theileria mutans in nigeria.two strains of bovine theileria from northern nigeria were shown to be identical to theileria mutans in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. one of the strains was transmitted by the tick amblyomma variegatum; large macroschizonts, typical for t mutans, could be demonstrated in infected cattle. it is concluded from these experiments and from the literature that there is reliable evidence so far for the occurrence in nigeria of only two bovine tehileria species, t mutans and t velifera.1979117536
serological comparison of british theileria mutans and japanese t sergenti.a serological comparison between british theileria mutans and japanese t sergenti using the indirect fluorescent antibody test, showed that the two parasites were indistinguishable. on the basis of this and previous findings it is suggested that the british parasite is identical with the japanese one and that its name should therefore be changed to t sergenti.1979117537
the differential diagnosis of the bovine theilerias of southern is currently thought that the following species or sub-species of theileria occur in cattle in southern africa: theileria parva parva (east coast fever), theileria parva lawrencei (corridor disease), theileria parva bovie (rhodesian theileriosis), theileria mutans proper (transmitted by amblyomma species), so-called theileria mutans (a non-pathogenic species transmitted by rhipicephalus appendiculatus, possibly identical with theileria taurotragi) and theileria velifera. the parasites can be ...1979122000
serological studies on strains of theileria mutans isolated in east africa using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique.the serological response of cattle infected with theileria mutans (aitong) by cyclical and mechanical transmission was studied using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique with t. mutans piroplasm and schizont antigens. cattle infected by either method show high antibody titres against piroplasm antigens which persist for periods of over one year. only cattle with tick-induced infections had an antibody response to schizont antigen. the serological cross-reactions of t. mutans (ationg) with ...1977322622
the serological relationship of a british theileria with other theileria species using the indirect fluorescent antibody test.antisera and antigens of a theileria species isolated from british cattle were compared with those of six strains of theileria mutans from geographically separated areas in east and south africa, using the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. it was found that the british theileria species did not react in the ifa test with these strains of t mutans. the british theileria species was also compared with a variety of other theileria species using the ifa test and no reactions were detected. i ...1977327522
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for babesia major and theileria mutans in britain.use of the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests is described to detect antibodies to theileria mutans and babesia major in the sera of infected cattle. when antisera against t mutans and b major were tested against homologous antigens high antibody titres were recorded: when they were tested against each other or against babesia divergens antigen insignificant titres (1/40 or less) were recorded. thus the test was found to be species specific. animals recovered from t mutans and b major inf ...1977327676
biological differences between african theileria mutans (theiler 1906) and two benign species of theileria of cattle in australia and britain.serological and morphological comparisons between the theilerias found in australian and british cattle and of these with african theileria mutans (theiler 1906) showed that the australian and british parasites were similar to each other but different from t. mutans. further investigations are required to determine taxonomic affinities between the australian and british theilerias and t. sergenti, a similar parasite found in eastern asia.1977332140
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. viii. experiments with african buffalo (syncerus caffer).it has been found that african buffalo may remain infective carriers of theileria parva lawrencei for at least 5 years. this infection is now known to exist in buffalo in 3 sites in northern tanzania. it was shown that buffalo can be infected with haematoxenus veliferus and theileria mutans of cattle and retransmission of these parasites from buffalo to cattle was successful. the species of haematoxemus reported in wild buffalo in central and east africa is likely to be h. veliferus, while the p ...1977410128
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. x. a large-scale field trial on immunization against cattle theileriosis.50 cattle immunized by an infection and treatment method with 3 strains of theileria parva (mugaga, kiambu 5 and serengeti transformed), together with 19 controls, were exposed to natural tick infestation in tanzania, in a site where a continuous influx of infected ticks from different regions of the country may be expected to occur. exposure lasted for 2 months, monitoring continued for 3 more weeks after exposure ended. all 19 controls contracted east coast fever and died. 40 of the 50 immuniz ...1977414388
theileria mutans the infectivity for cattle of parasites derived from prefed amblyomma variegatum nymphs.a steer was infected with theileria mutans (aitong) by application of infected amblyomma variegatum nymphs. uninfected a. variegatum larvae were applied to this steer when piroplasms developed. the resultant (and infected) a. variegatum nymphs were applied to the ears of rabbits. equal numbers of ticks were removed daily from rabbits and ground in eagles minimal essential medium. the infectivity of the supernatant fluid was tested in cattle. the produced supernatant fluids were infective between ...1977414391
studies on the transmission and course of infection of a kenyan strain of theileria mutans. 1978622309
[isolation of theileria mutans (theiler, 1906) from the blood of cattle in northern germany (shor communication)]. 1976791608
isolation of a bovine theileria.dual infections of anaplasma marginale and a theileria, resembling theileria mutans, occurred in splenectomized calves inoculated with pooled blood samples from eastern texas cattle. theileria was obtained in pure form by treating dually infected cattle with selectively eliminated anaplasma. these theileria infections were responsible for mild, transient reductions in packed red blood cell volume (pcv).1975804831
development of theileria mutants (aitong) in the tick amblyomma variegatum compared to that of t. parva (muguga) in rhipicephalus appendiculatus.a comparison was made between the development of theileria mutans (aitong) in adult amblyomma variegatum ticks and the development of t. parva (muguga) in adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. both batches of ticks dropped as engorged nymphs from cattle whose intraerythrocytic parasitemias were approximately 40%, and it was thus possible to make a direct comparison of the infection rates produced in their tick hosts in this experiment by the 2 species of theileria. ticks of the 2 batches wer ...1975809568
theileria mutans: experimental transmission by haemaphysalis punctata.t. mutans (essex), originally isolated from a farm in the county of essex in south-east england by allowing field-collected h. punctata tickes to feed on a splenectomized calf, was syringe-passaged once between calves and then resecured in a laboratory-reared strain of h. punctata. from subsequent studies it was found that only transstadial transmission of the parasite occurred. thus, only the larval and the nymphal stages of the ticks were capable of acquiring the infection and subsequently nym ...1975810930
[methods of detecting theileria mutans]. 1975814696
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. iii. experiments on the transmission of theileria mutans by rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma variegatum (acarina, ixodidae).the parasite considered to be theileria mutans in east africa could not be transmitted transstadially by rhipicephalus appendiculatus (seven attempts); it was transmitted by amblyomma variegatum in 6 out of 7 experiments. the possibility that the original south african t. mutans, transmissible by r. appendiculatus, and the parasite called t. mutans in east africa, are different species, has to be considered.1976824772
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. iv. a field trial on immunization against east coast fever (theileria parva infection of cattle).seven cattle, immunized by an infection and treatment method with 3 strains of theileria parva (muguga, kiambu 5 and serengeti transformed), and five controls were exposed to natural tick infestation in tanzania, at a site where 2 precontrols had previously contracted fatal east coast fever within 3 weeks. all controls became infected with fatal ecf within a month of exposure. one immunized animal survived, two died from a theileria mutans infection and one from a babesia bigemina infection. the ...1976982549
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. v. preliminary experiments on a new method for infecting ticks with theileria parva and theileria mutans.bovine blood with a high parasitaemia of theileria mutans was injected through the cuticle into fully engorged nymphs of amblyomma variegatum which had recently detached from a rabbit. after moulting, they transmitted this parasite to a susceptible calf. rhipicephalus appendiculatus transmitted theileria parva in the same way, but results were negative with a. variegatum and t. parva. this method of infecting ticks appears promising for the isolation of theileria strains from the field, and migh ...19761006800
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. i. tick transmission of haematoxenus veliferus.haematoxenus veliferus was experimentally transmitted in cattle on two occasions by the tick amblyomma variegatum; transmission was transstadial, from nymph to adult. theileria mutans and cowdria ruminatium were transmitted at the same time. h. veliferus infected at least 15% of red cells in a splenectomized steer and 10% in a normal steer. one experiment on transstadial transmission from larva to nymph was unsuccessful.19761258136
piroplasmosis in buffaloes and its serological diagnosis based on a homology between buffalo and bovine immunoglobulins.babesia argentina, babesia bigemina and theileria mutans were transmitted experimentally from water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) to splenectomised bos taurus calves. buffaloes were positive to an indirect fluorescent antibody test for b. argentina when reagents of bovine origin were used. the formation of similar patterns during immunoelectrophoresis suggested a homology of buffalo and bovine serum proteins, particularly igg.19761267733
[current status of bovine haemoparasitic diseases in martinique (french west indies)].a serological survey using indirect immunofluorescence (ifat) for bovine babesiosis (babesia bovis and b. bigemina) and card test for anaplasmosis, indicates that these haemoparasites are widespread in martinique. the high prevalences (62% for b. bovis, 52% for b. bigemina and 43% for anaplasma marginale) lead to the hypothesis of an unstable epizootic situation for these three haemoparasitic diseases. however, the number of smears examined was too low to evaluate their clinical incidence. both ...19921298026
identification of a theileria mutans-specific antigen for use in an antibody and antigen detection elisa.purified piroplasms of theileria mutans were used to immunize balb/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (moabs). the moabs recognized an antigen of a relative molecular mass of 32 kda in western blots. this antigen was also recognized by sera from cattle which had recovered naturally from experimental tick-transmission or infections induced by the blood stages of t. mutans. the moabs did not react, in indirect immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), with the common ...19901698274
sfii and noti polymorphisms in theileria stocks detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.dnas of theileria parva parva, t. p. lawrencei, t. p. bovis and theileria mutans stocks, from kenya, uganda, zanzibar and zimbabwe were digested with either sfii or noti and analysed using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (chef) and field-inversion gel electrophoresis (fige). the sfii-digested t. parva genomic dna resolved into approximately 30 fragments while the noti digestion produced between 4-7 bands. the summation of the sizes of sfii fragments gave an estimate of 9-10 x 10(6) ba ...19901972977
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. iii. the northern sudan area].the authors describe the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses of cattle and small ruminants in the senegalese north-sudanian area. for 15 months, 40 bovine, 40 sheep and 40 goats received a routine dipping treatment, aimed at the determination of the tick population dynamics together with an accurate localization of the preferential sites for the different species. the following parasites were collected from the animals: hyalomma marginatum rufipes, h. truncatum, rhipicephalus lunulat ...19892485548
isolation of theileria mutans from cattle in essex. 19744208763
a capillary-tube agglutination test for the detection and titration of theileria parva and theileria mutans antibodies in bovine serum. 19724564332
some experiments on the transmission of theileria mutans (theiler, 1906) and theileria parva (theiler, 1904) by the ticks amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794) and rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann, 1901, in uganda. 19744607395
the morphology of trypanosoma theileri in the blood of cattle, and the rediscovery of theileria mutans in england. 19724625621
development of schizonts directly from the blood piroplasms of the australian theileria mutans. 19724627244
some characteristics of a strain of theileria mutans (theiler, 1906) isolated from cattle in the county of kent, england, and maintained in splenectomized calves. 19724631549
[serologic studies on theileria mutans infection in cattle]. 19694912263
three fatal cases of theileria mutans infection. 19664955796
[on the ultrastructure of the erythrocytic forms of theileria mutans]. 19664966265
the infectivity of theileria mutans, eperythrozoon wenyoni and e. teganodes to sheep and of e. ovis to cattle. 19715003201
the tick haemaphysalis punctata, shown to be a vector of theileria mutans in britain. 19725050000
rhipicephalus zambeziensis as a vector of bovine theileriae.rhipicephalus zambeziensis was shown experimentally to transmit theileria parva parva in cattle from nymph to adult and theileria parva lawrencei, theileria parva bovis and theileria taurotragi from larva to nymph and nymph to adult. in a single trial the tick failed to transmit theileria mutans. the tick is believed to be a vector of t. parva lawrencei in the field in zimbabwe.19836405516
[existence of theileria mutans and theileria velifera (sporozoa, theileriidae) in guadeloupe (french west indies)]. 19836424188
isolation and transmission of theileria mutans (chisamba) in zambia.theileria mutans (chisamba) was isolated from a steer at chisamba, central province, zambia by inoculation of blood into a susceptible unsplenectomised calf. the parasite was then transmitted on three occasions by nymphs and once by adult amblyomma variegatum ticks. macroschizonts, typical for t mutans, were detected in two calves for short periods. the parasite caused varying degrees of anaemia in all experimental calves, whose sera showed high antibody titres to t mutans in the indirect fluore ...19846424195
cultivation of theileria. ii. attempts to cultivate erythrocytic stages of theileria mutans.blood from calves with a parasitaemia of theileria mutans was cultivated in vitro in various ways. no significant increase in the percentage of infected red cells was observed, but the percentage of dividing forms of the parasite rose sharply during the first two days of incubation. the conditions of the cultures were apparently unsuitable for the invasion of erythrocytes.19846428032
theileria mutans infection in nigerian a 12 year survey in the former northern provinces of nigeria antibodies to theileria mutans were found to have a prevalence rate of 32.6 to 85%. the indirect fluorescent antibody test was found to be more efficient than thin blood smear examination in detecting cattle exposed to t. mutans. the high prevalence of t. mutans infection was attributed to the high prevalence of amblyomma species in the area under study.19846435298
observations on blood-borne parasites of domestic livestock in the lower juba region of somalia.the commonest parasite to be found in blood of cattle in the lower juba region is theileria mutans. antibodies against trypanosoma spp. and anaplasma marginale could be detected serologically whereas no antibodies against t. parva and t. annulata were present. a list of ticks collected between 1980 and 1982 in the above mentioned area shows that vectors of t. mutans are common. as the cattle throughout the region are indigenous somali boran it seems that endemic stability is maintained and morta ...19846441324
development of theileria mutans (theiler, 1906) in the gut and the haemolymph of the tick amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794).the development of theileria mutans in the gut and haemolymph of its tick vector, amblyomma variegatum, was studied by giemsa-stained smears after the nymphal tick had completed engorgement on parasitaemic calves. sexual stages occurred in the gut between five and seven days after repletion. the zygotes were observed in the gut from day 29 and the kinetes from day 30, i.e. three and four days after the nymphs moulted to adults. from day 34 kinetes were observed in the haemolymph. the development ...19806771935
observations on the transmission of theileria mutans in south africa.four isolates of theileria mutans obtained from geographically distant parts of south africa by subinoculation of infected blood were found to be readily transmitted by the bont tick amblyomma hebraeum. all attempts to transmit these isolates with rhipicephalus appendiculatus were unsuccessful. possible explanations for differences between these results and those reported by earlier workers in this country are discussed.19816792579
theileria? taurotragi: a probable agent of bovine cerebral theileriosis.a case of bovine cerebral theileriosis was confirmed at autopsy on a farm where 4 animals out of 70 died. all were less than 2 years old and all showed nervous signs. serologically, no evidence was found of theileria mutans or the theileria parva group in young animals born on the farm. six out of 13 calves 6-9 months of age were, however, serologically positive for theileria? taurotragi and it was concluded this species was the probable cause of death of the 4 animals.19816801568
experimental transmission of cowdria ruminantium by the gulf coast tick amblyomma maculatum: danger of introducing heartwater and benign african theileriasis onto the american mainland.the tick amblyomma maculatum proved to be an experimental vector of cowdria ruminantium, the cause of heartwater of ruminants. transstadial transmission from larva to nymph and from larva through nymph to adult was successful; however, an experiment on transovarial transmission gave negative results. neither a americanum nor a cajennense transmitted the infection. there is a potential danger of the disease gaining access to the american mainland from the caribbean where it is known to occur and ...19826808870
indirect fluorescent antibody test for experimental and epizootiological studies on east coast fever (theileria parva infection in cattle). evaluation of a cell culture schizont antigen fixed and stored in suspension.a schizont antigen for the indirect fluorescent antibody test against theileria parva was prepared from a t parva-infected bovine lymphoblastoid cell line by fixing the cells in suspension with a mixture of acetone and formaldehyde. the antigen was stored in suspension in phosphate buffered saline for one and a half years at -60 degrees c without loss of activity; the antigen could also be lyophilised. the fluorescence of the intracellular schizonts was bright and specific with t parva positive ...19826818649
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. vi. the soudano-sahelian zone].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the sudano-sahelian zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the different species. the following species were collected in ruminants: hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rh. gui ...19947991897
[ticks and hemoparasitoses in livestock in senegal. v. the northern guinea area].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the north-guinean zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and to determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the following different species collected from these animals: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus geigyi, hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipiceph ...19938073170
cloning and characterisation of a repetitive dna sequence from theileria mutans: application as a species-specific probe.repetitive dna sequences were isolated from a theileria mutans genomic library by screening with t. mutans total dna. dna sequence analysis demonstrated that a section of one of the clones contained a complex series of overlapping perfect repeats ranging between 99 and 20 bp in size. the t. mutans repetitive sequence did not contain large open reading frames (orfs), unlike t. parva tpr repetitive dna sequences. when used as a hybridisation probe the repetitive sequence revealed restriction-fragm ...19948153123
in vitro feeding of instars of the ixodid tick amblyomma variegatum on skin membranes and its application to the transmission of theileria mutans and cowdria in vitro feeding method using rabbit or cattle skin membranes, applied successfully to all stages (larvae, nymphae and adults) of the ioxodid tick, amblyomma variegatum, is described. the feeding apparatus consisted of a blood container with a membrane placed on top of a tick containment unit. a carbon dioxide atmosphere of between 5 and 10% and a temperature of 37 degrees c were used as stimulants for the attachment of the ticks. high co2 concentrations in the atmosphere improved the feeding ...19938233589
the prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in cattle in smallholder dairy farms in murang'a district, kenya; a cross-sectional study.the most important tick-borne disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern africa is east coast fever (ecf) caused by theileria parva and transmitted by the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus. other less-important tick-borne diseases in cattle are benign theileriosis caused by theileria mutans, babesiosis caused by babesia bigemina, anaplasmosis caused by anaplasma marginale and cowdriosis caused by cowdria ruminatum. in murang's district, central province of kenya, five agroecological zone ...19979234414
isolation of theileria taurotragi and theileria mutans from cattle in botswana.two theileria species demonstrated in peripheral giemsa-stained blood smears of sick cattle from various parts of botswana were subsequently identified as theileria mutans and t. taurotragi using dna hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. initial screening for theileria species was done using microscopy, the indirect fluorescent antibody technique and the micro elisa test. the syndrome was characteristically that of high morbidity but low mortality and vague malaise. a low parasitaemia ...19989746278
comments on "isolation of theileria taurotragi and theileria mutans from cattle in botswana" by m.g. binta, t. losho, b.a. allsopp, e.z. mushi, veterinary parasitology 77 (1998) 83-91. 200010622618
bovine borreliosis in botswana.clinical borrelia theileri infection was reported for the first time in cattle from botswana concurrent with babesia bovis and theileria mutans infections. two animals, an ox and a cow of the tswana breed demonstrated clinical signs of fever, haemoglobinuria, inappetance, diarrhoea, pallor of mucous membranes, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and rough hair coats. examination of the blood smears from the affected animals revealed numerous b. theileri, and very few b. bovis and t. mutans organism ...200011131124
application of a reverse line blot assay to the study of haemoparasites in cattle in uganda.recent advances in genomic technology have focused many veterinary researchers on the possibility of producing one multivalent recombinant vaccine against all the haemoparasites that infect cattle in the tropics. before such a vaccine is developed it is essential to define target cattle populations as well as the range of anti-pathogen vaccines required in order to control disease. to further this objective, we have evaluated a reverse line blot (rlb) assay, which simultaneously detects the prin ...200415064125
incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in ghana.giemsa-stained thin blood smears prepared monthly from cattle, sheep and goats in the greater accra region of ghana between may 1994 and december 1996 were examined for presence of tick-borne haemoparasites. the majority of animals were less than 2 months old at the start of the survey. monthly and cumulative incidences are presented of anaplasma sp., babesia bigemina, borrelia sp., eperythrozoon sp., theileria mutans and theileria velifera in cattle, anaplasma sp., borrelia sp., and theileria s ...200415350659
theileria mutans associated with bovine anaplasmosis in the united states. 195015428394
spatial and management factors associated with exposure of smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania to tick-borne pathogens.a cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne pathogens (theileria parva, theileria mutans,anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and babesia bovis) was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in tanga and iringa regions of tanzania. seroprevalence was highest for t. parva (48% in iringa and 23% in tanga) and b. bigemina (43% in iringa and 27% in tanga) and lowest for b. bovis (12% in iringa and 6% in tanga). we use spatial and non-spatial models, fitted using classical ...200516023121
sequence polymorphism in the ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacers differs among theileria species.the genomic region spanning the two ribosomal rna internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) and the 5.8s rrna gene was cloned and sequenced from sixteen theileria isolates. each theileria species possessed its1 and its2 of unique size(s) and species specific nucleotide sequences. varying degrees of its1 and its2 intra- and inter-species sequence polymorphism were found among ruminant theileria species. the spacers were most polymorphic in the agent of tropical theileriosis, theileria annulata ...200717513053
epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan.a herd-based study was carried out in central equatoria state, southern sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne diseases. six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the year 2005. blood smears for giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected from 600 apparently healthy indigenous cattle. a total of 69 (11.5%) samples showed the presence of piroplasms in giemsa- ...200717530477
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed and evaluated for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis. a set of six primers was designed based on the unique gene of theileria annulata (theileria annulata strain ankara hypothetical protein (genedb ta04795). the protocol for the reaction was setup and the specificity and sensitivity of the assay were established. the specificity experiment showed that lamp primers amplified t. annulata dna successfully, while no amplification wa ...200818666968
distribution and application of elisa for the seroprevalence of tick-borne diseases in central equatoria state, sudan.this study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of theileria parva, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale antibodies among naturally infected cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). three locations (khor rumla, nyaing and gumbo) were selected and surveyed every 3 months during the period from january to december 2005. six cattle herds in the three locations were visited four times during the study peri ...200818666971
seroprevalence of tick-borne diseases among cattle in the sudan.this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of theileria annulata, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina, and anaplasma marginale antibodies among cattle in the sudan. a total of 600 serum samples were collected from indigenous (zebu) and crossbred cattle (zebu x friesian) of both sex and different age groups. indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess antibodies against tick-borne diseases in apparently healthy cattle. the overall prevalence rates of t. annulata, t. m ...200919030878
estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in mbeere district, kenya.a cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (tbd) parasites (theileria parva, theileria mutans, anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in mbeere district in kenya. the objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. a total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveye ...201020434227
comparison between reverse line blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of major tick-borne diseases of cattle in southern sudan.the performance of reverse line blot (rlb) in detecting dna of theileria parva, theileria mutans and babesia bigemina was assessed in comparison with specific antibody detection using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the same parasites. among 90 field samples from central equatoria state, southern sudan, elisa reported more positive samples than rlb did. the concordance of rlb showed 66.7%, 81.1% and 48.9% relative to the results of elisa for t. parva, t. mutans and b. big ...201020537106
theileria parva genetic diversity and haemoparasite prevalence in cattle and wildlife in and around lake mburo national park in uganda.wildlife, especially cape buffalo (syncerus caffer), are thought to act as a reservoir for many of the important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. in this study, we have determined the prevalence of the most significant tick-borne haemoparasites in wildlife (buffalo, impala, eland and bushbuck) as well as in cattle grazing inside and neighbouring lake mburo national park (lmnp) in uganda. a high percentage of buffalo were carriers of theileria parva, theileria mutans, theileria velifera, theileria ...201120827491
a combined infection of trypanosomes and theileria mutans in a stud bull. 194621020424
epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in south sudan: cross-sectional survey results.a cross-sectional study was conducted between september and october 2010 in five states of south sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. the purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in south sudan and their uses in future control strategies. a total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. the indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (elisa) was used to dete ...201223327317
pathogen prevalence in ticks collected from the vegetation and livestock in nigeria.ticks are important disease vectors that can cause considerable economic losses by affecting animal health and productivity, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. in this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from the vegetation and cattle in nigeria by pcr. the infection rates of questing ticks were 3.1% for rickettsia species, 0.1% for coxiella burnetii and 0.4% for borrelia species. other pathogens, suc ...201222327584
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
parasite co-infections show synergistic and antagonistic interactions on growth performance of east african zebu cattle under one year.the co-occurrence of different pathogen species and their simultaneous infection of hosts are common, and may affect host health outcomes. co-infecting pathogens may interact synergistically (harming the host more) or antagonistically (harming the host less) compared with single infections. here we have tested associations of infections and their co-infections with variation in growth rate using a subset of 455 animals of the infectious diseases of east africa livestock (ideal) cohort study surv ...201324001119
a longitudinal assessment of the serological response to theileria parva and other tick-borne parasites from birth to one year in a cohort of indigenous calves in western kenya.tick-borne diseases are a major impediment to improved productivity of livestock in sub-saharan africa. improved control of these diseases would be assisted by detailed epidemiological data. here we used longitudinal, serological data to determine the patterns of exposure to theileria parva, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale from 548 indigenous calves in western kenya. the percentage of calves seropositive for the first three parasites declined from initial high levels d ...201424838078
the epidemiology of tick-borne haemoparasites as determined by the reverse line blot hybridization assay in an intensively studied cohort of calves in western kenya.the development of sensitive surveillance technologies using pcr-based detection of microbial dna, such as the reverse line blot assay, can facilitate the gathering of epidemiological information on tick-borne diseases, which continue to hamper the productivity of livestock in many parts of africa and elsewhere. we have employed a reverse line blot assay to detect the prevalence of tick-borne parasites in an intensively studied cohort of indigenous calves in western kenya. the calves were recrui ...201525858115
a comparison of dna extraction protocols from blood spotted on fta cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by reverse line blot essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (tbps) in blood is the extraction of dna. when cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to dna extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. we evaluated six dna extraction methods from blood spotted on fta classic(®) cards (fta cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of tbps by pcr and the reverse li ...201727825733
maternal antibody uptake, duration and influence on survival and growth rate in a cohort of indigenous calves in a smallholder farming system in western kenya.the passive transfer of antibodies from dams to offspring via colostrum is believed to play an important role in protecting neonatal mammals from infectious disease. the study presented here investigates the uptake of colostrum by 548 calves in western kenya maintained under smallholder farming, an important agricultural system in eastern africa. serum samples collected from the calves and dams at recruitment (within the first week of life) were analysed for the presence of antibodies to four ti ...201323838470
prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in central equatoria state, southern sudan.a participatory epidemiological (pe) study was conducted in kajo keji and yei counties, central equatoria state, southern sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. a serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the pe study. pe data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. constraint ...201222244519
ticks and tick-borne pathogens in livestock from nomadic herds in the somali region, ethiopia.between may 2006 and january 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from filtu and dollo odo districts, libaan zone, in the somali region of ethiopia. overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), r. pravus (25.8%), amblyomma gemma (9.4%), hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), h. truncatum (2.8%), h. impeltatum (1.2%) and h. dromedarii (0. ...201222349943
evaluation of a real-time pcr test for the detection and discrimination of theileria species in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer).a quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) assay based on the cox iii gene was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of theileria species in buffalo and cattle blood samples from south africa and mozambique using melting curve analysis. the results obtained were compared to those of the reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of theileria spp. in mixed infections, and to the 18s rrna qpcr assay results for the specific detecti ...201324146782
sequence variation identified in the 18s rrna gene of theileria mutans and theileria velifera from the african buffalo (syncerus caffer).the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a natural reservoir host for both pathogenic and non-pathogenic theileria species. these often occur naturally as mixed infections in buffalo. although the benign and mildly pathogenic forms do not have any significant economic importance, their presence could complicate the interpretation of diagnostic test results aimed at the specific diagnosis of the pathogenic theileria parva in cattle and buffalo in south africa. the 18s rrna gene has been used as t ...201322940566
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