cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of aureobasidium pullulans pl5 involved in the biological control of postharvest alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic dna and cdna of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus aureobasidium pullulans pl5, a biocontrol agent effective against monilinia laxa on stone fruit and botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on pome fruits. an open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (m(r)) of 42.9 kda and an isoelectric point (pi) of 4.5 was characterized. the cdnaalp5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, o ...201122225984
self-organizing maps and support vector regression as aids to coupled chromatography: illustrated by predicting spoilage in apples using volatile organic compounds.the paper describes the application of soms (self-organizing maps) and svr (support vector regression) to pattern recognition in gc-ms (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). the data are applied to two groups of apples, one which is a control and one which has been inoculated with penicillium expansum and which becomes spoiled over the 10-day period of the experiment. gc-ms of spme (solid phase microextraction) samples of volatiles from these apples were recorded, on replicate samples, over tim ...201021215863
genotypic identification of penicillium expansum and the role of processing on patulin presence in juice.this work aimed at isolation and identification of patulin producing fungi and to follow the presence of patulin during apple juice processing. among 34 penicillium isolates, eight isolates (five from healthy appeared apples and 12 from rot spotted apples) were considered as patulin producers using thin-layer chromatography. these isolates were classically identified as a penicillium expansum. pcr utilizing primers based on the polygalacturonase gene of p. expansum was applied for detecting this ...201021193007
modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. the aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. different levels of spore suspensions of aspergillus carbonarius and penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (me ...201020688232
influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by byssochlamys nivea and byssochlamys fulva.although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during storage and distribution. in this study, the production of patulin by byssochlamys spp (byssochlamys nivea frr 4421, b. nivea atcc 24008 and byssochlamys fulva ioc 4518) in cloudy and clarified apple juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages or in polyethylene ...201020633943
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of penicillium expansum pe-12 and its application in molecular breeding.lipase produced by penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. in this work, agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was investigated for p. expansum pe-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. as a result, we revealed that the ...201223265791
antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. zno nps with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (sem), and raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of zno nps and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellula ...201120630731
sensitivity of penicillium expansum field isolates to tebuconazole, iprodione, fludioxonil and cyprodinil and characterization of fitness parameters and patulin production.a total of 236 penicillium expansum field isolates from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of imathia, northern greece were tested for their sensitivity to tebuconazole, fludioxonil, iprodione and cyprodinil. preliminary fungitoxicity tests on the response of the isolates showed several phenotypes, distinguished according to their sensitivity to fungicides tested. the ec(50) values ranged from 0.64 to 5 (average = 0.98) μg/ml for ipro ...201021251724
diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of tunisia.a total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (lab) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16s-23s and 16s rrna gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera lactococcus, pediococcus, lactobacillus, weissella, and enterococcus. all the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were eps producers, while only 1 ...201324151598
biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using aspergillus and penicillium this study, we have investigated the biochemical behaviour of aspergillus sp. (five strains) and penicillium expansum (one strain) fungi cultivated on waste cooking olive oil. the production of lipid-rich biomass was the main target of the work. in parallel, the biosynthesis of other extracellular metabolites (organic acids) and enzyme (lipase) and the substrate fatty acid specificity of the strains were studied.201121281409
glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum.the effect of h2o2-induced oxidative stress on the viability of the yeast antagonist, cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (gb) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. gb treatment improved the tolerance of c. infirmominiatum to oxidative stress. compared to untreated control yeast cells, gb-treated cells showed less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and a lower level of protein oxidation in response to oxidative str ...201121353322
biocontrol of postharvest gray and blue mold decay of apples with rhodotorula mucilaginosa and possible mechanisms of action.the efficacy of rhodotorula mucilaginosa against postharvest gray mold, blue mold and natural decay development of apples and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. the decay incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold and blue mold of apples treated by r. mucilaginosa were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher concentration of r. mucilaginosa, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. r. mucilaginosa also significantly reduced the natural decay deve ...201121402429
lactobacillus amylovorus dsm 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. the reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. in this study lactobacillus amylovorus dsm19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. among the indi ...201121429613
control of human and plant fungal pathogens using pentaene macrolide 32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin.the aim of this study was to address the toxicity of recently described polyene macrolide 32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin (ddhr) on a wide range of fungal pathogens and its potential to control plant fungal diseases.201525810243
immersion of 'coscia' pear fruit in water at 55 degrees c for 60 sec controls penicillium expansum decay and delays ripening during short storage.'coscia' is an early ripening pear with a short postharvest life (1 month) and chemical treatments to prevent decay are generally not undertaken. this, along with the fast deterioration under shelf-life conditions, makes it difficult to contain postharvest moulds. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) has been employed with success to delay ripening and, as a co-effect, the development of decay was contained, but this treatment is not allowed for organically grown crops. here we report the results of an ...201021534485
postharvest grape infection of botrytis cinerea and its interactions with other moulds under withering conditions to produce noble-rotten investigate the interactions between botrytis cinerea and other moulds during grape withering and postharvest infection to obtain noble-rotten grapes.201323163324
postharvest behaviour of two sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.'miali' and 'caddina' are apple varieties of sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. in order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water ...201021534486
antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °c were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (ps) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. the isolated molds were penicillium expansum, cladosporium herbarum, and aspergillus niger from apples. p. oxalicum and c. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and p. expansium and c. fulvum from tomatoes. guar gum edible coating incorporated with ps was the most effective mold inhibitor, signifi ...201121535846
yeast biocontrol of fungal spoilage of pears stored at low reduce the use of fungicides, biological control with yeasts has been proposed in postharvest pears. most studies of antagonists selection have been carried out at room temperature. however, in regions like north patagonia where fruits are stored at -1/0°c during 5-7months the selection of potential antagonist agents must be carried out at low temperature. in this study, 75 yeast cultures were isolated from healthy pears from two patagonian cold-storage packinghouses. aureobasidium pullulans, ...201121546110
Intraspecific variability of growth and patulin production of 79 Penicillium expansum isolates at two temperatures.Penicillium expansum is the main species responsible for patulin production in apples and pears. Generally, fruit is stored at suboptimal conditions for mould growth and this situation could influence on the intra-species variability in both capability for growth and mycotoxin production. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of suboptimal environmental conditions on the intra-specific variability of P. expansum growth and patulin production using seventy nine isolates of this mould. ...201121925758
[rapid and high throughput measurement of lipase thermo-stability through ans fluorescence signal assay].we have developed a rapid and high throughput lipase-ans (8-anilino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid) assay to evaluate the thermo-stability of lipases based on the ans fluorescence signal's increasing and shifting when this small fluorescence probes binds to lipase. the testing lipase samples were incubated at a temperature range of 25 degrees c to 65 degrees c for 30 min before mixed with ans solution (0.20 mg/ml lipase and 0.05 mmol/l ans in the buffer of 20 mmol/l tris-hcl, 100 mmol/l nacl, ph 7.2 ...201121847993
survey of molds, yeast and alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. this study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macrosco ...201424948913
use of oil-in-water emulsions to control fungal deterioration of strawberry jams.this work aimed to control the fungal deterioration of strawberry jams. the antifungal activity of the clove, cinnamon leaf, lemon and mandarin essential oils and their effectiveness in oil-in-water emulsions were evaluated. according to the results obtained, only clove and cinnamon leaf oils were selected to prepare emulsions. all the tested emulsions were stable, independently the amount of polymer and essential oil used. essential oil loss was affected by the amount of polymer employed to pre ...201627283611
antimicrobial activity of cyclodextrin entrapped allyl isothiocyanate in a model system and packaged fresh-cut onions.the aim of this work was to determine the antimicrobial effect of allyl isothiocyanate (ait) entrapped in alpha and beta cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (ics). in model experiments, ait formulations were applied to filter paper discs fixed inside the lid of petri dishes, where the agar surface was inoculated with the target organism (penicillium expansum, escherichia coli or listeria monocytogenes). solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography was used to determine static headspa ...201122265303
sequential application of nahco3, cacl2 and candida oleophila (isolate 13l) affects significantly penicillum expansum growth and the infection degree in apples.the employment of biocontrol agents to restrain postharvest pathogens is an encouraging approach, although, efficacy and consistency are still below those of synthetic pesticides. up to date, the 'integrated control strategy' seems to be the most promising way to overcome this gap. here, we report the feasibility to control postharvest decay caused by penicillium expansum in apples by a 2 min, single or sequential, immersion in water with an antagonistic yeast (candida oleophila, isolate '13l'), ...201122702195
antifungal activity of lactobacilli and its relationship with 3-phenyllactic acid this study, 13 lactic acid bacteria (lab) strains (including 5 lactobacillus casei, 2 lactobacillus rhamnosus, 2 lactobacillus fermentum, 1 lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 lactobacillus plantarum, 1 lactobacillus sakei, and 1 lactobacillus reuteri species) were assessed for both their antifungal activity against four food spoilage molds (colletotrichum gloeosporioides, botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and aspergillus flavus) and their capability to produce the novel antimicrobial compound ...201424412414
optimization of media and temperature for enhanced antimicrobial production by bacteria associated with rhabditis sp.entomopathogenic nematodes, belonging to the family heterorhabditis and steinernematidae, are reported to be symbiotically associated with specific bacteria and the secondary metabolites produced by these bacteria possess antimicrobial activity. in this study, bacteria were isolated from nematodes belonging to the family rhabditidae, and the antimicrobial activity was tested against four bacteria viz. bacillus subtilis mtcc 2756, staphylococcus aureus mtcc 902, escherichia coli mtcc 2622, and ps ...201323825731
identification of antimicrobial compound, diketopiperazines, from a bacillus sp. n strain associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode against major plant pathogenic purify and characterize antimicrobial compounds from bacillus sp. strain n associated with rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode (epn).201222747978
in vitro studies on the effect of some chemicals on the growth and sporification of penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea.penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea are among the pathogens most frequently affecting apples and grapes after harvest, respectively. we studied the behaviour of these moulds when subjected to different concentrations of methanol (meoh) and dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) as a alternative method to fungicides in controlling postharvest decay of horticultural products. the experiments were performed with 5 cm petri dishes containing pda amended with 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 microl/ml of the two ...201122702192
relation between germination and mycelium growth of individual fungal spores.the relation between germination time and lag time of mycelium growth of individual spores was studied by combining microscopic and macroscopic techniques. the radial growth of a large number (100-200) of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger mycelia originating from single spores was monitored macroscopically at isothermal conditions ranging from 0 to 30°c and 10 to 41.5°c, respectively. the radial growth curve for each mycelium was fitted to a linear model for the estimation of mycelium l ...201223337123
antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2-methylthiobenzo[g][1,2,4]- triazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline derivatives.the present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a synthesized 2-methylthio-benzo[g][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5- a]quinazoline series. the compounds (1-21) were tested against a variety of gram-positive bacterial species including bacillus subtilis (rcmb 01001 69-3), enterococcus faecalis (rcmb 0100154-2), staphylococcus aureus (rcmb 0100183-9), staphylococcus epidermidis (rcmb 0100183-9) and streptococcus pyogenes (rcmb 0100172-5). in addition, gram-negative bacteria were als ...201627140181
horizontal acquisition of toxic alkaloid synthesis in a clade of plant associated fungi.clavicipitaceae is a fungal group that comprises species that closely interact with plants as pathogens, parasites or symbionts. a key factor in these interactions is the ability of these fungi to synthesize toxic alkaloid compounds that contribute to the protection of the plant host against herbivores. some of these compounds such as ergot alkaloids are toxic to humans and have caused important epidemics throughout history. the gene clusters encoding the proteins responsible for the synthesis o ...201626688468
characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production.the background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. the microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. the latter group was dominated by penicillium spp. and aspergillus nig ...201223290240
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
in vitro antifungal activity of burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against some phytopathogenic fungi.the trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (bga). the aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. the fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against botrytis cine ...201223208371
antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts.the biopreservation of foods using bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (lab) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteriocinogenic lab from various cheeses and yogurts and evaluate their antimicrobial effects on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro as well as on a food commodity.lab were isolated using mrs and m17 media. the agar diffusion bioassay was used to screen for bacteriocin or bacterioci ...201222963659
green synthesis of nanosilver particles by aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n and its antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic fungi.the aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (agnps) by an eco-friendly and low-cost method using the fungi aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n as an alternative to chemical procedures mostly requiring drastic experimental conditions emitting toxic chemical byproducts. also, this study has been extended to evaluate the effect of agnps on the growth of some mycotoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin a (ota) produced by aspergillus ochraceus.201627002915
antimicrobial properties of black grape (vitis vinifera l.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. the purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively.201726729960
transcriptomic responses of the basidiomycete yeast sporobolomyces sp. to the mycotoxin patulin.patulin is a mycotoxin produced by penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold of stored pome fruits, and several other species of filamentous fungi. this mycotoxin has genotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic effects in mammals, and its presence in pome fruits and derived products represents a serious health hazard. biocontrol agents in the pucciniomycotina, such as the yeasts sporobolomyces sp. strain iam 13481 and rhodosporidium kratochvilovae strain ls11, are able to resist patulin and ...201626956724
mechanistic aspects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles against food- and water-borne the present study, silver nanoparticles (agnps) synthesized from aqueous leaves extract of malva crispa and their mode of interaction with food- and water-borne microbes were investigated. formation of agnps was conformed through uv-vis, fe-sem, eds, afm, and hr-tem analyses. further the concentration of silver (ag) in the reaction mixture was conformed through icp-ms analysis. different concentration of nanoparticles (1-3 mm) tested to know the inhibitory effect of bacterial pathogens such a ...201526178241
biocontrol activity and patulin-removal effects of bacillus subtilis, rhodobacter sphaeroides and agrobacterium tumefaciens against penicillium expansum.this study was conducted to evaluate the biocontrol potential of bacillus subtilis cicc 10034, rhodobacter sphaeroides cgmcc 1.2182 and agrobacterium tumefaciens cgmcc 1.2554 against patulin (pat)-producer penicillium expansum and their ability to remove pat.201627328641
use of gfp-tagged strains of penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum to study host-pathogen interactions in oranges and apples.penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum are responsible for green and blue molds in citrus and pome fruits, respectively, which result in major monetary losses worldwide. in order to study their infection process in fruits, we successfully introduced a green fluorescent protein (gfp) encoding gene into wild type p. digitatum and p. expansum isolates, using agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt), with hygromycin b resistance as the selectable marker. to our knowledge, thi ...201223177056
arginine acts as an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of several is well known that the type and the availability of nitrogen have a great influence on the biosynthesis of certain mycotoxins. here it is shown that some amino acids have no influence, some others strongly support and a third group inhibits the biosynthesis of ochratoxin (ota) by penicillium nordicum even in a complex medium, such as pda. arginine (arg) is one of the strong ota inhibiting amino acids. it was shown that arg not only inhibits ota in penicillium but also citrinin (cit) biosynthe ...201627400452
antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. p. expansum and a. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. indeed 1.5% ...201324029024
chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of moringa oleifera lam. cultivated in mozambique.the antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of moringa oleifera (moringaceae) grown in mozambique was investigated. the chemical composition was studied by means of gc and gc-ms analysis. hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. ultra high performance chromatography-dad analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). the essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging cap ...201324022760
antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of breonadia salicina.breonadia salicina is used traditionally to treat wounds, ulcers, fevers, headaches, and fungal infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the plant extract and compounds isolated there from.201323727185
biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from aureobasidium pullulans expressed in pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.the yeast-like fungus aureobasidium pullulans pl5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. the strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. the alkaline serine protease gene alp5 from a. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector ppic9 to construct ppic9/alp5, and then expressed in pichia pastoris strain km71. alp5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kda after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°c. the recombinant protease ...201424854386
growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans.the inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (dp) and different degrees of acetylation (fa) on the growth rates (gr) of four phytopathogenic fungi (alternaria alternata, botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of the chitosans ranged from 100 μg ×ml(-1) to 1,000 μg ×ml(-1) depending on the fungus tested and the dp an ...201224031893
biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and ascaris suum eggs.the in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of ascaris suum was evaluated. the fungi tested were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium expansum, fusarium oxysporum and trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of lodz (poland). each species was co-cultured with a. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°c for 60 days. each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmenta ...201323534981
screening for antimicrobial activity of wood rotting higher basidiomycetes mushrooms from uruguay against this work, the antimicrobial activity of extracts of wood rotting higher basidiomycetes mushrooms isolated from eucalyptus plantations in uruguay was studied using bacterial and fungal phytopathogens as targets. fifty-one extracts from mycelia and growth broth were prepared from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms, from which eight extracts (from ganoderma resinaceum, laetiporus sulphureus, dictyopanus pusillus, and bjerkandera adusta) showed antimicrobial activity against xanthomonas vesicatoria ...201627481160
control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. in this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (omwwp) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. antagonism against penicillium expansum dsmz 1282, penicillium verrucosum dsmz 12639, penicillium nalgiovense ms01, aspergillus ochraceus dsmz 63304, cladosporium cladosporioides ms12, ...201525996624
purification and identification of two antifungal cyclic dipeptides from bacillus cereus subsp. thuringiensis associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode especially against fusarium oxysporum.the cell-free culture filtrate of bacillus cereus subsp. thuringiensis associated with an entomopathogenic nematode (epn), rhabditis (oscheius) sp., exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. the ethyl acetate extract of the bacterial culture filtrate was purified by silica gel column chromatography to obtain two cyclic dipeptides (cdps). the structure and absolute stereochemistry of this compound were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (fabms, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h cosy ...201423402421
characterization of antifungal activity of the gh-46 subclass iii chitosanase from bacillus circulans mh-k1.we characterized the antifungal activity of the bacillus circulans subclass iii mh-k1 chitosanase (mh-k1 chitosanase), which is one of the most intensively studied glycoside hydrolases (ghs) that belong to gh family 46. mh-k1 chitosanase inhibited the growth of zygomycetes fungi, rhizopus and mucor, even at 10 pmol (0.3 μg)/ml culture probably via its fungistatic effect. the amino acid substitution e37q abolished the antifungal activity of mh-k1 chitosanase, but retained binding to chitotriose. ...201323892828
optimising the number of isolates to be used to estimate growth parameters of mycotoxigenic species.the aim of the present work was to mathematically assess the minimum number of isolates that would lead to equivalent growth parameters estimates to those obtained with a high number of strains. the datasets from two previous works on 30 aspergillus carbonarius isolates and 62 penicillium expansum isolates were used for this purpose. first, the datasets were used to produce a global estimation of growth parameters μ (growth rate, mm/d) and λ (time to visible growth, d) under the different experi ...201222986186
surface hydrophobicity of culture and water biofilm of penicillium spp.fungal surface hydrophobicity is involved in several functions in fungal growth and development. water contact angles measurement has been used as a direct and simple approach for its characterisation in solid cultures. microsphere adhesion assay is said to be the best method to assess cell hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi. this study aimed to apply these two methods to study hydrophobicity of penicillium expansum and penicillium brevicompactum grown as mycelial mats in solid culture, liquid ...201122011877
Control of apple blue mold by Pichia pastoris recombinant strains expressing cecropin A.Recombinant Pichia pastoris yeasts expressing cecropin A (GS115/CEC), was evaluated for the control of the blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum due to cecropin A peptide's effective antimicrobial effects on P. expansum spores by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Then, the protein concentration was determined and it was expressed at high levels up to 14.2 mg/L in the culture medium. Meanwhile, the population growth was assayed in vivo. The population growth of recombinant strain GS115/ ...201122108897
antifungal activity of essential oil from asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.the essential oils of the aerial parts of asteriscus graveolens have been studied using gc and gc-ms. twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. the aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. the antifungal effect of the essential oil from a. grav ...201122224306
environmental scanning electron microscopy characterization of the adhesion of conidia from penicillium expansum to cedar wood substrata at different ph values.initial microbial adhesion to surfaces is a complicated process that is affected by a number of factors. an important property of a solution that may influence adhesion is ph. the surface properties of the cedar wood were characterized by the sessile drop technique. moreover, the interfacial free energy of surface adhesion to the cedar wood was determined under ph values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). the results showed that cedar wood examined at different ph levels could be considered hydrophobic ran ...201122805953
protein improvement in gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.the ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. alcaligenes faecalis, lactobacillus plantarum, bacillus subtilis, leuconostoc cremoris, aspergillus niger, a. tamari, geotrichum candidum and penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while stan ...201122514894
ecofriendly hot water treatment reduces postharvest decay and elicits defense response in water treatment (hwt) of fruit is an effective approach for managing postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables. in the present study, the effects of hwt (45 °c for 10 min) on the growth of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in vitro, and gray (b. cinerea) and blue mold (p. expansum) development in kiwifruit were investigated. hwt effectively inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of b. cinerea and p. expansum. reactive oxygen species accumulation and protein impairment ...201526002370
evaluation of strategies for reducing patulin contamination of apple juice using a farm to fork risk assessment model.the numerous studies conducted so far on the issue of patulin contamination have focused mainly on aspects like growth of penicillium expansum, patulin production under different conditions and the influence of processing on the patulin concentration in apple juice. the purpose of the present study was to collect the necessary information and to develop a quantitative risk assessment model (qram) in order to evaluate different strategies to reduce patulin contamination. for apple juice (aj) prod ...201122265848
antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522).a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. during 24 h aerobic incubation in modified luria bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. an inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/l) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. ...201526428920
enhancing melting curve analysis for the discrimination of loop-mediated isothermal amplification products from four pathogenic molds: use of inorganic pyrophosphatase and its effect in reducing the variance in melting temperature values.loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is widely used for differentiating causative agents in infectious diseases. melting curve analysis (mca) in conjunction with the lamp method reduces both the labor required to conduct an assay and contamination of the products. however, two factors influence the melting temperature (tm) of lamp products: an inconsistent concentration of mg(2+) ion due to the precipitation of mg2p2o7, and the guanine-cytosine (gc) content of the starting dumbbell-like ...201727984058
antimicrobial activity of new 2-thioxo-benzo[g]quinazolin-4(3h)-one derivatives.the antimicrobial activity of a synthesized series of 28 2-thioxo-benzo[g]quinazolin-4(3h)-one derivatives was evaluated in vitro against five gram-positive bacteria, including bacillus subtilis, enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis and streptococcus pyogenes. the antibacterial activity was extended to include five gram-negative bacteria: pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, klebsiella oxytoca and enterobacter cloacae. furthermore, the ...201627306606
broad-spectrum antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria and their application in fruit models.a large-scale screen of some 7,000 presumptive lactic acid bacteria (lab), isolated from animal, human, or plant origin, identified 1,149 isolates with inhibitory activity against the food-spoilage mould penicillium expansum. in excess of 500 lab isolates were subsequently identified to produce a broad spectrum of activity against p. expansum, penicillium digitatum, penicillium notatum, penicillium roqueforti, rhizopus stolonifer, fusarium culmorum, aspergillus fumigatus and rhodotorula mucilagi ...201323160868
chemical variability, antioxidant and antifungal activities of essential oils and hydrosol extract of calendula arvensis l. from western algeria.the chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of calendula arvensis l. was investigated using gc-fid and gc/ms. intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. chemical analysis allowed the identification of fifty-three compounds amounting to 92.3-98.5% with yields varied of 0.09-0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7-29.8%), eremoligenol ...201728109063
influence of structure of lactones with the methylcyclohexene and dimethylcyclohexene ring on their biotransformation and antimicrobial activity.the aim of this article is influence of the structure of lactones with the methylcyclohexene and dimethylcyclohexene ring on their biotransformation and antimicrobial activity. this work was based on the general remark that even the smallest change in the structure of a compound can affect its biological properties. the results of the biotransformation of four bicyclic unsaturated lactones with one or two methyl groups in the cyclohexene ring was tested using fifteen fungal strains (fusarium spe ...201728107178
coatings comprising chitosan and mentha piperita l. or mentha × villosa huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (chi) and mentha piperita l. (mpeo) or mentha × villosa huds (mveo) essential oils to control mold infections caused by aspergillus niger, botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum and rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (solanum lycopersicum l.) during storage at room temperature (25°c for 12 days) and low temperature (12°c for 24 days). the effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteris ...201526313246
diversity of soil fungi in north 24 parganas and their antagonistic potential against leucinodes orbonalis guen. (shoot and fruit borer of brinjal).soil samples were collected from agricultural fields and gardens in north 24 parganas, west bengal, and fungi species were isolated from them. thirty-one fungal species were isolated with 19 found in agricultural soil and 28 in garden soil. twenty-eight out of 31 were identified using cultural and microscopic characters, and three were unidentified. the diversity of isolated fungi was calculated by simpson's diversity index. the garden soil possessed more fungal colonies (750) than agricultural ...201425213561
lag time for germination of penicillium chrysogenum conidia is induced by temperature the environment, fungal conidia are subject to transient conditions. in particular, temperature is varying according to day/night periods. all predictive models for germination assume that fungal spores can adapt instantaneously to changes of temperature. the only study that supports this assumption (gougouli and koutsoumanis, 2012, modelling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. international journal of food microbiology, 152: 153-161) was carried o ...201424929731
screening for antimicrobial and proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, buffalo and goat milk and cheeses marketed in the southeast region of brazil.lactic acid bacteria (lab) can be isolated from different sources such as milk and cheese, and the lipolytic, proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes of lab are important in cheese preservation and in flavour production. moreover, lab produce several antimicrobial compounds which make these bacteria interesting for food biopreservation. these characteristics stimulate the search of new strains with technological potential. from 156 milk and cheese samples from cow, buffalo and goat, 815 isolates were ...201626608755
hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest storage of fresh-cut pears (pyrus pyrifolia) by alleviation of oxidative damage and inhibition of fungal growth.hydrogen sulfide (h2s) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. here, we investigated the role of h2s in the decay of fresh-cut pears (pyrus pyrifolia). h2s gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (nahs) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. moreover, h2s maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. h2s significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (h2o2), superoxide radicals ( ...201424454881
the effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.the consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (nacl). the reduction of nacl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. calcium propionate (cp) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. this work addresses the feasibility of nacl reduction in wheat bread focussing ...201222569634
influence of high power ultrasound on selected moulds, yeasts and alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple, cranberry and blueberry juice and nectar.the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-thermal technology, high power ultrasound (hpu) on inactivation of aspergillus ochraceus 318, penicillium expansum 565, rhodotorula sp. 74, saccharomyces cerevisiae 5 and alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris dsm 3922 in clear juices and nectars from apple, blueberry and cranberry juice concentrate. inoculated juice and nectars were treated by high power ultrasound (20khz) according to procedure set by central composite design (ccd). thre ...201728242037
in vitro study of the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from mentha spicata, thymus vulgaris and laurus nobilis.the aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. the major constituents of mentha spicata, thymus vulgaris, and laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. m. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which fusarium graminearum, f.moniliforme, and penicillium expansum were the most ...201627697030
a survey of insect assemblages responding to volatiles from a ubiquitous fungus in an agricultural landscape.we report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. we tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. we evaluated insect attraction to fungal cultures and synthetic compounds identified in fungal headspace (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol) in a spearmint (mentha spicata l.) plantation. three ...201323564294
[antagonistic activity of bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum imv b-7404 and bim b-439d strains towards pathogenic bacteria and micromycetes].in this study the antagonistic activity of strains bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum imv b-7404 and bim b-439d against bacterial and fungal pathogens of agricultural crops has been researched. it is shown that both strains of bacilli demonstrated a high level of antagonism to the vascular bacteriosis pathogen, average level of antagonism to micromycetes--root rot pathogens. to ofiobulez pathogen strain b. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum bim b-439d was more active. cultural liquid of ...201525639040
effect of pyrimethanil on cryptococcus laurentii, rhodosporidium paludigenum, and rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.the effect of biocontrol yeasts and pyrimethanil at low concentration on inhibition of blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit was investigated. pyrimethanil at low concentration (40μg/ml) alone had little inhibitory activity against the p. expansum infection in pear fruit wounds although it was effective in inhibiting the survival of p. expansum on asp-agar medium. pyrimethanil at this low concentration significantly enhanced the efficacy of cryptococcus laurentii at 1×10(7)c ...201323673061
effects and possible mechanism of tea tree oil against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo test.the purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities and possible mechanisms of tea tree oil (tto) against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo. the results show that tto exhibits dose-dependent antifungal activity against both pathogens, but p. expansum is less sensitive than b. cinerea to tto not only in the in vitro test but also in artificially inoculated cherry fruits. tto vapor treatment reduced the decay caused by these pathogens in inoculated c ...201728177805
antifungal screening of lavender essential oils and essential oil constituents on three post-harvest fungal pathogens.a growing body of literature indicates that many synthetic pesticides have adverse effects on human, animal, and environmental health. as a result, plant-derived natural products are quickly gaining momentum as safer and less ecologically damaging alternatives due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good specificity. essential oils of lavandula angustifolia, lavandula x intermedia cv grosso, and lavandida x intermedia cv provence as well as various mono- and sesquiterpene essential ...201627396210
sequencing, physical organization and kinetic expression of the patulin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillium expansum.patulin is a polyketide-derived mycotoxin produced by numerous filamentous fungi. among them, penicillium expansum is by far the most problematic species. this fungus is a destructive phytopathogen capable of growing on fruit, provoking the blue mold decay of apples and producing significant amounts of patulin. the biosynthetic pathway of this mycotoxin is chemically well-characterized, but its genetic bases remain largely unknown with only few characterized genes in less economic relevant speci ...201425120234
lactobacillus plantarum with broad antifungal activity: a promising approach to increase safety and shelf-life of cereal-based products.cereal-based fermented products are worldwide diffused staple food resources and cereal-based beverages represent a promising innovative field in the food market. contamination and development of spoilage filamentous fungi can result in loss of cereal-based food products and it is a critical safety concern due to their potential ability to produce mycotoxins. lactic acid bacteria (lab) have been proposed as green strategy for the control of the moulds in the food industry due to their ability to ...201727240933
yeasts isolated from figs (ficus carica l.) as biocontrol agents of postharvest fruit diseases.fresh fruit is highly perishable during postharvest life, mainly due to fungal growth. thus, fungal control is an important goal for the fruit industry. in this work, a selection of antagonistic yeasts isolated from fig and breba crops were screened in vitro. the isolated yeasts were challenged with three moulds isolated from decayed figs and breba crops, identified as penicillium expansum m639 and cladosporium cladosporioides m310 and m624, and pathogenic moulds botrytis cinerea cect20518 and m ...201627052701
essential oil composition and antifungal activity of melissa officinalis originating from north-est morocco, against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in investigate biological control methods against post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples, tests on the antifungal activity of essential oil of melissa officinalis were carried out. the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (gc-ms). analysis of the essential oil was able to detect 88.7% of the components. the main components are p-mentha-1,2,3-triol (13.1%), p-menth-3-en-8-ol (8.8%), pulegone (8.8%), piperitynone oxid ...201728389346
quantification and identification of microorganisms found on shell and kernel of fresh edible chestnuts in michigan.chestnut is a relatively new cultivated crop for michigan, and postharvest loss due to decay has been problematic as production has increased each year. in 2007, more than 25% of chestnuts were lost to postharvest decay, equivalent to approximately 5300 kg of fresh product. to determine the organisms responsible for decay, a microbiological survey was performed in 2006 and 2007 to identify microorganisms involved in postharvest shell (external surface) mold and internal kernel (edible portion) d ...201626869338
development of a dna microarray-based assay for the detection of sugar beet root rot pathogens.sugar beet root rot diseases that occur during the cropping season or in storage are accompanied by high yield losses and a severe reduction of processing quality. the vast diversity of microorganism species involved in rot development requires molecular tools allowing simultaneous identification of many different targets. therefore, a new microarray technology (arraytube) was applied in this study to improve diagnosis of sugar beet root rot diseases. based on three marker genes (internal transc ...201626524545
effects of ionizing radiation on postharvest fungal pathogens.postharvest diseases cause losses in a wide variety of crops around the world. irradiation, a useful nonchemical approach, has been used as an alternative treatment for fungicide to control plant fungal pathogens. for a preliminary study, ionizing radiations (gamma, x-ray, or e-beam irradiation) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and rhizopus stolonifer through mycelial growth, spore germination, and morphological analysis under various c ...201526060436
effects of chitosan from cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (vitis labrusca l.).this study aimed to obtain chitosan (chi) from cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (csl)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained chi in inhibiting botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (vitis labrusca l.). moreover, the influence of chi-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. according ...201424321603
control of postharvest fungal pathogens by antifungal compounds from penicillium expansum.the fungicidal effects of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of penicillium expansum (r82) in culture filtrate and in a double petri dish assay were tested against one isolate each of botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and monilinia laxa and six isolates of p. expansum, revealing inhibitory activity against every pathogen tested. the characterization of volatile organic compounds released by the r82 strain was performed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic technique ...201324215691
efficacy and putative mode of action of native and commercial antagonistic yeasts against postharvest pathogens of pear.putative mechanisms of action associated with the biocontrol capacity of four yeast strains (cryptoccocus albidus npcc 1248, pichia membranifaciens npcc 1250, cryptoccocus victoriae npcc 1263 and npcc 1259) against penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea were studied by means of in vitro and in situ assays. c. albidus(yp), a commercial yeast was also evaluated for comparative purposes. the yeast strains exhibited a variety of different mechanisms including: wound colonization, germination inhi ...201323680800
interaction with penicillium expansum enhances botrytis cinerea growth in grape juice medium and prevents patulin accumulation in vitro.interactions between fungi occur when they grow on the same host plant. this is the case of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape. p. expansum is also responsible for production of the mycotoxin patulin. in this study, the influence of the interaction between both fungi on fungal growth parameters was studied as well as the effect on the accumulation of patulin by p. expansum. for that purpose, spores of b. cinerea and p. expansum were inoculated together (mixed inoculum), and the p ...201323384314
a synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying uv-c light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.the effectiveness of ultraviolet-c light (uv-c; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kjm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (sbc), to control plum (prunus domestica cv stanley) postharvest decay caused by penicillium expansum l. and botrytis cinerea was investigated. first, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees c with 90% rh for 7 days. in the second experiment, treatments wer ...201325151834
pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, candida oleophila, with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ros). ros production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. these phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeast antagonists. it has been demonstrated that pre-exposure of some of these yeast antagonists to sublethal abiotic stress (heat or hydrogen peroxide), or stress-ameliorating compounds such as glycine bet ...201222560021
increase in antioxidant gene transcripts, stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of candida oleophila following sublethal oxidative stress exposure.a pretreatment of the yeast, candida oleophila, with 5 mm h(2)o(2) for 30 min (sublethal) increased yeast tolerance to subsequent lethal levels of oxidative stress (50 mm h(2)o(2)), high temperature (40 °c), and low ph (ph 4). compared with non-stress-adapted yeast cells, stress-adapted cells exhibited better control of apple fruit infections by penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea and had initially higher growth rates in apple wounds. suppression subtractive hybridization analysis was used ...201222313238
changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in northeast china.we measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. the results showed that the ph and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. all of t ...201526159472
postharvest disease control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides and penicillium expansum on stored apples by gamma irradiation combined with study the control of postharvest decay caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in south korea. an irradiation dose of 2.0 kgy resulted in the maximum inhibition of c. gloeosporioides and p. expansum spore germination. the gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kgy for c. gloeosporioides and p. expansum, respecti ...201627721696
fungal and host transcriptome analysis of ph-regulated genes during colonization of apple fruits by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum is a destructive phytopathogen that causes decay in deciduous fruits during postharvest handling and storage. during colonization the fungus secretes d-gluconic acid (gla), which modulates environmental ph and regulates mycotoxin accumulation in colonized tissue. till now no transcriptomic analysis has addressed the specific contribution of the pathogen's ph regulation to the p. expansum colonization process. for this purpose total rna from the leading edge of p. expansum-co ...201627146851
phenotypic comparison of clinical and plant-beneficial strains of pantoea agglomerans.certain strains of pantoea are used as biocontrol agents for the suppression of plant diseases. however, their commercial registration is hampered in some countries because of biosafety concerns. this study compares clinical and plant-beneficial strains of p. agglomerans and related species using a phenotypic analysis approach in which plant-beneficial effects, adverse effects in nematode models, and toxicity were evaluated. plant-beneficial effects were determined as the inhibition of apple fru ...201426418852
a gene encoding a new cold-active lipase from an antarctic isolate of penicillium expansum.cold-active lipases are of significant interest as biocatalysts in industrial processes. we have identified a lipase that displayed activity towards long carbon-chain-p-nitrophenyl substrates (c12-c18) at 25 °c from the culture supernatant of an antarctic penicillium expansum strain assigned p. expansum sm3. zymography revealed a protein band of around 30 kda with activity towards olive oil. dna fragments of a lipase gene designated as lippe were isolated from the genomic dna of p. expansum sm3 ...201323779196
comparison of antifungal activities of vietnamese citrus essential oils.citrus essential oils (eos) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. in this study, inhibition of citrus eos extracted from vietnamese orange (citrus sinensis), mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco), pomelo (citrus grandis osbeck) and lime (citrus aurantifolia swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, mucor hiemalis, penicillium expansum and fusarium proliferatum was investigated. the eos of the citrus peels were obtained by c ...201322799453
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