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in vitro studies on the effect of some chemicals on the growth and sporification of penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea.penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea are among the pathogens most frequently affecting apples and grapes after harvest, respectively. we studied the behaviour of these moulds when subjected to different concentrations of methanol (meoh) and dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) as a alternative method to fungicides in controlling postharvest decay of horticultural products. the experiments were performed with 5 cm petri dishes containing pda amended with 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 microl/ml of the two ...201122702192
Modelling the inhibitory effect of copper sulfate on the growth of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea.This study aimed to investigate the effect of copper sulfate (from 0 to 8 mmol kg(-1)) on radial growth rate and lag time of two moulds responsible for vine grapes spoilage: Penicillium expansum strain 25·03 and Botrytis cinerea, strains BC1 and BC2.201121899581
Intraspecific variability of growth and patulin production of 79 Penicillium expansum isolates at two temperatures.Penicillium expansum is the main species responsible for patulin production in apples and pears. Generally, fruit is stored at suboptimal conditions for mould growth and this situation could influence on the intra-species variability in both capability for growth and mycotoxin production. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of suboptimal environmental conditions on the intra-specific variability of P. expansum growth and patulin production using seventy nine isolates of this mould. ...201121925758
study on the role of patulin on pathogenicity and virulence of penicillium expansum.although the antibacterial activity and toxicity to humans and animals of the mycotoxin patulin are well known, its role in the postharvest decay of apples by penicillium expansum has never been investigated. in the present study the gene disruption technique was used to alter the sequence of 6-methyl-salicylic acid synthase, an enzyme involved in the first committed step of patulin biosynthesis. thirty-nine mutants were obtained, however only two of them (m5 and m21) passed the sub-cultural and ...201122189024
synthesis of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines under microwave irradiation in multi-component reactions and their antitumor and antimicrobial activities - part 1.an efficient one-pot synthesis in multi-component system (mrcs) for the preparation of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives from the reaction of 5-amino-1-phenyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)-1h-pyrazole with 4-anisaldehyde and p-substituted β-ketonitriles or with pyruvic acid and some aromatic aldehydes in acetic acid medium. the reactions were carried out by two different techniques, conventional heating and microwave irradiation. these compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-p ...201122178093
conversion of the mycotoxin patulin to the less toxic desoxypatulinic acid by the biocontrol yeast rhodosporidium kratochvilovae strain ls11.the infection of stored apples by the fungus penicillium expansum causes the contamination of fruits and fruit-derived products with the mycotoxin patulin, which is a major issue in food safety. fungal attack can be prevented by beneficial microorganisms, so-called biocontrol agents. previous time-course thin layer chromatography analyses showed that the aerobic incubation of patulin with the biocontrol yeast rhodosporidium kratochvilovae strain ls11 leads to the disappearance of the mycotox ...201121928828
[rapid and high throughput measurement of lipase thermo-stability through ans fluorescence signal assay].we have developed a rapid and high throughput lipase-ans (8-anilino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid) assay to evaluate the thermo-stability of lipases based on the ans fluorescence signal's increasing and shifting when this small fluorescence probes binds to lipase. the testing lipase samples were incubated at a temperature range of 25 degrees c to 65 degrees c for 30 min before mixed with ans solution (0.20 mg/ml lipase and 0.05 mmol/l ans in the buffer of 20 mmol/l tris-hcl, 100 mmol/l nacl, ph 7.2 ...201121847993
surface hydrophobicity of culture and water biofilm of penicillium spp.fungal surface hydrophobicity is involved in several functions in fungal growth and development. water contact angles measurement has been used as a direct and simple approach for its characterisation in solid cultures. microsphere adhesion assay is said to be the best method to assess cell hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi. this study aimed to apply these two methods to study hydrophobicity of penicillium expansum and penicillium brevicompactum grown as mycelial mats in solid culture, liquid ...201122011877
Control of apple blue mold by Pichia pastoris recombinant strains expressing cecropin A.Recombinant Pichia pastoris yeasts expressing cecropin A (GS115/CEC), was evaluated for the control of the blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum due to cecropin A peptide's effective antimicrobial effects on P. expansum spores by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Then, the protein concentration was determined and it was expressed at high levels up to 14.2 mg/L in the culture medium. Meanwhile, the population growth was assayed in vivo. The population growth of recombinant strain GS115/ ...201122108897
antifungal activity of essential oil from asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.the essential oils of the aerial parts of asteriscus graveolens have been studied using gc and gc-ms. twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. the aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. the antifungal effect of the essential oil from a. grav ...201122224306
protein improvement in gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.the ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. alcaligenes faecalis, lactobacillus plantarum, bacillus subtilis, leuconostoc cremoris, aspergillus niger, a. tamari, geotrichum candidum and penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while stan ...201122514894
evaluation of strategies for reducing patulin contamination of apple juice using a farm to fork risk assessment model.the numerous studies conducted so far on the issue of patulin contamination have focused mainly on aspects like growth of penicillium expansum, patulin production under different conditions and the influence of processing on the patulin concentration in apple juice. the purpose of the present study was to collect the necessary information and to develop a quantitative risk assessment model (qram) in order to evaluate different strategies to reduce patulin contamination. for apple juice (aj) prod ...201122265848
antimicrobial activity of cyclodextrin entrapped allyl isothiocyanate in a model system and packaged fresh-cut onions.the aim of this work was to determine the antimicrobial effect of allyl isothiocyanate (ait) entrapped in alpha and beta cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (ics). in model experiments, ait formulations were applied to filter paper discs fixed inside the lid of petri dishes, where the agar surface was inoculated with the target organism (penicillium expansum, escherichia coli or listeria monocytogenes). solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography was used to determine static headspa ...201122265303
biocontrol of postharvest gray and blue mold decay of apples with rhodotorula mucilaginosa and possible mechanisms of action.the efficacy of rhodotorula mucilaginosa against postharvest gray mold, blue mold and natural decay development of apples and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. the decay incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold and blue mold of apples treated by r. mucilaginosa were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher concentration of r. mucilaginosa, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. r. mucilaginosa also significantly reduced the natural decay deve ...201121402429
antioxidant, antihypertensive and antimicrobial properties of ovine milk caseinate hydrolyzed with a microbial protease.background: bioactive peptides might be released from precursor proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis. these molecules could be potentially employed in health and food products. in this investigation, ovine milk caseinate hydrolysates obtained with a novel microbial protease derived from bacillus sp. p7 were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory activities. results: antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin ...201121560133
effects of the origins of botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with penicillium expansum.earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. these volatile compounds are produced on grapes by botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum and/or a combination of p. expansum and b. cinerea strains. b. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in spain and portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). a novel headspace- ...201121569951
hydrogen peroxide acts on sensitive mitochondrial proteins to induce death of a fungal pathogen revealed by proteomic analysis.how the host cells of plants and animals protect themselves against fungal invasion is a biologically interesting and economically important problem. here we investigate the mechanistic process that leads to death of penicillium expansum, a widespread phytopathogenic fungus, by identifying the cellular compounds affected by hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) that is frequently produced as a response of the host cells. we show that plasma membrane damage was not the main reason for h(2)o(2)-induced dea ...201121755012
Effect of inoculation with Penicillium expansum on the microbial community and maturity of compost.Compost prepared from wheat straw and cattle/chicken mature was inoculated with the lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium expansum. Compared to uninoculated compost, the inoculated compost exhibited a 150% higher germination index, more than 1.2 g kg(-1)-dw of changes in NH(4)(+)-N concentrations, a ca. 12.0% higher humus content and a lignocellulose degradation that proceeded 57.5% faster. Culture-based determinations of microbial populations demonstrated that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and ...201122000966
cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of aureobasidium pullulans pl5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.an alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic dna and cdna of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus aureobasidium pullulans pl5, a biocontrol agent effective against monilinia laxa on stone fruit and botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on pome fruits. an open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (m(r)) of 42.9 kda and an isoelectric point (pi) of 4.5 was characterized. the cdnaalp5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, o ...201122225984
antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °c were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (ps) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. the isolated molds were penicillium expansum, cladosporium herbarum, and aspergillus niger from apples. p. oxalicum and c. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and p. expansium and c. fulvum from tomatoes. guar gum edible coating incorporated with ps was the most effective mold inhibitor, signifi ...201121535846
yeast biocontrol of fungal spoilage of pears stored at low temperature.to reduce the use of fungicides, biological control with yeasts has been proposed in postharvest pears. most studies of antagonists selection have been carried out at room temperature. however, in regions like north patagonia where fruits are stored at -1/0°c during 5-7months the selection of potential antagonist agents must be carried out at low temperature. in this study, 75 yeast cultures were isolated from healthy pears from two patagonian cold-storage packinghouses. aureobasidium pullulans, ...201121546110
effects of rhamnolipid on the cellulase and xylanase in hydrolysis of wheat straw.the effects of biosurfactant rhamnolipid (rl) and chemical surfactant triton x-100 on the production of cellulases and xylanase from penicillium expansum (p. expansum) in untreated, acid- and alkali-pretreated wheat straw submerged fermentations were studied, and the influences on the activity and stability of cellulase r-10 were also investigated. the results showed that rl and triton x-100 enhanced the activities of cellulases and xylanase to different extents and the stimulatory effects of rl ...201121478013
pichia anomala in biocontrol for apples: 20 years of fundamental research and practical applications.fungal pathogens such as botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum and the gloeosporioides group are mainly responsible for important economical losses of post-harvest apples. application of biological control agents (bcas) is an emerging alternative to synthetic fungicides. however, before becoming an economically feasible alternative to chemical control, bcas have to satisfy different requirements related to biological, technological and toxicological properties. the different steps for a success ...201121222032
effect of heat shock treatment on stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of metschnikowia fructicola.the effect of high temperature and oxidative stress on the cell viability of the yeast antagonist, metschnikowia fructicola was determined. a mild heat shock (hs) pretreatment (30 min at 40 °c) improved the tolerance of m. fructicola to subsequent high temperature (45 °c, 20-30 min) and oxidative stress (0.4 mol l?¹ hydrogen peroxide, 20-60 min). hs-treated yeast cells showed less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros) than nontreated cells in response to both stresses. additionally, hs-t ...201121223330
environmental scanning electron microscopy characterization of the adhesion of conidia from penicillium expansum to cedar wood substrata at different ph values.initial microbial adhesion to surfaces is a complicated process that is affected by a number of factors. an important property of a solution that may influence adhesion is ph. the surface properties of the cedar wood were characterized by the sessile drop technique. moreover, the interfacial free energy of surface adhesion to the cedar wood was determined under ph values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). the results showed that cedar wood examined at different ph levels could be considered hydrophobic ran ...201122805953
biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using aspergillus and penicillium strains.in this study, we have investigated the biochemical behaviour of aspergillus sp. (five strains) and penicillium expansum (one strain) fungi cultivated on waste cooking olive oil. the production of lipid-rich biomass was the main target of the work. in parallel, the biosynthesis of other extracellular metabolites (organic acids) and enzyme (lipase) and the substrate fatty acid specificity of the strains were studied.201121281409
glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum.the effect of h2o2-induced oxidative stress on the viability of the yeast antagonist, cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (gb) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. gb treatment improved the tolerance of c. infirmominiatum to oxidative stress. compared to untreated control yeast cells, gb-treated cells showed less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and a lower level of protein oxidation in response to oxidative str ...201121353322
lactobacillus amylovorus dsm 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. the reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. in this study lactobacillus amylovorus dsm19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. among the indi ...201121429613
the trace analysis of microorganisms in real samples by combination of a filtration microcartridge and capillary isoelectric focusing.trace analysis of microorganisms in real biological samples needs very sensitive methods for their detection. most procedures for detecting and quantifying pathogens require a sample preparation step including concentrating microorganisms from large sample volumes with high and reproducible efficiency. electromigration techniques have great potential to include the preconcentration, separation, and detection of whole cells and therefore they can rapidly indicate the presence of pathogens. the pr ...201121499678
antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. zno nps with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (sem), and raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of zno nps and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellula ...201120630731
antimicrobial evaluation of huilliche plant medicine used to treat wounds.the traditional use of 40 plant species used for treatment of wounds and associated infections by the huilliche people of chile was evaluated against bacterial and fungal human pathogens, especially including wound pathogens.201121939748
inhibition of growth of trichophyton tonsurans by lactobacillus reuteri.aim:  the aims of this study were to identify antifungal lactic acid bacteria (lab) and characterize their activity against the dermatophyte trichophyton tonsurans. methods and results:  a total of 165 different lab were isolated and initially screened for anti-penicillium expansum activity. five strains, which exhibited strong inhibitory activity, were then tested against the dermatophyte t. tonsurans dsm12285, where they also caused inhibition as observed by large fungal clearing on agar surfa ...201121645181
oxidative damage involves in the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on spore germination of penicillium expansum.the effects of nitric oxide (no) on spore germination of penicillium expansum were investigated and a possible mechanism was evaluated. the results indicated that no released by sodium nitroprusside (snp) significantly suppressed fungal growth. with the use of an oxidant sensitive probe and western blot analysis, an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ros) and enhanced carbonylation damage were detected in spores of p. expansum under no stress. exogenous superoxide dismutas ...201120593183
Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions.Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage tempera ...201222029919
relation between germination and mycelium growth of individual fungal spores.the relation between germination time and lag time of mycelium growth of individual spores was studied by combining microscopic and macroscopic techniques. the radial growth of a large number (100-200) of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger mycelia originating from single spores was monitored macroscopically at isothermal conditions ranging from 0 to 30°c and 10 to 41.5°c, respectively. the radial growth curve for each mycelium was fitted to a linear model for the estimation of mycelium l ...201223337123
growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans.the inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (dp) and different degrees of acetylation (fa) on the growth rates (gr) of four phytopathogenic fungi (alternaria alternata, botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of the chitosans ranged from 100 μg ×ml(-1) to 1,000 μg ×ml(-1) depending on the fungus tested and the dp an ...201224031893
in vitro antifungal activity of burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against some phytopathogenic fungi.the trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (bga). the aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. the fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against botrytis cine ...201223208371
antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts.the biopreservation of foods using bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (lab) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteriocinogenic lab from various cheeses and yogurts and evaluate their antimicrobial effects on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro as well as on a food commodity.lab were isolated using mrs and m17 media. the agar diffusion bioassay was used to screen for bacteriocin or bacterioci ...201222963659
characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production.the background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. the microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. the latter group was dominated by penicillium spp. and aspergillus nig ...201223290240
the effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.the consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (nacl). the reduction of nacl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. calcium propionate (cp) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. this work addresses the feasibility of nacl reduction in wheat bread focussing ...201222569634
modeling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions.the germination of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger spores was monitored microscopically on malt extract agar at isothermal conditions ranging from 0 to 33°c and 5 to 41.5°c, respectively. the obtained germination data, expressed as percentage of germination (% p) versus time, were fitted to the modified gompertz equation for the estimation of the germination kinetic parameters (lag time, λ(g), and germination rate, μ(g)), which were further modeled as a function of temperature via the ...201221885146
identification of antimicrobial compound, diketopiperazines, from a bacillus sp. n strain associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode against major plant pathogenic fungi.to purify and characterize antimicrobial compounds from bacillus sp. strain n associated with rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode (epn).201222747978
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of penicillium expansum pe-12 and its application in molecular breeding.lipase produced by penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. in this work, agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was investigated for p. expansum pe-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. as a result, we revealed that the ...201223265791
use of gfp-tagged strains of penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum to study host-pathogen interactions in oranges and apples.penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum are responsible for green and blue molds in citrus and pome fruits, respectively, which result in major monetary losses worldwide. in order to study their infection process in fruits, we successfully introduced a green fluorescent protein (gfp) encoding gene into wild type p. digitatum and p. expansum isolates, using agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt), with hygromycin b resistance as the selectable marker. to our knowledge, thi ...201223177056
optimising the number of isolates to be used to estimate growth parameters of mycotoxigenic species.the aim of the present work was to mathematically assess the minimum number of isolates that would lead to equivalent growth parameters estimates to those obtained with a high number of strains. the datasets from two previous works on 30 aspergillus carbonarius isolates and 62 penicillium expansum isolates were used for this purpose. first, the datasets were used to produce a global estimation of growth parameters μ (growth rate, mm/d) and λ (time to visible growth, d) under the different experi ...201222986186
pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, candida oleophila, with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds.in response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ros). ros production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. these phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeast antagonists. it has been demonstrated that pre-exposure of some of these yeast antagonists to sublethal abiotic stress (heat or hydrogen peroxide), or stress-ameliorating compounds such as glycine bet ...201222560021
increase in antioxidant gene transcripts, stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of candida oleophila following sublethal oxidative stress exposure.a pretreatment of the yeast, candida oleophila, with 5 mm h(2)o(2) for 30 min (sublethal) increased yeast tolerance to subsequent lethal levels of oxidative stress (50 mm h(2)o(2)), high temperature (40 °c), and low ph (ph 4). compared with non-stress-adapted yeast cells, stress-adapted cells exhibited better control of apple fruit infections by penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea and had initially higher growth rates in apple wounds. suppression subtractive hybridization analysis was used ...201222313238
[investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific ige levels in students' sera].atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. this study was a ...201222639315
cytotoxic polyphenols from the fungus penicillium expansum 091 006 endogenous with the mangrove plant excoecaria agallocha.as part of our ongoing chemical investigation of biologically active metabolites from marine-derived fungi, four new polyphenols containing both phenolic bisabolane and diphenyl ether units, expansols c-f (1-4), and one new diphenyl ether derivative, 3-o-methyldiorcinol (5), as well as twelve known compounds (6-17), were isolated from penicillium expansum 091006 endogenous with the mangrove plant excoecaria agallocha (euphorbiaceae). the structures of the new metabolites were determined on the b ...201223059631
patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived penicillium strains.genus penicillium represents an important fungal group regarding to its mycotoxin production. secondary metabolomes of eight marine-derived strains belonging to subgenera furcatum and penicillium were investigated using dereplication by liquid chromatography (lc)-diode array detector (dad)-mass spectrometry (ms)/ms. each strain was grown on six different culture media to enhance the number of observable metabolites. thirty-two secondary metabolites were detected in crude extracts with twenty fir ...201222954338
alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by penicillium expansum in plums (prunus domestica l.).in the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. among them potassium sorbate (ks) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. it acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, ...201223885418
ultrasound application for the control of decay on apple at different stage of ripening.ultrasonic technology is known for many years and is used for several purposes such as sonochemistry, extraction of natural compounds, degassing of solvent, inactivation of enzymes and microorganism. in postharvest ultrasound is applied in not destructive analysis of crop for the determination of the maturation stage. until now, however, the potential of the sonication as a physical mean for not conventional postharvest treatment of fresh fruit has been little investigated. here we report on the ...201223885417
regioselective enzymatic undecylenoylation of 8-chloroadenosine and its analogs with biomass-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran as solvent.2-methyltetrahydrofuran (methf), a biomass-derived compound, is a promising medium for biocatalysis and organometallic reactions. the regioselective acylation of 8-chloroadenosine (8-cl-ado) and its analogs was carried out in methf with immobilized penicillium expansum lipase. the lipase displayed more than twofold higher catalytic activity and much better thermostability in methf than in other organic solvents and co-solvent systems. the optimum reaction medium, enzyme dosage, molar ratio of vi ...201222705510
effects of esterified lactoferrin and lactoferrin on control of postharvest blue mold of apple fruit and their possible mechanisms of action.the effects of esterified lactoferrin (elf) and lactoferrin (lf) on blue mold caused by penicillium expansum in apple fruit stored at 25 °c were investigated. both elf and lf provided an effective control and strongly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of p. expansum in vitro. assessment by propidium iodide staining combined with fluorescent microscopy revealed that the plasma membrane of p. expansum spores was damaged more seriously by elf than by lf treatment, and the leakage ...201222663181
biodiversity of antifungal lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat over one-year period.antifungal lactic acid bacteria (alab) biodiversity was evaluated in raw milk from ewe, cow and goat over one year period. lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using 8 semi-selective media, and systematically screened for their antifungal activity against 4 spoilage fungi commonly encountered in dairy products. depending on the selective medium, between 0.05% (elliker agar) and 5.5% (lamvab agar) screened colonies showed an antifungal activity. the great majority of these active colonies origina ...201222364725
a penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, gox2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest maceration of fruit through secretion of total, d-gluconic acid (gla). two p. expansum glucose oxidase (gox)-encoding genes, gox1 and gox2, were analyzed. gox activity and gla accumulation were strongly related to gox2 expression, which increased with ph to a maximum at ph 7.0, whereas gox1 was expressed at ph 4.0, where no gox activity or extracellular gla were detected. this differential expression was also obse ...201222352719
substitution of val72 residue alters the enantioselectivity and activity of penicillium expansum lipase.error-prone pcr was used to create more active or enantioselective variants of penicillium expansum lipase (pel). a variant with a valine to glycine substitution at residue 72 in the lid structure exhibited higher activity and enantioselectivity than those of wild-type pel. site-directed saturation mutagenesis was used to explore the sequence-function relationship and the substitution of val72 of p. expansum lipase changed both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity greatly. the variant v72a, ...201322972595
sustainable bio-production of styrene from forest waste.a strain of penicillium expansum was studied for the production of styrene using forest waste biomass as a feeding substrate. the fungal strain was cultivated on bark of various trees supplemented with yeast extract and the volatiles produced were collected on tenax ta and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. fungus cultured on grated soft bark of pine (pinus sylvestris) stems (gpb) and mature bark of oak (quercus robur) supplemented with yeast extract produced relatively the highes ...201323899574
kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. the current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (uv) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. the r-52g mineralight® uv bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. it was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6 ...201323729413
genetic structure and natural variation associated with host of origin in penicillium expansum strains causing blue mould.blue mould, caused by penicillium expansum, is one of the most economically damaging postharvest diseases of pome fruits, although it may affect a wider host range, including sweet cherries and table grapes. several reports on the role of mycotoxins in plant pathogenesis have been published, but few focussed on the influence of mycotoxins on the variation in host preference amongst producing fungi. in the present study the influence of the host on p. expansum pathogenicity/virulence was investig ...201323728428
carboxyl ester hydrolase from penicillium expansum: cloning, characterization and overproduction by penicillium griseoroseum.in this study, a gene that encodes a carboxylesterase (carb) in penicillium expansum gf was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed by penicillium griseoroseum pg63, and the enzyme was characterized.201323581645
molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum field-strains resistant to benzimidazole fungicides were isolated in high frequency from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of imathia, n. greece. in vitro fungitoxicity tests resulted in the identification of two different resistant phenotypes: highly (ben-hr) and moderately (ben-mr) carbendazim-resistant. thirty seven percent of the isolated p. expansum strains belonged to the ben-hr phenotype, carried no appare ...201323454814
molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from penicillium expansum pe-12.penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. we isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (pegpd) from p. expansum pe-12 through reverse transcriptase pcr and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cdna ends (race-pcr). the gene is 1266 bp long, including an orf of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. a phylogenetic tree based on gpd proteins showed that p. expansum is close to aspergillus speci ...201323420404
antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of breonadia salicina.breonadia salicina is used traditionally to treat wounds, ulcers, fevers, headaches, and fungal infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the plant extract and compounds isolated there from.201323727185
enhanced synthesis of andrographolide by aspergillus niger and penicillium expansum elicitors in cell suspension culture of andrographis paniculata (burm. f.) nees.andrographis paniculata (burm. f.) nees is an important medicinal plant which has enormous applications in pharmaceutical industries. cell suspension culture of andrographis paniculata (burm. f.) nees. was treated with aspergillus niger and penicillium expansum elicitors to enhance the synthesis of andrographolide, the bioactive constituent of a. paniculata.201328510886
enzymatic regioselective acylation of nucleosides in biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: kinetic study and enzyme substrate recognition.enzymatic regioselective acylation of pyrimidine nucleosides was mediated by immobilized lipase from penicillium expansum in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (methf), a bio-solvent derived from biomass. despite of the moderate dissolution ability of methf toward nucleosides, the initial enzymatic reaction rate was much higher in this eco-friendly solvent than in other commonly used organic solvents. this could be explained by the lower apparent activation energy of the enzymatic reaction (24.5 vs. 43.3-5 ...201323337886
penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.the pine weevil hylobius abietis (l.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of europe and asia. to identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from h. abietis feces and frass. female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. we hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass ...201323297108
effects of aliphatic aldehydes on the growth and patulin production of penicillium expansum in apple juice.the effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3-10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of penicillium expansum were examined. when p. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (e)-2-butenal, (e)-2-pentenal, and (e)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/ml respectively. vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. treatment of t ...201323291770
effect of different gras compounds in the control of apples blue mould.the most important pathogen for apples is penicillium expansum that is the causal organism of blue mould. postharvest losses are controlled with chemical fungicides such as tbz but a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. in the search of new environment and consumer friendly technologies that can reduce toxic residues, the use of gras compounds represent a valid alternative to the use of ...201325151836
native pears of sardinia affect penicillium expansum pathogenesis.penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of pome fruits and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. the occurrence of natural resistance against different hostpathogens, has been evidenced in some pear accessions of the sardinian germoplasm. the aim of this research was to correlate p. expansum growth and patulin production on these indigenous pear accessions. in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with seven accessions ('sarmentina', 'vacchesa ...201325151833
inhibition of penicillium expansum by an oxidative treatment.several oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (naclo) and hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) are used to control postharvest decay in fresh fruit due to their antimicrobial effects. here, we applied these compounds in vitro, in the presence of cuso(4), against penicillium expansum, causal agent of apple blue mold. mics were 50 mg l(-1) and 400 mmol l(-1) for naclo and h(2)o(2), respectively, when these compounds were individually applied to conidia suspensions during 2 min. a combined oxidat ...201323200664
antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. p. expansum and a. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. indeed 1.5% ...201324029024
chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of moringa oleifera lam. cultivated in mozambique.the antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of moringa oleifera (moringaceae) grown in mozambique was investigated. the chemical composition was studied by means of gc and gc-ms analysis. hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. ultra high performance chromatography-dad analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). the essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging cap ...201324022760
efficacy and putative mode of action of native and commercial antagonistic yeasts against postharvest pathogens of pear.putative mechanisms of action associated with the biocontrol capacity of four yeast strains (cryptoccocus albidus npcc 1248, pichia membranifaciens npcc 1250, cryptoccocus victoriae npcc 1263 and npcc 1259) against penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea were studied by means of in vitro and in situ assays. c. albidus(yp), a commercial yeast was also evaluated for comparative purposes. the yeast strains exhibited a variety of different mechanisms including: wound colonization, germination inhi ...201323680800
interaction with penicillium expansum enhances botrytis cinerea growth in grape juice medium and prevents patulin accumulation in vitro.interactions between fungi occur when they grow on the same host plant. this is the case of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape. p. expansum is also responsible for production of the mycotoxin patulin. in this study, the influence of the interaction between both fungi on fungal growth parameters was studied as well as the effect on the accumulation of patulin by p. expansum. for that purpose, spores of b. cinerea and p. expansum were inoculated together (mixed inoculum), and the p ...201323384314
a gene encoding a new cold-active lipase from an antarctic isolate of penicillium expansum.cold-active lipases are of significant interest as biocatalysts in industrial processes. we have identified a lipase that displayed activity towards long carbon-chain-p-nitrophenyl substrates (c12-c18) at 25 °c from the culture supernatant of an antarctic penicillium expansum strain assigned p. expansum sm3. zymography revealed a protein band of around 30 kda with activity towards olive oil. dna fragments of a lipase gene designated as lippe were isolated from the genomic dna of p. expansum sm3 ...201323779196
comparison of antifungal activities of vietnamese citrus essential oils.citrus essential oils (eos) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. in this study, inhibition of citrus eos extracted from vietnamese orange (citrus sinensis), mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco), pomelo (citrus grandis osbeck) and lime (citrus aurantifolia swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, mucor hiemalis, penicillium expansum and fusarium proliferatum was investigated. the eos of the citrus peels were obtained by c ...201322799453
antifungal and antipatulin activity of gluconobacter oxydans isolated from apple surface.fungicides are the most common agents used in postharvest treatment of fruit and are the most effective against blue mould, primarily caused by penicillium expansum. alternatively, blue mould can be treated with antagonistic microorganisms naturally occurring on fruit, such as the bacterium gluconobacter oxydans. the aim of this study was to establish the antifungal potential of the g. oxydans 1j strain isolated from apple surface against penicillium expansum in culture and apple juice and to co ...201323819937
efficacy of pichia caribbica in controlling blue mold rot and patulin degradation in apples.the efficacy of pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by penicillium expansum was investigated. the decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by p. caribbica was significantly reduced compared with the control samples, and the higher the concentration of p. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. p. caribbica significantly controlled the natural decay development of apples following ...201323416552
effect of pyrimethanil on cryptococcus laurentii, rhodosporidium paludigenum, and rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.the effect of biocontrol yeasts and pyrimethanil at low concentration on inhibition of blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit was investigated. pyrimethanil at low concentration (40μg/ml) alone had little inhibitory activity against the p. expansum infection in pear fruit wounds although it was effective in inhibiting the survival of p. expansum on asp-agar medium. pyrimethanil at this low concentration significantly enhanced the efficacy of cryptococcus laurentii at 1×10(7)c ...201323673061
control of postharvest fungal pathogens by antifungal compounds from penicillium expansum.the fungicidal effects of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of penicillium expansum (r82) in culture filtrate and in a double petri dish assay were tested against one isolate each of botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and monilinia laxa and six isolates of p. expansum, revealing inhibitory activity against every pathogen tested. the characterization of volatile organic compounds released by the r82 strain was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic technique ...201324215691
a survey of insect assemblages responding to volatiles from a ubiquitous fungus in an agricultural landscape.we report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. we tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. we evaluated insect attraction to fungal cultures and synthetic compounds identified in fungal headspace (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol) in a spearmint (mentha spicata l.) plantation. three ...201323564294
broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.a large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (lab), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould penicillium expansum. in excess of 500 lab isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against p. expansum, penicillium digitatum, penicillium notatum, penicillium roqueforti, rhizopus stolonifer, fusarium culmorum, aspergillus fumigatus and rhodotorula mucilagi ...201323160868
a synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying uv-c light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.the effectiveness of ultraviolet-c light (uv-c; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kjm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (sbc), to control plum (prunus domestica cv stanley) postharvest decay caused by penicillium expansum l. and botrytis cinerea was investigated. first, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees c with 90% rh for 7 days. in the second experiment, treatments wer ...201325151834
postharvest grape infection of botrytis cinerea and its interactions with other moulds under withering conditions to produce noble-rotten grapes.to investigate the interactions between botrytis cinerea and other moulds during grape withering and postharvest infection to obtain noble-rotten grapes.201323163324
biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and ascaris suum eggs.the in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of ascaris suum was evaluated. the fungi tested were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium expansum, fusarium oxysporum and trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of lodz (poland). each species was co-cultured with a. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°c for 60 days. each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmenta ...201323534981
characterization of antifungal activity of the gh-46 subclass iii chitosanase from bacillus circulans mh-k1.we characterized the antifungal activity of the bacillus circulans subclass iii mh-k1 chitosanase (mh-k1 chitosanase), which is one of the most intensively studied glycoside hydrolases (ghs) that belong to gh family 46. mh-k1 chitosanase inhibited the growth of zygomycetes fungi, rhizopus and mucor, even at 10 pmol (0.3 μg)/ml culture probably via its fungistatic effect. the amino acid substitution e37q abolished the antifungal activity of mh-k1 chitosanase, but retained binding to chitotriose. ...201323892828
diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of tunisia.a total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (lab) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16s-23s and 16s rrna gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera lactococcus, pediococcus, lactobacillus, weissella, and enterococcus. all the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were eps producers, while only 1 ...201324151598
optimization of media and temperature for enhanced antimicrobial production by bacteria associated with rhabditis sp.entomopathogenic nematodes, belonging to the family heterorhabditis and steinernematidae, are reported to be symbiotically associated with specific bacteria and the secondary metabolites produced by these bacteria possess antimicrobial activity. in this study, bacteria were isolated from nematodes belonging to the family rhabditidae, and the antimicrobial activity was tested against four bacteria viz. bacillus subtilis mtcc 2756, staphylococcus aureus mtcc 902, escherichia coli mtcc 2622, and ps ...201323825731
sequencing, physical organization and kinetic expression of the patulin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillium expansum.patulin is a polyketide-derived mycotoxin produced by numerous filamentous fungi. among them, penicillium expansum is by far the most problematic species. this fungus is a destructive phytopathogen capable of growing on fruit, provoking the blue mold decay of apples and producing significant amounts of patulin. the biosynthetic pathway of this mycotoxin is chemically well-characterized, but its genetic bases remain largely unknown with only few characterized genes in less economic relevant speci ...201425120234
hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest storage of fresh-cut pears (pyrus pyrifolia) by alleviation of oxidative damage and inhibition of fungal growth.hydrogen sulfide (h2s) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. here, we investigated the role of h2s in the decay of fresh-cut pears (pyrus pyrifolia). h2s gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (nahs) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. moreover, h2s maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. h2s significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (h2o2), superoxide radicals ( ...201424454881
antifungal activity of lactobacilli and its relationship with 3-phenyllactic acid production.in this study, 13 lactic acid bacteria (lab) strains (including 5 lactobacillus casei, 2 lactobacillus rhamnosus, 2 lactobacillus fermentum, 1 lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 lactobacillus plantarum, 1 lactobacillus sakei, and 1 lactobacillus reuteri species) were assessed for both their antifungal activity against four food spoilage molds (colletotrichum gloeosporioides, botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and aspergillus flavus) and their capability to produce the novel antimicrobial compound ...201424412414
survey of molds, yeast and alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. this study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macrosco ...201424948913
biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from aureobasidium pullulans expressed in pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.the yeast-like fungus aureobasidium pullulans pl5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. the strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. the alkaline serine protease gene alp5 from a. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector ppic9 to construct ppic9/alp5, and then expressed in pichia pastoris strain km71. alp5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kda after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°c. the recombinant protease ...201424854386
lag time for germination of penicillium chrysogenum conidia is induced by temperature shifts.in the environment, fungal conidia are subject to transient conditions. in particular, temperature is varying according to day/night periods. all predictive models for germination assume that fungal spores can adapt instantaneously to changes of temperature. the only study that supports this assumption (gougouli and koutsoumanis, 2012, modelling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. international journal of food microbiology, 152: 153-161) was carried o ...201424929731
purification and identification of two antifungal cyclic dipeptides from bacillus cereus subsp. thuringiensis associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode especially against fusarium oxysporum.the cell-free culture filtrate of bacillus cereus subsp. thuringiensis associated with an entomopathogenic nematode (epn), rhabditis (oscheius) sp., exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. the ethyl acetate extract of the bacterial culture filtrate was purified by silica gel column chromatography to obtain two cyclic dipeptides (cdps). the structure and absolute stereochemistry of this compound were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (fabms, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h cosy ...201423402421
effects of chitosan from cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (vitis labrusca l.).this study aimed to obtain chitosan (chi) from cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (csl)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained chi in inhibiting botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (vitis labrusca l.). moreover, the influence of chi-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. according ...201424321603
diversity of soil fungi in north 24 parganas and their antagonistic potential against leucinodes orbonalis guen. (shoot and fruit borer of brinjal).soil samples were collected from agricultural fields and gardens in north 24 parganas, west bengal, and fungi species were isolated from them. thirty-one fungal species were isolated with 19 found in agricultural soil and 28 in garden soil. twenty-eight out of 31 were identified using cultural and microscopic characters, and three were unidentified. the diversity of isolated fungi was calculated by simpson's diversity index. the garden soil possessed more fungal colonies (750) than agricultural ...201425213561
phenotypic comparison of clinical and plant-beneficial strains of pantoea agglomerans.certain strains of pantoea are used as biocontrol agents for the suppression of plant diseases. however, their commercial registration is hampered in some countries because of biosafety concerns. this study compares clinical and plant-beneficial strains of p. agglomerans and related species using a phenotypic analysis approach in which plant-beneficial effects, adverse effects in nematode models, and toxicity were evaluated. plant-beneficial effects were determined as the inhibition of apple fru ...201426418852
ascorbic acid enhances oxidative stress tolerance and biological control efficacy of pichia caribbica against postharvest blue mold decay of apples.the effect of ascorbic acid (vc) on improving oxidative stress tolerance of pichia caribbica and biocontrol efficacy against blue mold caused by penicillium expansum on apples was investigated. p. caribbica showed susceptibility to the oxidative stress in vitro test, and 250 μg/ml vc treatment improved its oxidative stress tolerance. the higher viability exhibited by vc-treated yeast was associated with a lower intracellular ros level. the activities of antioxidant enzymes of p. caribbica were i ...201425029482
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