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constant temperature artificial incubation of spawned eggs in natural nests from the chinese freshwater soft-shelled turtle,tryonyx sinensisstrauch(1862).on june 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and july 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the boseong river and the sandy beaches, seokgok-myun, moksadong-myun, gokseong-gun in jeollanam province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). the temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9±0.5℃, the depth of ...201728484749
blood flukes of asiatic softshell turtles: revision of coeuritrema mehra, 1933 (digenea: schistosomatoidea) and a new species infecting chinese softshell turtles, pelodiscus sinensis (trionychidae), from vietnam.coeuritrema mehra, 1933, previously regarded as a junior subjective synonym of hapalorhynchus stunkard, 1922, herein is revised to include coeuritrema lyssimus mehra, 1933 (type species), coeuritrema rugatus (brooks et sullivan, 1981) comb. n., and coeuritrema platti roberts et bullard sp. n. these genera are morphologically similar by having a ventral sucker, non-fused caeca, two testes, a pre-testicular cirrus sac, an intertesticular ovary, and a common genital pore that opens dorsally and in ...201627827338
the study of microanatomy of intestinal epithelium in the chinese soft-shelled turtle(pelodiscus sinensis).the microanatomy of the intestinal epithelium in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (cst) was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy (tem). the small intestinal epithelium (sie) was single layered or pseudostratified. the enterocytes contained mitochondria or mitochondria and lipid droplets. the enterocytes were arranged tightly in the apical parts of epithelium and connected by desmosomes and interdigitations. the large intestinal epithelium (lie) was pseudostratified and the entero ...201729387103
reptile embryos are not capable of behavioral thermoregulation in the egg.reptile embryos have recently been observed moving within the egg in response to temperature, raising the exciting possibility that embryos might behaviorally thermoregulate analogous to adults. however, the conjecture that reptile embryos have ample opportunity and capacity to adaptively control their body temperature warrants further discussion. using turtles as a model, we discuss the spatiotemporal constraints to movement in reptile embryos. we demonstrate that, as embryos grow, the internal ...201829194953
life-cycle and genetic characterization of astiotrema odhneri bhalerao, 1936 sensu cho & seo 1977 from the primorsky region (russian far east).adult astiotrema odhneri bhalerao, 1936 sensu cho & seo 1977 were found in the intestine of a freshwater turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (wiegmann), from the komissarovka river basin, primorsky region, russia. it was established that the first intermediate host of this parasite is a snail, anisus centrifugops, and that the second intermediate hosts include the snails, helicorbis sujfunensis and a. centrifugops, tadpoles of the frog rana dybowskii, and the fish perccottus glenii. the development of a ...201526232633
towards binding mechanism of cu2+ on creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis: molecular dynamics simulation integrating inhibition kinetics study.cu2+ is well known to play important roles in living organisms having bifacial distinction: essential microelement that is necessary for a wide range of metabolic processes but hyper-accumulation of cu2+ can be toxic. the physiological function of cu2+ in ectothermic animals such as pelodiscus sinensis (chinese soft-shelled turtle) has not been elucidated.201728245755
cellular evidence of exosomes in the reproductive tract of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the oviduct is a location of egg production, fertilization, and sperm storage. while its secretions have broadly attributes toward different physiological functions. we examined the ultrastructure of oviduct epithelium and glands in relation to the secretions, particularly with exosomes origin in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. the ciliated epithelial and gland cells were involved in the release of exosomes and secr ...201728217961
de novo transcriptome analysis reveals insights into different mechanisms of growth and immunity in a chinese soft-shelled turtle hybrid and the parental varieties.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is a highly important freshwater aquaculture species in china. the molecular mechanisms underlying changes in immunity and growth in hybrid vigor are not well understood. in the present study, the transcriptomes from significantly different p. sinensis strains (qingxi black turtle, b and japanese strain, j) and the resulting hybrid (zajiao-1, f) were sequenced using an illumina sequencing platform. differentially expressed genes (degs) betwee ...201727993704
effects of acute cold exposure on oxidative balance and total antioxidant capacity in juvenile chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.acute cold exposure may disturb the physiological homeostasis of the body in ectotherms. to date, there has been no information on the effects of cold exposure on homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ros) or antioxidant defense response in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis. in this study, p. sinensis juveniles were acclimated at 28 °c, transferred to 8 °c as cold exposure for 12 h, then moved back to 28 °c rewarming for 24 h. we measured the ros level and total antioxidant ...201727991724
identification, eukaryotic expression and structure & function characterizations of β-defensin like homologues from pelodiscus sinensis.defensins are a group of host defense peptides that play a central role in host innate immune responses. here, 26 genes encoding β-defensin-like peptides have been identified for the first time in pelodiscus sinensis using database mining approach. phylogenetic study confirmed that β-defensins are fast evolving genes with high rates of sequence substitutions. the expression level of several selected genes in different tissues was examined by rt-pcr. ps-bds mainly adopt β-strands and/or α-helix c ...201727890597
subcellular evidence for biogenesis of autophagosomal membrane during spermiogenesisin vivo.although autophagosome formation has attracted substantial attention, the origin and the source of the autophagosomal membrane remains unresolved. the present study was designed to investigatein vivosubcellular evidence for the biogenesis of autophagosomal membrane during spermiogenesis using transmission-electron microscopy (tem), western blots and immunohistochemistry in samples from the chinese soft-shelled turtle. the testis expressed lc3-ii protein, which was located within spermatids at di ...201627803675
expression of tlr2/4 on epididymal spermatozoa of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis during the hibernation season.spermatozoa are known to be stored in the epididymis of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis for long periods during hibernation, but the mechanism that underlies the sperm storage is poorly understood. this study was carried out to confirm the presence of tlr2/4 (toll-like receptor 2/4) in epididymal spermatozoa during the hibernation season and to analyze whether tlrs play a role in sperm storage. the structure and ultrastructure of a spermatozoon during the hibernation stage we ...201627532861
tandem amino acid repeats in the green anole (anolis carolinensis) and other squamates may have a role in increasing genetic variability.tandem amino acid repeats are characterised by the consecutive recurrence of a single amino acid. they exhibit high rates of length mutations in addition to point mutations and have been proposed to be involved in genetic plasticity. squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) diversify in both morphology and physiology. the underlying mechanism is yet to be understood. in a previous phylogenomic analysis of reptiles, the density of tandem repeats in an anole lizard diverged heavily from that of the ...201626868501
novel cellular evidence of lipophagy within the sertoli cells during spermatogenesis in the turtle.spermatogenesis is a complex process producing haploid spermatozoa, and the formation of lipid droplets (lds) within sertoli cells is critical to maintaining normal spermatogenesis. however, the utilization of lds within sertoli cells is still largely unknown. in the present study, proliferation of spermatogonial cells had begun in may, whereas the meiotic cells occurred predominately in july and majority of spermiogenic cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules in october. however, tem an ...201627750210
global analysis of differential gene expression related to long-term sperm storage in oviduct of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.important evolutionary and ecological consequences arise from the ability of female turtles to store viable spermatozoa for an extended period. although previous morphological studies have observed the localization of spermatozoa in pelodiscus sinensis oviduct, no systematic study on the identification of genes that are involved in long-term sperm storage has been performed. in this study, the oviduct of p. sinensis at different phases (reproductive and hibernation seasons) was prepared for rna- ...201627628424
short communication development of microsatellite markers and genetic diversity analysis for pelodiscus sinensis.pelodiscus sinensis is a common freshwater soft-shell turtle found in china, and is an important aquaculture species. in this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite primers were developed from the transcriptome. the genetic diversity of three populations of p. sinensis was evaluated, using 72 individuals. the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 26. the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.208 to 0.958, and from 0.302 to 0.963, respectively. the polymorphic information cont ...201627525890
cytological study on sertoli cells and their interactions with germ cells during annual reproductive cycle in turtle.sertoli cells (scs) play a central role in the development of germ cells within functional testes and exhibit varying morphology during spermatogenesis. this present study investigated the seasonal morphological changes in scs in the reproductive cycle of pelodiscus sinensis by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (tem), and immunohistochemistry. during hibernation period with the quiescent of spermatogenesis, several autophagosomes were observed inside the scs, the processes of wh ...201627516863
evaluation of differentially expressed immune-related genes in intestine of pelodiscus sinensis after intragastric challenge with lipopolysaccharide based on transcriptome analysis.pelodiscus sinensis is the most common turtle species that has been raised in east and southeast asia. however, there are still limited studies about the immune defense mechanisms in its small intestine until now. in the present research, histological analysis and transcriptome analysis was performed on the small intestine of p. sinensis after intragastric challenge with lps to explore its mechanisms of immune responses to pathogens. the result showed the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (i ...201627475104
purification, optimization and physicochemical properties of collagen from soft-shelled turtle calipash.the present work was to optimize the purification conditions for soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) calipash collagen (stcc) isolated by pepsin and to explore collagen physicochemical properties for potential biomaterial applications. single-factor test and orthogonal method l9 (3(4)) were employed with the stcc recovery yield as indicator. the optimum purification conditions were obtained when nacl concentration, collagen concentration and purification time were 2m, 8g/l, and 24h, respec ...201627106588
[rapid screening and confirmation of non-target pigment in chinese softshell turtle by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry].a method of non-target pigment screening in chinese softshell turtle has been established by using liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (lc-q-tof ms). after being purified by a simple acetonitrile extraction work, the non-target pigment in 20 chinese softshell turtle samples was detected by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (lc-dad). the s7 sample, which has a strong spectral response, was chosen to extract the mass spectrometry information of the non- ...201527097458
cellular evidence for nano-scale exosome secretion and interactions with spermatozoa in the epididymis of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the epididymis is the location of sperm maturation and sperm storage. recent studies have shown that nano-scale exosomes play a vital role during these complicated processes. our aim was to analyze the secretory properties of epididymal exosomes and their ultrastructural interaction with maturing spermatozoa in the chinese soft-shelled turtle. the exosome marker cd63 was primarily localized to the apices of principal cells throughout the epididymal epithelium. identification of nano-scale exosom ...201626992236
androgen-related sperm storage in oviduct of chinese soft-shelled turtle in vivo during annual cycle.long-term sperm storage in the female genital tract is essential for the appropriate timing of reproductive events in animals with asynchronous copulation and ovulation. however, the mechanism underlying the prolonged storage of spermatozoa is largely unexplored in turtles. in the present study, the role of androgen in sperm storage was investigated in the oviduct of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis. morphological analysis revealed that spermatozoa were observed in the vagina ...201626847578
molecular and cellular mechanisms of apoptosis during dissociated spermatogenesis.apoptosis is a tightly controlled process by which tissues eliminate unwanted cells. spontaneous germ cell apoptosis in testis has been broadly investigated in mammals that have an associated spermatogenesis pattern. however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in seasonally breeding reptiles following a dissociated spermatogenesis has remained enigmatic. in the present study, morphological evidence has clearly confirmed the dissociated spermatogenesis pattern inpelodiscus sinensis. tunel and t ...201728424629
hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) irreversibly inactivates creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis by targeting the active site cysteine.creatine kinase (ec 2.7.3.2, ck) plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis by catalysing the transfer of phosphate between atp and creatine phosphate. in this study, we investigated the effects of h2o2on psckm (muscle type creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis) by the integrating method between enzyme kinetics and docking simulations. we found that h2o2strongly inactivated psckm (ic50=0.25mm) in a first-order kinetic process, and targeted the active site cysteine d ...201728279764
division of chinese soft-shelled turtle intestine with molecular markers is slightly different from the morphological and histological observation.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is a commercially important species in asian countries. knowledge of its nutritional requirements and physiology is essential for determining the appropriate content of the feed for this animal. however, the lack of functional characterization of the intestine of this turtle limits the understanding of its absorption and utilization of nutritional materials. to solve this problem, this work utilized anatomical and histological methods to char ...201828271603
effect of ultrasound assisted extraction on the physicochemical and functional properties of collagen from soft-shelled turtle calipash.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and functional properties of acid-soluble collagen by ultrasound assisted extraction (uasc) from calipash of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). the results showed the collagen content was increased by 16.3% in uasc over the collagen from the conventional extraction (asc). both asc and uasc contained a moderate amount of imino acid (197 and 216 residues/1000 residues, respectively) and hydrophobic amino acid (353 and 391 res ...201728267613
chromosomal context affects the molecular evolution of sex-linked genes and their autosomal counterparts in turtles and other vertebrates.sex chromosomes evolve differently from autosomes because natural selection acts distinctly on them given their reduced recombination and smaller population size. various studies of sex-linked genes compared with different autosomal genes within species support these predictions. here, we take a novel alternative approach by comparing the rate of evolution between subsets of genes that are sex-linked in selected reptiles/vertebrates and the same genes located in autosomes in other amniotes. we r ...201729036698
expression of tlr2/4 in the sperm-storing oviduct of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis during hibernation season.the initiation of innate immunology system could play an important role in the aspect of protection for sperms long-term storage when the sperms got into oviduct of turtles and come into contact with epithelium. the exploration of tlr2/4 distribution and expression in oviduct during hibernation could help make the storage mechanism understandable. the objective of this study was to examine the gene and protein expression profiles in chinese soft-shelled turtle during hibernation from november to ...201526664692
a novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from proteolytic digest of chinese soft-shelled turtle egg white proteins.in this study, soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) egg white (sstew) proteins were digested by thermolysin and the resulting small peptides were further fractionated by reverse phase chromatography. peptides with angiotensin i-converting enzyme inhibitory (acei) activity from these fractions were screened. a lysozyme-derived peptide, iw-11, from the fraction with the most effective acei was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) and its purified form showed ...201324140975
effect of cd2+ on muscle type of creatine kinase: inhibition kinetics integrating computational simulations.creatine kinase (ec 2.7.3.2, ck) plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis by catalyzing the transfer of phosphate between atp and creatine phosphate. we investigated the effects of cd2+ on muscle type of creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis (psckm). cd2+ conspicuously inactivated the activity of psckm (ic50=0.062 mm) in a first-order kinetic process and exhibited non-competitive inhibition with creatine and atp. a conformational study showed that cd2+ induced ter ...201626642840
laser therapy in a soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) for the treatment of skin and shell ulceration. a case report.skin and shell diseases in aquatic turtles are often associated with several underlying causes. the presented case report describes aetiology including differential diagnoses, diagnostic procedures and therapy of a soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) suffering from a septicaemic ulcerative dermatitis. central aspect hereby is the positive curing effect of laser therapy on skin and shell lesions.201323958710
morphologic analysis of atretic follicles in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and its eggs have been utilized as both a source of nutrition and medicine for thousands of years. in the present study, follicular atresia was investigated by morphological analysis as an important factor affecting clutch size. results showed that follicular atresia can be divided into four stages: (1) development of follicular cell disorder; (2) massive cellular proliferation in the ooplasm with elimination of yolk granules; (3) large amoun ...201323909975
identifcation and validation of novel microrna molecule from the pelodiscus sinensis by bioinformatics approaches.micrornas (mirnas) are a group of endogenous, short non-coding rnas with the length of about 22 nt, which mediate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through mrna degradation or translational repression. among them, some are highly evolutionally conserved in the animal kingdom; this provides a powerful strategy for identifying mirnas in new species. the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is one of the most important freshwater aquaculture reptilian species in china, ...201526615637
the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, decreases nitrogenous excretion, reduces urea synthesis and suppresses ammonia production during emersion.the objective of this study was to examine the effects of 6 days of emersion on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis. despite having a soft shell with a cutaneous surface that is known to be water permeable, p. sinensis lost only ~2% of body mass and was able to maintain its hematocrit and plasma osmolality, [na(+)] and [cl(-)] during 6 days of emersion. during emersion, it ameliorated water loss by reducing urine output, which led to a reduct ...201323348951
lymphocyte migration in the micro-channel of splenic sheathed capillaries in chinese soft-shelled turtles, pelodiscus sinensis.the structural characteristics of the splenic sheathed capillary were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (tem). this study mainly focused on lymphocyte migration to the splenic white pulp via micro-channels in chinese soft-shelled turtles, pelodiscus sinensis. the results showed that the sheathed capillaries in the turtle spleen were high endothelial venule (hev)-like vessels. these capillaries consist of micro-channels that facilitate lymphocyte migration t ...201626461103
ultrastructure of the nephron in the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (reptilia, chelonia, trionychidae).the structure of the nephron in adult soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) was studied by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. the kidney contained 5-6 renal lobes. nephrons of p. sinensis are composed of a renal corpuscle (rc) and of a renal tubule that appears divided morphologically into five distinct segments: neck segment (ns) (this segment is only present in approximately 10% of the nephrons), proximal tubule (pt), intermediate segment (is), distal tubule ...201323123084
immunohistochemical analysis for g protein in the olfactory organs of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.in turtles, the epithelia lining the upper and lower chambers of the nasal cavity project axons to the ventral and dorsal parts of the olfactory bulbs, respectively. in a semi-aquatic soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, more than 1,000 odorant receptor genes have been found, but it is not known where they are expressed. in this study, we aimed to clarify the distribution of cells expressing these genes in the olfactory organs of soft-shelled turtles. immunoreactions for the gαolf, the α su ...201626440778
sperm storage and spermatozoa interaction with epithelial cells in oviduct of chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.spermatozoa are known to be stored within the female genital tract after mating in various species to optimize timing of reproductive events such as copulation, fertilization, and ovulation. the mechanism supporting long-term sperm storage is still unclear in turtles. the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the spermatozoa and oviduct in chinese soft-shelled turtle by light and electron microscopy to reveal the potential cytological mechanism of long-term sperm storage. ...201526357535
the effect of zn(2+) on pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: unfolding and aggregation studies.we studied the effects of zn(2+) on creatine kinase from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (psck). zn(2+) inactivated the activity of psck (ic(50) = .079 ± .004 mm) following first-order kinetics consistent with multiple phases. the spectrofluorimetry results showed that zn(2+) induced significant tertiary structural changes of psck with exposure to hydrophobic surfaces and that zn(2+) directly induced psck aggregation. the addition of osmolytes such as glycine, proline, and l ...201322888913
novel cellular evidence of oviduct secretions in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the oviduct is the location of fertilization and sperm storage. we examined the ultrastructure of the oviduct epithelium and its glandular secretions in the isthmus, uterus and vagina of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. the epithelium in these segments is lined with ciliated, secretory and other cells; the first two cell types span the entire epithelium, with secretory cells being predominant. the ciliated cells are characterized b ...201526350585
b-cell lymphoma-2 localization in the female reproductive tract of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis and its relationship with sperm storage.the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of b-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) in the oviduct of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, during the reproductive cycle to analyze the relationship between bcl-2 and sperm storage. bcl-2 expression was confirmed in the p. sinensis oviduct by western blot analysis. hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that female p. sinensis stored sperm from november to april of the following year. the oviduct showed positive ...201526285642
oral administration of a hot water extract of the softshell turtle (trionyx sinensis) improves exercise performance.freshwater softshell turtle (trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. to support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. the t. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 n (p<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. after exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels w ...201526176001
an immunohistochemical study of s-100 protein in the intestinal tract of chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the present work describes the distribution of s-100 protein in the intestinal tract of a chinese soft-shelled turtle specimen (pelodiscus sinensis). s-100 protein positive cells were located in the intestinal tract, from the proximal small to distal large intestine. s-100 protein positive dendritic cells had irregular shape and were positive in both cytoplasm and nucleus. most of them were located both lamina propria and submucosa in the small intestine, while few were found in the large intest ...201121486673
sites of origin and developmental dynamics of the neurons in the core and shell regions of torus semicircularis in the chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).to know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)h]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. the expression of vimentin (vm), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance p were also studied. the results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for t ...201121484802
incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, pelodiscus sinensis.identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. however, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. we incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, pelodiscus sinensis. when exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 2 ...201526028216
genetic manipulation of reptilian embryos: toward an understanding of cortical development and evolution.the mammalian neocortex is a remarkable structure that is characterized by tangential surface expansion and six-layered lamination. however, how the mammalian neocortex emerged during evolution remains elusive. because all modern reptiles have a homolog of the neocortex at the dorsal pallium, developmental analyses of the reptilian cortex are valuable to explore the origin of the neocortex. however, reptilian cortical development and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear, mainly due ...201525759636
evolution of the turtle body plan by the folding and creation of new muscle connections.the turtle shell offers a fascinating case study of vertebrate evolution, based on the modification of a common body plan. the carapace is formed from ribs, which encapsulate the scapula; this stands in contrast to the typical amniote body plan and serves as a key to understanding turtle evolution. comparative analyses of musculoskeletal development between the chinese soft-shelled turtle and other amniotes revealed that initial turtle development conforms to the amniote pattern; however, during ...200919590000
high incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos.developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. we measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperature ...201525749301
temperature-dependent sex determination ruled out in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) via molecular cytogenetics and incubation experiments across populations.the sex determination mechanism for the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is subject to controversy. some populations have been shown to possess sex chromosomes and thus genotypic sex determination (gsd), while others were reported to exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (tsd). to test whether tsd and gsd coexist in this species or whether populations differ in their sex-determining system, we conducted egg incubation experiments to investigate how temperature influenc ...201525676546
ascorbic acid regulation in stress responses during acute cold exposure and following recovery in juvenile chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).intense temperature change often leads to increased oxidative stress in many animals with a few exceptions, including the turtle. to date, little is known about the mechanism of protective antioxidative defenses in turtles during acute temperature change, specifically the role that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (aa) plays. in this study, chinese soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) were initially acclimated at 28°c (3 wks), exposed to acute cold condition (8°c, 8 h) and finally placed in r ...201525645296
seasonal effects on apoptosis and proliferation of germ cells in the testes of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.to elucidate the processes involved in the spatial and temporal maturation of spermatogenic cells in the testes of the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, we used a histological morphology method, tdt-mediated dutp nick end-labeling (tunel) assay, the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (pcna), and electron microscopy. seminiferous tubules from 100 turtles, normal for size of testes and semen quality, were collected during 10 months of a complete annual cycle (10 turtles/month). the seminif ...200818377973
oxygen-dependent heat tolerance and developmental plasticity in turtle embryos.oxygen and temperature have previously been treated as different environmental stresses and studied separately in most cases. although the oxygen-temperature interaction may provide new insight into proximate and evolutionary constraints on embryonic development and offspring fitness, it has rarely been studied in oviparous amniotes. we used a two-factor experiment [three oxygen concentrations (12, 22 and 30%) × two temperatures (26.5 and 34 °c)] to identify the effect of the oxygen-temperature ...201525523756
development of the thalamo-dorsal ventricular ridge tract in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.with the exception of that from the olfactory system, the vertebrate sensory information is relayed by the dorsal thalamus (dth) to be carried to the telencephalon via the thalamo-telencephalic tract. although the trajectory of the tract from the dth to the basal telencephalon seems to be highly conserved among amniotes, the axonal terminals vary in each group. in mammals, thalamic axons project onto the neocortex, whereas they project onto the dorsal pallium and the dorsal ventricular ridge (dv ...201525494924
isolation and characterization of a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory tripeptide from enzymatic hydrolysis of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) egg white: in vitro, in vivo, and in silico study.in this study, a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory tripeptide (ivr) was isolated and identified from unfertilized soft-shelled turtle egg white (sstew). the ic50 value of ivr was measured in vitro as low as 0.81 ± 0.03 μm, and its inhibition type was suggested as competitive according to the lineweaver-burk plot. this peptide can be generated from either thermolysin followed by trypsin digestion (two stages) or only trypsin digestion (one stage). quantitative lc-ms/ms analysis ...201425402658
spermiogenesis in soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.spermiogenesis in the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, was examined by transmission electron microscopy. the process includes nuclear elongation, chromatin condensation, acrosomal and flagellar development, and elimination of excess cytoplasm. in stage i, the proacrosomal vesicle occurs next to a shallow fossa of the nucleus, and a dense acrosomal granule forms beneath it. a smaller subacrosomal granule in the middle of the fibrous layer is related to the development of intranuclear tub ...200717724710
morphological and ultrastructural study of the efferent ductules in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.comparative study of the turtle excurrent duct system increases our understanding the evolution of sperm motility and fertility maintenance in higher vertebrates. therefore, in this study we observed the histology and ultrastructure organization of efferent ductules in the pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. the efferent ductules are extra- testicular and 22-28 in number originate from rete testis. the epithelium is entirely composed of two types of cells, the p ...201626700193
on the carapacial ridge in turtle embryos: its developmental origin, function and the chelonian body plan.the chelonian carapace is composed of dorsolaterally expanded ribs; an evolutionary change in the rib-patterning program is assumed to be related to this novelty. turtle embryos exhibit a longitudinal ridge called the carapacial ridge (cr) on the flank, and its histological resemblance to the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud implies its inductive activity in the unique patterning of the ribs. we studied the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and confirmed by labeling with a ...200717507399
ultrastructure of epididymal epithelium and its interaction with the sperm in the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the epididymis of the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis was examined under light and transmission electron microscopes to determine the morphological characteristics, as well as their changes at different phases of the seasonal reproductive cycle. three distinct regions, viz., cranial, middle and caudal were identified in the epididymis based on anatomical characteristics. the epididymal epithelium consists of five different cell types: principal, narrow, apical, clear and basal cells. pri ...201324041582
fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, fed different dietary lipid sources.juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) were fed 7 diets containing 8% of lard, soybean oil, olive oil, menhaden fish oil, or mixtures of 1 to 1 ratio of fish oil and lard, soybean oil, olive oil for 10 weeks. growth and muscle proximate compositions of the turtles were not affected by different dietary treatments (p>0.05). fatty acid profiles in muscle polar lipids, muscle non-polar lipids, and liver polar lipids reflected the fatty acid composition of dietary lipid source. turtles ...200717137843
reduced egg shell permeability affects embryonic development and hatchling traits in lycodon rufozonatum and pelodiscus sinensis.the response of embryos to unpredictable hypoxia is critical for successful embryonic development, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of such responses in reptiles with different types of egg shell. we experimentally generated external regional hypoxia by sealing either the upper half or bottom half of the surface area of eggs in 2 species of reptiles (snake [lycodon rufozonatum] with parchment egg shell and chinese soft-shelled turtle [pelodiscus sinensis] with rigid egg she ...201828504478
origin of the unique morphology of the shoulder girdle in turtles.the shoulder girdle of turtles has a triradiate morphology. although its dorsal process represents the scapular blade, the skeletal identities of the two ventral processes remain uncertain. to elucidate the question, developmental patterns of the girdles were compared between chinese soft-shelled turtles, chickens, and mice. despite the morphological diversity of adults, the initial primordia of the shoulder girdles showed similar morphological patterns. the ventral two processes developed from ...201324117338
lactate dehydrogenase genes of caiman and chinese soft-shelled turtle, with emphasis on the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of reptiles.l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) cdnas encoding for ldh-a(4) (muscle) and ldh-b(4) (heart) isozymes from caiman (caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) belonging to the order crocodilia and chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) belonging to the order chelonia were sequenced. the phylogenetic relationships of the newly determined cdna and their deduced protein sequences, as well as the previously published sequences of vertebrate ldh isozymes, were analyzed by various phylogenetic tree construc ...200111722846
effects of osmolytes on pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: a study on thermal denaturation and aggregation.the protective effect of osmolytes on the thermal denaturation and aggregation of pelodiscus sinensis muscle creatine kinase (psck) was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and thermodynamic analysis. our results demonstrated that the addition of osmolytes, such as glycine and proline, could prevent thermal denaturation and aggregation of psck in a concentration-dependent manner. when the concentration of glycine and proline increased in the denatured system, the relative activ ...201323791661
a little winning streak: the reptilian-eye view of gastrulation in birds.the primitive streak is where the mesoderm and definitive endoderm precursor cells ingress from the epiblast during gastrulation. it is often described as an embryological feature common to all amniotes. but such a feature has not been associated with gastrulation in any reptilian species. a parsimonious model would be that the primitive streak evolved independently in the avian and mammalian lineages. looking beyond the primitive streak, can one find shared features of mesoderm and endoderm for ...201323157408
modification of sperm morphology during long-term sperm storage in the reproductive tract of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.sperm storage in vivo extends the time window for fertilisation in several animal species, from a few days to several years. the underlying storage mechanisms, however, are largely unknown. in this study, spermatozoa from the epididymis and oviduct of chinese soft-shelled turtles were investigated to identify potentially relevant morphological features and transformations at different stages of sperm storage. large cytoplasmic droplets (cds) containing lipid droplets (lds) were attached to the m ...201526537569
differentiation of four strains of chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) based on high-resolution melting analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism sites in mitochondrial dna.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) has been one of the most economically important aquatic animals in china for thousands of years, and several breeding strains have been formed. since the morphological characteristics of some strains are similar, a rapid and accurate molecular method to differentiate between strains is required. in this study, partial sequences of mitochondrial dna from four turtle strains, taihu lake strain, taiwan strain, japanese strain, and yellow river s ...201526535627
the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, excretes urea mainly through the mouth instead of the kidney.the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, is well adapted to aquatic environments, including brackish swamps and marshes. it is ureotelic, and occasionally submerges its head into puddles of water during emersion, presumably for buccopharyngeal respiration. this study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the buccophyaryngeal cavity constitutes an important excretory route for urea in p. sinensis. results indicate that a major portion of urea was excreted through the mouth inste ...201223053366
does the hydric environment affect the incubation of small rigid-shelled turtle eggs?hydric environments are hypothesized to have minor effects on the embryonic development of rigid-shelled turtle eggs due to the low water permeability of the eggshell. however, the water reserve in the eggs may still influence their resistance to environmentally induced dehydration. we incubated rigid-shelled turtle eggs (pelodiscus sinensis) on different moist substrates (from -12 to -750kpa) to test the hypothesis that small rigid-shelled eggs would be sensitive to hydric environments. the hyd ...201323026024
the ultrastructural characteristics of the spermatozoa stored in the cauda epididymidis in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis during the breeding season.the ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis of soft-shelled turtle, p. sinensis during breeding season was investigated by light microscopy (lm) and electron microscopy (tem and sem). the mature spermatozoa appeared elongated and filiform. in general, the turtle spermatozoon contains a characteristic head, midpiece and tail, similar in morphology to that of birds, amphibians and other reptiles. however, several features are unique. these include (1) three intranuclear tubules contain ...201322858349
folding studies on muscle type of creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis.a folding study of creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis has not yet been reported. to gain more insight into structural and folding mechanisms of p. sinensis ck (psck), denaturants such as sds, guanidine hcl, and urea were applied in this study. we purified psck from the muscle of p. sinensis and conducted inhibition kinetics with structural unfolding studies under various conditions. the results revealed that psck was completely inactivated at 1.8 mm sds, 1.05 m guanidine hcl, and 7.5 m ure ...201222405779
isolation and characterization of 21 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.twenty-one novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (trionychidae). this is a commonly consumed asian species, especially in china, where it is reared in large numbers on farms. we screened 34 unrelated individuals from wuhu of anhui province in china and detected high levels of polymorphism for all 21 loci, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 5 to 23 (mean 15.67). the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged fro ...201121710450
the effects of vitamin e on antiacid stress ability in juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis).we determined the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin e (0-, 50-, 250-, 500-, 1000- and 5000-mg/kg diet for 4 weeks) on antistress ability in juvenile soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). half of the turtles per dose group were treated by acid stress for 24 h. the results showed that phagocytosis of blood cells in the control group significantly decreased after acid stress while the other five groups had no significant changes compared with those of before stress. serum bacterio ...200415228947
the effects of dietary vitamin c on growth, liver vitamin c and serum cortisol in stressed and unstressed juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis).we studied the effect of dietary vitamin c on growth, liver vitamin c and serum cortisol levels in stressed and unstressed juvenile soft-shelled turtles. turtles were fed with vitamin c supplementation at dosages of 0, 250, 500, 2500, 5,000 or 10,000 mg/kg diet for 4 weeks. vitamin c supplementation exerted significant effects on specific growth rate and liver vitamin c concentrations. the specific growth rate peaked in the group fed at 500 mg/kg diet, while liver vitamin c levels increased with ...200312781826
sixteen polymorphic microsatellites for breeding of chinese soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis). 201020331610
hatching mechanism of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the mechanism by which the embryo hatches out of the egg envelope, the vitelline membrane and egg white, was studied in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis. the cdna of the turtle hatching enzyme (he) was 1555bp-long and a mature enzyme of 321 amino acids. the mature he was composed of an astacin protease domain of 200 amino acids and a cub domain of 121 amino acids, and the estimated molecular size was 35,311. the protease domain contained two active site consensus sequences, he ...201020109577
the existence of na+/k+-atpase-immunoreactive cells in the pharyngeal villiform-papilla epithelium of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus.the pharyngeal villiform processes of the hibernating soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus, were studied by immunohistochemistry for na+/k+-atpase in combination with a mitochondrion staining. mitochondria-rich cells were recognized in the epithelium constituting the distal part of most processes, and exclusively showed the na+/k+-atpase immunoreactivity. these cells tended to attract each other to form clusters. when considering the physiological and histological data previously obta ...200010989940
fine structural observation on the oogenesis and vitellogenesis of the chinese soft-shelled turtle ( pelodiseus sinensis).fine structure observations were performed by means of electron microscopy on oogenesis and vitellogenesis and the special functions of follicular cells in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiseus sinensis). histological examination of the ovary showed a well developed lacunae system containing fine granules, fibres or gelatiniform materials with one or two germinal beds dispersed on the dorsal surface of the ovarian cortex. the process of oogenesis comprised 10 consecutive phases according t ...201019586560
villiform processes in the pharynx of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus, functioning as a respiratory and presumably salt uptaking organ in the water.some species of soft-shelled turtle have been known to use a conspicuous mass of villiform processes of the pharyngeal mucosa as an aquatic respiratory organ when staying underwater for prolonged periods, such as hibernation. using hibernating turtles, trionyx sinensis japonicus, the present study employed scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate for the first time the detailed morphology and distribution of these villiform processes. two types of processes, complex and simple, could be ident ...200010885454
differentiation of extracutaneous melanocytes in embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus.the present study investigates the mode of differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the embryos of the soft-shell turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus. dopa reaction-positive melanoblasts were first detected in 10-day-old embryos. melanocyte differentiation in terms of pigmentation takes place from the day 16 of development. melanin pigments were found in the dorsal integument as well as in various extracutaneous tissues such as skeletal muscle, dorsal aorta, peritoneum, blood vessel ...19911816548
determinants of incubation period: do reptilian embryos hatch after a fixed total number of heart beats?the eggs of birds typically hatch after a fixed (but lineage-specific) cumulative number of heart beats since the initiation of incubation. is the same true for non-avian reptiles, despite wide intraspecific variation in incubation period generated by variable nest temperatures? non-invasive monitoring of embryo heart beat rates in one turtle species (pelodiscus sinensis) and two lizards (bassiana duperreyi and takydromus septentrionalis) show that the total number of heart beats during embryoge ...200919376951
the structure of the pigment cells in the turtle trionyx sinensis.a light and transmission electron microscopic study of the pigment cells (chromatophores) revealed the presence of three types of cells, namely: melanophores, xanthophores or erythrophores, and iridophores. the melanophores contained eumelanin containing organelles, the melanosomes and iridophores showed reflecting platelets, whereas, the xanthophores contained pterinosomes. quantitatively melanophores appeared in large numbers and were widely distributed, ranging from the skin to many internal ...19863813821
epiplexus cells in the embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis.the epiplexus cells in the embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis were examined in scanning and transmission electron microscopy. although the cells showed diverse morphological forms, the majority of the cells however had a stellate cell body each with 3-5 radiating long processes with secondary processes terminating on the ventricular surface of the choroid epithelial cells. the cell body was relatively smooth. occasional epiplexus cells displayed blebs on their cell bodies and processes. in ...19854084004
[studies on soft-shelled turtles. i. effects of various fractionated extracts from trionyx sinensis wiegmann on the isolated mesenteric veins of mice]. 19846527229
adenohypophysial cell-types in the pituitary gland of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis. i. seasonal cycles.by using various staining techniques, two acidophilic and three basophilic cell-types have been distinguished in the pars distalis of trionyx sinensis. seasonal fluctuations in their cytoplasmic granulation, cell and nuclear size have been compared with seasonal patterns of activity in the gonads, adrenals and thyroid. on the basis of the results, specific functions have been ascribed to each cell-type. basophils 1 activity closely parallels the seasonal thyroid cycle. basophils 2 are probably f ...1976183889
neurogenic development of the visual areas in the chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and evolutionary implications.to characterize the neurogenic development of the visual areas of the turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) during embryogenesis, a single dose of [(3)h]-thymidine (10 microci) was injected into egg yolks from stages s11-12 to s21. at hatching, localization of [(3)h]-thymidine incorporation was examined, and led to three main observations. (1) neurogenesis occurred in the stratum griseum centrale of the tectum opticum from s11-12 to s16 with a peak at s12. no obvious gradients of neurogenesis were observ ...200818430086
ultrastructure of anterior uterus of the oviduct and the stored sperm in female soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis.ultrastructure of sperm storage in female soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis was examined under light and electron microscopes. sperm storage tubules are restricted to the anterior of the uterus. these tubules developed either by folding or fusion of the oviductal mucosal folds and are lined by both ciliated and secretory cells. ciliated cells are characterized by a few microvilli and prominent cilia in the apical membranes. a prominent feature of the secretory cell is the presence of secreto ...200818231967
mechanisms of and defense against acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and to examine how this turtle defended against a sublethal dose of nh(4)cl injected into its peritoneal cavity. the ammonia and glutamine contents in the brains of turtles that succumbed within 3h to an intraperitoneal injection with a lethal dose (12.5 micromolg(-1) turtle) of nh(4)cl were 21 and 4.4 micromolg(-1), respectively. since the brain ...200818068826
optimization of method to extract collagen from "emperor" tissue of soft-shelled turtles.soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some asian countries, and parts of this turtle contain abundant collagen. in this study, we optimized a method for extracting collagen from the soft-shelled turtle. we used three types of solvent and four extraction conditions to determine an effective collagen extraction method, which was extraction at 37°c with acetic acid after hydrochloric acid pretreatment. next, we extracted collagen from three regions in the soft-shelled ...201626782306
pcr-rflp identification of four chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis strains using mitochondrial genes.a pcr-rflp method to confirm the identification of four pelodiscus sinensis strains (taihu lake strain, taiwan strain, yellow river strain and japanese strain) was developed and evaluated. in this study, we sequenced and analyzed the partial sequences of mitochondrial nadh4, cox i and nadh5-nadh6 genes of 60 individuals from the four p. sinensis strains. bgl i, hpa ii and cla i were selected for cutting nadh4, cox i and nadh5-nadh6 pcr products, respectively, and each strain has its unique restr ...201524438250
seasonal changes of sperm storage and correlative structures in male and female soft-shelled turtles, trionyx sinensis.reproductive ducts of male and female soft-shelled turtles, trionyx sinensis were examined throughout the year (march, may, september, december) using brightfield and electron microscopes (tem and sem), to determine the location and histomorphological characteristics of sperm storage structures as well as their changes at different phases of the seasonal reproductive cycle. sperm stored in the epididymis were also examined. in the male, spermatogenesis is initiated in spring (may), and then the ...200817997057
differences in neurogenesis differentiate between core and shell regions of auditory nuclei in the turtle (pelodiscus sinensis): evolutionary implications.there is a clear core-versus-shell distinction in cytoarchitecture, electrophysiological properties and neural connections in the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of amniotes. determining whether the embryogenesis of auditory nuclei shows a similar organization is helpful for further understanding the constituent organization and evolution of auditory nuclei. therefore in the present study, we injected [(3)h]-thymidine into turtle embryos (pelodiscus sinensis) at various stages of ...200717595537
identification and characterization of telocytes in the uterus of the oviduct in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis: tem evidence.telocytes (tcs) are cells with telopodes (tps), which are very long cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilated bead-like thick regions known as podoms. tcs are a distinct category of interstitial cells and have been identified in many mammalian organs including heart, lung and kidney. the present study investigates the existence, ultrastructure, distribution and contacts of tcs with surrounding cells in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct of the chinese soft-sh ...201425230849
empyema, acute respiratory failure, and septic shock after aspiration of a soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) bone by an adult.the common late complications of foreign body aspiration include granulation formation, obstructive pneumonia, and atelectasis. however, a foreign body-induced pleural infection is very rare, and especially when it is not iatrogenic.201425161865
telocytes: novel interstitial cells present in the testis parenchyma of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.telocytes (tcs) are novel interstitial cells that have been found in various organs, but the existence of tcs in the testes has not yet been reported. the present ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study revealed the existence of tcs and differentiate these cells from the peritubular cells (pc) in contact with the surrounding structures in the testes. firstly, our results confirmed the existence of two cell types surrounding seminiferous tubules; these were pc (smooth muscle like characteri ...201526769239
nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, exposed to a progressive increase in ambient salinity.this study aimed to determine effects of 6-day progressive increase in salinity from 1 per thousand to 15 per thousand on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis. for turtles exposed to 15 per thousand water on day 6, the plasma osmolality and concentrations of na+, cl- and urea increased significantly, which presumably decreased the osmotic loss of water. simultaneously, there were significant increases in contents of urea, certain free amino acids (faa ...200617068799
unique features of myf-5 in turtles: nucleotide deletion, alternative splicing, and unusual expression pattern.turtles characteristically possess a bony shell and show an extensive reduction of the trunk muscles. to gain insight into the evolution of this animal group, we focused on the underlying mechanism of the turtle-specific developmental pattern associated with the somitic mesoderm, which differentiates into both skeleton and muscle. we isolated myf-5, a member of the myogenic-transcription-factor-encoding gene family expressed in the myotome, from the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensi ...200616925677
postprandial increases in nitrogenous excretion and urea synthesis in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding on the excretory nitrogen (n) metabolism of the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, with a special emphasis on the role of urea synthesis in ammonia detoxification. p. sinensis is ureogenic and possesses a full complement of ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in its liver. it is primarily ureotelic in water, and the estimated rate of urea synthesis in unfed animals was equivalent to only 1.5% of the maximal capac ...200716838133
effects of ration level and feeding frequency on digestibility in juvenile soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the effects of ration level and feeding frequency on digestibility in juvenile soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, were investigated. four ration levels 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.0% and satiation (6.0% bw/d) were used. apparent digestibility (ad) of dry matter (dmad), protein (pad) and protein real digestibility (prd) were significantly affected by ration level, but not by feeding frequency when the ration level was similar. however, the feeding frequency affected the ad, dmad, pad and prd significant ...200616773733
glial cytoarchitecture in the central nervous system of the soft-shell turtle, trionyx sinensis, revealed by intermediate filament immunohistochemistry.the distribution of the intermediate filament molecular markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) and vimentin, has been studied in the central nervous system (cns) of the soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis) with immunoperoxidase histochemistry. gfap immunohistochemistry pointed out the presence of different astroglial cell types. the brain pattern consists of ependymal radial glia whose cell bodies are located in the ependymal layer throughout the brain ventricular system. in the spinal ...200616763812
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cdna encoding pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit of the chinese soft-shell turtle pelodiscus sinensis and regulation of its gene expression.a cdna encoding thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit (tshbeta) was cloned from pituitary of the chinese soft-shell turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and its regulation of mrna expression was investigated for the first time in reptile. the chinese soft-shell turtle tshbeta cdna was cloned from pituitary rna by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and rapid amplification cdna end (race) methods. the chinese soft-shell turtle tshbeta cdna consists of 580-bp nucleotides, incl ...200616290821
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