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chemical composition of essential oil and headspace-solid microextracts from fruits of myrica gale l. and antifungal activity.the essential oil and the volatile compounds of myrica gale fruits were analysed by gas chromatography (gc) and gc-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the volatile compounds were detected using two different fibres for headspace-solid phase microextraction (hs-spme), carboxen/pdms and pdms. sixty two compounds were identified, which represented more than 90% of the total extracts. major components of fruit essential oil are alpha-pinene (22.6%), 1,8-cineole (18.9%) and germacrone (14.2%), whereas they ar ...200818780242
functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.we report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (sa) at different maturity stages. the results demonstrated that sa enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after sa treatment at earlier (a) and later (b) maturity stage, respectiv ...200818924108
control of blue mold of apples by preharvest application of candida sake grown in media with different water activity.abstract unmodified and low water activity (a(w))-tolerant cells of candida sake cpa-1 applied before harvest were compared for ability to control blue mold of apples ('golden delicious') caused by penicillium expansum under commercial storage conditions. the population dynamics of strain cpa-1 on apples were studied in the orchard and during storage following application of 3 x 10(6) cfu/ml of each treatment 2 days prior to harvest. in the field, the population size of the unmodified treatment ...199818944874
alternative disease control agents induce resistance to blue mold in harvested 'red delicious' apple fruit.abstract alternative control agents, including uv-type c (254 nm) irradiation, yeasts antagonistic to fungal growth, chitosan and harpin, were evaluated for their ability to induce resistance in cv. red delicious apple fruit against postharvest blue mold caused by penicillium expansum. freshly harvested and controlled atmosphere (ca)-stored fruit were treated with these agents at different doses and concentrations or with paired combinations of the agents. treated fruit were inoculated with p. e ...200218942970
control of postharvest pathogens and colonization of the apple surface by antagonistic microorganisms in the field.abstract selected isolates of aureobasidium pullulans, rhodotorula glutinis, and bacillus subtilis reduced the size and number of lesions on wounded apples caused by the postharvest pathogens penicillium expansum, botrytis cinerea, and pezicula malicorticis. combinations of the antagonistic microorganisms were applied to apple trees in the field late in the growing season of two consecutive years. the population dynamics of the introduced microorganisms and the incidence of fruit decay were dete ...199718945006
enhanced activity of strobilurin and fludioxonil by using berberine and phenolic compounds to target fungal antioxidative stress response.identify natural products that effectively target antioxidative signal transduction/stress response systems [i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (mn-sod)] of fungi. enhance activity of strobilurin or fludioxonil with discovered compounds.200717651208
in vitro activity of imazalil against penicillium expansum: comparison of the clsi m38-a broth microdilution method with traditional techniques.penicillium expansum is one of the most important pathogens that cause blue mold in stored apples and is regarded as the major producer of the mycotoxin patulin. imazalil is one of the fungicides used in spain to control postharvest blue mold, but development of fungal resistance has been reported in p. digitatum and p. italicum. the most common used methods to detect antifungal susceptibility of fungal crop pathogens in vitro, are direct-plating isolates in media amended with various concentrat ...200919059665
effect of the biocontrol yeast rhodotorula glutinis strain ls11 on patulin accumulation in stored apples.abstract contamination of apples (malus domestica) and derived juices with fungicide residues and patulin produced by penicillium expansum are major issues of food safety. biocontrol agents represent an alternative or supplement to chemicals for disease control. our data show that these microbes could also contribute to actively decreasing patulin accumulation in apples. three biocontrol agents, rhodotorula glutinis ls11, cryptococcus laurentii ls28, and aureobasidium pullulans ls30, were examin ...200518943357
cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulation.patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health. it has been proven that patulin can damage organs and tissues in animals and some studies revealed carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. patulin is found mainly in low quality apples diverted to production of apple by-products. apples from cold storage or recently harvested (usually ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient cond ...200717341435
indole-3-acetic acid improves postharvest biological control of blue mold rot of apple by cryptococcus laurentii.cryptococcus laurentii is a well-known postharvest biocontrol yeast; however, it cannot provide satisfactory levels of decay control when used alone. here, we evaluated the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), a plant growth regulator, on the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast antagonist c. laurentii against blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in apple fruit. results showed that the addition of iaa at 20 microg/ml to suspensions of c. laurentii greatly enhanced inhibition of mold rot in ...200919203278
proteome approach to characterize proteins induced by antagonist yeast and salicylic acid in peach fruit.proteins induced by antagonist yeast pichia membranefaciens and salicylic acid (sa) in peach fruit were determined using proteome analysis in this study. both the yeast and sa enhanced the resistance of peach fruit and delayed the initiation infection of penicillium expansum. when quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer was used, a total of 25 proteins could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one activitor. according to the function, these pro ...200717381148
low occurrence of patulin- and citrinin-producing species isolated from grapes.to assess the ability of fungi isolated from grapes to produce patulin and citrinin.200819241521
modeling the effect of temperature on the growth rate and lag phase of penicillium expansum in apples.the objective of the present study was to develop validated models that describe the effect of storage temperature on the growth rate and lag phase of six penicillium expansum strains. the growth of the selected strains was therefore studied on apple puree agar medium (apam) at 30, 25, 16, 10, 4 and 2 degrees c. growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. several secondary models were evaluated and for the growth rate, a modification of the extended ratkowsky model was se ...200717698233
isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from phosphate mines and their effect on wheat seedling growth.three phosphate-solubilizing fungi, identified as penicillium expansum, mucor ramosissimus, and candida krissii, were isolated from phosphate mines (hubei, people's republic of china) and characterized. all the isolates demonstrated diverse levels of phosphate-solubilizing capability in national botanical research institute's phosphate growth medium containing rock phosphate as sole phosphate source. acidification of culture medium seemed to be the main mechanism for rock phosphate solubilizatio ...200919277482
determination of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) by passive sampling onto charcoal sorbents.passive sampling combined with gc-ms was applied for the detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) emitted by mould cultures. the fungi species penicillium expansum, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium brevicompactum, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus versicolor, aspergillus niger, and cladosporium cladosporoides were cultivated on dichloran glycerol agar. the emitted volatiles were collected by charcoal-based passive diffusion monitors during the first four weeks of growth. se ...200919289243
influence of storage temperature and apple variety on patulin production by penicillium expansum.this study examined the potential for patulin production in six different varieties of apples (red delicious, golden supreme, gala, fuji, empire, and mcintosh) inoculated with penicillium expansum spores and stored at two different temperatures (11 and 20.5 degrees c). samples for patulin analysis were randomly taken from apples stored at different times, ranging from 21 to 93 days. while patulin was produced at both storage temperatures, apples incubated at 20.5 degrees c yielded significantly ...200919517731
[rapid improvement of lipase production in penicillium expansum by genome shuffling].in the present study, the genome shuffling was used to improve lipase production of penicillium expansum. a lipase producing mutant strain-penicillium expansum fs8486 and a wild type of aspergillus tamarii fs-132 isolated from soil of a volcano in xinjiang were used as the parental strains. after two rounds of genome shuffling, several elite daughter strains were screened. the lipase activity in one of the daughter strains was increased 317% over the starting strain fs8486. comparisons of the mo ...200717822042
biocontrol potential of metchnikowia pulcherrima strains against blue mold of apple.abstract eight strains of metschnikowia pulcherrima isolated over a 4-year period from an unmanaged orchard and selected for their biocontrol activity against blue mold (caused by penicillium expansum) of apples were characterized phenotypically, genetically, and for their biocontrol potential against blue mold on apples. all strains grew well and only differed slightly in their growth in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium at 1 degrees c after 216 h, but large differences occurred at 0 degrees ...200118943447
influence of storage conditions of apples on growth and patulin production by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of apples, and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. the present study aimed to determine the influence of storage conditions (i.e. temperature and o(2) level) on growth and patulin production by different p. expansum strains on a simulation medium and on apples. growth was strongly influenced by the temperature, while the used atmosphere (20, 3, and 1% o(2); <1% co(2)) had no effect. optimal growth was observed ...200717900726
the implication of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xths) in tomato fruit infection by penicillium expansum link. a.in general, cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by plant pathogenic fungi are considered important pathogenicity factors. in this work, we evaluate the implication of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xths), a potential hemicellulosic repairing enzyme, in the infection mechanism process by the fungus. this study investigated the slxths expresion and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (xet) activity during infection of two tomato fruit cultivars by penicillium expansum link. a. in infected ...200717960871
species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contamination.certain species of penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs. species examined were found in food, plants, and soil and were reported to produce patulin. penicillium expansum is the most commonly detected species linked to the presence of patulin in apple juice. at least 10 different enzymes are involved in the patulin biosynthetic pathway, including the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (id ...200718044450
sporicidal activity of synthetic antifungal undecapeptides and control of penicillium rot of apples.the antifungal activity of cecropin a(2-8)-melittin(6-9) hybrid undecapeptides, previously reported as active against plant pathogenic bacteria, was studied. a set of 15 sequences was screened in vitro against fusarium oxysporum, penicillium expansum, aspergillus niger, and rhizopus stolonifer. most compounds were highly active against f. oxysporum (mic < 2.5 microm) but were less active against the other fungi. the best peptides were studied for their sporicidal activity and for sytox green upt ...200919617390
effect of chitin on the antagonistic activity of cryptococcus laurentii against penicillium expansum in pear fruit.this study was designed to evaluate the impact of chitin on the antagonistic activity of cryptococcus laurentii against the postharvest blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit. the results showed that the antagonistic activity of c. laurentii obtained from the culture media of nutrient yeast dextrose broth (nydb) amended with chitin at 0.5-1.0% was improved greatly compared with the case that without chitin. the addition of chitin to nydb did not influence the growth of c. lau ...200818162192
effect of biocontrol agents candida sake and pantoea agglomerans on penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in apples.penicillium expansum is the major responsible of fruit pome decaying in cold storage. apples spoiled by p. expansum are expected to contain patulin, a mycotoxin which is proven to affect human health. the use of chemicals is the most common procedure to prevent rots in postharvest but legislation is becoming more and more restrictive. the use of biocontrol agents (bca) as an alternative tool is currently being proposed. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two bca (candida sake cp ...200818191492
ecophysiological characterization of penicillium expansum population in lleida (spain).penicillium expansum, a patulin producer fungus, is the most important fungus causing decay in cold stored both apples and pears. this can lead to patulin contaminated by-products. the aim of this assay was to evaluate the phenotypical and physiological variability in the population of p. expansum that cause fruit spoilage in post-harvest stages in lleida (spain). in total, 101 isolates of p. expansum from the 2004 and the 2005 seasons were obtained from decayed fruits. significant differences w ...200818294715
penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit.abstract during the infection of citrus fruit by penicillium digitatum there is little evidence of a host defense response. this suggests that p. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. the current study demonstrates that p. digitatum suppresses a defense-related hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) burst in host tissue. in contrast, the nonhost pathogen, penicillium expansum, triggers production of a significant amount of h(2)o(2) in citrus fruit exocarp. using laser scanning confocal micr ...200718943520
identification of spore allergens from the indoor mould aspergillus versicolor.indoor mould growth and dampness are associated with respiratory health effects and allergies and several studies demonstrated that mainly aspergillus versicolor and penicillium expansum are responsible for indoor mould exposure. in contrast, commercialized test systems to diagnose allergic reactions to this mould species are not available. in this study, allergenic proteins from spores of the indoor relevant species a. versicolor and p. expansum should get detected and identified.200818315733
a new selective medium for the recovery and enumeration of monilinia fructicola, m. fructigena, and m. laxa from stone fruits.isolation of monilinia spp. from stone and pome fruit surfaces is difficult due to the presence of several fast-growing fungal species such as rhizopus, alternaria, and penicillium spp. therefore, a new selective medium (acidified potato dextrose agar [ph 3.6] amended with fosetyl-aluminum [fosetyl-al] at 500 microg/ml) (apda-f500) was developed for the recovery of monilinia propagules. the antifungal agents fosetyl-al, dichloran, ammonium molybdate, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-dd-glucose) were tes ...200919740034
efficacy of sanitizing treatments against penicillium expansum inoculated on six varieties of apples.the effectiveness of several wash treatments was evaluated against spores of penicillium expansum inoculated on six varieties of apples (red delicious, golden supreme, empire, macintosh, fuji, and gala). the wash treatments were water, acidified water (ph 6.5), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ph 6.5), nonacidified sodium hypochlorite (ph 8.8, 9.3, and 9.7; 50, 100, and 200 ppm, respectively), and peracetic acid (50 and 80 ppm). spores of p. expansum were dried on the surface of the apples for 2 h ...200818389716
relationship between host acidification and virulence of penicillium spp. on apple and citrus fruit.abstract penicillium expansum, p. digitatum, and p. italicum acidify the ambient environments of apple and citrus fruit during decay development. they use two mechanisms for this: the production of organic acids, mainly citric and gluconic, and nh(4)(+) utilization associated with h(+) efflux. exposure of p. expansum and p. digitatum hyphae to ph 5.0 increased their citric acid production, compared with the production of organic acids at acidic ambient ph. in decayed fruit, both pathogens produc ...200418943818
enhancement of biocontrol activity of cryptococcus laurentii by silicon and the possible mechanisms involved.abstract exogenous application of silicon (si) in the form of sodium metasilicate reduced disease development caused by penicillium expansum and monilinia fructicola in sweet cherry fruit at 20 degrees c. the inhibition of fruit decay was correlated closely with si concentrations. silicon at concentrations of 1%, in combination with the biocontrol agent cryptococcus laurentii at 1 x 10(7) cells per ml, provided synergistic effects against both diseases. population dynamics of c. laurentii were s ...200518943838
modeling penicillium expansum resistance to thermal and chlorine treatments.apples and apple products are excellent substrates for penicillium expansum to produce patulin. in an attempt to avoid excessive levels of patulin, limiting or reducing p. expansum contamination levels on apples designated for storage in packinghouses and/or during apple juice processing is critical. the aim of this work was (i) to determine the thermal resistance of p. expansum spores in apple juice, comparing the abilities of the bigelow and weibull models to describe the survival curves and ( ...200920003750
[antimicrobial efficacy of benzyl isothiocyanate].the potential value of benzyl isothiocyanate (bit) vapor for food preservation was investigated in comparison with allyl isothiocyanate (ait) vapor. measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) against various bacteria and fungi indicated that bit vapor shows higher antibacterial activity towards gram-positive bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, than ait vapor. bit has a similar inhibitory effect to ait against gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi, except that it was less effe ...200920065621
improved control of postharvest decay of pears by the combination of candida sake (cpa-1) and ammonium molybdate.abstract the potential enhancement of candida sake (cpa-1) by ammonium molybdate to control blue and gray mold caused by penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea, respectively, on blanquilla pears was investigated. in laboratory trials, improved control of blue and gray molds was obtained with the application of ammonium molybdate (1, 5, 10, and 15 mm) alone or in combination with c. sake at 2 x 10(6) or 2 x 10(7) cfu ml(-1) on blanquilla pears stored at 20 degrees c. in semicommercial trials a ...200218944000
lentinula edodes enhances the biocontrol activity of cryptococcus laurentii against penicillium expansum contamination and patulin production in apple fruits.penicillium expansum is a post-harvest pathogen of apples which can produce the hazardous mycotoxin patulin. the yeast cryptococcus laurentii (ls28) is a biocontrol agent able to colonize highly oxidative environments such as wounds in apples. in this study culture filtrates of the basidiomycete lentinula edodes (lf23) were used to enhance the biocontrol activity of ls28. in vitro l. edodes culture filtrates improved the growth of c. laurentii and the activity of its catalase, superoxide dismuta ...201020206395
characterization of fludioxonil-resistant and pyrimethanil-resistant phenotypes of penicillium expansum from apple.penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold, a major postharvest disease of apple. fludioxonil and pyrimethanil are two newly registered postharvest fungicides for pome fruit in the united states. to evaluate the potential risk of resistance development in p. expansum to the new postharvest fungicides, one isolate of each of thiabendazole-resistant (tbz-r) and -sensitive (tbz-s) p. expansum was exposed to uv radiation to generate fungicide-resistant mutants. four fludioxonil highly-re ...200818944191
liquid formulation of the postharvest biocontrol agent candida sake cpa-1 in isotonic solutions.abstract viability of the postharvest biocontrol agent candida sake cpa-1 stored as liquid formulation was evaluated by studying the effect of growth, preservation medium, and temperature. c. sake was grown in molasses medium with unmodified water activity (a(w)) and in the same with a(w) modified to 0.98 with the addition of several solutes. cells were preserved with isotonic solutions of different substances. efficacy of liquid formulations stored for different periods was tested against infec ...200318944358
effect of culture media and ph on the biomass production and biocontrol efficacy of a metschnikowia pulcherrima strain to be used as a biofungicide for postharvest disease control.few strains of metschnikowia pulcherrima (pitt) m.w. miller are under development for control of postharvest pathogens on fruit. a substrate was developed to optimize the biomass production of m. pulcherrima strain bio126. different complex nutrient sources, with or without ph control, were tested. growth in yeast extract provided at concentrations > or =30 g*l-1 yielded the highest biomass. the addition of two carbon sources, d-mannitol and l-sorbose, at 5 g*l-1 each, significantly improved yea ...201020237574
characterizing the mechanism of biological control of postharvest diseases on fruits with a simple method to study competition for nutrients.abstract biocontrol agents may compete with pathogens for nutrients and space to delay or prevent decay of fruits after harvest. these mechanisms of biological control have been difficult to study because no method has been available to determine the significance of each of the components of competition. we developed a nondestructive method using tissue culture plates with cylinder inserts containing defusing membrane at one end to study competition for nutrients without competition for space. o ...200018944420
[cloning, codon optimization and expression of mature lipase gene penicillium expansum].to clone penicillum expansum cicc 40356 lipase (pel) gene cdna and to over-express active lipase in pichia pastoris gs115.201020387466
ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the biological control of botrytis cinerea by candida saitoana in apple fruit.abstract biocontrol activity of candida saitoana and its interaction with botrytis cinerea in apple wounds were investigated. when cultured together, yeast attached to botrytis sp. hyphal walls. in wounded apple tissue, c. saitoana restricted the proliferation of b. cinerea, multiplied, and suppressed disease caused by either b. cinerea or penicillium expansum. in inoculated apple tissue without the yeast, fungal colonization caused an extensive degradation of host walls and altered cellulose la ...199818944950
modelling growth of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions.the growth of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger, isolated from yogurt production environment, was investigated on malt extract agar with ph=4.2 and a(w)=0.997, simulating yogurt, at isothermal conditions ranging from -1.3 to 35 degrees c and from 5 to 42.3 degrees c, respectively. the growth rate (mu) and (apparent) lag time (lambda) of the mycelium growth were modelled as a function of temperature using a cardinal model with inflection (cmi). the results showed that the cmi can describ ...201020413170
cytotoxic polyphenols from the marine-derived fungus penicillium expansum.two new polyphenols containing both phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoid and diphenyl ether units, expansols a (1) and b (2), and two new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, (s)-(+)-11-dehydrosydonic acid (3) and (7s,11s)-(+)-12-acetoxysydonic acid (4), along with two known compounds, (s)-(+)-sydonic acid (5) and diorcinol (6), were isolated from the metabolites of the marine-derived fungus penicillium expansum 091006 endogenous with the mangrove plant excoecaria agallocha. on the basis of spec ...201020415462
antifungal activity of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, and rhizopus stolonifer: ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects.abstract the effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on major postharvest pathogens was investigated at the ultrastructural and cytochemical level. hyphae of botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum,, and rhizopus stolonifer grown in the absence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose were normal and showed no apparent cytological alterations. in the presence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose, however, these fungi exhibited severe cellular injuries ranging from cell wall disruption to cytoplasm disintegration. although 2-deoxy-d-glucose cau ...199718945101
use of chemosensitization to overcome fludioxonil resistance in penicillium expansum.to overcome fludioxonil resistance of penicillium expansum, a mycotoxigenic fungal pathogen causing postharvest decay in apple, by using natural phenolic chemosensitizing agents.201020536709
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
response of jujube fruits to exogenous oxalic acid treatment based on proteomic analysis.in this study, we found that oxalic acid (oa) at the concentration of 5 mm could delay jujube fruit sene-scence by reducing ethylene production, repressing fruit reddening and reducing alcohol content, which consequently increased fruit resistance against blue mold caused by penicillium expansum. in order to gain a further understanding of the mechanism by which oa delays senescence and increases disease resistance of jujube fruit, we used a proteomics approach to compare soluble proteome of juj ...200919068492
characterization and antimicrobial activity of a pharmaceutical microemulsion.the characterization of a pharmaceutical microemulsion system with glycerol monolaurate as oil, ethanol as cosurfactant, tween 40 as surfactant, sodium diacetate and water, and the antimicrobial activities against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, candida albicans, aspergillus niger and penicillium expansum have been studied. the influence of ethanol and sodium diacetate on oil solubilization capability was clearly reflected in the phase behavior of these systems. one m ...201020580790
growth inhibition of aspergillus ochraceus zmpbf 318 and penicillium expansum zmpbf 565 by four essential oils.fungi produce a large variety of extracellular proteins, organic acids, and other metabolites and can adapt to several environmental conditions. mycotoxin-producing moulds of the genera aspergillus and penicillium are common food contaminants. one of the natural ways to protect food from mould contamination is to use essential oils. in this study, we evaluated the effect of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender, rosemary, and sage at 1 % (v/v) concentration in yeast media inoculated with spores ( ...201020587393
oxidative damage involves in the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on spore germination of penicillium expansum.the effects of nitric oxide (no) on spore germination of penicillium expansum were investigated and a possible mechanism was evaluated. the results indicated that no released by sodium nitroprusside (snp) significantly suppressed fungal growth. with the use of an oxidant sensitive probe and western blot analysis, an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ros) and enhanced carbonylation damage were detected in spores of p. expansum under no stress. exogenous superoxide dismutas ...201120593183
combination of pichia membranifaciens and ammonium molybdate for controlling blue mould caused by penicillium expansum in peach fruit.the potential enhancement of pichia membranifaciens by ammonium molybdate (nh(4)mo) to control blue mould caused by penicillium expansum on peach fruit was investigated. combining p. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) cell/ml with 1 mm nh(4)mo provided a more effective control of blue mould rot than applying the yeast or nh(4)mo alone. addition of 1 mm nh(4)mo significantly increased the growth of p. membranifaciens in peach wounds, but did not affect the population in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medi ...201020605650
resistance of postharvest biocontrol yeasts to oxidative stress: a possible new mechanism of action.abstract we detected the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ros) superoxide anion ( o.(-) (2)) and hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) in apple wounds 2 immediately after wounding, and assessed the relationships between (i) timely colonization of apple wounds by biocontrol yeasts, (ii) resistance of these microorganisms to oxidative stress caused by ros, and (iii) their antagonism against postharvest wound pathogens. we analyzed a model system consisting of two yeasts with higher (cryptococcus ...200318942978
comparison of methods to detect resistance of penicillium expansum to thiabendazole.because of the lack of a standard method, the aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of the broth microdilution method clsi m38-a in determining the resistance level of some penicillium expansum isolates to thiabendazole (tbz). the ability of the isolates to produce patulin (pat) and citrinin (cit) has been also assessed.200919196442
lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.this study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (lab) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, xanthomonas campestris, erwinia carotovora, penicillium expansum, monilinia laxa, and botrytis cinerea. the antagonistic activity of 496 lab strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except p. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. the 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition ...200819204894
food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from cymbopogon citratus, ocimum gratissimum and thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.the food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants cymbopogon citratus, ocimum gratissimum and thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of aspergillus ochraceus, penicillium expansum and p. verrucosum. the fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a number of decimal reduction of the colony forming units per ml (ndr cfu). the influence of ph variation on this activity was studied. the ndr cfu varied with the e ...200919268382
evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit.to evaluate potential alternatives to conventional fungicides to control decay, more than 20 food additives and generally regarded as safe compounds were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of california peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogens: monilinia fructicola, botrytis cinerea, geotrichum candidum, alternaria alternata, penicillium expansum, mucor piriformis, and rhizopus sto ...200919517732
impact of water activity of diverse media on spore germination of aspergillus and penicillium species.the effects of water activity (a(w)) of diverse media i/ culture medium for sporogenesis, a(w sp) ii/ liquid spore suspension medium, a(w su) and iii/ medium for germination, a(w ge), on the germination time t(g) of aspergillus carbonarius, aspergillus flavus, penicillium chrysogenum and penicillium expansum were assessed according to a screening matrix at 0.95 and 0.99 a(w). it was shown that i/ reduced t(g)s were obtained at 0.95 a(w sp) except for p. expansum ii/ a significant effect of a(w s ...201020673593
modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. the aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. different levels of spore suspensions of aspergillus carbonarius and penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (me ...201020688232
evaluation of penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of penicillium expansum (i 1, e 11, c 28 and i 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. the 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. in particular, c 28 and i 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infecti ...201020800918
[screening of three straw-cellulose degrading microorganism].the aim of this study was to screen straw-cellulose degrading microorganisms and to investigate their degradation ability of straw-cellulose.201020815232
characterization of phenolic content, in vitro biological activity, and pesticide loads of extracts from white grape skins from organic and conventional cultivars.grape skin extracts of riesling vitis vinifera l. grapes from conventionally or organically managed cultivars were compared on the basis of their phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties and pesticide loads. promising results on their biological properties suggest that those extracts would be valuable as food preservatives. the antioxidant capacity of conventional extracts was significantly higher, according to the higher content in catechin, epicatechin ...201020870004
internal contamination and spoilage of harvested apples by patulin-producing and other toxigenic fungi.a total of 424 apple samples comprised of six varieties (gala, red delicious, golden delicious, fuji, granny smith, and braeburn) were analyzed for internal fungal contamination. two hundred sixteen apples were incubated intact for 2-4 weeks at room temperature. the cores of the remaining 208 apples were aseptically removed and incubated without supplemental media at room temperature for 3 weeks. after the incubation period was over, the mycological profiles of the analyzed samples were determin ...200919524316
thiabendazole resistance and mutations in the beta-tubulin gene of penicillium expansum strains isolated from apples and pears with blue mold decay.penicillium expansum is the causal agent of blue mold rot, a postharvest decay of stored fruits. this fungus also produces the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin. control of p. expansum still relies mainly on the use of fungicides such as thiabendazole. since its introduction, resistant strains have been reported. the aim of this work was to investigate the thiabendazole resistance and mutations in the beta-tubulin gene of p. expansum strains isolated from apples and pears with blue mold decay from ...200919538510
self-organizing maps and support vector regression as aids to coupled chromatography: illustrated by predicting spoilage in apples using volatile organic compounds.the paper describes the application of soms (self-organizing maps) and svr (support vector regression) to pattern recognition in gc-ms (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). the data are applied to two groups of apples, one which is a control and one which has been inoculated with penicillium expansum and which becomes spoiled over the 10-day period of the experiment. gc-ms of spme (solid phase microextraction) samples of volatiles from these apples were recorded, on replicate samples, over tim ...201021215863
promising antifungal effect of some euro-asiatic plants against dangerous pathogenic and toxinogenic fungi.increasing evidence of fungicide-resistant toxinogenic and pathogenic fungal species is obvious. looking for new possibilities of antifungal treatment or sources of antifungal substances is a major problem. some medicinal plants exert strong antifungal properties and could be conveniently used as a promising alternative source for presently problematic antifungal treatment in many areas with respect to their natural origin. methanol extracts of 46 medicinal plants from the eurasian area were use ...201021218483
dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in kanpur. a total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. the isolated fungi are acremonium implicatum (indian type culture collection) itcc 5266, a. strictum (germplasm centre for keratinophilic fungi) gpck 1137, aphanoascus fulvescens gpck 1081, arthroderma si ...200919584506
effect of heat shock treatment on stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of metschnikowia fructicola.the effect of high temperature and oxidative stress on the cell viability of the yeast antagonist, metschnikowia fructicola was determined. a mild heat shock (hs) pretreatment (30 min at 40 °c) improved the tolerance of m. fructicola to subsequent high temperature (45 °c, 20-30 min) and oxidative stress (0.4 mol l?¹ hydrogen peroxide, 20-60 min). hs-treated yeast cells showed less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros) than nontreated cells in response to both stresses. additionally, hs-t ...201121223330
cell surface engineering of a beta-galactosidase for galactooligosaccharide synthesis.a novel gene encoding transglycosylating beta-galactosidase (bgase) was cloned from penicillium expansum f3. the sequence contained a 3,036-bp open reading frame encoding a 1,011-amino-acid protein. this gene was subsequently expressed on the cell surface of saccharomyces cerevisiae eby-100 by galactose induction. the bgase-anchored yeast could directly utilize lactose to produce galactooligosaccharide (gos), as well as the by-products glucose and a small quantity of galactose. the glucose was c ...200919617384
biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using aspergillus and penicillium strains.in this study, we have investigated the biochemical behaviour of aspergillus sp. (five strains) and penicillium expansum (one strain) fungi cultivated on waste cooking olive oil. the production of lipid-rich biomass was the main target of the work. in parallel, the biosynthesis of other extracellular metabolites (organic acids) and enzyme (lipase) and the substrate fatty acid specificity of the strains were studied.201121281409
glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum.the effect of h2o2-induced oxidative stress on the viability of the yeast antagonist, cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (gb) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. gb treatment improved the tolerance of c. infirmominiatum to oxidative stress. compared to untreated control yeast cells, gb-treated cells showed less accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and a lower level of protein oxidation in response to oxidative str ...201121353322
biocontrol of postharvest gray and blue mold decay of apples with rhodotorula mucilaginosa and possible mechanisms of action.the efficacy of rhodotorula mucilaginosa against postharvest gray mold, blue mold and natural decay development of apples and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. the decay incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold and blue mold of apples treated by r. mucilaginosa were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher concentration of r. mucilaginosa, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. r. mucilaginosa also significantly reduced the natural decay deve ...201121402429
lactobacillus amylovorus dsm 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. the reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. in this study lactobacillus amylovorus dsm19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. among the indi ...201121429613
effects of rhamnolipid on the cellulase and xylanase in hydrolysis of wheat straw.the effects of biosurfactant rhamnolipid (rl) and chemical surfactant triton x-100 on the production of cellulases and xylanase from penicillium expansum (p. expansum) in untreated, acid- and alkali-pretreated wheat straw submerged fermentations were studied, and the influences on the activity and stability of cellulase r-10 were also investigated. the results showed that rl and triton x-100 enhanced the activities of cellulases and xylanase to different extents and the stimulatory effects of rl ...201121478013
influence of post-harvest treatments with fludioxonil and soy lecithin co-application in controlling blue and grey mould and fludioxonil residues in coscia pears.the residue levels of fludioxonil (flu) were determined in coscia pear following a 1-, 2- or 4-min dip in an aqueous mixture of flu containing 300 or 100 mg l(-1) (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 and 50 degrees c, respectively, with or without 2% soy lecithin. the efficacy of heat treatment with water and flu mixtures was investigated on artificially inoculated pears for the control of post-harvest decay caused by blue (penicillium expansum link) and grey (botrytis cinerea pers. ex fr.) mould. tr ...200919680873
purification of candida guilliermondii and pichia ohmeri killer toxin as an active agent against penicillium expansum.an antifungal assay with cell-free culture supernatant of pichia ohmeri 158 and candida guilliermondii p3 was tested against penicillium expansum strain #2 at 25 degrees c by measuring hyphal length and percentage conidia germination. c. guilliermondii was more effective against p. expansum conidia germination (58.15% inhibition), while p. ohmeri showed higher inhibition of mycelial growth (66.17%), indicating a probable mechanism associated with killer activity. this killer toxin (molecular mas ...200919680874
purification of patulin from penicillium expansum culture: high-speed counter-current chromatography (hsccc) versus preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-hplc).patulin is a mycotoxin produced by species of penicillium and aspergillus and is toxic to a wide range of organisms, including humans and livestock. to produce large amount of pure patulin for research purposes, high-speed counter-current chromatography (hsccc) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-hplc) were applied to the purification of patulin. apple juice was inoculated with p. expansum and containing 0.5 mg patulin per ml was used as a starting material for separatio ...200919680877
antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °c were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (ps) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. the isolated molds were penicillium expansum, cladosporium herbarum, and aspergillus niger from apples. p. oxalicum and c. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and p. expansium and c. fulvum from tomatoes. guar gum edible coating incorporated with ps was the most effective mold inhibitor, signifi ...201121535846
development of an lc-ms/ms method for the determination of pesticides and patulin in apples.a method for the simultaneous determination of 33 pesticides or degradation products together with patulin in apples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) was developed. the method involved homogenization of the apples, extraction with ammonium acetate-acetic acid solution in methanol-water by ultrasonication, filtration, and determination by lc-ms/ms. the repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility for the three spiking levels 0.02, 0.04 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) were bet ...200919680976
antioxidant, antihypertensive and antimicrobial properties of ovine milk caseinate hydrolyzed with a microbial protease.background: bioactive peptides might be released from precursor proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis. these molecules could be potentially employed in health and food products. in this investigation, ovine milk caseinate hydrolysates obtained with a novel microbial protease derived from bacillus sp. p7 were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory activities. results: antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin ...201121560133
effects of the origins of botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with penicillium expansum.earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. these volatile compounds are produced on grapes by botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum and/or a combination of p. expansum and b. cinerea strains. b. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in spain and portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). a novel headspace- ...201121569951
a highly regioselective route to arbutin esters by immobilized lipase from penicillium expansum.immobilized lipase from penicillium expansum, a novel and inexpensive enzyme preparation that we immobilized in our laboratory, was an excellent catalyst for highly regioselective acylation of arbutin with fatty acid vinyl esters. for the enzymatic butanoylation of arbutin, under the optimal conditions, initial reaction rate was 75.1 mm/h, and substrate conversion and regioselectivity were greater than 99%. in addition, a variety of 6'-esters of arbutin were prepared with high conversion (>99%) ...201019695875
purification and biochemical characterization of polygalacturonase produced by penicillium expansum during postharvest decay of 'anjou' pear.a polygalacturonase (pg) was extracted and purified from decayed tissue of 'anjou' pear fruit inoculated with penicillium expansum. ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. both chromatographic methods revealed a single peak corresponding to pg activity. pg enzyme activity from healthy and wounded pear tissue was undetectable, which supports the claim that the purified pg is of fungal origin. the purified enzyme had a mole ...201019968548
hydrogen peroxide acts on sensitive mitochondrial proteins to induce death of a fungal pathogen revealed by proteomic analysis.how the host cells of plants and animals protect themselves against fungal invasion is a biologically interesting and economically important problem. here we investigate the mechanistic process that leads to death of penicillium expansum, a widespread phytopathogenic fungus, by identifying the cellular compounds affected by hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) that is frequently produced as a response of the host cells. we show that plasma membrane damage was not the main reason for h(2)o(2)-induced dea ...201121755012
crystal structure of a triacylglycerol lipase from penicillium expansum at 1.3 a determined by sulfur sad. 201020146362
fructooligosaccharide production by penicillium expansum.fructooligosaccharides (fos) production by penicillium expansum was evaluated. in a first stage, the best conditions for p. expansum growth and sporulation were established with potato/dextrose/agar being the most suitable medium at between 22 and 25 degrees c, giving good growth and good sporulation. the inocula from this medium were used for fos production using shake-flask cultures, and yielded 0.58 g fos/g sucrose (3.25 g fos/l.h), demonstrating the potential of this strain for sucrose conve ...201020213526
effects of heat treatment on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits.this study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees c for 4 days) on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits (malus domestica borkh.) and the possible mechanism. wounded apples were healed at either 20 or 38 degrees c for 4 days. during the treatment, ethylene, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), peroxidase (pod), polyphenol oxidase (ppo), hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), and phenolic and lignin contents were measured. following the treatment, healed wounds were inoc ...201020232915
farnesol induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in the fungal pathogen penicillium expansum.this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of farnesol (foh) on the growth of p. expansum. the viability of p. expansum cells was determined by counting the colony forming units (cfu) after each foh treatment. morphological changes of foh-treated fungal cells were analyzed by staining with hoechst 33258, tunel (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase fluorescein-12-dutp nick end labeling), annexin-v fitc and the oxidant-sensitive probe h2dcfda (dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate). foh stro ...201020361499
modeling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions.the germination of penicillium expansum and aspergillus niger spores was monitored microscopically on malt extract agar at isothermal conditions ranging from 0 to 33°c and 5 to 41.5°c, respectively. the obtained germination data, expressed as percentage of germination (% p) versus time, were fitted to the modified gompertz equation for the estimation of the germination kinetic parameters (lag time, λ(g), and germination rate, μ(g)), which were further modeled as a function of temperature via the ...201221885146
synthesis of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines under microwave irradiation in multi-component reactions and their antitumor and antimicrobial activities - part 1.an efficient one-pot synthesis in multi-component system (mrcs) for the preparation of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives from the reaction of 5-amino-1-phenyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)-1h-pyrazole with 4-anisaldehyde and p-substituted β-ketonitriles or with pyruvic acid and some aromatic aldehydes in acetic acid medium. the reactions were carried out by two different techniques, conventional heating and microwave irradiation. these compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-p ...201122178093
spectroscopic investigations of the chiral interactions of metolachlor and its (s)-isomer with lipase and phosphatase.metolachlor [2-chloro-n-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-n-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] is a chiral acetanilide herbicide. we investigated its enantioselective interactions, and that of its (s)-isomer, with penicillium expansum alkaline lipase and phosphatase. uv differential spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry studies were conducted in phosphate buffered solution at ph 7. chiral differences in the uv absorption and fluorescence spectra of lipase and phosphatase with metolachlor and ...201020390958
antimicrobial evaluation of huilliche plant medicine used to treat wounds.the traditional use of 40 plant species used for treatment of wounds and associated infections by the huilliche people of chile was evaluated against bacterial and fungal human pathogens, especially including wound pathogens.201121939748
antifungal effects of the bioactive compounds enniatins a, a(1), b, b(1).to produce enniatin (ens), fusarium tricinctum cect 20150 was grown in a liquid medium of potato (pdb), being mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semipreparative column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water using gradient condition. the purity of the ens fractions was verified by analytical hplc and lc/ms-ms. the pure fractions of ens were utilized to study the biological activity on several mycotoxigenic moulds as fusarium verticilloides ...201020417654
Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions.Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage tempera ...201222029919
isolation and characterization of genes differentially expressed during the interaction between apple fruit and penicillium expansum.summary differences in gene expression during the susceptible interaction between 'golden delicious' apple fruits and the fungus penicillium expansum were investigated by differential display (dd) rt-pcr. partial cdnas from 26 clones from both the fungus and the fruit were selected for nucleotide sequence determination and homology searches, and 20 were subsequently selected for further analyses. in a preliminary series of northern blot analyses, 18 genes were confirmed as showing a higher expre ...200320569404
validation of a predictive model for the growth of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape berries.the objective of this study was to develop and to validate a model for predicting the combined effect of temperature and a(w) on the radial growth rate, mu, of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape berries. the proposed strategy was based on the gamma-concept developed previously [zwietering, m.h., wijtzes, t., de wit, j.c., van't riet, k. 1992. a decision support system for prediction of the microbial spoilage in foods. journal of food protection. 12, 973-979]: mu=mu(opt).gamma(t). ...201020619474
some factors influencing patulin production by penicillium expansum in pome fruits.the objective of our study was to examine the effects of penicillium expansum on patulin production in relation to isolates, species and cultivar type, incidence and severity of decay. in addition, patulin production at different incubation times and its diffusion were also investigated. these factors were evaluated in pome fruits inoculated with p. expansum and kept at 20 °c for short periods of time.201020623709
antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. zno nps with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (sem), and raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of zno nps and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellula ...201120630731
protein improvement in gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.the ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. alcaligenes faecalis, lactobacillus plantarum, bacillus subtilis, leuconostoc cremoris, aspergillus niger, a. tamari, geotrichum candidum and penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while stan ...201122514894
influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by byssochlamys nivea and byssochlamys fulva.although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during storage and distribution. in this study, the production of patulin by byssochlamys spp (byssochlamys nivea frr 4421, b. nivea atcc 24008 and byssochlamys fulva ioc 4518) in cloudy and clarified apple juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages or in polyethylene ...201020633943
microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for improved analysis of geosmin and other fungal "off" volatiles in grape juice.geosmin is a volatile fungal metabolite with an earthy aroma produced in grape products from rotten grapes. the accumulation of geosmin in grapes is caused by the interaction of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum. solid phase microextraction (spme) has great utility for collecting volatile compounds in wine. however, contamination with earthy odours may have occurred previously in the must and novel methods are required for this commodity. in the present report, several parameters of the ...201020655340
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