacteraemic patients. local strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei have been consistently sensitive to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and piperacillin, and nearly a ...19902255929
an avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of pseudomonas pseudomallei antigens. 19902260180
[infection with pseudomonas pseudomallei].melioidosis, a severe, often fatal disease caused by infection with pseudomonas pseudomallei, has been thought to be a rare endemic disease relatively limited to the areas 20 degrees on either side of the equator. however, an increasing number of people travelling to these areas are reportedly suffering from this disease. it is timely to review this disease for doctors who are unfamiliar with this disease. p. pseudomallei, first discovered by whitmore and krishnaswami in 1912, is a gram-negative ...19902273564
in vitro susceptibilities of pseudomonas pseudomallei to 27 antimicrobial agents.clinical isolates of pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated in thailand from 1981 to 1989 were tested for their in vitro susceptibilities to 27 antimicrobial agents, including older and newer quinolones, broad-spectrum cephems, carbapenems, monobactams, penicillins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, rifamycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and fosfomycin. tosufloxacin, meropenem, cs-533, and minocycline were active against p. pseudomallei at levels comparable to or even greater than those of antimicr ...19902291671
[the life strategy and self-regulation mechanisms of populations of the causative agents of sapronoses (exemplified by pseudomonas pseudomallei)].the strategy of the selection (life) of p. pseudomallei has been defined as c-competitiveness, combining the advantages of the limited (r and k) types of the ecological strategies of microorganisms and ensuring their good capacity of survival in soil biota. the self-regulation mechanisms of p. pseudomallei populations in the environment are determined by the type of their strategy of selection, which also determines the place of this species among other organisms inhabiting the soil. c-competiti ...19902330774
experimental infection of normal and immunosuppressed pigs with pseudomonas pseudomallei.a single dose of 5 x 10(8) bacilli of pseudomonas pseudomallei by intratracheal injection resulted in acute (21 cases) or chronic (19 cases) melioidosis in 40 of 48 pigs. fifteen (10 acute and 5 chronic) had been immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide before inoculation. the major clinical signs were initial fever, marked neutrophilia and, in the acute cases, respiratory distress. there were no signs of the nasal and ocular discharge, paresis or diarrhoea seen in acute cases in south-east asia. th ...19902344335
in vitro activities of antimicrobial combination against pseudomonas pseudomallei.p pseudomallei infection was treated empirically with an antimicrobial combination without hard evidence of a more favorable outcome over single drug regimens. the so-called "conventional' agents, namely kanamycin (k), chloramphenicol (c), doxycycline (d) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (smz/tmp) are often combined. we determined the effects of the combination of these agents by standard time-kill curve. six combinations were tested, i.e. k and c, k and d, k and smz/tmp, c and d, c and smz/tmp ...19902351900
[the ultrastructural characteristics of the causative agent of melioidosis and its interaction with phagocytes in vivo].the electron microscopic studies have established that the virulent strain of pseudomonas pseudomallei c-141, an agent of melioidosis, being intraperitoneally administered to guinea pigs, forms in vivo three morphological variants. one variant is capsule-free, while two others have a capsule which in the second variant may be referred by its characters to the microcapsule and in the third one to the macrocapsule. it has been shown that under the interaction of these three morphological variants ...19902377083
[antigenic composition and the serological diagnosis of pseudomonas pseudomallei]. 19852412369
[the polysaccharide component of pseudomonas pseudomallei slime].the polysaccharide component contained in the slime of the causative agent of melioidosis was obtained. this component was found to be a biopolymer, mainly of the carbohydrate nature, consisting of galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and two unidentified carbohydrates. the slime polysaccharide component contained two thermostable and acid-resistant antigens. the action of alkali led to the loss of one of these antigens. rabbit antisera to the preparations of the slime polysaccharide component ...19852418606
[immunomodulating activity of rna mononucleotides].the immunological action of rna mononucleotides was studied in animal experiments. the most pronounced activation of macrophagal glycolysis urea cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, lysosomal hydrolases was induced by uridine 5'-monophosphate (5'-ump) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-gmp); 5'-gmp also induced the maximum increase of the expression of fc gamma receptors. 5'-ump ensured cell activation comparable with the total action of all mononucleotides. 5'-ump and 5'-gmp, used in combination, ...19882452537
[a method of fixation and disinfection of microbial cells on magnetic sorbents].the 96% ethanol has been found fairly effective for the fixation and disinfection of yersinia pestis, vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas mallei, and pseudomonas pseudomallei after their contact with magnetic polyacrylamide sorbents containing specific immunoglobulins for ligands. such step is recommended for the quantitative immunofluorescence test employed for rapid analysis, diagnosis, and identification of the above microorganisms.19892474712
tropical disease in the immunocompromised host: melioidosis and pythiosis.melioidosis is an infection of humans and animals caused by a gram-negative motile bacillus, pseudomonas pseudomallei. forty-nine patients with melioidosis complicating diabetes mellitus, collagen vascular disorders, leukemia/lymphoma, and other hematologic malignancies are described. twenty-nine of these patients had disseminated/septicemic infection, two developed toxic shock syndrome, and one with aids experienced recrudescent melioidosis. patients with disseminated melioidosis often have a v ...19892602781
pseudomonas pseudomallei pneumonia with septicemia--case report.a case of pseudomonas pseudomallei pneumonia with septicemia is described. the onset was insidious with paucity of systemic symptoms except fever. diabetes mellitus and alcoholism were associated problems. initially blood cultures were negative but subsequently p. pseudomallei was isolated. the outcome was fatal. unless diagnosed early and treated appropriately, patients often succumb to septicemic shock.19892609180
inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in cultured macrophages by pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin.pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of protein and dna synthesis in cultured macrophages. inhibition of dna synthesis occurred at toxin concentrations as low as 1-2 micrograms/ml and inhibition of 3h-thymidine uptake was almost complete at concentrations of 8 micrograms/ml or more. a close correlation between cell damage and inhibition by dna synthesis was observed. for protein synthesis, inhibition was obtained at much lower doses (0.06-2.0 micrograms/ml) of the ...19892615673
the activity of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid against pseudomonas pseudomallei. 19892621173
melioidosis: review and update.melioidosis prevails in southeast asia and northern australia. sporadic cases have been increasingly reported from countries located between 20 degrees north latitude and 20 degrees south latitude as well as in travelers and in soldiers who have resided in these areas. the organisms are commonly found in water and soil and are usually transmitted to humans by cutaneous or respiratory routes. clinical manifestations range from subclinical infection to overwhelming septicemia that resembles dissem ...19892665001
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