outbreak of recurrent abdominal cramps associated with arcobacter butzleri in an italian the autumn of 1983, an outbreak of recurrent abdominal cramps occurred in a nursery and primary school in the rovigo area in italy. none of the 10 affected children had diarrhea. an atypical campylobacter-like organism was isolated from feces in all cases. conventional enteropathogens were searched for but not detected. the campylobacter-like organism was identified as arcobacter butzleri by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins and cellular fa ...19921400998
identification of some uncommon monounsaturated fatty acids of bacteria.location of the double-bond position of monounsaturated fatty acids of various bacteria was accomplished with combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of dimethyl disulfide (dmds) derivatives. the monoenoic fatty acids from whole cells were converted to methyl esters and then to dmds adducts and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the mass spectra of dmds adducts gave an easily recognizable molecular ion and two major diagnostic ions attributable to fragment ...19921401029
polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus arcobacter with arcobacter butzleri comb. nov. and arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens.the relationships of 77 aerotolerant arcobacter strains that were originally identified as campylobacter cryaerophila (now arcobacter cryaerophilus [p. vandamme, e. falsen, r. rossau, b. hoste, p. segers, r. tytgat, and j. de ley, int. j. syst. bacteriol. 41:88-103, 1991]) and 6 reference strains belonging to the taxa arcobacter nitrofigilis, arcobacter cryaerophilus, and "campylobacter butzleri" were studied by using a polyphasic approach, in which we performed dna-rrna hybridizations, dna-dna ...19921503968
assessment of enzyme detection tests useful in identification of campylobacteria.twenty-one type or other reference strains, each representing a different campylobacter, helicobacter, or arcobacter taxon, and a reference strain of staphylococcus aureus were used to assess the reproducibility of nine enzyme detection tests used in the identification of campylobacters. for five of the tests (alkaline phosphatase, dnase, and h2s production, indoxyl acetate hydrolysis, and nitrate reduction), more than one procedure was employed to determine the most suitable method. alkaline ph ...19921551996
taxonomy of campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter: a review. 19921611203
revision of campylobacter, helicobacter, and wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of arcobacter gen. nov.hybridization experiments were carried out between dnas from more than 70 strains of campylobacter spp. and related taxa and either 3h-labeled 23s rrnas from reference strains belonging to campylobacter fetus, campylobacter concisus, campylobacter sputorum, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter nitrofigilis, an unnamed campylobacter sp. strain, and a wolinella succinogenes strain or 3h- or 14c-labeled 23s rrnas from 13 gram-negative reference strains. an immunotyping analysis of 130 antigens ver ...19911704793
oligodeoxynucleotide probes for campylobacter fetus and campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16s rrna sequences.deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of campylobacter fetus and campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16s rrna sequence data. probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16s rrna. specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 campylobacter and arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic dna extracted from field strains of c. fetus and c. hyointestinalis. two oligonucleotides were construc ...19911723076
reproducibility of tolerance tests that are useful in the identification of campylobacteria.twenty type or other reference strains, each representing a different campylobacter, helicobacter, or arcobacter taxon, were used to assess the reproducibility of 25 phenotypic tests that are used in the identification of such organisms. twenty-two of the tests depended on growth inhibition, and each of these tolerance tests was performed by using three different basal media. although the overall reproducibility of the tests with each basal medium exceeded 89%, the proportion of strains that wer ...19911774297
confirmation of human campylobacter concisus isolates misidentified as campylobacter mucosalis and suggestions for improved differentiation between the two species.a strain from human diarrhea originally identified as campylobacter mucosalis (nctc 12408) was examined by using 64 phenotypic characters. the similarity of this strain to 297 isolates of campylobacter, helicobacter, arcobacter, and related taxa was then determined with a computer-supported data analysis program, mvsp. nctc 12408 showed closest similarity to 20 type, reference, and field isolates of campylobacter concisus. these strains were clearly separated from those of c. mucosalis in the nu ...19947529255
arcobacter-specific and arcobacter butzleri-specific 16s rrna-based dna probes.the genus arcobacter encompasses gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria formerly designated campylobacter cryaerophila. two genus-specific 16s rrna-based oligonucleotide dna probes (23-mer and 27-mer) were developed. the probes hybridized with strains of arcobacter butzleri (n = 58), arcobacter cryaerophilus (n = 19), and arcobacter skirrowii (n = 17). the probes did not cross-react with any of the reference strains of campylobacter, helicobacter, including "flexispira rappini," or ...19957545177
campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii subsp. nov., isolated from the porcine stomach, and an emended description of campylobacter hyointestinalis.the taxonomic relationships of seven isolates obtained from porcine stomachs (the "chy" group), which resembled (but were distinct from) the type strain and other reference strains of campylobacter hyointestinalis, were examined by using phenotypic and genomic methods. the phenotypic characteristics and ultrastructure of the new organisms were characteristic of campylobacter species, although they could be distinguished from all previously described taxa. a numerical analysis of 38 phenotypic ch ...19957547297
severe diarrhea associated with arcobacter butzleri.two patients with chronic disease (diabetes mellitus type i, hyperuricemia and alcohol abuse, respectively) were hospitalized with persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps. using routine methods, the only pathogen isolated in stool specimens was arcobacter butzleri. in both cases acute symptoms subsided quickly after antibiotic therapy. after termination of antibiotic treatment, arcobacter butzleri could no longer be detected in stool specimens. although very little is known about the cli ...19947813498
evaluation of ribotyping techniques as applied to arcobacter, campylobacter and helicobacter.restriction fragment length polymorphisms of ribosomal dna (ribotyping) of many bacterial species has been useful for both epidemiologic subtyping and species identification. however, the use of ribotyping has been confined to major research and reference laboratories due to two factors: (a) the procedure must be carefully optimized for each organism one wishes to investigate and (b) most currently available protocols use hazardous chemicals or radioisotopes. the purpose of this study is to sugg ...19947935508
discrimination of epidemic and sporadic isolates of arcobacter butzleri by polymerase chain reaction-mediated dna fingerprinting.dna polymorphisms of arcobacter butzleri outbreak-related strains and arcobacter reference strains were determined by use of the polymerase chain reaction with primers aimed at repetitive sequences. the epidemiological relationship among 14 outbreak-related strains was substantiated, as they showed virtually no genomic variations. their dna amplification patterns were, however, clearly different from those of all arcobacter reference strains studied; each reference strain was characterized by a ...19938308127
isolation of arcobacter butzleri from a drinking water reservoir in eastern germany.microaerophilic "campylobacter-like organisms" (clo) were isolated from a drinking water reservoir in germany during a period of some months. the strains were characterized by biotyping (api campy), serotyping and sds-disc-gelelectrophoresis as arcobacter butzleri. now this facultative humanpathogen species was first described in germany. with respect to the drinking water treatment, the hygienic importance of the findings is given.19938318136
three supplementary diagnostic tests for campylobacter species and related organisms.we analyzed 307 recent clinical isolates and reference strains of campylobacter spp., helicobacter spp., and arcobacter spp. for arylsulfatase and pyrazinamidase activities and susceptibility to polymyxin b. all isolates studied were identified by dna dot hybridization prior to testing. campylobacter concisus, c. sputorum, and helicobacter fennelliae were positive for arylsulfatase. c. jejuni, c. coli, c. lari, c. upsaliensis, and c. concisus were positive for pyrazinamidase. only helicobacter s ...19938458969
arcobacter (campylobacter) butzleri-associated diarrheal illness in a nonhuman primate population.after dna hybridization identified an isolate from an ill rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) as arcobacter (campylobacter) butzleri, we initiated a study to determine whether a. butzleri was associated with diarrheal disease in nonhuman primates at the yerkes primate research center. by using campy-cva medium incubated at 35 degrees c, 15 a. butzleri isolates were obtained from 14 macaques; 7 macaques were coinfected with campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni. a. butzleri was not isolated fro ...19938478115
arcobacter cryaerophilus and thermophilic campylobacters in a sewage treatment plant in italy: two secondary treatments compared.microaerophilic organisms were monitored in sewage effluent undergoing two secondary treatments: air and oxygen-activated sludge. the mean numbers of arcobacter cryaerophilus and thermophilic campylobacters detected in incoming sewage were 5639/100 ml and 1720/100 ml respectively. secondary treatment in air tanks reduced the population of a. cryaerophilus by 97.1% and of thermophilic campylobacters by 99.08%, whereas treatment in oxygen tanks reduced the bacteria 97.8% and 99.63% respectively, s ...19938519328
toxigenic and invasive capacities: possible pathogenic mechanisms in arcobacter cryaerophilus. 19958569478
isolation of arcobacter butzleri from a neonate with bacteraemia.we describe the case of a neonate with bacteraemia from whom the recently described organism arcobacter butzleri was isolated. this appears to be the first report of the organism causing neonatal infection. clinical details suggest that the infection was contracted in utero, although the mother showed no evidence of disease before delivery. treatment of the preterm infant was ultimately successful in resolving the infection but the organism proved resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. simila ...19958586843
characterization of 16s rrna genes from oil field microbial communities indicates the presence of a variety of sulfate-reducing, fermentative, and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.oil field bacteria were characterized by cloning and sequencing of pcr-amplified 16s rrna genes. a variety of gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected (16 members of the family desulfovibrionaceae and 8 members of the family desulfobacteriaceae). in contrast, a much more limited number of anaerobic, fermentative, or acetogenic bacteria was found (one clostridium sp., one eubacterium sp., and one synergistes sp.). potential sulfide oxidizers and/or microaerophiles (thiomicrospira, ar ...19968633860
infection of cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived 1-day-old piglets with arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus, and arcobacter skirrowii.neonatal piglets have been used as models to study human campylobacteriosis and helicobacteriosis. the purpose of this study was to determine the relative pathogenicities, on the basis of the duration of fecal shedding and colonization of tissues, of three arcobacter species in 1-day-old cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived piglets. two experiments were conducted. in experiment 1, two piglets each were infected per os with either arcobacter butzleri atcc 49616, arcobacter cryaerophilus 1b atcc 43 ...19968675340
a selective medium for the isolation of arcobacter from meats.a method, including enrichment in arcobacter selective broth (asb) and isolation on semisolid arcobacter selective medium (asm) under aerobic conditions at 24 degrees c, is described for the isolation of arcobacter from retail meat products. selective agents used in asb and asm were cefoperazone, trimethoprim, piperacillin and cycloheximide. arcobacters were isolated from 53 (24.1%) of 220 poultry meat products and also, at lower incidence from samples of beef and pork. the isolates were identif ...19968679146
phenotypic and ribosomal rna characterization of arcobacter species isolated from porcine aborted fetuses.aerotolerant organisms resembling campylobacter, now designated as arcobacter, have been described from aborted farm animals and from cases of human enteritis worldwide. the goals of this study were 1) to attempt to recover arcobacter spp. from cases of porcine abortion, 2) to characterize these isolates by phenotype and ribotype, and 3) to compare the usefulness of ribotype and phenotype patterns for identifying arcobacter butzleri and the dna hybridization groups 1a and 1b of a. cryaerophilus. ...19968744740
rapid identification of campylobacter species by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a pcr-amplified fragment of the gene coding for 16s rrna.restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a pcr-amplified dna fragment of the gene coding for 16s rrna was performed on 148 previously characterized strains of campylobacter, helicobacter, arcobacter, and wolinella succinogenes and 13 campylobacter-like isolates. these strains included clinical, animal, and environmental isolates. pcr amplification generated a 283-bp fragment from all species. the amplicon from each strain was digested with six restriction endonucleases (acci, avai, d ...19968748274
biphasic culture of arcobacter spp.arcobacter spp. have recently been genetically differentiated as a genus distinct from campylobacter. physiologically, arcobacter spp. are aerotolerant bacteria, while campylobacter spp. are microaerophilic. however, since arcobacter spp. have been difficult to grow to high population densities in broth media, alternative culture techniques were investigated. a biphasic culture system was developed in 25 cm2 tissue culture flasks. biphasic culture, consisting of a solid phase of 10% bovine blood ...19968852346
immunochemical characterization of a haemagglutinating antigen of arcobacter spp.the arcobacter haemagglutinin has been identified by western immunoblot to be an immunogenic protein of about 20 kda. the haemagglutinating activity is sensitive to proteolytic enzyme digestion and heat treatment of 80 degrees c and above. the arcobacter haemagglutinin is possibly a lectin-like molecule binding to erythrocytes via a glycan receptor containing d-galactose as part of its structure.19968869505
molecular identification of bacteria from a coculture by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16s ribosomal dna fragments as a tool for isolation in pure cultures.molecular information about the bacterial composition of a coculture capable of sulfate reduction after exposure to oxic and microoxic conditions was used to identify and subsequently to isolate the components of the mixture in pure culture. pcr amplification of 16s ribosomal dna fragments from the coculture, analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulted in two distinct 16s ribosomal dna bands, indicating two different bacterial components. sequencing showed that the bands were d ...19968900013
prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter and arcobacter butzleri in food of animal origin.thermophilic campylobacters and arcobacter butzleri were looked for in 57 manually shelled egg samples and 130 raw meat samples. no bacteria were found in the egg samples, but they were, however, found in 16.1% of meat samples with a frequency varying from 2.4% (port sausage) to 37.5% (poultry). a total of 21 strains were identified, one belonging to arcobacter butzleri (pork) and 20 to campylobacter. the most common species was c. jejuni (16/20) followed by c. coli (4/20) and in both species bi ...19968930716
pcr-mediated dna fingerprinting of atypical campylobacter strains isolated from surface and drinking water.this study shows that typing through polymerase chain reaction (pcr) can be used to differentiate between strains of campylobacter and arcobacter, whereas by means of conventional biotyping arcobacter might be identified as atypical campylobacter. microaerophilic "campylobacter-like" organisms were isolated from several drinking water treatment plants as well as environmental sources. the strains were characterized by biotyping and pcr amplification of campylobacter flaa/flab and 16s-rrna arcoba ...19968946702
identification of arcobacter isolates by pcr.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the identification of the three species of arcobacter which have been recovered from clinically ill or healthy humans and/or livestock, namely arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter skirrowii and arcobacter cryaerophilus. the assay utilizes primers targeted to the genes encoding 16s rrna of arcobacter spp. the assay reduces the amount of time required to positively identify strains of arcobacter.19968987697
bacteremia caused by arcobacter cryaerophilus 1b.arcobacter cryaerophilus group 1b, a gram-negative, curved or helical bacillus primarily known as a bovine and porcine pathogen, was isolated from the blood of a uremic patient with hematogenous pneumonia. the patient was treated successfully with ceftizoxime and tobramycin.19979003624
in vitro virulence factors of arcobacter butzleri strains isolated from superficial water samples.eighteen isolates of a. butzleri from river water samples were examined for their biotype, serogroup and putative virulence characteristics. toxin profiles based on cytotonic, cytotoxic and cytolethal distending factors were determined after analysis responses in vero and cho cells adhesivity and invasivity tests were performed on hela and intestine 407 cells. six biotypes and five serogroups were determined in our isolates. all strains but one induced cytotoxic effects on cells in culture. the ...19979037670
phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria in activated sludge.the bacterial community structure of activated sludge of a large municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated by use of the rrna approach. almost-full-length genes coding for the small-subunit rrna (rdna) were amplified by pcr and subsequently cloned into the pgem-t vector. clones were screened by dot blot hybridization with group-specific oligonucleotide probes. the phylogenetic affiliations of clones were compared with the results obtained with the original sample by in situ hybridiza ...19979212435
emerging issues in microbiological food safety.many microorganisms previously unrecognized as food-borne or harmful are emerging as human pathogens transmitted by food. this is a result of recent acquisition of key virulence factors, detection by newly developed isolation procedures, or astute detective-like laboratory skills of microbiologists. six microbial pathogens, including shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, arcobacter butzleri, helicobacter pylori, cryptosporidium parvum, and cyclospora, have become recogn ...19979240928
a molecular scheme based on 23s rrna gene polymorphisms for rapid identification of campylobacter and arcobacter species.23s rrna gene pcr amplicons from 118 strains representing 15 species of campylobacter and four species of arcobacter were consecutively digested with hpaii, cfoi, and hinfi. a reproducible and discriminatory identification scheme based on combined restriction patterns was developed by using reference strains and was applied to the identification of a variety of isolates.19979276424
rapid identification by pcr of the genus campylobacter and of five campylobacter species enteropathogenic for man and animals.the nucleotide sequences for the 16s ribosomal rna gene were compared for 33 species comprising the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria (genera: campylobacter, helicobacter, arcobacter and wolinella). regions specific for the genus campylobacter and for five campylobacter species important in human and/or veterinary medicine were identified. from these regions, pcr primer pairs were designed for use in species-specific identification. primer pairs were validated against strains representin ...19969296105
sulfurospirillum arcachonense sp. nov., a new microaerophilic sulfur-reducing bacterium.the isolation of a new motile, gram-negative, heterotrophic, sulfur-reducing, microaerophilic, vibrioid bacterium, strain f1f6, from oxidized marine surface sediment (arcachon bay, french atlantic coast) is described. hydrogen (with acetate as the carbon source), formate (with acetate as the carbon source), pyruvate, lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, glutarate, glutamate, and yeast extract supported growth with elemental sulfur under anaerobic conditions. apart from h2 and formate, the oxidation of ...19979336931
comparative disinfection of secondary-treated sewage with chlorine dioxide and bromine chloride.a comparison was made of the inactivation rates of arcobacter butzleri, coliphages, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and heterotrophic plate count in secondary sewage effluent using chlorine dioxide (2 and 4 ppm) and bromine chloride (4 or 8 and 12 ppm) as disinfecting agents. using these doses the clo2 gave higher reduction percentages (on average more than 99% at 4 ppm) than those obtained with brcl. the average values of the fecal indicators are well within the legal limit ...19969353543
specific detection and confirmation of campylobacter jejuni by dna hybridization and pcr.conventional detection and confirmation methods for campylobacter jejuni are lengthy and tedious. a rapid hybridization protocol in which a 1,475-bp chromogen-labelled dna probe (pdt1720) and campylobacter strains filtered and grown on 0.22-micron-pore-size hydrophobic grid membrane filters (hgmfs) are used was developed. among the environmental and clinical isolates of c. jejuni, campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, campylobacter lari, and arcobacter nitrofigilis and a panel ...19979361442
the prevalence of campylobacters and arcobacters in broiler chickens.chicken carcasses from a supermarket and from a poultry abattoir were examined using methods designed to isolate as many strains of campylobacters and related organisms as possible. strains of arcobacter, but no campylobacters, were isolated from every carcass after enrichment. campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from all carcasses examined by direct plating and other campylobacter-like strains were isolated from nine out of 15 abattoir carcasses by direct plating but not after enric ...19979418023
detection of arcobacter species in gastric samples from swine.swine stomachs were surveyed for evidence of arcobacter spp. and helicobacter spp. infections associated with gastric ulceration. a nested pcr test targeted to the 16s rrna was developed to detect many arcobacter spp. and helicobacter spp. an internal oligonucleotide probe was used for differentiation and confirmation of the pcr product. tissue samples were obtained from the nonglandular and glandular regions of 86 swine stomachs. evidence of infection with these microbes was detected in 51%, wi ...19979444069
classification of arcobacter species isolated from aborted pig fetuses and sows with reproductive problems in brazil.seventeen field isolates of arcobacter species were recovered in brazil from aborted porcine fetal livers (n = 3), kidneys (n = 2), and thoracic fluid (n = 1). arcobacter species were also recovered from uterine and oviductal tissues (n = 5) and a placenta from sows with reproductive problems. these isolates were initially presumed to be arcobacter cryaerophilus on the basis of aerobic growth at 30 degree c, indoxyl acetate hydrolysis, catalase and oxidase reactions, growth on macconkey agar, se ...19979444071
specific identification of campylobacter fetus by pcr targeting variable regions of the 16s rdna.campylobacter fetus is recognized as a human and animal pathogen. the isolation and differentiation of c. fetus in diagnostic laboratories is hindered by its relatively slow growth and lack of distinguishing biochemical characteristics. we developed a fast, reliable pcr assay that specifically amplifies a 554-bp segment of the 16s rdna from c. fetus. fifty-two atcc reference strains and 255 bacterial field isolates comprising the genera campylobacter, arcobacter, helicobacter, escherichia, liste ...19979451462
multiplex pcr for the identification of arcobacter and differentiation of arcobacter butzleri from other arcobacters.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay to identify arcobacter isolates and to distinguish a. butzleri from other arcobacters is described. the test uses two primer sets. set i targets a section of the 16s rrna genes of arcobacter spp. set ii amplifies a portion of the 23s rrna genes unique to a. butzleri. specificity of the primer sets was evaluated using atcc reference strains of a. butzleri, a. cryaerophilus, a. skirrowii, bacteroides spp., campylobacter spp., helicobacter spp. and ...19979453132
comparison of the productivity of cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin (cat) agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mccd) agar for various strains of campylobacter, arcobacter and helicobacter pullorum.cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin (cat) agar was developed from cefoperazone deoxycholate (mccd) agar by modification of the selective antibiotics in order to permit growth of strains of campylobacter upsaliensis. in this study, 35 strains of campylobacter and arcobacter were tested for their ability to grow on cat and mccd media using the ecometric method. six of these strains were also tested using the modified miles-misra method. overall, nineteen strains out of the 35 tested grew better ...19979506285
identification and characterization of arcobacter isolates from broilers by biochemical tests, antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid analysis.a total of 89 arcobacter butzleri isolates obtained from freshly slaughtered broilers was investigated for their biochemical capacities by using the api campy system as well as additional growth and tolerance tests, for their antimicrobial resistance patterns and their plasmid content. among these techniques, biochemical profiling and antimicrobial resistance testing proved to be the most discriminatory methods as confirmed by the calculation of discriminatory indices. these two methods might re ...19989557130
evaluation of a new arcobacter enrichment medium and comparison with two media developed for enrichment of campylobacter spp.the productivity of an arcobacter enrichment medium (am), newly developed by oxoid was compared with two campylobacter enrichment media (preston broth (oxoid) and labm broth), with arcobacter basal medium (abm) as control. twenty strains of arcobacter and campylobacter spp. were tested for growth, with target inocula of < 4 cfu per ml of medium. incubation was carried out aerobically for 48 h with tightly closed caps at 25 degrees c for arcobacters and 37 degrees c for campylobacters. after incu ...19989631337
isolation of arcobacter butzleri in raw water and drinking water treatment plants in germany.a total of 147 "campylobacter-like" strains were isolated from six drinking water treatment plants within a two year investigation period. the strains were characterized by bio-, and serotyping according the scheme for arcobacter butzleri. the result was that 100 strains were typed as arcobacter butzleri, 17 strains as arcobacter butzleri-like and 6 strains as campylobacter jejuni/coli. 24 strains were typed as arcobacter spp. the strains isolated from the treatment plants showed the same seroty ...19989686447
diversity and prevalence of arcobacter spp. in broiler chickens.ninety-nine strains of arcobacter spp., isolated from 10 chicken carcasses purchased from a supermarket and 15 chicken carcasses collected from a poultry abattoir, were speciated using a variety of phenotypic identification methods. all were tested using api campy test strips and the 16-test (preston) identification scheme developed for campylobacters. fifty strains were selected for examination using a more comprehensive probabilistic identification scheme, and the identity of representative st ...19989717285
prevalence and genetic variability of arcobacter species in mechanically separated turkey.a survey for arcobacter spp. and arcobacter butzleri in mechanically separated turkey was conducted during the winter of 1995 and summer and fall of 1996. arcobacter spp. and a. butzleri were identified by polymerase chain reaction and species-specific oligonucleotide probes. arcobacter spp. were isolated from 77% (303 out of 395) of the mechanically separated turkey samples with 74% (223 out of 303) of these samples positive for a. butzleri. of the 121 a. butzleri isolates tested, 86 different ...19989874339
isolation of arcobacter butzleri from ground water.arcobacter butzleri was isolated from a contaminated ground water source. these organisms, previously designated as aerotolerant campylobacter, were capable of surviving in the ground water environment. specific dna probes were used to characterize the isolates in the initial identification and survival studies. arcobacter butzleri was found to be sensitive to chlorine inactivation.199910030029
natural and experimental infections of arcobacter in poultry.arcobacter butzleri causes human enteritis and is frequently recovered from poultry carcasses. the purpose of this study was to determine 1) the natural distribution of a. butzleri in poultry and 2) its relative pathogenicity in experimentally infected poultry. cloacal samples (n = 407) were collected on four occasions from three flocks of chickens. overall, arcobacter spp. were recovered from 15% of the birds; a. butzleri was identified in 1% of cloacal samples. three experimental trials were c ...199910230906
development of a new medium for the isolation of arcobacter spp.arcobacter, the newly reclassified campylobacter species, has been shown to cause diarrhea in both humans and animals. few studies have been conducted regarding its occurrence in foods because of the lack of effective isolation and identification methods. the purpose of this study was to develop a plating medium that would be selective for the three most commonly found arcobacter species. the effect of common components used in media intended for the isolation of campylobacter, helicobacter, and ...199910340664
fused and overlapping rpob and rpoc genes in helicobacters, campylobacters, and related bacteria.the genes coding for the beta (rpob) and beta' (rpoc) subunits of rna polymerase are fused in the gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori but separate in other taxonomic groups. to better understand how the unique fused structure evolved, we determined dna sequences at and around the rpob-rpoc junction in 10 gastric and nongastric species of helicobacter and in members of the related genera wolinella, arcobacter, sulfurospirillum, and campylobacter. we found the fusion to be specific to helicobacte ...199910368167
comparison of three protocols for the isolation of arcobacter from poultry.the microaerophilic bacterium arcobacter has received increasing attention in recent years regarding its presence in food products. there exist a limited number of methods for the detection of this microorganism, with currently available methods being cumbersome to perform, time consuming, and limited in specificity. the objective of this study was to develop a selective enrichment broth to isolate accurately three arcobacter spp. from concentrated chicken microflora by comparing the efficacy of ...199910382648
determination of total protein content of bacterial cells by sypro staining and flow assay has been developed for measuring protein biomass of marine planktonic bacteria by flow cytometry. the method was calibrated by using five species of bacteria (an arcobacter sp., a cytophaga sp., an oceanospirillum sp., a pseudoalteromonas sp., and a vibrio sp.) recently isolated from seawater samples and grown in culture at different temperatures. the intensity of sypro-protein fluorescence of these bacteria strongly correlated with their total protein content, measured by the bicinchon ...199910388732
occurrence, removal and seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters and arcobacter in sewage sludge.the presence of thermophilic campylobacters and arcobacter was investigated in four types of sewage sludge taken from the treatment plant in bologna (italy): primary, activated, thickened and anaerobically digested sludge. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were more numerous during the march-september period and were found only in primary sludge (22.7%) with mean counts of 278 mpn/g dry matter and 1403 mpn/g dry matter respectively. arcobacter butzleri were found in all types of sludge ...199910418097
rapid identification of campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter isolates by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16s rrna gene.a rapid two-step identification scheme based on pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analysis of the 16s rrna gene was developed in order to differentiate isolates belonging to the campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter genera. for 158 isolates (26 reference cultures and 132 clinical isolates), specific rflp patterns were obtained and species were successfully identified by this assay.199910565952
prevalence of campylobacter, arcobacter, helicobacter, and sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for campylobacters.the aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of campylobacteria including campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (c. jejuni) and campylobacter coli in human clinical samples and in samples from healthy individuals and to reevaluate the efficacies of conventional selective methods for isolation of campylobacter spp. two charcoal-based selective media, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mccda) and cefoperazone-amphotericin-teicoplanin (cat) agar, were compared with skirrow' ...200010618103
prevalence of campylobacter, salmonella, and arcobacter species at slaughter in market age pigs.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacter, salmonella, and arcobacter species in market age pigs from an integrated swine operation in texas. our findings indicate that farms from this commercial operation were heavily contaminated with campylobacter and salmonella, that the isolation rates of c. jejuni were higher than predicted, and that there was a low prevalence of arcobacter.199910659364
the effect of citric acid, lactic acid, sodium citrate and sodium lactate, alone and in combination with nisin, on the growth of arcobacter butzleri.the importance of arcobacter spp. as a cause of human foodborne illness is unresolved. organic acids and their sodium salts, and nisin are preservatives commonly used in the type of foods from which the organism is recovered. in this study their effect on the growth of a. butzleri in culture, alone and in combination, was investigated. at 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% lactic and citric acids inhibited a. butzleri growth; 2% sodium lactate was effective in inhibiting growth over 8 h incubation but not over ...199910664988
[detection of pyrazinamidase activity for differentiation of campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter spp. by using a high-performance liquid chromatography method].a high-performance liquid chromatography method was investigated for the detection pyrazinamidase activity by campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter spp. pyrazine carboxilic acid, one of the end products of pyrazinamide hydrolysis by microorganisms, was detected by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). a loopful of organism colonies was emulsified in 0.5 ml of a 0.5% pyrazinamide solution. the suspens on was incubated in a 37 degrees c water bath for 18-20 hr. after centrif ...199910681714
identification of campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, c. lari, c. upsaliensis, arcobacter butzleri, and a. butzleri-like species based on the glya gene.currently, the detection and identification of campylobacter and arcobacter species remains arduous, largely due to cross-species phenotypic similarities and a relatively narrow spectrum of biochemical reactivity. we have developed a pcr-hybridization strategy, wherein degenerate primers are used to amplify glya fragments from samples, which are then subjected to species-specific oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe hybridizations, to identify and distinguish between campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, c. ...200010747131
development of a combined pcr-culture technique for the rapid detection of arcobacter spp. in chicken meat.a combined pcr-culture technique was developed to detect arcobacter spp. in fresh chicken meat. following a short selective enrichment of chicken samples, bacterial dna was extracted and amplified using primers targeted at the genes encoding 16s rrna of arcobacter spp. the selected primers amplify a 181-bp fragment from all arcobacter spp., whereas no pcr product is generated for other bacteria, including the closely related campylobacter and helicobacter species. the assay was used to screen 96 ...200010747252
arcobacter butzleri isolated from a diarrhoeic non-human primate.the bacteriological examination of a faecal specimen from a 20-year-old female rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) with diarrhoeal illness revealed the presence of a large number of a relatively new enteric pathogen, arcobacter butzleri. the animal was from a closed colony of about 60 females, some of them were showing intermittent diarrhoea possibly related to giardia spp. conditions for the isolation and identification of a. butzleri are reported, as well as discussions about its role as a primary ...199910759398
arcobacter butzleri bacteremia in a patient with liver cirrhosis.invasive arcobacter butzleri infection in humans has been rarely described. we report a 60-year-old man with liver cirrhosis who presented with high fever and esophageal variceal bleeding. two aerobic blood cultures grew campylobacter-like organisms. the biochemical reactions of the isolate were inconclusive, while sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene definitively identified the organism as a. butzleri. the patient's bleeding stopped after endoscopic sclerosing therapy. although the organism a ...200010770033
fecal shedding of campylobacter and arcobacter spp. in dairy cattle.campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-pcr assays. for c. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for c. jejuni. statistical significance was set at a p of 0.20. using these criteria, a ...200010788372
multiplex pcr detection of campylobacter jejuni and arcobacter butzleri in food products.arcobacter is a recently described species, previously considered part of the campylobacter family. a sensitive assay such as that provided by pcr could help to distinguish the closely related arcobacter from campylobacter. a pcr method to specifically detect both campylobacter jejuni and arcobacter butzleri in the same reaction tube has been developed. c. jejuni and a. butzleri were inoculated into a range of dairy products, raw and ready-to-eat foods. the presence of these two organisms was de ...200010799270
isolation and characterization of strains cvo and fwko b, two novel nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from oil field brine.bacterial strains cvo and fwko b were isolated from produced brine at the coleville oil field in saskatchewan, canada. both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for fwko b, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for cvo. neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source. both strains are microaerophiles (1% o(2)). in addition, cvo grows by denitrification of nitrate or nitrite wherea ...200010831429
isolation of arcobacter spp. from a brackish environment.arcobacter spp. were isolated from water and mussels of two brackish lakes near messina (italy). the isolates were phenotypically characterized on the basis of a large battery of cultural and biochemical tests. by comparison with the reference strains arcobacter butzleri atcc 49616 and a. cryaerophilus atcc 43157 they may be considered arcobacter butzleri-like bacteria. the current isolation suggests that the brackish environment may play an important role in the survival and transmission of arc ...200010872684
microbial manganese and sulfate reduction in black sea shelf sediments.the microbial ecology of anaerobic carbon oxidation processes was investigated in black sea shelf sediments from mid-shelf with well-oxygenated bottom water to the oxic-anoxic chemocline at the shelf-break. at all stations, organic carbon (c(org)) oxidation rates were rapidly attenuated with depth in anoxically incubated sediment. dissimilatory mn reduction was the most important terminal electron-accepting process in the active surface layer to a depth of approximately 1 cm, while so(4)(2-) red ...200010877783
society for applied microbiology summer 2000 conference: campylobacter, helicobacter and arcobacter. university of strathclyde, 10-13 july 2000. abstracts. 200010979486
molecular characterization of bacterial populations in petroleum-contaminated groundwater discharged from underground crude oil storage cavities.petroleum-contaminated groundwater discharged from underground crude oil storage cavities (cavity groundwater) harbored more than 10(6) microorganisms ml(-1), a density 100 times higher than the densities in groundwater around the cavities (control groundwater). to characterize bacterial populations growing in the cavity groundwater, 46 pcr-amplified almost full-length 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) fragments were cloned and sequenced, and 28 different sequences were obtained. all of the sequences wer ...200011055927
development of a multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus and arcobacter skirrowii.a multiplex pcr assay with five primers targeting the 16s and 23s rrna genes was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus and arcobacter skirrowii. the selected primers amplify a 257-bp fragment from a. cryaerophilus, a 401-bp fragment from a. butzleri and a 641-bp fragment from a. skirrowii. no pcr product was generated for closely related bacteria including campylobacter and helicobacter species. the assay was useful to identi ...200011094284
susceptibility of arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus, and arcobacter skirrowii to antimicrobial agents used in selective media.several antimicrobial agents used in selective media for the isolation of arcobacter were found to be inhibitory to strains belonging to this genus. all three species tested were susceptible to colistin and rifampin at concentrations used in selective media. arcobacter skirrowii was the most susceptible species. 5-fluorouracil, novobiocin, trimethoprim, and teicoplanin or vancomycin were found to be without any inhibitory effect on the strains tested at concentrations described for the isolation ...200111283110
clogging of a limestone fracture by stimulating groundwater microbes.biological clogging is promoted in aquifers either to contain or to remediate groundwater. in this study, an apparatus able to detect small changes in hydraulic conductivity (k) was developed to measure the clogging of a single fracture in limestone, following microbial stimulation. the fracture had a 2.5 mm2 section and was 50 cm long. prior to the inoculation of the limestone, the sequencing of representative clones from 16s rrna genes isolated from groundwater, showed significant affiliation ...200111337851
genotypic variation among arcobacter isolates from a farrow-to-finish swine facility.arcobacter spp. were isolated from nursing sows and developing pigs on three farms of a farrow-to-finish swine operation and market-age pigs at slaughter. isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction and genotypic fragment patterns were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). incidences of arcobacter-positive samples increased progressively as the pigs aged, resulting in all of the pens at the end of the growth cycle in the finishing barn containing arcobacter-positive fece ...200111347994
rapid identification of campylobacter spp. by melting peak analysis of biprobes in real-time pcr.we describe rapid pcr-biprobe identification of campylobacter spp. this is based on real-time pcr with product analysis in the same system. the assay identifies enteropathogenic campylobacters to the species level on the basis of their degree of hybridization to three 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) biprobes. first-round symmetric pcr is performed with genus-specific primers which selectively target and amplify a portion of the 16s rrna gene common to all campylobacter species. second-round asymmetric ...200111376061
taxonomy of campylobacter, arcobacter, helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns. 200111422556
poultry as a source of campylobacter and related organisms. 200111422565
identification of arcobacter cryaerophilus isolated from a traffic accident victim with bacteremia by 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing.traditional ways of identifying slow growing bacteria is slow and often difficult. in this study, a small, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, slow growing bacillus was isolated from the blood culture of a 7-year old traffic accident victim. the bacterium was non-hemolytic, catalase and oxidase positive. an attempt to use the vitek system (gni+) and the api system (20ne) to identify the strain was unsuccessful as the growth controls showed negative results. 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing sh ...200111502381
proceedings of the society for applied microbiology symposium on campylobacter, helicobacter and arcobacter. glasgow, united kingdom, july 2000. 200111508255
the recovery of arcobacter butzleri nctc 12481 from various temperature treatments.the aim of this study was to determine the growth and survival characteristics for arcobacter butzleri nctc 12481.200111722672
development of a pcr elisa assay for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed based on a solution-hybridization colorimetric end-point detection format (pcr elisa) for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. pcr primers were designed to target a gene sequence with species-specific motifs. five biotin-labelled probes targeted to the species-specific motifs were investigated for the detection of digoxygenin-labelled pcr products from c. jejuni and c. coli using the pcr elisa format. two probes ...200111735301
susceptibility of arcobacter butzleri isolates to 23 antimicrobial agents.the objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of arcobacter butzleri isolates to various antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of infectious diseases in humans and animals.200111737626
characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur.a coastal marine sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic bacterium produces hydrophilic filamentous sulfur as a novel metabolic end product. phylogenetic analysis placed the organism in the genus arcobacter in the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria. this motile vibrioid organism can be considered difficult to grow, preferring to grow under microaerophilic conditions in flowing systems in which a sulfide-oxygen gradient has been established. purified cell cultures were maintained by using this appro ...200211772641
development of a new protocol for the isolation and quantification of arcobacter species from poultry products.none of the presently available selective supplements for the specific isolation of arcobacter species allows the growth of arcobacter butzleri, a. cryaerophilus and a. skirrowii and at the same time fully suppresses the accompanying flora present in poultry and poultry products. furthermore, little is known about the contamination levels of poultry with arcobacter species. in this study, a new selective supplement comprising amphotericin b (10 mg/l), cefoperazone (16 mg/l), 5-fluorouracil (100 ...200111789937
succinate:quinone oxidoreductases from epsilon-proteobacteria.the epsilon-proteobacteria form a subdivision of the proteobacteria including the genera wolinella, campylobacter, helicobacter, sulfurospirillum, arcobacter and dehalospirillum. the majority of these bacteria are oxidase-positive microaerophiles indicating an electron transport chain with molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. however, numerous members of the epsilon-proteobacteria also grow in the absence of oxygen. the common presence of menaquinone and fumarate reduction activity su ...200211803019
prevalence and diversity of arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in denmark.a study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in denmark. surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the danish veterinary laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used to examine pooled tissue samples for campylobacter, arcobacter and helicobacter spp. routine microbiological, immunological, and histopathological examinations were also performed to identify concurrent inf ...200211844622
assessment of the genetic diversity among arcobacters isolated from poultry products by using two pcr-based typing this study, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr (eric-pcr) and randomly amplified polymorphic dna pcr (rapd-pcr) were optimized for characterization of arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus, and arcobacter skirrowii. in addition, a simple and rapid dna extraction method was tested for use in both typing procedures. both methods had satisfactory typeability and discriminatory power, but the fingerprints generated with eric-pcr were more reproducible and complex than tho ...200211976086
partitioning of bacterial communities between seawater and healthy, black band diseased, and dead coral surfaces.distinct partitioning has been observed in the composition and diversity of bacterial communities inhabiting the surface and overlying seawater of three coral species infected with black band disease (bbd) on the southern caribbean island of curaçao, netherlands antilles. pcr amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16s rrna genes (rdna) with universally conserved primers have identified over 524 unique bacterial sequences affiliated with 12 bacterial divisions. the molecular sequences exhibite ...200211976091
identification by 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing of arcobacter butzleri bacteraemia in a patient with acute gangrenous identify a strain of gram negative facultative anaerobic curved bacillus, concomitantly isolated with escherichia coli and streptococcus milleri, from the blood culture of a 69 year old woman with acute gangrenous appendicitis. the literature on arcobacter bacteraemia and arcobacter infections associated with appendicitis was reviewed.200212032229
discrimination of arcobacter butzleri isolates by polymerase chain reaction-mediated dna fingerprinting.the objective of this study was to subtype arcobacter butzleri isolates using rapd-pcr.200212100590
occurrence and distribution of arcobacter species in poultry processing.a total of 16 broiler flocks slaughtered in the morning in eight belgian poultry slaughterhouses were examined for the presence of campylobacteraceae. in samples collected before and after chilling, the prevalence of arcobacters was found to be higher than the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters, with the slaughter procedure used having no clear effect. two slaughterhouses were selected for a detailed investigation of the occurrence and distribution of arcobacters. sampling carried out bef ...200212182473
attachment of arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, to water distribution pipe surfaces.the capability of arcobacter butzleri to attach to various water distribution pipe surfaces, such as stainless steel, copper, and plastic, was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. our results indicated that arcobacter cells could easily attach to all surface types and the number of attached cells depended on the length of exposure and temperatures (4 and 20 degrees c). extracellular fibrils were also observed on the stainless steel surface, especially after 72 h of contact times at both ...200212182474
detection of campylobacter species: a comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction based investigate the optimal method for the detection of campylobacters from stool samples by comparing selective culture with membrane filtration and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr).200212354800
bacterial 16s rrna gene analysis revealed that bacteria related to arcobacter spp. constitute an abundant and common component of the oyster microbiota (tiostrea chilensis).to explore the bacterial microbiota in chilean oyster (tiostrea chilensis), a molecular approach that permits detection of different bacteria, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media, was used. bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of both the 16s rdna and the 16s-23s intergenic region, obtained by pcr amplifications of dna extracted from depurated oysters. rflp of the pcr amplified 16s rdna showed a prevailing pattern in most of the individuals analyzed, indicating that ...200212399898
the prevalence of arcobacter spp. on chicken carcasses sold in retail markets in turkey, and identification of the isolates using this study, the prevalence of arcobacter spp. on chicken carcasses sold in various retail markets in turkey was investigated. the isolates were characterized and identified using various phenotypic and molecular tests. the membrane filtration technique employing 0.45-microm pore size membrane filters laid onto a nonselective blood agar was used after enrichment in oxoid arcobacter enrichment broth (aeb) to examine a total of 75 chicken carcasses (44 fresh and 31 frozen). species level identif ...200312423915
prevalence of arcobacter spp. in raw ground pork from several geographical regions according to various isolation methods.studies show that the pathogen arcobacter is present in beef, poultry, and pork. several methods have been reported for the isolation of this organism, but none has been adopted as the standard. this has limited the significance of field comparison studies. in the present study, we compared the efficiencies of four arcobacter isolation methods using raw ground pork collected from slaughter facilities across the united states. we also evaluated the effect of meat fat level and age of animals on t ...200212430689
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