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identification of fungal contamination and determination of mycotoxigenic molds by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in smoked paprika.the purpose of this work was to analyze the fungal contamination in smoked and unsmoked paprika processed from different cultivars of pepper and to investigate the ability of these and other mycotoxigenic molds to grow and synthesize mycotoxins in smoked paprika. eighteen mycotoxins were evaluated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. no relevant differences were found in fungal contamination between smoked and unsmoked paprika. the number of yeasts obtained was low, ranging fr ...200515830676
physicochemical properties and bioactivity of fungal chitin and chitosan.chitinous material was extracted from mycelia of aspergillus niger and mucor rouxii grown in yeast peptone dextrose broth for 15 and 21 days, respectively. the extracted material was characterized for purity, degree of acetylation, and crystallinity and tested for antibacterial and eliciting properties. the maximum glucosamine level determined in the mycelium of a. niger was 11.10% dw and in the mycelium of m. rouxii was 20.13% dw. on the basis of the stepwise extraction of freeze-dried mycelia, ...200515884813
phenolase inhibitor from cultures of penicillium expansum which may play a part in fruit rotting. 19704987845
the presence of penicillium and penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes.a total of 97 samples (48 summer and 49 winter) of food waste from private households were investigated for penicillium and for mycotoxins. twenty-five penicillium species were isolated and penicillium crustosum, penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, penicillium roqueforti, penicillium spinulosum, penicillium viridicatum, penicillium commune, penicillium citrinum and penicillium solitum were, in decreasing order, the most frequently identified species. mycoto ...200414698099
influence of phosphate compounds on certain fungi and their preservative effects on fresh cherry fruit (prunus cerasus, l.).studies were conducted to ascertain the retarding effects of four phosphate compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetraphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on molding of fresh cherries (prunus cerasus, l.). in vitro studies on their antimycotic effects against the most common fungal spoilers, penicillium expansum, rhizopus nigricans, and botrytis sp., were also carried out. sodium tetraphosphate appeared to be the most effective compound in preserving cherries ...19684295176
a comparative study of the morphology and viability of hyphae of penicillium expansum and phytophthora nicotianae during freezing and thawing.the changes in morphology of penicillium expansum link and phytophthora nicotianae van breda de haan during freezing and thawing in a growth medium with and without the cryoprotective additive glycerol were examined with a light microscope fitted with a temperature-controlled stage. viability of 0.5-1.0 mm diameter colonies of both fungi was determined after equivalent rates of cooling to -196 degrees c in the presence or absence of glycerol. in p. expansum shrinkage occurred in all hyphae at ra ...19863794645
antifungal activity and mode of action of saponins from madhuca butyracea macb.the antifungal activity of saponins isolated as a byproduct from the defatted cake of m. butyracea oil seed is reported. the inhibitory concentrations against plant pathogenic fungi ranged from 500 to 2000 ppm. maximum sensitivity to saponins was shown by penicillium expansum. cephalosporium acrimonium, helminthosporium oryzae and trichoderma viride. the saponins caused leakage of cell components and underwent degradation by fungus, trichoderma viride. the usefulness of saponins as antimycotic a ...19911889830
enhanced production of penicillium expansum ped-03 lipase through control of culture conditions and application of the crude enzyme in kinetic resolution of racemic allethrolone.alkaline lipase production was performed in submerged fermentation by penicillium expansum ped-03. it was found that the suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for lipase production were 0.5% starch and 4.0% soybean meal, respectively. the maximal lipase activity (850 u/ml) of production was achieved at initial ph 5.5-6.0, 26 degrees c, 72 h. tween-80 was an effective enhancer for lipase production. agitation speed of the fermentor played an important role, and the suitable agitation speed f ...200516080697
origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.one of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. a microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four french regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in g ...200516096689
fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres.the fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres composed of increased co(2) and decreased o(2) was studied in a manner such that the condition of stored fruit was not a factor in the growth of the fungi. varying concentrations of o(2) and co(2) were used. the fungi used were botrytis alli, rhizopus nigricans, and penicillium expansum. the results showed that controlled atmospheres, within the limits of concentrations usable for fruit storage, are effective fungistatic agents.19665951331
letter: combined heat-irradiation effect on deoxyribonucleic acid of penicillium expansum lk. ex. thom. 19751081518
integration of biocontrol agents and food-grade additives for enhancing protection of stored apples from penicillium expansum.forty-nine compounds currently used as additives in foods were tested in combination with three biocontrol agents, the yeasts rhodotorula glutinis, cryptococcus laurentii, and the yeastlike fungus aureobasidium pullulans, to increase their antagonistic activity against penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold on apples. twelve additives dramatically improved the antagonistic activity of one or more of the tested biocontrol agents. in a two-way factorial experiment with these selected ...200516245713
[patulin in foods of vegetable origin i. pomaceous fruit and products made out of it (author's transl)].patulin can be detected in apples and pears which have spontaneously been affected with brown rot after storage at room temperature and at 1 degrees c. spoilage phenomena of this kind can be caused by penicillium expansum, but also by p. urticae and bysssochlamys nivea. if apples are stored at room temperature following a 4--5 months' storage at 4 degrees c, the patulin content of the rotten parts of the apple tissue. in applie puree made under household conditions the patulin content of the ini ...1976983346
new insecticidal compounds, communesins c, d and e, from penicillium expansum link mk-57.three new communesin congeners, communesins c, d, and e, together with two known communesins a and b were isolated from okara that had been fermented with penicillium expansum link mk-57. all these communesins showed the insecticidal activity against the silkworms.200415056914
inhibition of patulin production by penicillium expansum cultured with neem (azadirachta indica) leaf extracts.aqueous extract of the leaves of neem [azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae)] was tested in vitro for antifungal activity against penicillium expansum. patulin production was inhibited during cultivation, when concentrations higher than 50 mg/ml of neem leaf extract was added to the culture medium. analyses of mycotoxin production were performed by tlc and hplc. fungal growth and colony characteristics, in the presence of the extract, were investigated and compared with extract-free cultures.200415069669
toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit.among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. the toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or t-2 toxin. ethyl acetate extracts of five alternaria isolates and one fusarium isolate were mutagenic for salmonella typhimurium strains. in ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin ...1979391152
evaluation of nostoc strain atcc 53789 as a potential source of natural pesticides.the cyanobacterium nostoc strain atcc 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. the antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. among the target organisms, nine fungi (armillaria sp., fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, penicillium expansum, phytophthora cambivora, p. cinnamomi, rhizoctonia solani, rosellinia, sp., sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an ...200415184126
lipolytic activity and degradation of rapeseed oil and rapeseed by spoilage fungi.aspergillus, eurotium and penicillium spp. from rapeseed were able to grow and produce lipases over a range of water activities (aw) at both 15 and 25 degrees c on tributyrin agar. the ability to produce lipases was not directly related to growth rate. the clearing zone: growth rate ratios gave lipase indices which varied markedly between test fungi and with aw. the fungi with the highest indices were aspergillus candidus and aspergillus versicolor and penicillium expansum and penicillium hordei ...19938217518
antifungal constituents of melicope borbonica.fractionation of extracts of the leaves of melicope borbonica (syn. euodia borbonica var. borbonica), a medicinal plant from the réunion island that is traditionally used for wound healing and other ailments, afforded an acetophenone (xanthoxylin) and two coumarins, scoparone and limettin, as the major constituents. all three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against candida albicans and penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. moreover, 2,4,6-tri ...200415305313
[penicillium expansum, a resident fungal strain of the orbital complex mir, producing xanthocillin x and questiomycin a].it was demonstrated that the fungus penicillium expansum 2-7, a resident strain of the orbital complex mir, which became dominating at the end of a long-term space flight, formed biologically active secondary metabolites (antibiotics). using physicochemical methods, these metabolites were identified as xanthocyllin x and questiomycin a. time courses of their biosyntheses during growth and development of the producer culture were studied. addition of zinc to the culture medium affected both the g ...200415283339
trimming as a means of removing patulin from fungus-rotted apples.penicillium expansum 1071, 1172, nrll 973, and penicillium patulum atcc 24550 were inoculated into red delicious, golden delicious, and mcintosh apples. the decayed tissue was trimmed from the sound tissue, each fraction was weighed, and the patulin concentration in the juice was assayed by thin layer chromatography. the quantity of patulin in the whole apples and in decayed tissues was calculated and these values were used to determine the percentage of total patulin removed by trimming. the pa ...19751158834
characterization of tomato endo-beta-1,4-glucanase cel1 protein in fruit during ripening and after fungal infection.the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (egase) cel1 protein was characterized in fruit using specific antibodies. two polypeptides ranging between 51 and 52 kda were detected in the pericarp, and polypeptides ranging between 49 and 51 kda were detected in locules. the polypeptides recognized by cel1 antiserum in fruit are within the size range predicted for cel1 protein and could be derived from heterogeneous glycosylation. cel1 protein accumulation was examined throu ...200415243740
effects of trehalose on stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of cryptococcus laurentii.to investigate the effects of internal trehalose on viability and biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeast cryptococcus laurentii under stresses of low temperature (lt), controlled atmosphere (ca) and freeze drying.200616553742
effect of treatment with trichoderma harzianum rifai formulated in invert emulsion on postharvest decay of apple blue mold.conidia of trichoderma harzianum were formulated in invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) at a concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) conidia/ml of the formulation. treatments with conidia in the formulated emulsion and conidia in sterile distilled water were conducted to assess the effect on penicillium expansum link inoculated on apple fruits. comparisons were made with control treatments of an uninoculated emulsion and uninoculated distilled water. the t. harzianum-containing emulsion significantly (p <o ...200415454318
influence of intrinsic factors of apples on the growth and patulin production of penicillium expansum. 200415560184
development of real-time pcr using minor groove binding probe to monitor the biological control agent candida oleophila (strain o).a real-time pcr assay using a 3'-minor groove binding (mgb) probe was developed for specific detection and monitoring of candida oleophila (strain o), a biocontrol agent against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum, on harvested apples. the application of the rapd technique on c. oleophila strains followed by reproducible sequence characterized amplified region (scar) amplifications allowed the identification of a semi-specific fragment of 244 bp, observed in the profiles of strain o and th ...200515567227
apple (malus domestica) and tomato (lycopersicum esculentum) fruits cell-wall hemicelluloses and xyloglucan degradation during penicillium expansum infection.we characterized the changes in cell-wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides and the hemicellulose-degrading enzymes associated with apple and tomato fruits infected by penicillium expansum. our results showed a reduction in the molecular mass of hemicelluloses, with this reduction being particularly notable in the xyloglucan associated with p. expansum infection. the activation of fungal beta-glucanases was also highlighted. fruit xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xth)-specific activity de ...200415612782
antifungal activity of limonoids from khaya ivorensis.chemical investigation of the diethyl ether extract of the stem bark of khaya ivorensis a chev (meliaceae) afforded ten limonoids of angolensates, ring d-opened limonoids and mexicanolides. the structures of the limonoids isolated were determined by comparison of their (1)h and (13)c nmr data with those reported in the literature. these compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea pers. methyl 6-hydroxyangolensate and 3,7-dideacetylk ...200515619711
cloning and molecular characterization of penicillium expansum genes upregulated under conditions permissive for patulin biosynthesis.penicillium expansum is commonly associated with patulin production in pomaceous fruits. both the full-length isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene and a 470 bp fragment of the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (6-msas) gene have been cloned from p. expansum. in addition, we cloned a 715 bp fragment of a putative atp-binding cassette transporter gene peab1, together with part of two putative cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes p-450 1 and p-450 2. increased expression of all five genes was observed ...200616436057
fumaric acid in apple juice: a potential indicator of microbial spoilage of apples used as raw material.the effects of heat treatment (evaporation and excessive heating), and microbial contamination (rhizopus stolonifer, penicillium expansum and lactobacillus plantarum) as sources of fumaric acid formation in apple juice concentrates were investigated. fumaric acid formed in apple juice did not exceed 1.0 mg l(-1) during both commercial-scale evaporation and laboratory-scale excessive heat treatment, indicating that malic dehydration is not the primary source of fumaric acid formation. however, r. ...200415370835
control of blue mold (penicillium expansum) by fludioxonil in apples (cv empire) under controlled atmosphere and cold storage conditions.a reduced risk fungicide, fludioxonil, was tested for its efficacy against blue mold caused by thiabendazole-resistant and -sensitive penicillium expansum (link) thom in apples under three storage conditions. in a co-treatment, fludioxonil and inoculum were applied together to test the protective activity of the fungicide on wounds that had been aged for 1 or 2 days. the fungicide was also tested for its curative activity in post-inoculation treatment on apples that had been inoculated for 1 or ...200515662721
evaluation of several culture media for production of patulin by penicillium species.the aim of this study was to evaluate different species of penicillium to identify those which have the potential to produce the greatest amount of the mycotoxin, patulin. additionally, six different culture media were compared to determine maximum patulin production. eleven different strains of penicillium species were selected because they had previously been reported to be producers of patulin. the strains included penicillium expansum, penicillium griseofulvum (formerly penicillium urticae), ...200515698685
protein splicing of prp8 mini-inteins from species of the genus penicillium.inteins are protein-intervening sequences found inside the coding region of different host proteins and are translated in-frame with them. they can self-excise through protein splicing, which ligates the host protein flanks with a peptide bond. in this study, four different species of the genus penicillium were investigated for the presence of inteins inside the conserved splicing-factor protein prp8. we identified 157 to 162 amino acid in-frame insertions in the prp8 protein of penicillium chry ...200616544141
susceptibility of penicillium expansum spores to sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide solutions modified with nonionic surfactants.the use of water flotation tanks during apple packing increases the risk of contamination of apples by spores of penicillium expansum, which may accumulate in the recirculating water. routine addition of sanitizers to the water may prevent such contamination. sodium hypochlorite (naocl), chlorine dioxide (clo2), and electrolyzed oxidizing (eo) water have varied activity against spores of p. expansum, and their effectiveness could be enhanced using surfactants. the objective of this study was to ...200616924921
synergistic effect of chitosan and cryptococcus laurentii on inhibition of penicillium expansum infections.this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of chitosan at different concentrations with various intrinsic viscosities alone, and in its combination with a yeast antagonist cryptococcus laurentii in reducing the blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in apple fruit. the results indicated that application of chitosan alone was effective in inhibiting the blue mold rot in apple fruit wounds, especially with the high concentrations and low viscosities. but its efficacy was declining wi ...200717107729
patulin distribution in fuji and golden apples contaminated with penicillium expansum.this work assesses the extent of patulin contamination in penicillium expansum-infected apples stored at room temperature for short periods of time and its relationship with apple variety (golden or fuji), degree of ripeness and size of lesions. inoculated apples were incubated at 20 degrees c. patulin was determined in both sound and decayed tissue from cylindrical samples taken around the lesions and cut into 0.5-cm thick sections. higher accumulation of patulin occurred in golden apples, with ...200617118875
[overexpression of penicillium expansum lipase gene in pichia pastoris].the alkaline lipase gene of penicillium expansum (pel) was coloned into the yeast integrative plasmid ppic3.5k, which was then transformed into his4 mutant yeast gs115. recombinant pichia strains were obtained by minimal olive oil-methanol plates screening and confirmed by pcr. the expression producus of pel gene was analysis by sds-page and olive oil plate, the result indicated that pel gene was functionally overexpressed in pichia pastoris and up to 95% of the secreted protein. recombinant lip ...200315966328
crucial role of antioxidant proteins and hydrolytic enzymes in pathogenicity of penicillium expansum: analysis based on proteomics approach.penicillium expansum, a widespread filamentous fungus, is a major causative agent of fruit decay and may lead to the production of mycotoxin that causes harmful effects on human health. in this study, we compared the cellular and extracellular proteomes of p. expansum in the absence and presence of borate, which affects the virulence of the fungal pathogen. the differentially expressed proteins were identified using esi-q-tof-ms/ms. several proteins related to stress response (glutathione s-tran ...200717194899
patulin accumulation in apples by penicillium expansum during postharvest stages.the aim of this study was to assess the opportunities of penicillium expansum to develop and produce patulin in apples during cold storage and in the steps prior to processing of apple products.200717209811
osmotically induced trehalose and glycine betaine accumulation improves tolerance to desiccation, survival and efficacy of the postharvest biocontrol agent pantoea agglomerans eps125.the application of the biocontrol agent pantoea agglomerans eps125 to unwounded fruits was practically ineffective for control of postharvest blue mould caused by penicillium expansum when the treatment and subsequent wounding and pathogen inoculation were separated by periods of unfavourable conditions. this was due to a rapid decrease in viability of the alocthonous introduced biocontrol agent in the intact peel surface. a system for osmoadaptation of the biocontrol agent was developed by comb ...200516002241
microbial quality and presence of moulds in kuflu cheese.the chemical and microbial qualities, including fungal flora, of 30 samples of kuflu cheese randomly purchased from different markets in turkey were investigated. the gross composition of the cheese samples ranged between 37.65-53.65% moisture, 6.21-40.09% fat-in-dry matter, 4.70-10.07% salt-in-moisture and 26.18-44.85% protein. the mean ph value of the cheeses was 6.29+/-0.28 and ph values ranged from 5.52 to 7.22. variations between the samples in terms of their gross composition suggested a l ...200717258341
indole-3-acetic acid enhances the biocontrol of penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea on pear fruit by cryptococcus laurentii.this study evaluated the efficacy of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) alone or with a biocontrol yeast, cryptococcus laurentii, in the inhibition of blue and gray mold diseases (penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea) on pear fruit. the results demonstrated that a combination of c. laurentii with iaa at 100 microg ml(-1) was more effective in suppressing blue and gray mold infections on pear fruit than application of c. laurentii alone. iaa alone or with c. laurentii stimulated catalase, peroxidase ...200717286561
cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulation.patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health. it has been proven that patulin can damage organs and tissues in animals and some studies revealed carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. patulin is found mainly in low quality apples diverted to production of apple by-products. apples from cold storage or recently harvested (usually ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient cond ...200717341435
proteome approach to characterize proteins induced by antagonist yeast and salicylic acid in peach fruit.proteins induced by antagonist yeast pichia membranefaciens and salicylic acid (sa) in peach fruit were determined using proteome analysis in this study. both the yeast and sa enhanced the resistance of peach fruit and delayed the initiation infection of penicillium expansum. when quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer was used, a total of 25 proteins could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one activitor. according to the function, these pro ...200717381148
byssochlamys nivea with patulin-producing capability has an isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) with sequence homology to penicillium expansum and p. griseofulvum.nucleotide sequences of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) for eight strains of byssochlamys nivea were determined by constructing genomewalker libraries. a striking finding was that all eight strains of b. nivea examined had identical nucleotide sequences, including those of the two introns present. the length of intron 2 was nearly three times the size of introns in strains of penicillium expansum and p. griseofulvum, but intron 1 was comparable in size to the number of nucleotides prese ...200616934966
infection of cantaloupe rind with cladosporium cladosporioides and penicillium expansum, and associated migration of salmonella poona into edible tissues.a study was undertaken to determine if the growth of two phytopathogens, cladosporium cladosporioides and penicillium expansum, in wounds on cantaloupe rinds facilitates migration of salmonella poona into subsurface mesocarp tissues. wounded sites in cantaloupe rind were inoculated with s. poona only, s. poona and mold simultaneously, or mold followed by s. poona 3 days later. a cylindrical plug (ca. 3 cm diameter and 4 cm deep) of inoculated tissue extending from the rind surface into edible ti ...200516023237
effect of incubation temperature and relative humidity on lesion diameter of botrytis cinerea pers. and penicillium expansum link. on apple fruits.previous studies carried out in our laboratory demonstrated that the growth of b. cinerea and p. expansum was highly influenced by water activity and temperature in 'in vitro' conditions. regardless the temperature, a, minimal for growth was < or = 0.89 and equal to 0.89 for p. expansum and b. cinerea respectively. the effect of incubation temperature (5-25 degrees c) and relative humidity (rh 75-98%) on the lesion diameter of two common fungi b. cinerea and p. expansum was studied and modelled ...200617390873
purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a penicillium expansum lipase.pf898 is a strain of penicillium expansum optimized for the high level production of penicillium expansum lipase (pel). this pel is unique compared with other lipases in several aspects, for example, the pel shows low sequence identities (<30%) to all other known lipases, and high percentage of hydrophobic residues in the n-terminal region. the pel was purified to homogeneity and shown to be 28 kda by sds-page. crystals suitable for x-ray diffraction analysis were obtained by the sitting-drop me ...200516112629
gentiogenal, a conversion product of gentiopicrin (gentiopicroside)*.the structure of gentiogenal, (+/-)5-formyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1h,6h-pyrano-[3,4-c-]-pyran-1-one, a conversion product of the aglucone of gentiopicrin (gentiopicroside), isolated from blackstonia perfoliata (gentianaceae), was elucidated by (1)h- and (13)c nmr spectroscopic, mass spectrometric and x-ray diffraction methods. in a tlc bioassay gentiogenal showed fungitoxicity towards penicillium expansum.198317405055
biological control of apple blue mold with pseudomonas fluorescens.pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 1100-6 was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for apple blue mold caused by penicillium expansum or penicillium solitum. both the wild-type isolate 1100-6 and a genetically modified derivative labeled with the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (gfp) were compared. the p. fluorescens isolates with or without gfp equally reduced the growth of penicillium spp. and produced large zones of inhibition in dual culture plate assays. cell-free meta ...200516175208
prediction of penicillium expansum spoilage and patulin concentration in apples used for apple juice production by electronic nose analysis.classification models for penicillium expansum spoilage of apples and prediction models for patulin concentration in apples usable for apple juice production were made on the basis of electronic nose (e-nose) analysis correlated to hplc quantification of patulin. a total of 15 golden delicious and 4 jonagold apples were surface sterilized and divided into three groups per variety. the golden delicious group consisted of five apples each. group 1 was untreated control, group 2 was surface inocula ...200717458978
a microarray for monitoring the production of mycotoxins in food.a microarray, which covers most of the known relevant mycotoxin biosynthesis genes, has been developed. the microarray carries oligonucleotides of the fumonisin, the aflatoxin, the ochratoxin, the trichothecene (type a and b) and the patulin biosynthesis pathways. for trichothecene producing fusaria the biosynthesis cluster of trichothecene producing fusarium sporotrichioides (type a) and of gibberrella zeae (type b, teleomorph of f. graminearum) have been spotted. the aflatoxin cluster carries ...200717512074
antifungal activity of tio2 photocatalysis against penicillium expansum in vitro and in fruit tests.the antifungal activity of tio2 photocatalytic reaction in the form of tio2 powder and tio2 coated on a plastic film against penicillium expansum was investigated in vitro and in fruit tests. the mixture of p. expansum conidial suspension and tio2 powder was added to potato dextrose agar (pda) plates for vitro test. the tio2 photocatalytic reaction reduced conidial germination of the fungal pathogen. it was found that the ability of the tio2 photocatalytic reaction to suppress p. expansum growth ...200616269195
sodium bicarbonate enhances biocontrol efficacy of yeasts on fungal spoilage of pears.the addition of 2% (w/v) sodium bicarbonate (sbc) in the suspensions of antagonistic yeast cryptococcus laurentii or trichosporon pullulans significantly limited spore germination and germ tube elongation of penicillium expansum and alternaria alternata in potato dextrose broth (pdb) medium. biocontrol activity of c. laurentii or t. pullulans against postharvest decay caused by p. expansum and a. alternata in pear fruits was significantly increased when c. laurentii or t. pullulans combined with ...200415163586
enhanced activity of strobilurin and fludioxonil by using berberine and phenolic compounds to target fungal antioxidative stress response.identify natural products that effectively target antioxidative signal transduction/stress response systems [i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (mn-sod)] of fungi. enhance activity of strobilurin or fludioxonil with discovered compounds.200717651208
chlorine dioxide for reduction of postharvest pathogen inoculum during handling of tree fruits.alternatives to hypochlorous acid and fungicides are needed for treatment of fruit and fruit-handling facilities. chlorine dioxide was evaluated and found effective against common postharvest decay fungi and against filamentous fungi occurring on fruit packinghouse surfaces. in vitro tests with conidial or sporangiospore suspensions of botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, mucor piriformis, and cryptosporiopsis perennans demonstrated >99% spore mortality within 1 min when the fungi were expose ...199416349354
fungi associated with softening of bisulfite-brined cherries.softening of sound, calcium bisulfite-brined cherries was induced fairly quickly by brining them with cherries rotted by aspergillus niger, cytospora leucostoma, and penicillium expansum, but not with cherries rotted by a variety of other microorganisms, including alternaria sp., aspergillus oryzae, aureobasidium pullulans, botrytis cinerea, cladosporium sp., mucor racemosus, rhizopus stolonifer, and sclerotinia fructicola. rapid softening was correlated with the presence of a bisulfite-stable p ...196316349630
[improvement of the the thermostability of penicillium expansum lipase by mutagenesis the random mutant ep8 at k55r].in order to improve the thermostability of the penicillium expansum lipase (pel), the lipase encoding genes was mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. a recombinant vector pao815-ep8-k55r which contain double mutant genes was constructed by overlap extension pcr using the cdna of a random-mutant lipase ep8 (a single site mutant) as the template and two special primers were used to generate another mutation site k55r. the recombinant vector was transformed into pichia pastoris gs115 by electropora ...200717822043
micromycetes, producers of toxins, detected on stored vegetables.in 2003-2004, investigations of mycological contamination of stored and newly harvested vegetables were carried out. the aim of the study was to detect fungal species able to synthesize toxic metabolites, which are spread on vegetables under various conditions. for mycological investigations, samples of carrots, onions and cabbage were taken from storehouses with different storage periods and conditions. penicillium expansum, p. nalgiovense, mucor silvaticus and penicillium verrucosum were more ...200516457482
the implication of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xths) in tomato fruit infection by penicillium expansum link. a.in general, cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by plant pathogenic fungi are considered important pathogenicity factors. in this work, we evaluate the implication of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (xths), a potential hemicellulosic repairing enzyme, in the infection mechanism process by the fungus. this study investigated the slxths expresion and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (xet) activity during infection of two tomato fruit cultivars by penicillium expansum link. a. in infected ...200717960871
lactic acid bacteria with potential to eliminate fungal spoilage in foods.to investigate antifungal activity produced by lactic acid bacteria (lab) isolated from malted cereals and to determine if such lab have the capacity to prevent fungal growth in a particular food model system.200817976175
development of a biological control method against postharvest diseases of citrus fruits.candida oleophila strain o was previously selected for its high and reliable antagonistic activity against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum, two important wound pathogens on post-harvest apples. the application of these antagonistic strains on wound pathogens of citrus was more recently undertaken. the efficacy of yeast (applied at several concentrations from 10(5) to 10(8) cfu/ml) was assessed against p. digitatum and p. italicum inoculated after one hours (at a concentration of 10(5), ...200516637158
a new post-harvest fungicide to control fruit rot on apple and pear.philabuster is a new post-harvest fungicide developed by janssen pharmaceutica n.v.. it provides an advanced mould control by post-harvest treatments of citrus and pome fruit. the product is formulated as a stable suspension concentrate intended for dilution in water before use. philabuster 400 sc contains 200 g/l imazalil and 200 g/l pyrimethanil. both active ingredients have a different single site mode of action. imazalil inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis (dmi), whereas pyrimethanil interferes ...200516637162
selection of antagonists of postharvest apple parasites: penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea.the objectives of this study were to constitute a collection of pathogenic agents of economic importance which cause losses of apple fruits after harvest namely botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum and to select in vivo efficient antagonistic strains able to protect fruits against both pathogens at 5 degrees c (p. expansum) and 25 degrees c (p. expansum & b. cinerea). twenty strains of p. expansum and ten strains of b. cinerea have been isolated from infected apple fruits. potential antagon ...200516637169
antimicrobial activity of an endophytic xylaria sp.yx-28 and identification of its antimicrobial compound 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin.an endophytic xylaria sp., having broad antimicrobial activity, was isolated and characterized from ginkgo biloba l. from the culture extracts of this fungus, a bioactive compound p3 was isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry spectral data. the compound showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro against staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) ...200818092158
effect of chitin on the antagonistic activity of cryptococcus laurentii against penicillium expansum in pear fruit.this study was designed to evaluate the impact of chitin on the antagonistic activity of cryptococcus laurentii against the postharvest blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit. the results showed that the antagonistic activity of c. laurentii obtained from the culture media of nutrient yeast dextrose broth (nydb) amended with chitin at 0.5-1.0% was improved greatly compared with the case that without chitin. the addition of chitin to nydb did not influence the growth of c. lau ...200818162192
effect of biocontrol agents candida sake and pantoea agglomerans on penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in apples.penicillium expansum is the major responsible of fruit pome decaying in cold storage. apples spoiled by p. expansum are expected to contain patulin, a mycotoxin which is proven to affect human health. the use of chemicals is the most common procedure to prevent rots in postharvest but legislation is becoming more and more restrictive. the use of biocontrol agents (bca) as an alternative tool is currently being proposed. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two bca (candida sake cp ...200818191492
activity of trans-2-hexenal against penicillium expansum in 'conference' pears.to investigate the effects of trans-2-hexenal on blue mould disease, patulin content and fruit quality in 'conference' pears.200616696666
microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in istanbul, turkey.the water used in dental unit waterlines (duwls) acts as a coolant for the high-speed equipment and as an irrigant during dental treatments. there are kind of water tanks. duwls provide a favorable environment for microbial biofilm and multiplation primarily due to the high surface in the tubing and the character of fluid dynamics in narrow, smooth-walled waterlines. biofilms can harbour opportunist pathogens such as legionella sp., pseudomonas sp. several studies have shown that duwls have high ...200818210208
synergistic effects of combining biocontrol agents with silicon against postharvest diseases of jujube fruit.the synergistic effects of biocontrol yeasts cryptococcus laurentii and rhodotorula glutinis combined with silicon (si) against alternaria alternata and penicillium expansum molds were investigated in jujube fruit (chinese date, zizyphus jujuba) stored at 20 and 0 degrees c, respectively. combinations of c. laurentii and r. glutinis at 5 x 10(7) cells/ml with 2% si was most effective in controlling the diseases caused by a. alternata and p. expansum on jujube fruit stored at 20 degrees c. when f ...200515771180
identification of spore allergens from the indoor mould aspergillus versicolor.indoor mould growth and dampness are associated with respiratory health effects and allergies and several studies demonstrated that mainly aspergillus versicolor and penicillium expansum are responsible for indoor mould exposure. in contrast, commercialized test systems to diagnose allergic reactions to this mould species are not available. in this study, allergenic proteins from spores of the indoor relevant species a. versicolor and p. expansum should get detected and identified.200818315733
a caps test allowing a rapid distinction of penicillium expansum among fungal species collected on grape berries, inferred from the sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial ssu-rrna.penicillium expansum is a fungal species highly damageable for the postharvest conservation of numerous fruits. in vineyards, this fungus is sometimes isolated from grape berries where its presence may lead to the production of geosmin, a powerful earthy odorant, which can impair grapes and wines aromas. however, the discrimination of p. expansum from related fungi is difficult because it is based on ambiguous phenotypic characters and/or expensive and time-consuming molecular tests. in this con ...200616935376
studying and modelling the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the growth rate of p. expansum.the effect of solutes, water activity (a(w), 0.890--0.980) and temperature (5--25 degrees c) on the mycelial growth rate of penicillium expansum was evaluated. the growth rate dropped as the temperature and a(w) of the medium decreased. nacl was the solute causing the greatest growth rate reduction, followed by glucose, glycerol and sorbitol. statistical analysis of the results showed a significant effect of solute, a(w), temperature and combinations of two or three of these factors (p<0.0001). ...200515885834
epidemiology of mycotoxigenic fungi associated with fusarium ear blight and apple blue mould: a review.research on the epidemiology of plant diseases is briefly reviewed, focusing on two diseases caused by mycotoxin-producing pathogens: fusarium ear (or head) blight (feb or fhb) of small grain cereals and apple blue mould (penicillium expansum). pathogen development during its key life cycles is discussed in relation to important environmental factors and host resistance. current control methods are also reviewed, focusing on cultural and biological methods. the future challenge is to understand ...200516019798
efficacy of candida sake cpa-1 formulation for controlling penicillium expansum decay on pome fruit from different mediterranean regions.the effectiveness of a formulated product of the yeast candida sake cpa-1 for controlling postharvest diseases on pome fruits was demonstrated in laboratory, semicommercial, and commercial trials carried out in the major pome fruit producing region of the european union. first, one wettable powder and seven liquid formulations were tested in laboratory trials that involved two varieties of apples and two varieties of pears. in all cases, an efficacy similar to that of fresh cells was demonstrate ...200617133815
effect of lipase immobilization on resolution of (r, s)-2-octanol in nonaqueous media using modified ultrastable-y molecular sieve as support.the lipase from penicillium expansum ped-03 (pel) was immobilized onto modified ultrastable-y (usy) molecular sieve and the resolution of (r, s)- 2-octanol was carried out in a bioreactor in nonaqueous media by the immobilized lipase. it was found that the conversion rate, enantiomeric excess (ee) value, and enantioselectivity (e) value of the resolution catalyzed by pel immobilized on modified usy molecular sieve were much higher than those of the reaction catalyzed by free pel and pel immobili ...200616891665
the use of sourdough fermented by antifungal lab to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. in this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. in both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of aspergillus niger, fusarium culmorum, or penicillium expansum spores, however on whe ...200818541323
in vitro and in vivo [corrected] activity of eugenol oil (eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens.the activity of eugenol oil was evaluated in vitro and in vivo against four apple pathogens namely phlyctema vagabunda, penicillium expansum, botrytis cinerea and monilinia fructigena. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of eugenol incorporated in malt extract agar medium was found to be 2 mg ml(-1). mycelial growth of the four test pathogens was completely inhibited when treated with 150 microl l(-1) of volatile eugenol whether at 4 or 20 degrees c. conidia of p. vagabunda, p. expansum, ...200818554737
effect of yeast antagonist in combination with heat treatment on postharvest blue mold decay and rhizopus decay of peaches.the potential of using heat treatment alone or in combination with an antagonistic yeast for the control of blue mold decay and rhizopus decay of peaches caused by penicillium expansum and rhizopus stolonifer respectively, and in reducing natural decay development of peach fruits, as well as its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. in vitro tests, spore germination of pathogens in pdb was greatly controlled by the heat treatment of 37 degrees c for 2 d. in vivo test to contr ...200717140691
the sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in penicillium species.interest in species of the genus penicillium is related to their ability to produce the mycotoxin patulin and to cause spoilage of fruit products worldwide. the sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene, a gene in the patulin biosynthetic pathway, was determined for 28 strains representing 12 different penicillium species known to produce the mycotoxin patulin. isolates of penicillium carneum, penicillium clavigerum, penicillium concentricum, penicillium coprobium, penicillium dipodom ...200717043910
aureobasidium pullulansas a biocontrol agent of blue mold in "rocha" pear.the blue mold of "rocha" pear caused by penicillium expansum is an important postharvest disease which is adequately controlled by application of synthetic fungicides. in recent years, strategies like biological control have been considered a desirable alternative to chemicals. several studies have demonstrated the potential of the yeast-like fungus aureobasidium pullulans for control of postharvest decay of pear. a portuguese isolate of aureobasidium pullulans was characterized and evaluated fo ...200617390846
pichia angusta is an effective biocontrol yeast against postharvest decay of apple fruit caused by botrytis cinerea and monilia fructicola.the efficacy of eight isolates of pichia angusta against three common postharvest pathogens of apple fruit was evaluated for the first time. all tested strains showed significant biocontrol activity against both botrytis cinerea and monilia fructicola, whereas efficacy against penicillium expansum was poor. a leucine-auxotrophic mutant had no significant biocontrol activity against brown rot of apple, while the addition of 0.6-1.2 g l(-1) leucine in the fruit wound fully restored the biocontrol ...200818662318
biocontrol of blue mold on apple fruits by aureobasidium pullulans (strain ach 1-1): in vitro and in situ evidence for the possible involvement of competition for nutrients.aureobasidium pullulans strain ach1-1 was recently isolated for its biocontrol effectiveness against penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold on harvested apples. in the present study, strain ach1-1 was found to be very effective in controlling p. expansum on apple wounds. for in vitro tests, strain ach1-1 and p. expansum were cocultured in the presence of apple juice (0 - 5%) using a system preventing direct contact between both agents. the presence of the antagonist greatly reduced ...200617390872
effect of intracellular trehalose in cryptococcus laurentii and exogenous lyoprotectants on its viability and biocontrol efficacy on penicillium expansum in apple fruit.to improve viability and biocontrol efficacy of cryptococcus laurentii after freeze drying and in subsequent storage.200717397484
growth of phytopathogenic fungi in the presence of partially acetylated chitooligosaccharides.four phytopathogenic fungi were cultivated up to six days in media containing chitooligosaccharide mixtures differing in average dp and fa. the three different mixtures were named q3 (which contained oligosaccharides of dp2-dp10, with dp2-dp7 as main components), q2 (which contained oligosaccharides of dp2-dp12, with dp2-dp10 as main components) and q1 (which derived from q2 and contained oligomers of dp5-dp8 with hexamer and a heptamer as the main components). the novel aspect of this work is t ...200818523865
the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin metabolic pathway differs for penicillium griseofulvum and penicillium expansum.purified dna from isolates of penicillium griseofulvum and p. expansum was used as a template to amplify a 600-bp fragment of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway. primer pairs designed from the p. griseofulvum gene to amplify specific regions of the idh gene yielded similar-sized bands for all strains. asymmetrical amplification produced dna products for sequencing and dna sequences were translated to produce the corresponding amino acid sequences. after ...200616328863
proteolytic activity of molds and their metabiotic association with salmonella in a model system.the aim of this study was to investigate the proteolytic ability of some strains of aspergilli, fusaria, and penicillia and the metabiotic effect of fusarium oxysporum and penicillium expansum on salmonella. the proteolytic activity of the target molds was determined on tomato juice agar and tomato juice, whereas the metabiotic effect of f. oxysporum and p. expansum on salmonella was assessed in a model system consisting of tryptone soy broth with different amounts of tomato juice added. fusaria ...200818939766
effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on mycotoxins from apples inoculated with penicillium expansum.patulin concentration was not significantly different in bramley and cox's apples inoculated with penicillium expansum, and treated with the biocontrol enhancer 2-deoxy-d-glucose (dog) when compared to no dog treatment, despite average numerical increases. some additional small hplc peaks were detected from some extracts, one of which corresponded to citrinin.199716333567
enhancement of biocontrol of blue mold with the nutrient analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose on apples and pears.the glucose analog, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-dog) enhanced biocontrol of blue mold (caused by penicillium expansum), the most important postharvest disease of apples and pears. 2-dog strongly inhibited p. expansum, and of the two antagonists investigated, pseudomonas syringae was resistant to 2-dog at 10 mg/ml whereas sporobolomyces roseus was susceptible. a mutant of s. roseus resistant to 2-dog was developed. addition of 2-dog at 4 mg/ml allowed more than a 10-fold reduction in the concentration o ...199416349342
[rapid improvement of lipase production in penicillium expansum by genome shuffling].in the present study, the genome shuffling was used to improve lipase production of penicillium expansum. a lipase producing mutant strain-penicillium expansum fs8486 and a wild type of aspergillus tamarii fs-132 isolated from soil of a volcano in xinjiang were used as the parental strains. after two rounds of genome shuffling, several elite daughter strains were screened. the lipase activity in one of the daughter strains was increased 317% over the starting strain fs8486. comparisons of the mo ...200717822042
influence of storage conditions of apples on growth and patulin production by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of apples, and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. the present study aimed to determine the influence of storage conditions (i.e. temperature and o(2) level) on growth and patulin production by different p. expansum strains on a simulation medium and on apples. growth was strongly influenced by the temperature, while the used atmosphere (20, 3, and 1% o(2); <1% co(2)) had no effect. optimal growth was observed ...200717900726
the effect of inoculum size on the growth of penicillium expansum in apples.penicillium expansum is the most important cause of blue mould rot, a major post-harvest disease of apples worldwide. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculum size on the germination and growth parameters of p. expansum under different storage conditions in apples. growth of p. expansum was observed in more than 90% of the inoculations, when the inoculum was equal or higher than 2x10(4) spores. the use of a low inoculum level resulted in longer lag phases and a larg ...200817993398
biological control of postharvest spoilage caused by penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea in apple by using the bacterium rahnella aquatilis.the epiphytic bacterium rahnella aquatilis, isolated from fruit and leaves of apples, was tested for antagonistic properties against penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea on red delicious apple fruit. in "in vitro" assays, this bacterium inhibited completely the germination of p. expansum and b. cinerea spores, but it needed direct contact with the spores to do it. however the putative mechanism seemed be different for the two pathogens. the bacterium did not produce extracellular antibiotic ...200717007950
species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contamination.certain species of penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs. species examined were found in food, plants, and soil and were reported to produce patulin. penicillium expansum is the most commonly detected species linked to the presence of patulin in apple juice. at least 10 different enzymes are involved in the patulin biosynthetic pathway, including the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (id ...200718044450
inoculum size and intraspecific interactions affects penicillium expansum growth and patulin accumulation in apples.penicillium expansum is the most important fungal species causing spoilage in cold stored apples. p. expansum produces patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite. the aim of this work was to study the changes in growth parameters and patulin accumulation that may occur when two different isolates of p. expansum germinate and develop in the same wound. the effect of the inoculum size was also studied. for that purpose, apples were point inoculated with two different isolates of p. expansum at two diff ...200818206780
ecophysiological characterization of penicillium expansum population in lleida (spain).penicillium expansum, a patulin producer fungus, is the most important fungus causing decay in cold stored both apples and pears. this can lead to patulin contaminated by-products. the aim of this assay was to evaluate the phenotypical and physiological variability in the population of p. expansum that cause fruit spoilage in post-harvest stages in lleida (spain). in total, 101 isolates of p. expansum from the 2004 and the 2005 seasons were obtained from decayed fruits. significant differences w ...200818294715
efficacy of sanitizing treatments against penicillium expansum inoculated on six varieties of apples.the effectiveness of several wash treatments was evaluated against spores of penicillium expansum inoculated on six varieties of apples (red delicious, golden supreme, empire, macintosh, fuji, and gala). the wash treatments were water, acidified water (ph 6.5), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ph 6.5), nonacidified sodium hypochlorite (ph 8.8, 9.3, and 9.7; 50, 100, and 200 ppm, respectively), and peracetic acid (50 and 80 ppm). spores of p. expansum were dried on the surface of the apples for 2 h ...200818389716
isolation of an antifungal paenibacillus strain ht16 from locusts and purification of its medium-dependent antagonistic component.to isolate an antagonist for use in the biological control of the phytopathogenic fungus penicillium expansum and purify the antifungal component produced by the antagonist.200818422553
reducing oxidative stress in sweet cherry fruit by pichia membranaefaciens: a possible mode of action against penicillium expansum.to investigate the effect of antagonistic yeast pichia membranaefaciens on alleviating oxidative stress caused by penicillium expansum in sweet cherry fruit.200818492044
control of blue mold of apples by preharvest application of candida sake grown in media with different water activity.abstract unmodified and low water activity (a(w))-tolerant cells of candida sake cpa-1 applied before harvest were compared for ability to control blue mold of apples ('golden delicious') caused by penicillium expansum under commercial storage conditions. the population dynamics of strain cpa-1 on apples were studied in the orchard and during storage following application of 3 x 10(6) cfu/ml of each treatment 2 days prior to harvest. in the field, the population size of the unmodified treatment ...199818944874
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