essential oil composition of five collections of achillea biebersteinii from central turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.the composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five achillea biebersteinii afan samples, collected in central turkey from konya, isparta and ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (gc-fid) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. the identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). two samples differed in piperi ...201121615036
a defect in nir1, a nira-like transcription factor, confers morphological abnormalities and loss of pathogenicity in colletotrichum acutatum.summary a non-pathogenic mutant of colletotrichum acutatum, designated ca5, exhibited epiphytic hyphal growth and did not cause lesions on strawberry plants but grew necrotrophically when inoculated directly onto wounded stolons. in the absence of an external nitrogen source, the mutant exhibited extended germ-tube growth prior to appressorium formation. the deduced product of the impaired gene (nir1) is similar to nira, an aspergillus nidulans transcriptional regulator of nitrogen metabolism. i ...200620507451
an in vitro attempt for controlling severe phytopathogens and human pathogens using essential oils from mediterranean plants of genus schinus.growing concerns about food safety and environmental protection enhanced the need for new and safe plant disease control strategies. the chemical composition of the three essential oils (eos) extracted from leaves and fruits of schinus terebinthifolius and leaves of schinus molle, growing in tunisia, was studied by gc and gc-ms. in all, 12 compounds were identified. the oils were mainly composed of terpene compounds. α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and d-limonene were the major constituents. the aim o ...201626836214
antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of three essential oils extracted from mediterranean aromatic plants.there is a growing interest in essential oils (eos) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. this study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three eos extracted from verbena officinalis, majorana hortensis, and salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (gc) and gc-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. the antifungal activity was investigated against colletotrichum acutatum and bot ...201627792456
bacillus cereus ar156-induced resistance to colletotrichum acutatum is associated with priming of defense responses in loquat fruit.the effectiveness of a biocontrol agent bacillus cereus ar156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. treatment of fruit with b. cereus ar156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. the treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxida ...201425386680
biocontrol of phytophthora blight and anthracnose in pepper by sequentially selected antagonistic rhizobacteria against phytophthora capsici.we previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. in this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against p. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. we selected four potential biocontrol strains (pseudomo ...201325288942
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimized using response surface modeling for the quantitation of fungal off-flavors in grapes and optimized method for the quantitation of volatile compounds responsible for off-aromas, such as earthy odors, found in wine and grapes was developed. the method involved a fast and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (hs-spme-gc-ms) for simultaneous determination of 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 3-octanone, fenchone, 1-octen-3-one, trans-2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, ...201525703150
growth simulation and discrimination of botrytis cinerea, rhizopus stolonifer and colletotrichum acutatum using hyperspectral reflectance imaging.this research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like botrytis cinerea, rhizopus stolonifer and colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (his). a hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°c and 85% rh. the fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built ...201526642054
antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of streptomyces hydrogenans the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. colletotrichum acutatum, cladosporium herbarum, alternaria brassicicola, exserohilum sp., alternaria mali, colletotrichum gleospoiroides, alternaria alternata, cercospora sp., fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as streptomyces hydrogenans dh16. application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7)  cfu ml(-1) ...201423765423
antagonistic activity of fungi of olea europaea l. against colletotrichum acutatum.fungi naturally present in olive trees were identified and tested for their antagonistic potential against colletotrichum acutatum. a total of 14 isolates were identified, 12 belonged to genera alternaria, epicoccum, fusarium, aspergillus, anthrinium, chaetomium, diaporthe, nigrospora, one to family xylariaceae and one was unclassified. all fungal isolates showed some inhibitory action over the growth of c. acutatum during dual culture growth, however, when agar-diffusible tests were performed o ...201626805623
pcr-based specific techniques used for detecting the most important pathogens on strawberry: a systematic review.strawberry diseases are a major limiting factor that severely impact plant agronomic performance. regarding limitations of traditional techniques for detection of pathogens, researchers have developed specific dna-based tests as sensitive and specific techniques. the aim of this review is to provide an overview of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods used for detection or quantification of the most widespread strawberry pathogens, such as fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, phytophthora ...201525588564
a promising strain of streptomyces sp. with agricultural traits for growth promotion and disease management.a bacterial strain, streptomyces sp. cimap- a1 was isolated from geranium rhizosphere and identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters (16s rdna gene sequence). phylogenetically, it was found most closely related to s. vinacendrappus, strain nrrl-2363 with 99% sequence similarity. the strain had potential antagonistic activity (in vitro) against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi like stemphylium sp., botrytis cinerea, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, colletotrichum ...201223016493
structural and biochemical characteristics of citrus flowers associated with defence against a fungal pathogen.the constitutive characters of plants can be structural or biochemical and play an important role in their defence against pathogens. citrus postbloom fruit drop (pfd) caused by colletotrichum spp. is one of the most important fungal diseases of citrus. the pathogen infects the flowers, leading to premature fruit drop and reducing citrus production. however, flower buds smaller than 8 mm long are usually not infected by colletotrichum spp. thus, this study investigated whether there are constitu ...201425535209
unveiling members of colletotrichum acutatum species complex causing colletotrichum leaf disease of hevea brasiliensis in sri lanka.colletotrichum is an important fungal genus with great diversity, which causes anthracnose of a variety of crop plants including rubber trees. colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides have been identified as the major causative agents of colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber trees in sri lanka based on morphology, pathogenicity, and the analysis of internally transcribed spacer sequences of the nuclear ribosomal dna. this study has been conducted to investigate the members of t ...201728378161
construction of a system for the strawberry nursery production towards elimination of latent infection of anthracnose fungi by a combination of pcr and microtube of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by colletotrichum acutatum or glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. we here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, dna extraction, synthesis of pcr-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (mth) using a macroarray. the initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract pcr-inhibitor-f ...201728167891
control of postharvest fungal pathogens by antifungal compounds from penicillium expansum.the fungicidal effects of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of penicillium expansum (r82) in culture filtrate and in a double petri dish assay were tested against one isolate each of botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and monilinia laxa and six isolates of p. expansum, revealing inhibitory activity against every pathogen tested. the characterization of volatile organic compounds released by the r82 strain was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic technique ...201324215691
methyl anthranilate and γ-decalactone inhibit strawberry pathogen growth and achene germination.plant volatile compounds have been shown to affect microbial growth and seed germination. here two fruity volatiles found in strawberry ( fragaria × ananassa ), γ-decalactone ("peachlike" aroma) and methyl anthranilate ("grapelike" aroma), were tested for effects on relevant pathogens and seedling emergence. significant growth reduction was observed for botrytis cinerea , colletotrichum gloeosporioides , colletotrichum acutatum , phomopsis obscurans , and gnomonia fragariae at 1 mm γ-decalactone ...201324328200
polyphenols variation in fruits of the susceptible strawberry cultivar alba during ripening and upon fungal pathogen interaction and possible involvement in unripe fruit tolerance.strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) fruit contains high concentrations of health-promoting phenolic compounds, playing important roles for the fruit ontogenic tolerance to fungi. in the highly susceptible cultivar alba, the two major strawberry fungal pathogens, colletotrichum acutatum and botrytis cinerea, displayed disease symptoms only at red ripe stages because immature fruits are tolerant to diseases. we analyzed and compared the variation of 47 polyphenols in the surface of unripe and ripe al ...201626895094
antifungal new oxepine-containing alkaloids and xanthones from the deep-sea-derived fungus aspergillus versicolor scsio 05879.phytopathogenic fungi remain a continuous and huge threat in the agricultural fields. the agrochemical industry has made great development of the use of microbial natural products, which has been regarded as an effective strategy against phytopathogenic fungi. antifungal bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate two new oxepine-containing alkaloids (1 and 2), two new 4-aryl-quinolin-2-one alkaloids (3 and 4), and four new prenylated xanthones (5-8) from the deep-sea-derived fungus aspe ...201626998701
inactivation of plant-pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum with natural plant-produced photosensitizers under solar radiation.the increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides and the need for environmentally friendly antimicrobial approaches have stimulated the development of novel strategies to control plant-pathogenic fungi such as antimicrobial phototreatment (apt). we investigated the in vitro apt of the plant-pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum with furocoumarins and coumarins and solar radiation. the compounds used were: furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-mop) and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (isopimpinellin) ...201627434699
whole genome sequence and genome annotation of colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in south korea.colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of c. acutatum strain kc05, isolated from an infected pepper in kangwon, south korea. genomic dna from the kc05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a pacbio sequencer and the miseq system. the kc05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a g + c content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 g ...201627114908
molecular, phenotypic and pathogenic variability in colletotrichum isolates of subtropical region in north-eastern india, causing fruit rot of study the genetic variability and population structure of colletotrichum species found to be associated with anthracnose of chilli in the north-eastern region of india.201425066262
species of the colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in brazil.although colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in brazil. in this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a dataset of its, his3, gapdh, chs-1, tub2 and act sequences of colletotrichum strains belonging to the c. acutatum species complex from fruits collected in different regions in brazil combined with sequences of ex-ty ...201627020156
characterization of a colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on olive in northern phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity.201626876102
efficacy of sdhi fungicides, including benzovindiflupyr, against colletotrichum species.colletotrichum species cause anthracnose diseases on many plants and crops. a new generation of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (sdhis) was developed recently. the inhibitory activity of the five sdhi fungicides against colletotrichum species was determined in this study.201626732510
the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the ascomycete plant pathogen colletotrichum acutatum.collectotrichum acutatum is a fungal plant pathogen that causes pre- and post-harvest anthracnose on a wide range of plants worldwide. the complete mitochondrial genome of c. acutatum has been determined for the first time. this study revealed that the mitogenome of c. acutatum is a closed circular molecule of 30 892 bp in length, with a g + c content of 34.7%, which include 15 protein-coding genes, 22 trna genes, and two rrna genes. all the protein-coding genes, accounting for 46.6% of the c. a ...201626539901
ultrastructural changes in the epidermis of petals of the sweet orange infected by colletotrichum acutatum.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) is an important disease caused by the fungus colletotrichum acutatum. pfd is characterised by the formation of necrotic lesions on the petals and stigmas of flowers as well as premature abscission of the fruit in citrus spp. we compare the ultrastructure of the epidermis of uninoculated citrus sinensis petals with that of petals inoculated with the fungus to understand the changes that occur upon c. acutatum infection. healthy petals have a cuticle with parallel striat ...201626334287
a revision of the history of the colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the nordic countries based on herbarium specimens.herbaria collections containing plants with disease symptoms are highly valuable, and they are often the only way to investigate outbreaks and epidemics from the past as the number of viable isolates in culture collections is often limited. species belonging to the colletotrichum acutatum complex infect a range of important crops. as members of the c. acutatum complex are easily confused with other colletotrichum species, molecular methods are central for the correct identification. we performed ...201526296707
unfoldome variation upon plant-pathogen interactions: strawberry infection by colletotrichum acutatum.intrinsically disordered proteins (idps) are proteins that lack secondary and/or tertiary structure under physiological conditions. these proteins are very abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and play crucial roles in all molecular mechanisms underlying the response to environmental challenges. in plants, different idps involved in stress response have been identified and characterized. nevertheless, a comprehensive evaluation of protein disorder in plant proteomes under abiotic or biotic stresses ...201526245354
chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of skimmia laureola and juniperus macropoda from western himalaya.the himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. in this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. additionally, the odors are characterized. analyzed by simultaneous gc-ms and gc-fid, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. the main components of skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for ...201526197554
expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.the expression of antifungal genes from trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. however, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. in this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from t. harzianum, under the control of the camv35s promoter, have been generated. after acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunt ...201526178245
molecular diversity of anthracnose pathogen populations associated with uk strawberry production suggests multiple introductions of three different colletotrichum species.fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to rosaceae family. colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. a collection of 148 colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 c. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of uk strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the uk ...201526086351
bacillus subtilis based-formulation for the control of postbloom fruit drop of citrus.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) caused by colletotrichum acutatum affects flowers and causes early fruit drop in all commercial varieties of citrus. biological control with the isolate acb-69 of bacillus subtilis has been considered as a potential method for controlling this disease. this study aimed to develop and optimize a b. subtilis based-formulation with a potential for large-scale applications and evaluate its effect on c. acutatum in vitro and in vivo. bacillus subtilis based-formulations wer ...201627804104
chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of hedychium essential oils.the antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as "biocides" is gaining popularity. the aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of hedychium essential oils. oils from 19 hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) techniques. the antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against colletotrichum acutatum, c ...201323579997
isolation and molecular characterization of a novel strain of bacillus with antifungal activity from the sorghum rhizosphere.we looked for bacterial strains with antifungal activity in the sorghum rhizosphere. a prescreening procedure to search for hemolytic activity among the isolated strains allowed us to detect good fungitoxic activity in a bacterial isolate that we named um96. this bacterial isolate showed strong growth inhibition in bioassays against the pathogens diaporthe phaseolorum, colletotrichum acutatum, rhizoctonia solani, and fusarium oxysporum. the supernatant of isolate um96 also showed strong hemolyti ...201222869080
saccharomyces cerevisiae: a novel and efficient biological control agent for colletotrichum acutatum during this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. we analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of s. cerevisiae on c. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fr ...201525960430
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) based detection of colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in rot, caused by colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. disease-free sugarcane planting materials (setts) are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. the present study was undertaken to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the detection of c. falcatum. c. falcatum genomic dna was isolated from pure mycelium culture and infected tissues. four sets of primers corresponding to a un ...201525861736
growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to uv-b radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum.light conditions can influence fungal development. some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. during the asexual stage on the host plant, colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. these conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. this study examined the ...201525535947
evaluation of leaf wetness duration models for operational use in strawberry disease-warning systems in four us states.leaf wetness duration (lwd) plays a key role in disease development and is often used as an input in disease-warning systems. lwd is often estimated using mathematical models, since measurement by sensors is rarely available and/or reliable. a strawberry disease-warning system called "strawberry advisory system" (sas) is used by growers in florida, usa, in deciding when to spray their strawberry fields to control anthracnose and botrytis fruit rot. currently, sas is implemented at six locations, ...201627180263
postharvest biological control of colletotrichum acutatum on apple by bacillus subtilis hm1 and the structural identification of antagonists.bacillus subtilis hm1 was isolated from the rhizosphere region of halophytes for its antifungal activity against colletotrichum acutatum, the causative agent of anthracnose. treatment of postharvest apples with the cell culture or with a cell-free culture supernatant reduced disease severity 80.7% and 69.4%, respectively. both treatments also exhibited antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. the antifungal substances were purified and analyzed by acid precipitation, g ...201526428548
role of the colletotrichum acutatum sesquiterpene synthase catps in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids.colletotrichum acutatum is a major fungal pathogen of fruit crops, which causes severe yield losses in strawberry production. a potential key factor in plant-pathogen interactions is fungal sesquiterpenoids which have mycotoxic and phytotoxic activities. the first committed step in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis is performed by sesquiterpene synthases (tps). only a few tpss have been functionally characterized from filamentous fungi and none from the genus colletotrichum. despite being an importan ...201627553953
gene family expansions and contractions are associated with host range in plant pathogens of the genus colletotrichum.many species belonging to the genus colletotrichum cause anthracnose disease on a wide range of plant species. in addition to their economic impact, the genus colletotrichum is a useful model for the study of the evolution of host specificity, speciation and reproductive behaviors. genome projects of colletotrichum species have already opened a new era for studying the evolution of pathogenesis in fungi.201627496087
partial activation of sa- and ja-defensive pathways in strawberry upon colletotrichum acutatum interaction.understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. in strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. colletotrichum acutatum s ...201627471515
chemical composition and biological effects of artemisia maritima and artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western himalaya.artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. in this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of artemisia nilagirica and artemisia maritima from the western indian himalaya region are described. the main compounds analyzed by simultaneous gc/ms and gc/fid were camphor and 1,8-cineole from a. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from a. nilagirica. additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquit ...201425127023
detection and characterization of a novel gammapartitivirus in the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum strain hnzj001.spherical virus-like particles about 40nm in diameter were observed under transmission electron microscope (tem) and two dsrna bands (dsrna-1 and dsrna-2) were detected on agarose gel after extraction from the mycelial preparation of a colletotrichum acutatum strain hnzj001 that isolated from an anthracnose lesion on immature pepper fruit. the complete nucleotide sequences of the dsrnas were determined. dsrna-1 (1762 nt) and dsrna-2 (1381 nt) each contained a single open reading frame and potent ...201425008759
antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries.the effect of chlorine dioxide (clo2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. in vitro studies revealed that both clo2 gas fumigation and clo2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus colletotrichum acutatum. in vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. berries were inoculated with either e. coli (5.2 log cfu/g) or c. acutatum (3.9 ...201424988018
marine-derived penicillium in korea: diversity, enzyme activity, and antifungal properties.the diversity of marine-derived penicillium from korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and rna polymerase subunit ii gene. in addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. we tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (colletotrichum acutatum and fu ...201424908060
draft genome sequence of colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (colletotrichum fioriniae).in addition to its economic impact, colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato is an interesting model for molecular investigations due to the diversity of host-determined specialization and reproductive lifestyles within the species complex. the pathogen colletotrichum fioriniae forms part of this species complex and causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops and wild plants worldwide. some members of this species have also been reported to be entomopathogenic. here, we report the draft genome sequenc ...201424723700
the mannose-binding lectin gene fambl1 is involved in the resistance of unripe strawberry fruits to colletotrichum acutatum.the fungal pathogen colletotrichum acutatum is the causal agent of strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) anthracnose. although the fungus can infect strawberry fruits at both unripe and ripe stages, the symptoms appear only on red ripe fruits. on white unripe fruits, the pathogen becomes quiescent as melanized appressoria after 24 h of interaction. previous transcriptome analysis has indicated that a mannose-binding lectin (mbl) gene is the most up-regulated gene in 24-h-infected white strawberries, ...201424690196
gene silencing and gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi using a plant virus vector.rna interference (rnai) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including phytopathogenic fungi. in such fungi, rnai has been induced by expressing hairpin rnas delivered through plasmids, sequences integrated in fungal or plant genomes, or by rnai generated in planta by a plant virus infection. all these approaches have some drawbacks ranging from instability of hairpin constructs in fungal cells to difficulties in preparing and handling transgenic plant ...201424594602
recent introduction and recombination in colletotrichum acutatum populations associated with citrus postbloom fruit drop epidemics in são paulo, brazil.citrus crops in são paulo state, brazil, have been severely affected by postbloom fruit drop disease (pfd), which is caused by colletotrichum acutatum. this disease leads to the drop of up to 100% of young fruits. previous studies have assumed that this pathogen exhibits a clonal reproductive mode, although no population genetic studies have been conducted so far. thus, the genetic structure of six c. acutatum populations from sweet orange orchards showing pfd symptoms was determined using nine ...201424423403
functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. these results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. the ...201424412960
differential resistances to anthracnose in capsicum baccatum as responding to two colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.chili anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. this study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different colletotrichum pathotypes, pca2 and pca3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection ...201324273429
effect of meja treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.the effect of methyl jasmonate (meja) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) meja and wound inoculated with colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °c for 6 days. meja treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. meja treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and ...201424128452
light quality influences the virulence and physiological responses of colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose in pepper explore the effects of light quality on the physiology and pathogenicity of colletotrichum acutatum, we analysed the morphological traits, melanin production and virulence of the pathogen under different light wavelengths.201323663215
composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('carolina sapphire').essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (fc), male cones (mc), needle-twigs (nt) and wood-bark (wb) of 'carolina sapphire' [cupressus arizonica var glabra (sudw.) little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms). the main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: fc: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; mc: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5 ...201323513743
proteomic analysis of conidia germination in colletotrichum acutatum.colletotrichum acutatum is an important phytopathogenic fungus causing anthracnose in commercially important fruit crops, such as strawberry. the conidia produced by the fungus are survival structures which play a key role in host infection and fungal propagation. despite its relevance to the fungal life cycle, conidial biology has not been extensively investigated. here, we provide the first proteomic description of the conidial germination in c. acutatum by comparing the proteomic profiles of ...201323371377
fagast2, a strawberry ripening-related gene, acts together with fagast1 to determine cell size of the fruit receptacle.numerous gast-like genes have been reported in higher plants, but only one gast-like gene (fagast1) has been described in strawberry so far. herein, we have identified a novel strawberry fagast gene (fagast2) whose expression showed an increase throughout fruit receptacle development and ripening, coinciding with those stages where a decrease in fruit expansion processes (g3-w and r-or stages) occurs. fagast2 only shares 31% and 15.7% amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology, respectively, wi ...201323231876
the colletotrichum acutatum species complex.colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. numerous studies have reported subgroups within the c. acutatum species complex. multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (its, act, tub2, chs-1, gapdh, his3) of 331 strains previously identified as c. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series ...201223136458
effect of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on olive anthracnose caused by colletotrichum spp.the influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by colletotrichum acutatum and c. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. detached olive fruit of 'arbequina', 'hojiblanca', and 'picual' were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°c in humid chambers. similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 ...201222957821
isolation and characterization of the colletotrichum acutatum abc transporter caabc1.fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their atp-driven efflux pumps belonging to atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters. to clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cdna library from germinated conidia of colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (capsicum annum l.). over 1,000 cdna clones were sequenced, of which single ...201425506302
antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.the antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled colletotrichum bioassays. turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides. among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investi ...201425173461
bioassay-directed isolation and identification of phytotoxic and fungitoxic acetylenes from conyza canadensis.conyza canadensis (l.) cronquist syn. (horseweed) is a problematic and invasive weed with reported allelopathic properties. to identify the phytotoxic constituents of the aerial parts, a systematic bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract was performed. three active enyne derivatives, (2z,8z)-matricaria acid methyl ester, (4z,8z)-matricaria lactone, and (4z)-lachnophyllum lactone, were identified. the lactones inhibited growth of the monocot agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass ...201222612410
temporal accumulation of salicylic acid activates the defense response against colletotrichum in strawberry.many authors have reported interactions between strawberry cultivars and pathogenic microorganisms, yet little is known about the mechanisms triggered in the plant. in this paper we examine the participation of the salicylic acid (sa) signaling pathway involved in the response of fragaria x ananassa cv. pájaro plants to pathogens. strawberry plants were challenged with the virulent strain m11 of colletotrichum acutatum, or with the avirulent strain m23 of colletotrichum fragariae which confers r ...201222366637
molecular and phytochemical investigation of angelica dahurica and angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against aedes aegypti, stephanitis pyrioides, and colletotrichum this study, angelica dahurica and angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) region as a dna barcode marker. a. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas a. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal ...201425133520
occurrence of anthracnose on highbush blueberry caused by colletotrichum species in korea.a total of 82 isolates of colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the gochang area of korea during a disease survey in 2008. out of the isolates, 75 were identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as c. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. twenty six of c. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph glomerella cingulata in pda culture. three isolates of each c. gloeosporioides and c ...200923983555
antagonistic activities of bacillus spp. strains isolated from tidal flat sediment towards anthracnose pathogens colletotrichum acutatum and c. gloeosporioides in south korea.anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. there have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. a total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the w ...201526060435
antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus cladosporium cladosporioides.bioassay-guided fractionation of cladosporium cladosporioides (fresen.) de vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1; isocladosporin, 2; 5'-hydroxyasperentin, 3; and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. an additional compound, 5',6-diacetylcladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. at 30 μm, comp ...201323651409
effects of rhizobacteria paenibacillus polymyxa apec136 and >bacillus subtilis apec170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. in vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates apec136 and apec170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. analysis of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) sequences identified the two effective isolates as paenibacillus polymyxa and bacillus subtilis, respectively. the two ...201727921398
occurrence of anthracnose on fruits of asian pear tree caused by colletotrichum acutatum.anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of asian pear trees grown in anseong, naju, seonghwan and pyeongtaek in korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. a total of 28 isolates of colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. all the isolates were identified as colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. all t ...200724015105
endophytic fungi associated with leaves of betulaceae in japan.diversity and species composition of endophytic fungi on leaves of 11 tree species in betulaceae were studied, with reference to climatic, tree species, and seasonal variations. a total of 186 fungal isolates were obtained from 190 leaves collected in a subalpine forest, a cool temperate forest, and a subtropical forest in japan, and were divided into 46 operational taxonomic units (otus) according to the base sequences of d1-d2 region of large subunit rdna. the 2 most frequent otus were muscodo ...201222452312
non-cytotoxic antifungal agents: isolation and structures of gageopeptides a-d from a bacillus strain 109ggc020.antifungal resistance and toxicity problems of conventional fungicides highlighted the requirement of search for new safe antifungal agents. to comply with the requirement, we discovered four new non-cytotoxic lipopeptides, gageopeptides a-d, 1-4, from a marine-derived bacterium bacillus subtilis. the structures and stereochemistry of gageopeptides were determined by nmr data analysis and chemical means. gageopeptides exhibited significant antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi rhizocton ...201424857413
characterization of volatile constituents from origanum onites and their antifungal and antibacterial activity.essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (hd) and microwave-assisted hd (mwhd) of origanum onites aerial parts were analyzed by gc and gcims. thirty-one constituents representing 98.6% of the water-distilled oil and 52 constituents representing 99.6% of the microwave-distilled oil were identified. carvacrol (76.8% hd and 79.2% mwhd) and thymol (4.7% hd and 4.4% mwhd) were characterized as major constituents in both essential oils. separation of carvacrol and thymol was achieved by overpressu ...201424645494
Displaying items 101 - 173 of 173