studies on ocular microsporidia.sera from six ocular microsporidiosis patients and eight individuals with no history of microsporidiosis were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and by western blot immunodetection. microsporidia used as antigen include nosema corneum, encephalitozoon hellem, encephalitozoon cuniculi, and nosema algerae. three aids patients with known e. hellem infections displayed elisa antibody titers to e. hellem ranging from 1:400 to 1:12,800. two patients with unclassified microsporidial i ...19911818211
male genital tract microsporidiosis and aids: prostatic abscess due to encephalitozoon hellem. 19947804260
polyclonal and monoclonal antibody and pcr-amplified small-subunit rrna identification of a microsporidian, encephalitozoon hellem, isolated from an aids patient with disseminated infection.microsporidia are primitive, spore-forming, mitochondria-lacking, eukaryotic protozoa that are obligate intracellular parasites. they are known to parasitize almost every group of animals including humans. recently, microsporidia have increasingly been found to infect patients with aids. five genera (encephalitozoon, enterocytozoon, nosema, septata, and pleistophora) of microsporidia are known to infect humans. enterocytozoon organisms cause gastrointestinal disease in a majority of aids patient ...19947852569
ribosomal rna sequences of enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis and ameson michaelis: phylogenetic construction and structural correspondence.the microsporidian species enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis and ameson michaelis were compared by using sequence data of their rrna gene segments, which were amplified by polymerized chain reaction and directly sequenced. the forward primer 530f (5'-gtgccatccagccgcgg-3') was in the small subunit rrna (ssu-rrna) and the reverse primer 580r (5'-ggtccgtgtttcaagacgg-3') was in the large subunit rrna (lsu-rrna). we have utilized these sequence data, the published data on encephalitozoon ...19948049683
microsporidiosis in hiv positive patients: current methods for diagnosis using biopsy, cytologic, ultrastructural, immunological, and tissue culture techniques.microsporidiosis is an increasingly important opportunistic infection in hiv-positive patients. five species of microsporidia (enterocytozoon bieneusi, encephalitozoon hellem and e. cuniculi, septata intestinalis, and pleistophora sp.) have been reported to occur in aids, with each agent producing a different clinicopathologic spectrum of disease. this communication reviews routine and specialized methods for diagnosis of these important pathogenic protozoa, including biopsy, cytology, ultrastru ...19947927059
in vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on encephalitozoon cuniculi.we have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using mrc5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of encephalitozoon cuniculi. after 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. the inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. chloroquine, pef ...19947840584
isolation and identification of encephalitozoon hellem from an italian aids patient with disseminated microsporidiosis.microsporidia are primitive mitochondria-lacking spore-forming eukaryotic protozoa that infect a wide variety of animals and also humans. of the five genera (encephalitozoon, enterocytozoon, septata, nosema and pleistophora) that cause infections in humans, enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis, and encephalitozoon hellem are being increasingly identified in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). e. bieneusi causes gastrointestinal disease, s. intestinalis causes gastro ...19947833001
immunofluorescence and western blot analysis of microsporidia using anti-encephalitozoon hellem immunoglobulin g monoclonal antibodies. 19947804232
genetic and immunological characterization of the microsporidian septata intestinalis cali, kotler and orenstein, 1993: reclassification to encephalitozoon intestinalis.the relationships between the encephalitozoon-like septata intestinalis and other microsporidia that occur in humans; notably encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem, is insufficiently documented using morphological descriptions alone. to assess mutual relationships, we have examined other phenotypic as well as genetic aspects of s. intestinalis, obtained both from tissue culture and clinical specimens, in comparison with a number of other microsporidia. phenotypic characterization w ...19957724235
identification of microsporidia in stool specimens by using pcr and restriction endonucleases.we report the development of a pcr-based assay for the detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens. a single primer pair complementary to conserved sequences of the small-subunit rrna enabled amplification of dna from the four major microsporidian pathogens of humans: encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, enterocytozoon bieneusi, and septata intestinalis. the extraction method allowed pcr amplification of e. bieneusi and s. intestinalis dna from sodium hypochlorite-treated stool ...19957665639
small subunit ribosomal dna phylogeny of various microsporidia with emphasis on aids related forms.phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal dna of a broad range of representative microsporidia including five species from humans (enterocytozoon bieneusi, nosema corneum, septata intestinalis, encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi), reveals that human microsporidia are polyphyletic in origin. septata intestinalis and e. hellem are very similar to the mammalian parasite e. cuniculi. based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that s. intestinalis be des ...19957581329
calcium and hydrogen ion concentrations in the parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells infected with the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem.microsporidia of the genus encephalitozoon undergo merogony and sporogony in a parasitophorous vacuole within the host cell. cultured green monkey kidney cells infected with encephalitozoon hellem were loaded with the fluorescent dyes fura-2 or bcecf in order to measure intracellular concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions respectively. both the parasitophorous vacuole calcium concentration and ph values resembled those of the host cell cytoplasm in infected cells. calcein entered the parasi ...19957581320
pathology of symptomatic microsporidial (encephalitozoon hellem) bronchiolitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a new respiratory pathogen diagnosed from lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, and tissue culture.encephalitozoon hellem is a recently described microsporidian associated with an expanding spectrum of clinical presentations in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). it is morphologically similar to encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidian infection of mammals and some avians, and their differentiation rests on biochemical and antigenic analyses. this report describes a patient previously diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis due to e hellem who subsequently was found to ...19937504651
isolation and characterization of a new human microsporidian, encephalitozoon hellem (n. sp.), from three aids patients with keratoconjunctivitis.a new human microsporidian was isolated from cultures of madin-darby canine kidney cells incubated with conjunctival scrapings or corneal tissues from three aids patients with keratoconjunctivitis. the three isolates were morphologically similar to encephalitozoon cuniculi. the spores averaged 1 x 1.5-2.0 microns, had six to eight polar filament coils, displayed monokaryotic nuclei, and possessed relatively thick endospores with irregularly shaped exospores. organisms developed within a parasito ...19911995733
in vitro culture and serologic and molecular identification of septata intestinalis isolated from urine of a patient with aids.microsporidian spores were identified, on the basis of weber's staining, in urine, stool, nasal, and saliva samples of an aids patient with diarrhea, hematuria, dysuria, and dementia. urine and stool samples contained numerous spores, whereas few spores were seen in the nasal and saliva samples. spores were concentrated from urine samples and inoculated into monkey kidney cell (e6) monolayers. after 6 to 8 weeks of culture, infected e6 cells filled with spores as well as spores free in the cultu ...19957790463
antiprotozoal activities of benzimidazoles and correlations with beta-tubulin sequence.benzimidazoles have been widely used since the 1960s as anthelmintic agents in veterinary and human medicine and as antifungal agents in agriculture. more recently, selected benzimidazole derivatives were shown to be active in vitro against two protozoan parasites, trichomonas vaginalis and giardia lamblia, and clinical studies with aids patients have suggested that microsporidia are susceptible as well. here, we first present in vitro susceptibility data for t. vaginalis and g. lamblia using an ...19947811023
chronic microsporidian infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae in hiv disease.a case of chronic infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae with a microsporidian parasite in association with hiv infection and immune deficiency is reported. this microsporidian resembles both encephalitozoon cuniculi and the newly described encephalitozoon hellem by electron microscopy. this occurred in an adult male resident in the uk with no history of foreign travel. although there are previous descriptions of conjunctival infections from the usa, this is the first descripti ...19921607196
fine structure of a new human microsporidian, encephalitozoon hellem, in culture.encephalitozoon hellem is a new human microsporidian isolated from corneal biopsies and conjunctival scrapings of three aids patients and cultured in madin darby canine kidney (mdck) cells. encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi display different protein profiles with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and unique antibody binding patterns with murine antisera against western blots of each organism. developmental stages of e. hellem in culture are similar to e. ...19911920150
inhibition of the spore polar filament extrusion of the microsporidium, encephalitozoon hellem, isolated from an aids patient.spores of the microsporidian parasitic protozoan encephalitozoon hellem were purified and incubated at 37 degrees c in a solution with an electrolyte composition similar to that of mammalian extracellular fluid, and in solution in which the calcium had been replaced with 0.2 mm egta. polar filament extrusion (germination) was monitored by both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. germination was ph-dependent, with optima at ph 7.4 and 9.5, and was significantly greater in the prese ...19938292991
characterization of encephalitozoon hellem (microspora) isolated from the nasal mucosa of a patient with aids.a microsporidium of the genus encephalitozoon was isolated into culture from the nasal epithelium of a patient with aids. it was compared with in vitro isolates of encephalitozoon cuniculi and the type isolate of encephalitozoon hellem by sds-page and by western blotting with murine antisera raised to e. cuniculi, e. hellem and the nasal isolate, monoclonal antibodies raised to e. cuniculi and sequential sera from the patient. all tests showed similarities between e. hellem and the nasal isolate ...19938278216
ribosomal dna sequences of encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi: species identification and phylogenetic construction.a segment of ribosomal dna, about 1,350 base pairs long, was amplified from the microsporidian species encephalitozoon hellem, isolated from aids patients, and encephalitozoon cuniculi. the amplified dna segment extends from position 530 in the small ribosomal rna subunit to position 580 in the large ribosomal rna subunit. a comparison of sequence data from this region for encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi shows relatively high sequence similarity, supporting the placement of t ...19938389641
disseminated microsporidiosis due to encephalitozoon hellem: pulmonary colonization, microhematuria, and mild conjunctivitis in a patient with aids.four genera of microsporidia have been associated with disease in humans, which predominantly affects immunocompromised persons. systemic infection with a newly characterized microsporidian species, encephalitozoon hellem, was recently reported in a patient with aids. this article describes a second patient with aids and disseminated e. hellem infection. in this case the parasite was detected in sputum, urine, and conjunctival swab specimens. apart from recurrent mild conjunctivitis and asymptom ...19938218683
detection of microsporidia by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.during a screening for monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem, three murine hybridoma cell lines producing strong enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) reactivities were cloned twice, were designated c12, e9, and e11, and were found to secrete mabs to the immunoglobulin m isotype. on subsequent elisas, the three mabs reacted most strongly to e. hellem, and they reacted somewhat less to encephalitozoon cuniculi and least to nosema corneum, two other microspo ...19948195366
treatment of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis with topical fumagillin.encephalitozoon hellem is a newly described cause of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis, occurring chiefly in patients with significantly diminished cd4+ t-lymphocyte levels. this disorder is symptomatically disabling and generally recalcitrant to topical antimicrobial therapy. two homosexual men with e. hellem keratoconjunctivitis diagnosed by gram stain, transmission electron microscopy, and specific indirect immunofluorescent assay were treated with topical fumagillin (fumidil b). both patie ...19938117342
[microsporidiosis: a new protozoan disease in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)].the list of infections, threatening patients with impaired immunological system, especially infected with hiv, prolongs systematically. since early eighties many authors pay attention to little known type of protozoan: microspora. more and more often new microsporidia species are described as a cause of disease, especially in patients with aids. we present review of literature data concerning species known up to now as pathogenic for man: encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, nosema ...19947597182
experimental microsporidiosis in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice and monkeys.microsporidia cause opportunistic infections in aids patients and commonly infect laboratory animals, as well. euthymic c57b1/6 mice experimentally infected with intraperitoneal injections of 1 x 10(6) encephalitozoon cuniculi levaditi, nicolau et schoen, 1923, encephalitozoon hellem didier et al., 1991, or nosema corneum shadduck et al., 1990 displayed no clinical signs of disease. athymic mice, however, developed ascites and died 8-16 days after inoculation with n. corneum, 21-25 days after in ...19948050748
detection of microsporidian spores in clinical samples by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay using whole-cell antisera to encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem.three polyclonal mouse antisera, to encephalitozoon cuniculi, nosema algerae, and nosema corneum, and two polyclonal rabbit antisera, to e. cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem, were used in an indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (ifa) with enterocytozoon bieneusi, e. cuniculi, and encephalitgozoon. hellem spores (spores of the last two were taken from culture). enterocytozoon bieneusi cannot be cultured. by ifa, antisera to e. cuniculi and e. hellem reacted strongly and equally with each other's ...19938263205
disseminated microsporidiosis (encephalitozoon hellem) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. autopsy evidence for respiratory acquisition.microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoal parasites that infect a variety of cell types in a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. they have recently come to medical attention due to the increased frequency with which members of two microsporidian genera, enterocytozoon and encephalitozoon, are being diagnosed in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the majority of published reports of human microsporidiosis describe enterocytozoon infection of small inte ...19921616428
pathologic features and immunofluorescent antibody demonstration of ocular microsporidiosis (encephalitozoon hellem) in seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.we studied the clinicopathologic features of seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and ocular microsporidiosis. all patients had decreased levels of cd4-positive cells (mean, 26/ml3) and ocular symptoms; five had bilateral punctate epithelial keratopathy, one had intermittent red eyes with conjunctivitis, and one had red eyes only. light and electron microscopy of corneal and conjunctival biopsy and cytologic specimens and intact globes disclosed microsporidia belonging t ...19938095123
the serological surveillance of several groups of patients using antigens of encephalitozoon hellem and e. cuniculi antibodies to microsporidia in patients.this study was undertaken to attempt to identify correlations between microsporidial seroprevalence data in man, clinical diseases and groups of people at the risk of hiv/aids infection. groups of patients were selected according to the predilection of members of the genus encephalitozoon for nervous and kidney tissue. female prostitutes and alcohol and intravenous drug abusers were selected as groups at risk of hiv/aids infections. a total of 401 samples of human sera were examined for the pres ...19989684320
successful treatment of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis with topical fumagillin in a patient with aids.there recently have been several reports of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis caused by the organism encephalitozoon hellem. however, treatment of this infection has been largely ineffective. we report a case of a 35-year-old hispanic woman with aids and e. hellem keratoconjunctivitis confirmed with light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy that resolved promptly with topical fumagillin, a crystalline antibiotic with proven efficacy against encephalitozoon species. no corneal or syste ...19938500340
microsporidiosis as an aids-related opportunistic infection.the clinical manifestations of aids-related microsporidiosis range from mild or asymptomatic infections to debilitating illness involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, or urogenital tracts or the eyes. intestinobiliary infections with enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most common microsporidial diseases, but disseminated infections with encephalitozoon hellem, encephalitozoon cuniculi, and septata intestinalis are being increasingly recognized. the isolation of infective microsporidial spores ...19958547514
microsporidian spore wall: ultrastructural findings on encephalitozoon hellem exospore.a study of the spore wall of encephalitozoon hellem was performed on thin sections, freeze-fracture, and deep-etched samples to obtain information on spore wall organization and composition. our observations demonstrate that the spore wall is formed by an inner 30-35 nm electron-lucent endospore and an outer 25-30 nm electron-dense exospore. the exospore is a complex of three layers: an outer spiny layer, an electron-lucent intermediate lamina and an inner fibrous layer. freeze-fracture and deep ...19968640188
characterization of encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis isolates cultured from nasal mucosa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of two aids patients.microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that can cause opportunistic infections in aids patients. species from five genera of microsporidia are presently known to infect man. one species, septata intestinalis originally was detected in stool specimens of individuals with chronic diarrhea and subsequently was found to disseminate to the kidneys, lungs, and nasal sinuses. this organism has since been reclassified as encephalitozoon and in this study, we report the culture of e ...19968563708
encephalocytozoon intestinalis-specific monoclonal antibodies for laboratory diagnosis of microsporidiosis.two monoclonal antibodies which can be used for the unambiguous identification by fluorescence microscopy of encephalitozoon intestinalis spores in clinical specimens are described. monoclonal antibody si91 is specific for the extruded polar filament, and si13 recognizes the surfaces of e. intestinalis spores. no cross-reaction with spores of encephalitozoon hellem was observed. immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the specific reactivities of both antibodies. combined in an indirect immunof ...19968789001
opportunistic and non-opportunistic parasites in hiv-positive and negative patients with diarrhoea in tanzania.a survey on intestinal parasites in a rural area of tanzania revealed the presence of eight protozoa and seven helminths in 287 subjects (81.8%). the prevalence of entamoeba histolytica and ascaris lumbricoides was higher in hiv-negative than in hiv-positive patients (p < 0.01; p < 0.04) (25.1% and 12.5% for e. histolytica; 10.5% and 3.7% for a. lumbricoides). on the other hand, cryptosporidium parvum, isospora belli and strongyloides stercoralis prevalence was higher in hiv-positive than in hiv ...19958525281
phylogenetic analysis of beta-tubulin sequences from amitochondrial has been proposed that certain extant anaerobic protozoa are descended from organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution prior to the acquisition of mitochondria. among these are the extracellular parasites giardia lamblia, trichomonas vaginalis, and entamoeba histolytica, and the obligately intracellular microsporidia. phylogenetic analysis of rrna sequences from these amitochondrial organisms suggests that g. lamblia, t. vaginalis, and microsporidia are near the base of the eukaryo ...19968728394
effects of nifedipine, metronidazole, and nitric oxide donors on spore germination and cell culture infection of the microsporidia encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon intestinalis.two species of microsporidia, encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon intestinalis, were isolated from aids patients and cultured in green monkey kidney cells. a spore germination assay and a cultured-cell infection assay were used to test the efficacy of candidate antiparasitic agents. the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, metronidazole, and two nitric oxide (no) donors, s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine and sodium nitroprusside, were tested in the two assays. nifedipine (10(-8) m) significa ...19968787902
encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis: cytologic, histologic, and electron microscopic features of a systemic intestinal pathogen.encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis affects aids patients with cd4 counts <100/microl, causing intestinal and disseminated disease. it must be distinguished from the more common intestinal microsporidian, enterocytozoon bieneusi, and from other microsporidia of extraintestinal tissues, such as encephalitozoon hellem and e cuniculi, because clinical manifestations and treatment differ. in this report, the authors describe the diagnostic features of e intestinalis and illustrate all stages of i ...19968929470
genetic and phenotypic intraspecific variation in the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem.encephalitozoon hellem is a microsporidian species that causes disseminated infections in hiv-positive patients. identical genotypes of e. hellem, as assessed by the sequence of the rdna internal transcribed spacer, have been identified in isolates from humans and from a psittacine bird. however, by analysing the rdna its of four e. hellem isolates from switzerland (three) and tanzania (one), two new genotypes were identified. differences among the e. hellem isolates were also detected by wester ...199910404273
encephalitozoon hellem infection in a yellow-streaked lory (chalcopsitta scintillata) imported from indonesia. 19989921628
alpha-tubulin from early-diverging eukaryotic lineages and the evolution of the tubulin family.the tubulin gene family, which includes alpha-,beta-, and gamma-tubulin subfamilies, is composed of highly conserved proteins which are the principle structural and functional components of eukaryotic microtubules. we are interested in (1) establishing when in eukaryotic evolution the duplications leading to paralogous alpha, beta, and gamma subfamilies occurred and (2) the possible utility of tubulin sequences in reconstructing organismal phylogeny. to broaden the taxonomic representation of al ...19968952074
use of a fluorescent probe to assess the activities of candidate agents against intracellular forms of encephalitozoon microsporidia.microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. three species of the genus encephalitozoon are among the microsporidia that infect immunodeficient humans. these species, encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, and encephalitozoon intestinalis, all develop in a parasitophorous vacuole within a host cell. the present study describes a method that uses the fluorescent probe calcein and confocal microscopy to detect drug-induced effects in encephalitozoon-infected green monke ...19979021189
encephalitozoon hellem in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).microsporidiosis with concurrent megabacteriosis in budgerigar (melopsittacus undulatus) chicks contributed to significant economic floss in a commercial pet bird aviary in mississippi. three budgerigar chicks, 1-2 weeks old, from the aviary were necropsied. microscopic lesions in the chicks consisted of heavy infection of enterocytes with microsporidia (2/3; autolysis precluded critical evaluation of the intestine of chick no. 2), multifocal hepatic necrosis and inflammation with intralesional ...19979163874
identification of enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in respiratory samples from an aids patient with a 2-year history of intestinal microsporidiosis.enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian parasite, has been recognized since 1985 as an agent of intestinal microsporidiosis leading to malabsorption syndrome, diarrhea, and weight loss in aids patients. recently, however, we have identified e. bieneusi spores in the sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and stool samples of an aids patient with a 2-year history of intestinal microsporidiosis. the spores were characterized by weber's chromotrope-based staining, immunofluorescence tests, and pcr. no m ...19979196210
effects of albendazole, fumagillin, and tnp-470 on microsporidial replication in vitro.presently, the two most commonly used drugs for treating microsporidiosis in persons with aids are albendazole and fumagillin. albendazole is effective for treating disseminated infections due to encephalitozoon spp. but is variably effective against enterocytozoon bieneusi infections. fumagillin is highly effective when used topically to treat ocular infections with encephalitozoon hellem or encephalitozoon intestinalis but is too toxic for systemic use. in this study, the fumagillin analog tnp ...19979210681
diagnosis of disseminated microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem infection by pcr-southern analysis and successful treatment with albendazole and fumagillin.a 37-year old aids patient presented with foreign body sensation. microsporidia were detected in smears from a conjunctival swab and urine sediment stained with calcofluor and a modified trichrome blue stain and by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining with murine polyclonal antiserum raised against encephalitozoon hellem. this antiserum cross-reacted with other encephalitozoon species, so pcr was performed to amplify the microsporidian ribosomal dna (rdna) with pan-encephalitozoon primers. the ...19968815114
asymptomatic respiratory tract microsporidiosis due to encephalitozoon hellem in three patients with aids.microsporidia of the genera enterocytozoon and encephalitozoon have been identified as frequent causes of intestinal and disseminated infections, respectively, in patients with aids. even though most subjects infected with these protozoa develop overt disease, simple colonization without illness may occur, as we observed in three severely immunosuppressed patients with aids. the parasites, recognized in and isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage sediment specimens, were characterized as encephalit ...19989455527
immunologic and molecular characteristics of encephalitozoon-like microsporidia isolated from humans and rabbits indicate that encephalitozoon cuniculi is a zoonotic assess the zoonotic potential of encephalitozoon-like microsporidia, we isolated and cultivated spores from specimens of urine, respiratory secretions, and stool from six patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and from nine rabbits. because spores of encephalitozoon-like species are indistinguishable by microscopy, we characterized the isolates by western blot analysis and by restriction enzyme analysis of the small subunit (ssu) rdna after amplification by the polymerase chain r ...19968852978
ultrastructural features of spindle microtubule organization during the nuclear division of encephalitozoon hellem.ultrastructural studies were carried out to describe the nuclear division cycle of a strain of encephalitozoon hellem isolated from an italian aids patient. the nuclear division occurs during the proliferative vegetative phase and it is characterized by the intranuclear mitosis and by the lack of centrioles. the spindle termini are electron dense spindle plaques (esps), resembling to the spindle pole bodies (spbs) of saccharomycetes. the esps are bifacial organella forming microtubules on both n ...19979508461
western blot and immunofluorescence analysis of a human isolate of encephalitozoon cuniculi established in culture from the urine of a patient with aids.microsporidia spores, identified as encephalitozoon cuniculi (cdc: v282), were isolated from the urine of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated microsporidiosis, established in continuous culture on monkey kidney cells (e6), and antiserum was produced in rabbits. immunoblot studies that used the patient serum and the rabbit sera against cdc:v282, encephalitozoon hellem (cdc:0291:v213), and encephalitozoon intestinalis (cdc:v297) revealed that cdc:v282 and the rabbit ...19979057698
species-specific identification of microsporidia in stool and intestinal biopsy specimens by the polymerase chain view of the increasing number of cases of human microsporidiosis, simple and rapid methods for clear identification of microsporidian parasites to the species level are required. in the present study, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for species-specific detection of encephalitozoon cuniculi. encephalitozoon hellem, encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in both tissue and stool. using stool specimens and intestinal biopsies of patients infected with e ...19979228477
immunologic, microscopic, and molecular evidence of encephalitozoon intestinalis (septata intestinalis) infection in mammals other than humans.encephalitozoon intestinalis (septata intestinalis) is the second most prevalent microsporidian species infecting humans, but it has not been described in other animal species. this investigation examined 10 domestic animal stool samples (8 mammalian, 2 avian) containing spores detected by anti-encephalitozoon monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence (fa). the presence of e. intestinalis but not encephalitozoon hellem or encephalitozoon cuniculi was confirmed in 6 of 8 mammalian stool samples by s ...19989728552
identification of the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem using immunoglobulin g monoclonal antibodies.microsporidia isolated from clinical specimens so far have been identified to level of species by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence (iif), western blot (wb), and genetic analysis. recent studies, however, indicate extensive serologic cross-reactions among microsporidian species involved in human disease.19989499364
in vitro susceptibilities of the microsporidia encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, and encephalitozoon intestinalis to albendazole and its sulfoxide and sulfone vitro comparisons demonstrated that the efficacy of albendazole, albendazole-sulfoxide, and albendazole-sulfone against pathogenic encephalitozoon species was proportional to the degree of oxidation at a concentration of >10(-3) microgram/ml. furthermore, at a concentration of <10(-2) microgram/ml, benzimidazoles were more effective against encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem than against encephalitozoon intestinalis.19989835533
mechanisms of microsporidial cell division: ultrastructural study on encephalitozoon hellem.the mitotic process in microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem, a known human pathogen, has been studied with the aim of elucidating some ultrastructural aspects of its nuclear division. the presence of a nuclear spindle, of "electrondense spindle plaques" associated with the nuclear envelope and of cytoplasmic double walled vesicles are reported. we suggest that these "electrondense spindle plaques" serve as foci for intranuclear and cytoplasmic microtubule arrangements, similar to the microtubul ...19989627995
genetic diversity in the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.encephalitozoon hellem is a microsporidian species responsible for opportunistic infections in aids patients. use of a novel chitinase-based method allowed unsheared chromosomal dna to be recovered from eleven e. hellem isolates derived from three geographic regions. all isolates were typed by 18s rdna sequencing, which showed that they belonged to intemal transcribed spacer type 1. after ethidium bromide staining, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) analysis discriminated two new karyotypes ...200111456324
dual microsporidial infection due to vittaforma corneae and encephalitozoon hellem in a patient with aids.a 46-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected swiss citizen living in tanzania presented with respiratory, abdominal, and urogenital complaints. microsporidial spores were isolated from urine and a sinunasal aspirate and were propagated in mrc-5 cell cultures. western blot analysis and riboprinting identified the sinunasal isolate as encephalitozoon hellem. electron microscopic investigation of the urine isolate revealed spores with diplokaryotic nuclei and five to six isofilar coils of th ...19989868671
effects of an anti-exospore monoclonal antibody on microsporidial development in this study we evaluated the effects of the anti-microsporidial exospore monoclonal antibody 3b6, recognizing 3 encephalitozoon species, encephalitozoon intestinalis (syn. septata intestinalis), encephalitozoon cuniculi, and encephalitozoon hellem on microsporidial growth in vitro. pre-treatment of spores for 24 h with mab 3b6 resulted in 21-29% fewer infected host cells 4 days after inoculation of the cultures compared to cultures pre-treated with medium or an irrelevant isotype control mab ( ...19989881374
flow cytometric analysis of microsporidia belonging to the genus encephalitozoon.flow cytometry was used in the identification of human microsporidia belonging to the genus encephalitozoon. microsporidian spores of encephalitozoon hellem, e. cuniculi, and e. intestinalis were propagated in axenic cultures of monkey kidney e6 cells, purified with percoll, and exposed to homologous and heterologous rabbit antiserum and monoclonal antibody prepared against e. hellem spores. after reaction to goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin g (igg) or goat anti-mouse igg conjugated to fluorescei ...19999889221
animal models of human microsporidial infections.two new models have been described for enterocytozoon bieneusi, non-human primates and immuno-suppressed gnotobiotic pigs, but there still is no successful cell culture system. the intestinal xenograft system holds promise as an animal model for encephalitozoon intestinalis. encephalitozoon hellem is easily propagated in mice, and also may be an important cause of spontaneous disease of psittacine birds. encephalitozoon cuniculi occurs spontaneously in a wide variety of animals and can be induce ...199810090081
detection of microsporidia spore-specific antigens by monoclonal antibodies.microsporidia (phylum microspora) are unicellular parasites commonly found in invertebrates, fish, and laboratory animals; however, microsporidiosis is an emerging problem in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the infective stage of these parasites is the spore, which possesses a rigid cell wall that protects the parasite outside its host. little is known about their antigenic composition. sensitive, reliable, and easily performed methods for identification and speciati ...19989708825
detection by an immunofluorescence test of encephalitozoon intestinalis spores in routinely formalin-fixed stool samples stored at room temperature.of the several microsporidia that infect humans, enterocytozoon bieneusi is known to cause a gastrointestinal disease whereas encephalitozoon intestinalis causes both a disseminated and an intestinal disease. although several different staining techniques, including the chromotrope technique and its modifications, uvitex 2b, and the quick-hot gram-chromotrope procedure, detect microsporidian spores in fecal smears and other clinical samples, they do not identify the species of microsporidia. a n ...199910364604
the molecular characterization of the major polar tube protein gene from encephalitozoon hellem, a microsporidian parasite of humans.the microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of increasing importance as human pathogens, which are characterized by a small resistant spore with a single polar filament that coils around the sporoplasm. when stimulated, the polar filament rapidly everts out of the spore to form a hollow polar tube through which the sporoplasm passes, thus serving as a unique mechanism of transmission. a genomic library of the human microsporidium encephalitozoon hellem was screened using a p ...19989747973
characterization of aminopeptidase activity from three species of microsporidia: encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, and vittaforma corneae.microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of the phylum microspora. to date, more than 1,200 species within 144 genera have been described, with 14 infecting humans. currently, no effective treatment exists for human microsporidiosis. in this study, the biochemical properties of the aminopeptidases were investigated within several species of microsporidia. aminopeptidase activity was detected in 3 species of microsporidia, encephalitozoon cuniculi, e. hellem, and vittaforma corneae, usi ...200212435118
encephalitozoon hellem in two eclectus parrots (eclectus roratus): identification from archival tissues.members of the phylum microspora are obligate, intracellular, single-celled parasites identified in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. only a few cases of microsporidial infections have been documented in psittacine birds including peach-faced, masked, and fischer's lovebirds (agapornis roseicollis, a. personata, and a. fischeri, respectively), budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus), and a double yellow-headed amazon parrot (amazona ochrocephala). parasite identification has typic ...19989864855
comparison of polymerase chain reaction with light microscopy for detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens.the detection of microsporidial dna by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) has been suggested as an alternative or supplement to conventional microscopic methods. however, the relative merits of these techniques remain uncertain. in the present study, clinical specimens of different origin (stool, urine, sputum, nasal discharge, and cerebrospinal fluid) containing four different microsporidial species were blinded after microscopic examination and analyzed by pcr and subsequent restriction fragm ...19979063665
polar tube proteins of microsporidia of the family encephalitozoonidae.encephalitozoonidae are microsporidia associated with human infections including hepatitis, encephalitis, conjunctivitis, and disseminated disease. microsporidia produce a small resistant spore containing a polar tube which serves as a unique vehicle of infection. polar tube proteins (ptps) from encephalitozoon hellem. encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis, and encephalitozoon cuniculi were purified to homogeneity by hplc. by sds-page, the mr of e. hellem ptp was 55 kda, while the mr of e. inte ...199910188255
analysis of the major microsporidian polar tube proteins. 199910519234
pulmonary microsporidiosis due to encephalitozoon hellem in a patient with aids.the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem is being reported with increasing frequency in hiv-positive subjects, as an agent of disseminated microsporidiosis without involving the gastrointestinal tract. we describe a case of pulmonary microsporidiosis in a 27-year-old italian man with aids who developed fever, cough, and dyspnea. a chest x-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary opacities and mediastinal lymph-node enlargement. stained smears of bronchoalveolar lavage sediment showed oval struct ...19979138134
developmental expression of a tandemly repeated, glycine- and serine-rich spore wall protein in the microsporidian pathogen encephalitozoon cuniculi.microsporidia are intracellular organisms of increasing importance as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. host cells are infected by the extrusion and injection of polar tubes located within spores. the spore is surrounded by a rigid spore wall which, in addition to providing mechanical resistance, might be involved in host cell recognition and initiation of the infection process. a 51-kda outer spore wall protein was identified in encephalitozoon cuniculi with the aid of a mo ...200010722629
detection of septata intestinalis (microsporidia) cali et al. 1993 using polymerase chain reaction primers targeting the small submit subunit ribosomal rna coding region.background: the microsporidian septata intestinalis, recently suggested to be reclassified as encephalitozoon intestinalis, is probably the second most common microsporidian isolated from aids patients after enterocytozoon bieneusi. s. intestinalis causes a disseminated disease, including infections of the gastointestinal tract, whereas e. bieneusi is confined strictly to the gastrointestinal tract. it is important to differentiate between these two microsporidians, as only infections caused by ...199710462591
identification and characterization of three encephalitozoon cuniculi strains.microsporidia are increasingly recognized as causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most studied mammalian microsporidian that infects insects and mammals, including man. in this study, 8 e. cuniculi isolates were compared and were found to fall into 3 strains. strain type i includes the rabbit type isolate, as well as isolates from an additional rabbit, a dwarf rabbit, and a mouse. strain type ii includes 2 murine isolates and ...199511023405
in vitro efficacy of nikkomycin z against the human isolate of the microsporidian species encephalitozoon hellem.since 1985 microsporidia have been recognized as a cause of emerging infections in humans, mainly in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. as chitin is a basic component of the microsporidian infective stage, the spore, we evaluated in vitro the susceptibility of a human-derived strain of encephalitozoon hellem to nikkomycin z, a peptide-nucleoside antibiotic known as a competitive inhibitor of chitin synthase enzymes. transmission electron microscopy showed that this ...200011036015
isolation and characterization of an avian isolate of encephalitozoon hellem.members of the phylum microspora are a group of unusual, obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites that infect a wide range of hosts. however, there are a limited number of microsporidial infections reported in avian hosts, and no parasite species has been defined as an avian pathogen. a microsporidian organism was recovered from the droppings of a clinically normal peach-faced lovebird (agapornis roseicollis) and established in in vitro culture. intermittent parasite spore shedding was docume ...200011085220
polymorphism of the gene encoding a major polar tube protein ptp1 in two microsporidia of the genus encephalitozoon.isolates of 2 microsporidian species from the genus encephalitozoon (e. cuniculi and e. hellem) were compared by analysis of dna amplified from a gene region encoding the repeat domain of a polar tube protein (ptp1). sequence data obtained for 11 e. cuniculi isolates from 5 different mammalian hosts well support the existence of 3 previously designated strains. strain type iii was characterized by a lack of a 78 bp repeat, producing an amplicon of reduced size. strain type ii differed from strai ...200011155928
microsporidian invasion apparatus: identification of a novel polar tube protein and evidence for clustering of ptp1 and ptp2 genes in three encephalitozoon species.microsporidia are unicellular eukaryotes occurring as obligate intracellular parasites which produce resistant spores. a unique motile process is represented by the sudden extrusion of the sporal polar tube for initiating entry of the parasite into a new host cell. the complete sequence of an acidic proline-rich polar tube protein (renamed ptp1) has been previously reported for encephalitozoon cuniculi and e. hellem. our immunological investigations provided evidence for an additional ptp in e. ...200111159998
genotyping encephalitozoon hellem isolates by analysis of the polar tube protein develop an alternative genotyping tool, the genetic diversity of encephalitozoon hellem was examined at the polar tube protein (ptp) locus. nucleotide sequence analysis of the ptp gene divided 24 e. hellem isolates into four genotypes, compared to two genotypes identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer of the rrna gene. the four ptp genotypes differed from each other by the copy number of the 60-bp central repeat as well as by point mutations. a simple pcr test was developed t ...200111376056
genotyping encephalitozoon cuniculi by multilocus analyses of genes with repetitive sequences.encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. three genotypes based on the number of gttt repeats in the internal transcribed spacer (its) of the rrna have been described, of which genotypes i and iii have been identified in humans. in this study, the genetic diversity of e. cuniculi was examined at the polar tube protein (ptp) and spore wall protein i (swp-1) loci. nucleotide sequence analysis of the ptp gene divided 11 e. cuniculi isolates into three genotypes in congruence ...200111376065
inter- and intra-species karyotype variations among microsporidia of the genus encephalitozoon as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.disseminated infections due to microsporidia of the genus encephalitozoon are detected increasingly, especially in patients with aids. identification of microsporidia can be achieved by a variety of immunological and molecular methods. this study evaluates the feasibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) for the analysis of karyotypes of the 3 known species of this genus (encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon intestinalis) and of 2 of the 3 known e. cunic ...199910680984
genotyping encephalitozoon parasites using multilocus analyses of genes with repetitive sequences. 200111906081
genetic and immunologic characterization of seven encephalitozoon hellem human strains. 200111906082
application of specific primers in the diagnosis of encephalitozoon our experiment, 3 species-specific primer pairs cultivated in cell lines were used: encephalitozoon cuniculi -specific primer pairs (ecunf and ecunr), encephalitozoon hellem -specific primer pairs (ehelf and ehelr), and encephalitozoon intestinalis -specific primer pairs (sintf and sintr). the pcr products were estimated to be 550 bp in e. cuniculi , 547 bp in e. hellem and 545 bp in e. intestinalis respectively, which can prove the precision and reliability of this method in the species iden ...200516457493
the microsporidian polar tube: evidence for a third polar tube protein (ptp3) in encephalitozoon cuniculi.the invasion strategy used by microsporidia is primarily related to spore germination. small differentiated spores of these fungi-related parasites inject their contents into target cells through the lumen of a rapidly extruded polar tube, as a prerequisite to obligate intracellular development. previous studies in encephalitozoon species that infect mammals have identified two major antigenic polar tube proteins (ptp1 and ptp2) which are predicted to contribute to the high tensile strength of t ...200212076771
mitochondrial-type hsp70 genes of the amitochondriate protists, giardia intestinalis, entamoeba histolytica and two microsporidians.genes encoding putative mitochondrial-type heat shock protein 70 (mit-hsp70) were isolated and sequenced from amitochondriate protists, giardia intestinalis, entamoeba histolytica, and two microsporidians, encephalitozoon hellem and glugea plecoglossi. the deduced mit-hsp70 sequences were analyzed by sequence alignments and phylogenetic reconstructions. the mit-hsp70 sequence of these four amitochondriate protists were divergent from other mit-hsp70 sequences of mitochondriate eukaryotes. howeve ...200211880223
mammalian microsporidiosis.the phylum microspora contains a diverse group of single-celled, obligate intracellular protozoa sharing a unique organelle, the polar filament, and parasitizing a wide variety of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. encephalitozoon cuniculi is the classic microsporidial parasite of mammals, and encephalitozoonosis in rabbits and rodents has been and continues to be recognized as a confounding variable in animal-based biomedical research. although con ...200010714640
fluorescent in situ detection of encephalitozoon hellem spores with a 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled ribosomal rna-targeted oligonucleotide probe.a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay has been developed for the detection of the human-pathogenic microsporidian, encephalitozoon hellem in water samples using epifluorescence microscopy. the assay employs a 19-nucleotide species-specific 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe, hel878f, designed to be complementary to the nucleic acid sequence 878-896, a highly variable segment of the 16s ribosomal rna of e. hellem spores. the specificity of this probe for its ribosomal rna targ ...200010847348
comparison of uv inactivation of spores of three encephalitozoon species with that of spores of two dna repair-deficient bacillus subtilis biodosimetry strains.when exposed to 254-nm uv, spores of encephalitozoon intestinalis, encephalitozoon cuniculi, and encephalitozoon hellem exhibited 3.2-log reductions in viability at uv fluences of 60, 140, and 190 j/m(2), respectively, and demonstrated uv inactivation kinetics similar to those observed for endospores of dna repair-defective mutant bacillus subtilis strains used as biodosimetry surrogates. the results indicate that spores of encephalitozoon spp. are readily inactivated at low uv fluences and that ...200312514061
species-specific detection of three human-pathogenic microsporidial species from the genus encephalitozoon via fluorogenic 5' nuclease pcr assays.this study describes fluorogenic 5' nuclease pcr assays suitable for rapid, sensitive, high-throughput detection of the human-pathogenic microsporidial species encephalitozoon hellem, e. cuniculi and e.intestinalis. the assays utilize species-specific primer sets and a genus-specific dual fluorescent-labeled probe that anneals to a region within the encephalitozoon 16s rrna gene. the assay design theoretically permits the probe to be used either with one set of primers for species-level determin ...200212490145
antigenic diversity of encephalitozoon hellem demonstrated by subspecies-specific monoclonal antibodies.encephalitozoon hellem is a unicellular, obligate intracellular microsporidian species detected and isolated in hiv-infected patients presenting with keratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, nephritis, cystitis, and disseminated infection. a total of 24 monoclonal antibodies were produced against e. hellem and characterized. the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin (ig) g and ig m subclasses, and, when incorporated into indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays ...200212120990
molecular identification of encephalitozoon hellem in an ostrich.microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, eukaryotic parasites found in a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. scientific literature contains a small number of reports of these parasites in psittacine hosts, and recently microsporidiosis was reported in the first nonpsittacine host, an ostrich. dna was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ostrich tissues, and a portion of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene was sequenced to identify the microsporidian species. the org ...199910611995
detection of encephalitozoon hellem in feces of experimentally infected chickens. 200314736167
glycosylation of the major polar tube protein of encephalitozoon hellem, a microsporidian parasite that infects humans.the microsporidia are ubiquitous, obligate intracellular eukaryotic spore-forming parasites infecting a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. the defining structure of microsporidia is the polar tube, which forms a hollow tube through which the sporoplasm is transferred to the host cell. research on the molecular and cellular biology of the polar tube has resulted in the identification of three polar tube proteins: ptp1, ptp2, and ptp3. the major polar tube protein, ptp1 ...200415501763
lectin binding of the major polar tube protein (ptp1) and its role in invasion. 200314736177
human microsporidiosis: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of an increasing infection.human microsporidiosis is a parasitic infection due to species of four different genera: encephalitozoon; enterocytozoon; nosema; and pleistophora. although well known as a cause of disease in animals, microsporidiosis was only occasionally reported in humans. recently, in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients, microsporidia belonging to encephalitozoon and enterocytozoon species have proved to be important opportunistic pathogens. enterocytozoon bieneusi is associated with chroni ...199511866734
evidence of actin in the cytoskeleton of microsporidia.using transmission electron microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques such as 2-d electrophoresis and immunoblotting, actin was found in all biological stages of the microsporidia encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi.199910532801
phylogenetic relationships of methionine aminopeptidase 2 among encephalitozoon species and genotypes of microsporidia.this report describes the characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of methionine aminopeptidase 2 (metap-2) enzymes from microsporidian species and genotypes of the genus encephalitozoon. fragments of dna encoding 318 to 335 amino acid residues of the metap-2 genes were isolated from genomic dna prepared from cultured spores of encephalitozoon hellem, encephalitozoon intestinalis, and encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes i-iii. sequence comparisons of the dedu ...200515760654
microsporidiosis in a gouldian finch (erythrura [chloebia] gouldiae).a 12-day-old nestling gouldian finch (erythrura [chloebia] gouldiae) was presented for investigation of a mortality problem in nestling finches raised by bengalese finch foster parents. on histological examination, large numbers of spores consistent with a microsporidian organism were present within the small intestinal mucosa. electron microscopy and molecular studies (sequencing the 5' end of the ssu rrna gene) further defined the organism as encephalitozoon hellem. sequence homology with othe ...200212180877
simultaneous detection of four human pathogenic microsporidian species from clinical samples by oligonucleotide microarray.microsporidian species have been rapidly emerging as human enteric pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals in recent years. routine diagnostic techniques for microsporidia in clinical laboratories are laborious and insensitive and tend to underestimate their presence. in most instances, they are unable to differentiate species of spores due to their small sizes and similar morphologies. in this study, we report the development of another protozoan oligonucleotide microarra ...200516081959
investigations into microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2: a therapeutic target for microsporidiosis.the microsporidia have been reported to cause a wide range of clinical diseases particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed. they can infect virtually any organ system and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, ocular infection, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. while benzimidazoles such as albendazole are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against enterocytozoon bieneusi ...200516004378
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