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arbovirus infections in reptiles: studies on the presence of japanese encephalitis virus antibody in the plasma of the turtle, trionyx sinensis.this study was undertaken to examine further the natural infection of poikilothermic animals e.g. turtles, to japanese encephalitis (je) virus. plasma samples from 75 soft-shelled fresh water turtles (trionyx sinensis wiegman) from china were examined in virus neutralization (vn) and hemagglutination inhibition (hai) tests for the presence of specific antibody. the total incidence of antibody detected by either test to a titer of 10 or greater was 89% while 77% and 60% were positive by vn and ha ...1975170690
adenohypophysial cell-types in the pituitary gland of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis. i. seasonal cycles.by using various staining techniques, two acidophilic and three basophilic cell-types have been distinguished in the pars distalis of trionyx sinensis. seasonal fluctuations in their cytoplasmic granulation, cell and nuclear size have been compared with seasonal patterns of activity in the gonads, adrenals and thyroid. on the basis of the results, specific functions have been ascribed to each cell-type. basophils 1 activity closely parallels the seasonal thyroid cycle. basophils 2 are probably f ...1976183889
immunoreactive endothelin in plasma of nonmammalian vertebrates.immunoreactive endothelin (ir-et) was estimated in plasma of nonmammalian vertebrates, using radioimmunoassay (ria) for endothelin-1 (et-1). blood samples were collected from unanesthetized animals. plasma et was determined by ria after extraction. plasma levels of ir-et were 0.7 +/- 0.2 pg/ml (n = 6) in the hagfish eptatretus burgeri, 4.3 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 5) in the banded dogfish triakis scyllia, 3.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml (n = 3) in the common japanese conger conger myriaster, 9.6 +/- 1.4 pg/ml (n = ...19911725396
differentiation of extracutaneous melanocytes in embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus.the present study investigates the mode of differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the embryos of the soft-shell turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus. dopa reaction-positive melanoblasts were first detected in 10-day-old embryos. melanocyte differentiation in terms of pigmentation takes place from the day 16 of development. melanin pigments were found in the dorsal integument as well as in various extracutaneous tissues such as skeletal muscle, dorsal aorta, peritoneum, blood vessel ...19911816548
putative thyroid hormone receptors in red blood cells of some reptiles.putative triiodothyronine (t3) receptors have been detected in the nuclei of red blood cells (rbc) in a number of reptile species. the binding characteristics of t3 receptors in vitro were dissociation constant (kd) 9.1 to 28.58, 36.8 and 40, and 11.12 and 11.36 pm, and binding capacity (bmax) 0.12 to 0.37, 0.17 and 0.24, and 0.19 and 0.28 fmol per million cells in the rat snake (ptyas korros), soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), and tokay gecko (gekko gecko), respectively. these data were o ...19873609713
the structure of the ileofibularis muscle in the turtle trionyx sinensis.the ileofibularis muscle of the turtle trionyx sinensis was examined by light and electron microscopy. acetylcholinesterase staining showed an "en grappe" type of terminal. the muscle showed succinic dehydrogenase activity with three different types of fibers. the fibers appeared fibrillar type under the electron microscope. neuromuscular junctions showed the presynaptic portion containing clear vesicles and mitochondria, whereas the postjunctional portion showed only few junctional folds.19873619598
the structure of the pigment cells in the turtle trionyx sinensis.a light and transmission electron microscopic study of the pigment cells (chromatophores) revealed the presence of three types of cells, namely: melanophores, xanthophores or erythrophores, and iridophores. the melanophores contained eumelanin containing organelles, the melanosomes and iridophores showed reflecting platelets, whereas, the xanthophores contained pterinosomes. quantitatively melanophores appeared in large numbers and were widely distributed, ranging from the skin to many internal ...19863813821
epiplexus cells in the embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis.the epiplexus cells in the embryos of the turtle, trionyx sinensis were examined in scanning and transmission electron microscopy. although the cells showed diverse morphological forms, the majority of the cells however had a stellate cell body each with 3-5 radiating long processes with secondary processes terminating on the ventricular surface of the choroid epithelial cells. the cell body was relatively smooth. occasional epiplexus cells displayed blebs on their cell bodies and processes. in ...19854084004
the localization of vagal neurons in the terrapin (trionyx sinensis) as revealed by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase method.after the application of horseradish peroxidase in nonidet p40 solution to the right cervical vagus in the terrapin, the neurons giving origin to efferent fibers and the transganglionic sensory fibres are labeled. the neurons forming the vagus nerve at the mid-cervical level are located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmx), in the nucleus ambiguus (na), in an area located ventral to the dmx, and less definitely in the nucleus of the spinal accessory nerve. the dmx and na neurons ...19846512177
[studies on soft-shelled turtles. i. effects of various fractionated extracts from trionyx sinensis wiegmann on the isolated mesenteric veins of mice]. 19846527229
preganglionic neurons projecting to the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion in the terrapin (trionyx sinensis).after injection of hrp into the first right thoracic sympathetic ganglion of the terrapin, labeled cells are found in the central autonomic area, intercalated area, intermediolateral cell column, dorsal horn, ventrolateral edge of the dorsal column, dorsolateral edge of the ventral white column, and the ventral and ventromedial border of the ventral horn. they form one discontinuous column in the portion of the spinal cord marking the attachments of the tenth or eleventh to the fourteenth spinal ...19836672048
purification and characterization of turtle pepsinogen and pepsin.pepsinogen was purified from the gastric mucosa of soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) by a series of chromatographies on deae-cellulose, sephadex g-100, and q-sepharose. upon chromatography on q-sepharose, it was separated into nine isoforms. these isoforms showed a relative molecular mass of approximately 43,000 da on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and isoforms 4 through 9 contained carbohydrate (approx. 2% each). insofar as they were examined, their nh2-terminal ...19968889828
effects of local tissue environment on the differentiation of neural crest cells in turtle, with special reference to understanding the spatial distribution of pigment cells.the spatial distribution of neural crest-derived pigment cells in turtles differs markedly from those found in chickens and mice. one hypothesis to explain such differences in the spatial distribution of pigment cells is that local tissue factors interact with neural crest cells, thereby determining their differentiation into pigment-synthesizing cells. it is reported here that local tissue factors in the soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis japonicus) play a critical role in the development of m ...199910231195
a new iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle.a virus was isolated from soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) with 'red neck disease' on a farm in shenzhen, china, the virus multiplied and caused a cytopathogenic effect (cpe) at 15-30 degrees c in co, fhm, ck and bf-2 cells. the optimum conditions for replication was in co cells at 25-30 degrees c. the virus was sensitive to chloroform treatment, acid (ph 3) or alkaline (ph 10) conditions and heating at 56 degrees c for 30 min. treatment with 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (iudr) inhibited viral re ...199910509727
antibody against testudo herpesvirus is not common in chinese soft-shelled turtles.seventy-six serum samples of chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis) were collected at jiangsu province, china. the neutralization test (nt) was performed with the sera, testudo herpesvirus (thv) and turtle heart cells (thc). neutralizing antibodies were detected in five of 76 samples and the titres were 1:10-1:20. having optimized the conditions, the dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa) was developed and eight serum samples exhibited positive results. five samples were posi ...199910676152
villiform processes in the pharynx of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus, functioning as a respiratory and presumably salt uptaking organ in the water.some species of soft-shelled turtle have been known to use a conspicuous mass of villiform processes of the pharyngeal mucosa as an aquatic respiratory organ when staying underwater for prolonged periods, such as hibernation. using hibernating turtles, trionyx sinensis japonicus, the present study employed scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate for the first time the detailed morphology and distribution of these villiform processes. two types of processes, complex and simple, could be ident ...200010885454
the vascular supply of the villiform processes in the pharynx of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus. a scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts.following our observations of the fine structure of the pharyngeal villiform processes of the hibernating soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus (yokosuka et al., 2000), this paper deals with a scanning electron microscope study of the resin casts of blood vessels supplying those processes. each villiform process contained arterioles and venules which ran in the axial portion of the process; capillaries formed a network at the periphery of the connective tissue core of the villus. in th ...200010885455
the existence of na+/k+-atpase-immunoreactive cells in the pharyngeal villiform-papilla epithelium of the soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus.the pharyngeal villiform processes of the hibernating soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis japonicus, were studied by immunohistochemistry for na+/k+-atpase in combination with a mitochondrion staining. mitochondria-rich cells were recognized in the epithelium constituting the distal part of most processes, and exclusively showed the na+/k+-atpase immunoreactivity. these cells tended to attract each other to form clusters. when considering the physiological and histological data previously obta ...200010989940
cdna cloning and functional expression of growth hormone receptor from soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis japonicus).the growth hormone receptor (ghr) cdna was cloned from the liver of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis japonicus) using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). although ghr has been cloned from several mammalian and avian species, this is the first description of the reptilian receptor. as deduced from the nucleotide sequence, the precursor ghr of soft-shelled turtle (tghr) is a protein of 615 amino acids which presents 72% identity with the chicken receptor and 57-64% identity with ghrs of s ...200011017774
lactate dehydrogenase genes of caiman and chinese soft-shelled turtle, with emphasis on the molecular phylogenetics and evolution of reptiles.l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) cdnas encoding for ldh-a(4) (muscle) and ldh-b(4) (heart) isozymes from caiman (caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) belonging to the order crocodilia and chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) belonging to the order chelonia were sequenced. the phylogenetic relationships of the newly determined cdna and their deduced protein sequences, as well as the previously published sequences of vertebrate ldh isozymes, were analyzed by various phylogenetic tree construc ...200111722846
the effect of vitamin c on the non-specific immune response of the juvenile soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis).the study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation vitamin c in dietary non-specific immunity in juvenile soft-shelled turtles. the soft-shelled turtles were fed with vitamin c supplementation at dosages of 0, 250, 500, 2500, 5000 and 10000 mg/kg diets, respectively, for 4 weeks. the results showed that there were no differences in the phagocytosis of blood cells, serum bacteriolytic activity and bactericidal activity among soft-shelled turtles fed with vitamin c supplementation ...200211897203
[thermal tolerance, diel variation of body temperature, and thermal dependence of locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, trionyx sinensis].the thermal tolerance, body temperature, and influence of temperature on locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis) were studied under dry and wet conditions, and the selected body temperature of hatchlings was 28.0 and 30.3 degrees c, respectively. under wet condition, the critical thermal maximum and minimum averaged 40.9 and 7.8 degrees c, respectively. in the environments without thermal gradients, the diel variation of body temperature was highly consistent w ...200212561184
molecular cloning of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) cdna from mud turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the complete complementary dna (cdna) of proopiomelanocortin (pomc), a common precursor of opioid hormone beta-endorphin, melanotropin (msh), and corticortropin (acth), was cloned and sequenced from pituitary and hypothalamus of mud turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) methods. two transcripts of pomc mrnas with different polyadenylation sites were observed. both transcripts had an open reading frame encoding a 261-amino acid peptide containing nine d ...200312679096
mycobacterium kansasii infection in a chinese soft shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). 200312723632
the effects of dietary vitamin c on growth, liver vitamin c and serum cortisol in stressed and unstressed juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis).we studied the effect of dietary vitamin c on growth, liver vitamin c and serum cortisol levels in stressed and unstressed juvenile soft-shelled turtles. turtles were fed with vitamin c supplementation at dosages of 0, 250, 500, 2500, 5,000 or 10,000 mg/kg diet for 4 weeks. vitamin c supplementation exerted significant effects on specific growth rate and liver vitamin c concentrations. the specific growth rate peaked in the group fed at 500 mg/kg diet, while liver vitamin c levels increased with ...200312781826
imp-gmp 5'-nucleotidase in reptiles: occurrence in a turtle, a tortoise and three species of snakes.imp-hydrolyzing activity, which is reactive with goose anti-pig lung imp-gmp 5'-nucleotidase (c-n-ii: ec.3.1.3.5) serum, was detected in extracts from liver, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, skeletal muscle and lung from several species of reptiles: the values found in liver (u/mg protein) of one animal were: 4.5 for an ammono-ureotelic turtle (trionyx sinensis japonicus); 3.7 for an ureo-uricotelic tortoise (testudo elegans); 13-23 for three species of uricotelic snakes: elaphe quadrivirgata, el ...200312892757
the effects of vitamin e on antiacid stress ability in juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis).we determined the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin e (0-, 50-, 250-, 500-, 1000- and 5000-mg/kg diet for 4 weeks) on antistress ability in juvenile soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). half of the turtles per dose group were treated by acid stress for 24 h. the results showed that phagocytosis of blood cells in the control group significantly decreased after acid stress while the other five groups had no significant changes compared with those of before stress. serum bacterio ...200415228947
turtle-chicken chimera: an experimental approach to understanding evolutionary innovation in the turtle.turtles have a body plan unique among vertebrates in that their ribs have shifted topographically to a superficial layer of the body and the trunk muscles are greatly reduced. identifying the developmental factors that cause this pattern would further our understanding of the evolutionary origin of the turtles. as the first step in addressing this question, we replaced newly developed epithelial somites of the chicken at the thoracic level with those of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus ...200515580555
comprehensive survey of carapacial ridge-specific genes in turtle implies co-option of some regulatory genes in carapace evolution.the turtle shell is an evolutionary novelty in which the developmental pattern of the ribs is radically modified. in contrast to those of other amniotes, turtle ribs grow laterally into the dorsal dermis to form a carapace. the lateral margin of carapacial primordium is called the carapacial ridge (cr), and is thought to play an essential role in carapace patterning. to reveal the developmental mechanisms underlying this structure, we systematically screened for genes expressed specifically in t ...200515642085
hox code in embryos of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis correlates with the evolutionary innovation in the turtle.turtles have the most unusual body plan of the amniotes, with a dorsal shell consisting of modified ribs. because this morphological change in the ribs can be described as an axial-level specific alteration, the evolution of the turtle carapace should depend on changes in the hox code. to identify turtle-specific changes in developmental patterns, we cloned several hox genes from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, examined their expression patterns during embryogenesis, and co ...200515643629
a combination of soft-shell turtle powder and essential oil of a unicellular chorophyte prevents bone loss and decreased bone strength in ovariectomized rats.the effects of soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis) powder (sst) on the proximal tibiae of ovariectomized (ovx) rats were investigated using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pqct) and examination of serum biochemical markers. considering the relationship between the antioxidative property and antiosteoporotic activity, the synergistic effects of a mixture of sst and essential oil of the microalgae haematococcus pluvialis (ohp) with strong antioxidant activity were also examined. oral ...200515684483
acute and subchronic toxicity studies of cryogenically-frozen, cryomilled, pelodiscus sinensis (japanese soft-shelled turtle--suppon) powder administered to the rat.sprague-dawley rats received "cryogenically-frozen suppon" (cfs), a cryomilled product derived for the japanese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis), widely consumed for its nutritious value and medicinal properties, especially for the maintenance of normal blood pressure and insulin levels, and in women for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. in this acute study, a single limit dose of 2.0 g/kg was given po. common to 10 male and 10 female rats. no adverse effects or mortality were obser ...200515721205
molecular cloning of the cdna encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the chinese soft-shell turtle pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. these hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of fshbeta in reptilian species. for better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of fsh molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary dna (cdna) encoding the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, family of ...200515748721
molecular and cytogenetic characterization of site-specific repetitive dna sequences in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae).a novel family of repetitive dna sequences that are components of constitutive heterochromatin were cloned from bgli-digested genomic dna of the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae), and characterized by filter hybridization and chromosome in-situ hybridization. the bgli-family of repetitive sequences were classified into four types by their genome organization and chromosomal distribution as follows: the repeated sequences located on (1) two pairs of microchromosomes, ...200515791410
purification and characterization of a vaterite-inducing peptide, pelovaterin, from the eggshells of pelodiscus sinensis (chinese soft-shelled turtle).proteins play a crucial role in the biomineralization of hard tissues such as eggshells. we report here the purification, characterization, and in vitro mineralization studies of a peptide, pelovaterin, extracted from eggshells of a soft-shelled turtle. it is a glycine-rich peptide with 42 amino acid residues and three disulfide bonds. when tested in vitro, the peptide induced the formation of a metastable vaterite phase. the floret-shaped morphology formed at a lower concentration ( approximate ...201315877362
sequence of a cdna encoding turtle high mobility group 1 protein.in order to understand sequence information about turtle hmg1 gene, a cdna encoding hmg1 protein of the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) was amplified by rt-pcr from kidney total rna, and was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. the results revealed that the open reading frame (orf) of turtle hmg1 cdna is 606 bp long. the orf codifies 202 amino acid residues, from which two dna-binding domains and one polyacidic region are derived. the dna-binding domains share higher amino acid identi ...200516152797
highly conserved linkage homology between birds and turtles: bird and turtle chromosomes are precise counterparts of each other.the karyotypes of birds, turtles and snakes are characterized by two distinct chromosomal components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. this close karyological relationship between birds and reptiles has long been a topic of speculation among cytogeneticists and evolutionary biologists; however, there is scarcely any evidence for orthology at the molecular level. to define the conserved chromosome synteny among humans, chickens and reptiles and the process of genome evolution in the amniote ...200516170625
chinese soft-shelled turtle egg powder lowers serum cholesterol, increases faecal neutral steroids and bile acid excretion, and up-regulates liver cytochrome p450 mrna level in rats.the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chinese soft-shelled turtle whole egg powder (te) on cholesterol metabolism in sprague-dawley rats to determine whether it has a cholesterol-lowering effect. forty male sprague-dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with te (0, 0.75, 1.50 or 3.00 g/kg body weight) administrated by gavage for 24 weeks. serum total cholesterol (tc), hdl-cholesterol (hdl-c), ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) and faecal total bile acids levels were deter ...200516176600
dietary lipid level influences fatty acid profiles, tissue composition, and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.dietary lipids containing equal portions of soybean oil and fish oil were fed to juvenile chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, at supplementation level of 0 to 15% for 8 weeks. tissue fat contents of turtles increased when dietary lipid concentration increased. fatty acid profiles for turtles fed diets supplemented with 6% or higher levels of lipids were similar to those in dietary lipids. on absolute value basis, fatty acids of 14-, 16-, and 18-carbons in muscle of turtles fed diet ...200516214383
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cdna encoding pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit of the chinese soft-shell turtle pelodiscus sinensis and regulation of its gene expression.a cdna encoding thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit (tshbeta) was cloned from pituitary of the chinese soft-shell turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and its regulation of mrna expression was investigated for the first time in reptile. the chinese soft-shell turtle tshbeta cdna was cloned from pituitary rna by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and rapid amplification cdna end (race) methods. the chinese soft-shell turtle tshbeta cdna consists of 580-bp nucleotides, incl ...200616290821
traditional chinese medicine bao gan ning increase phosphorylation of creb in liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.previous studies have demonstrated that traditional chinese medicine bao gan ning, which contains six different drugs: trionyx sinensis wiegmann shell, prunus persica (l.) batsch seed, salvia miltiorrhiza bge. root, mallotus opelta (lour.) muell-arg root, astragalus membranaceus (fisch.) bge. var. mongho-licus (bge.) hsiao root and scutellaria baicalensis georgi root, was able to protect liver against fibrosis in ccl4 models. in an effort to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which bao gan ning e ...200616293380
cdna-based gene mapping and gc3 profiling in the soft-shelled turtle suggest a chromosomal size-dependent gc bias shared by sauropsids.mammalian and avian genomes comprise several classes of chromosomal segments that vary dramatically in gc-content. especially in chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher gc-content and a higher gene density than macrochromosomes. to understand the evolutionary history of the intra-genome gc heterogeneity in amniotes, it is necessary to examine the equivalence of this gc heterogeneity at the nucleotide level between these animals including reptiles, from which birds diverged. we isolated cdnas ...200616544192
purification, characterization and comparison of reptile lysozymes.cation exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify four reptile lysozymes from egg white: sstl a and sstl b from soft shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), astl from asiatic soft shelled turtle (amyda cartilagenea) and gstl from green sea turtle (chelonia mydas). the molecular masses of the purified reptile lysozymes were estimated to be 14 kda by sds-page. enzyme activity of the four lysozymes could be confirmed by gel zymograms and showed charge difference ...200616549391
isolation and sequence analysis of the sox-1, -2, -3 homologs in trionyx sinensis and alligator sinensis having temperature-dependent sex determination.members of the sox gene family are characterized by an hmg-box that shows sequence similarity with that of the mouse testis-determining gene sry. using degenerate primers pcr, seven and eight hmg-box motifs of sry-related genes were cloned and sequenced from genomic dna of trionyx sinensis (termed ts41-47) and alligator sinensis (as41-48) with tsd (temperature-dependent sex determination). among 15 sry-related genes, ts41, ts42, as41, and as42 shared 80, 72, 81, and 79% amino acid identity, resp ...200616691434
glial cytoarchitecture in the central nervous system of the soft-shell turtle, trionyx sinensis, revealed by intermediate filament immunohistochemistry.the distribution of the intermediate filament molecular markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) and vimentin, has been studied in the central nervous system (cns) of the soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis) with immunoperoxidase histochemistry. gfap immunohistochemistry pointed out the presence of different astroglial cell types. the brain pattern consists of ependymal radial glia whose cell bodies are located in the ependymal layer throughout the brain ventricular system. in the spinal ...200616763812
effects of ration level and feeding frequency on digestibility in juvenile soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the effects of ration level and feeding frequency on digestibility in juvenile soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, were investigated. four ration levels 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.0% and satiation (6.0% bw/d) were used. apparent digestibility (ad) of dry matter (dmad), protein (pad) and protein real digestibility (prd) were significantly affected by ration level, but not by feeding frequency when the ration level was similar. however, the feeding frequency affected the ad, dmad, pad and prd significant ...200616773733
postprandial increases in nitrogenous excretion and urea synthesis in the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding on the excretory nitrogen (n) metabolism of the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, with a special emphasis on the role of urea synthesis in ammonia detoxification. p. sinensis is ureogenic and possesses a full complement of ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in its liver. it is primarily ureotelic in water, and the estimated rate of urea synthesis in unfed animals was equivalent to only 1.5% of the maximal capac ...200716838133
unique features of myf-5 in turtles: nucleotide deletion, alternative splicing, and unusual expression pattern.turtles characteristically possess a bony shell and show an extensive reduction of the trunk muscles. to gain insight into the evolution of this animal group, we focused on the underlying mechanism of the turtle-specific developmental pattern associated with the somitic mesoderm, which differentiates into both skeleton and muscle. we isolated myf-5, a member of the myogenic-transcription-factor-encoding gene family expressed in the myotome, from the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensi ...200616925677
nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, exposed to a progressive increase in ambient salinity.this study aimed to determine effects of 6-day progressive increase in salinity from 1 per thousand to 15 per thousand on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis. for turtles exposed to 15 per thousand water on day 6, the plasma osmolality and concentrations of na+, cl- and urea increased significantly, which presumably decreased the osmotic loss of water. simultaneously, there were significant increases in contents of urea, certain free amino acids (faa ...200617068799
fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, fed different dietary lipid sources.juvenile soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) were fed 7 diets containing 8% of lard, soybean oil, olive oil, menhaden fish oil, or mixtures of 1 to 1 ratio of fish oil and lard, soybean oil, olive oil for 10 weeks. growth and muscle proximate compositions of the turtles were not affected by different dietary treatments (p>0.05). fatty acid profiles in muscle polar lipids, muscle non-polar lipids, and liver polar lipids reflected the fatty acid composition of dietary lipid source. turtles ...200717137843
a preprogalanin cdna from the turtle pituitary and regulation of its gene expression.galanin is a hormone 29 or 30 amino acids (aa) long that is widely distributed within the body and exerts numerous biological effects in vertebrates. to fully understand its physiological roles in reptiles, we analyzed preprogalanin cdna structure and expression in the turtle pituitary. using the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis order testudines), we obtained a 672-base pair (bp) cdna containing a 99-bp 5'-untranslated region, a 324-bp preprogalanin coding region, and a 249-bp 3'-u ...200717158268
the complete mitochondrial genome of the korean soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis (testudines, trionychidae).we isolated korean soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, mitochondrial dna by long-polymerase chain reaction (long-pcr) with conserved primers and sequenced this mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) with primer walking using flanking sequences. the p. sinensis mitochondrial dna has 17,042 bp and its structural organization is conserved compared to those of other reptiles and mammals. to unveil the phylogenetic relationship of the turtles, we used the nj, mp, and ml analysis methods after inferr ...200617381049
on the carapacial ridge in turtle embryos: its developmental origin, function and the chelonian body plan.the chelonian carapace is composed of dorsolaterally expanded ribs; an evolutionary change in the rib-patterning program is assumed to be related to this novelty. turtle embryos exhibit a longitudinal ridge called the carapacial ridge (cr) on the flank, and its histological resemblance to the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud implies its inductive activity in the unique patterning of the ribs. we studied the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and confirmed by labeling with a ...200717507399
differences in neurogenesis differentiate between core and shell regions of auditory nuclei in the turtle (pelodiscus sinensis): evolutionary implications.there is a clear core-versus-shell distinction in cytoarchitecture, electrophysiological properties and neural connections in the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of amniotes. determining whether the embryogenesis of auditory nuclei shows a similar organization is helpful for further understanding the constituent organization and evolution of auditory nuclei. therefore in the present study, we injected [(3)h]-thymidine into turtle embryos (pelodiscus sinensis) at various stages of ...200717595537
the immune response and protective efficacy of oral alginate microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine in soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis).aeromonas sobria is an important bacterial pathogen of soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). the effect of an oral alginate microparticle a. sobria vaccine (mav) on immune response and protection efficacy of soft-shelled turtles was investigated. the formalin-killed cultures of a. sobria strain z-1 (fkc) were incorporated into alginate microparticles, and the encapsulated vaccine was orally used for immunizing turtles. the serum agglutinating antibody titers, bactericidal activity of blood le ...200717628697
different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken z-linked genes.recent progress of chicken genome projects has revealed that bird zw and mammalian xy sex chromosomes were derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor; however, the evolutionary relationship between bird and reptilian sex chromosomes is still unclear. the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) exhibits genetic sex determination, but no distinguishable (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes have been identified. in order to investigate this further, we performed molecular cy ...200717675849
spermiogenesis in soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.spermiogenesis in the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, was examined by transmission electron microscopy. the process includes nuclear elongation, chromatin condensation, acrosomal and flagellar development, and elimination of excess cytoplasm. in stage i, the proacrosomal vesicle occurs next to a shallow fossa of the nucleus, and a dense acrosomal granule forms beneath it. a smaller subacrosomal granule in the middle of the fibrous layer is related to the development of intranuclear tub ...200717724710
seasonal changes of sperm storage and correlative structures in male and female soft-shelled turtles, trionyx sinensis.reproductive ducts of male and female soft-shelled turtles, trionyx sinensis were examined throughout the year (march, may, september, december) using brightfield and electron microscopes (tem and sem), to determine the location and histomorphological characteristics of sperm storage structures as well as their changes at different phases of the seasonal reproductive cycle. sperm stored in the epididymis were also examined. in the male, spermatogenesis is initiated in spring (may), and then the ...200817997057
mechanisms of and defense against acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, and to examine how this turtle defended against a sublethal dose of nh(4)cl injected into its peritoneal cavity. the ammonia and glutamine contents in the brains of turtles that succumbed within 3h to an intraperitoneal injection with a lethal dose (12.5 micromolg(-1) turtle) of nh(4)cl were 21 and 4.4 micromolg(-1), respectively. since the brain ...200818068826
ultrastructure of anterior uterus of the oviduct and the stored sperm in female soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis.ultrastructure of sperm storage in female soft-shelled turtle, trionyx sinensis was examined under light and electron microscopes. sperm storage tubules are restricted to the anterior of the uterus. these tubules developed either by folding or fusion of the oviductal mucosal folds and are lined by both ciliated and secretory cells. ciliated cells are characterized by a few microvilli and prominent cilia in the apical membranes. a prominent feature of the secretory cell is the presence of secreto ...200818231967
structure, self-assembly, and dual role of a beta-defensin-like peptide from the chinese soft-shelled turtle eggshell matrix.biomineral matrix formation and molecular recognition are two important processes associated with eggshell biomineralization. to understand these two processes, a major intracrystalline peptide, pelovaterin, was isolated from turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) eggshell and its tertiary and quaternary structures were established. the global fold of pelovaterin is similar to that of human beta-defensins but has a large hydrophobic core and a short hydrophilic n-terminal segment, which is not preserved i ...200818341335
seasonal effects on apoptosis and proliferation of germ cells in the testes of the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.to elucidate the processes involved in the spatial and temporal maturation of spermatogenic cells in the testes of the soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, we used a histological morphology method, tdt-mediated dutp nick end-labeling (tunel) assay, the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (pcna), and electron microscopy. seminiferous tubules from 100 turtles, normal for size of testes and semen quality, were collected during 10 months of a complete annual cycle (10 turtles/month). the seminif ...200818377973
neurogenic development of the visual areas in the chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and evolutionary implications.to characterize the neurogenic development of the visual areas of the turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) during embryogenesis, a single dose of [(3)h]-thymidine (10 microci) was injected into egg yolks from stages s11-12 to s21. at hatching, localization of [(3)h]-thymidine incorporation was examined, and led to three main observations. (1) neurogenesis occurred in the stratum griseum centrale of the tectum opticum from s11-12 to s16 with a peak at s12. no obvious gradients of neurogenesis were observ ...200818430086
pesticide contamination profiles of water, sediment and aquatic organisms in the effluent of gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant.organochlorine pesticides (ocps, including ddt, hch and hcb) and six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in water, sediment, zooplankton, fish and chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) from gaobeidian lake, which is located in the effluent of gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) in beijing, china. ddts were dominant except for in water. in water, the concentrations of ddts (6.22 ng l(-1)) and hchs (18.0 ng l(-1)) were less than ...200818472141
identification of differentially expressed immune-relevant genes in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) infected with aeromonas hydrophila.expressed sequence tag (est) analysis is an efficient tool for gene discovery and profiling gene expression. aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous waterborne bacterium, is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated from diseased aquatic organisms. in order to understand the molecular mechanism of anti-bacteria immune response in reptile, we have investigated the differentially expressed genes in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) experimentally infected with a. hydrophila by suppressio ...200818572252
white-spot disease of chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinens) caused by paecilomyces lilacinus.chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in zhejiang, china, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. the sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. a suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) of its ribosomal dna (rdna). detailed morp ...200818600789
molecular cloning of full-length dmrt1 cdna of reeves turtle (chinemys reevesii).we cloned and sequenced a full-length open reading frame turtle dmrt1 cdna (crdmrt1) that was 1,504 bp in length and encoded 371 amino acid residues. rt-pcr analysis in different tissues of adult male turtle showed that the crdmrt1 cdna fragment was only detected in the testis. the amino acid sequence derived from crdmrt1 demonstrated high homology to sequences from dmrt1 of pelodiscus sinensis (92% identities and 93% positives) and elaphe quadrivirgata (75% identities and 83% positives). the de ...200818685240
the 1.9 a x-ray structure of egg-white lysozyme from taiwanese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis wiegmann) exhibits structural differences from the standard chicken-type lysozyme.lysozyme from taiwanese soft-shelled turtle (sstlb) has been purified from turtle egg white and crystallized. the crystals diffract x-rays beyond 2 a resolution and belong to the orthorhombic p2(1)2(1)2(1) space group containing one molecule per asymmetric unit. the structure was elucidated using pheasant egg-white lysozyme as the molecular replacement search template. the overall structure of sstlb is very similar to that of hen egg-white lysozyme (hewl). nevertheless, pro104 in the substrate s ...200919029145
isolation of laribacter hongkongensis, a novel bacterium associated with gastroenteritis, from chinese tiger frog.laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered novel bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. although the bacterium has been isolated from freshwater fish and natural freshwater environments, it is not known if other freshwater animals could also be a source of l. hongkongensis. in a surveillance study on freshwater food animals (other than fish) in hong kong, l. hongkongensis was isolated from eight of 10 chinese tiger frogs (hoplobatrachus chinensis), a widespread frog ...200919033083
cross-reactivity of a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vitellogenin with the vitellogenins of other turtle species: chelydra serpentina , macrochelys temminckii , and pelodiscus sinensis.vitellogenin (vtg), a yolk-precursor protein in oviparous vertebrates, is a useful biomarker for reproductive physiology and environmental estrogenic pollution. to examine interspecific applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for quantifying chinemys reevesii vtg, we observed cross-reactivity between a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vtg and the vtgs from other turtle species: chelydra serpentina (chelydridae), macrochelys temminckii (chelydridae), and pelodis ...200819267600
preparation and characterization of collagen from soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) skin for biomaterial applications.collagen was isolated from the skin of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by acid solubilization with pepsin. the yield of soft-shelled turtle collagen (stc) was 12.1% on a dry weight basis. the electrophoresis assay showed that stc consisted of a alpha(1)alpha(2) heterodimer similar to porcine collagen (pc). amino-acid composition analysis showed that the hydroxyproline content of stc was 7.8%, which was lower than that of pc (9.5%). the denaturation temperature of stc was 36 degrees c f ...200919323876
determinants of incubation period: do reptilian embryos hatch after a fixed total number of heart beats?the eggs of birds typically hatch after a fixed (but lineage-specific) cumulative number of heart beats since the initiation of incubation. is the same true for non-avian reptiles, despite wide intraspecific variation in incubation period generated by variable nest temperatures? non-invasive monitoring of embryo heart beat rates in one turtle species (pelodiscus sinensis) and two lizards (bassiana duperreyi and takydromus septentrionalis) show that the total number of heart beats during embryoge ...200919376951
immunoglobulin joining (j) chain and its expression in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).the immunoglobulin (ig) joining (j) chain plays an important role in the formation of polymeric igs and their transport into secretions. in the present study, the cdna sequence of j chain has been cloned from the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the cdna sequence is 2347 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 480 bp encoding 160 aa including the signal sequence. the deduced amino acid sequ ...200919409620
igm, igd and igy and their expression pattern in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.three ig isotypes, igm, igd, and iga, were previously known in reptiles. here, in this report we describe igm, igd and a novel immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotype upsilon (igy) in chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). the igm and igy constant domains are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. the expression of igm and igd were detected at mrna level early during embryonic development, and their expression increased during further development. ...200919414198
molecular characterization and expression profiles in response to bacterial infection of chinese soft-shelled turtle interleukin-8 (il-8), the first reptilian chemokine gene.in this study, an il-8 homologue has been cloned and identified from a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle il-8 was 1188bp and contained a 312bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 104 amino acids. the chemokine cxc domain, which contained glu-leu-arg (elr) motif and four cysteine residues, was well conserved in turtle il-8. the 4924bp genomic dna of turtle il-8 contained four exons and three introns. phylogenetic analysis showed t ...200919428485
complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of iridoviridae.soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). to our knowledge, the only molecular information available on stiv mainly concerns the highly conserved stiv major capsid protein. the complete sequence of the stiv genome is not yet available. therefore, determining the genome sequence of stiv and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate furthe ...200919439104
skeletal development in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis (testudines: trionychidae).we investigated the development of the whole skeleton of the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis, with particular emphasis on the pattern and sequence of ossification. ossification starts at late tokita-kuratani stage (tk) 18 with the maxilla, followed by the dentary and prefrontal. the quadrate is the first endoskeletal ossification and appears at tk stage 22. all adult skull elements have started ossification by tk stage 25. plastral bones are the first postcranial bones to ossify, whereas ...200919530096
ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (rana catesbeiana and rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. in particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (t(4)) and triiodothyronine (t(3)) from thyroids in american bullfrogs (rana catesbeiana), chinese bullfrogs (rana rugulosa wiegmann), and chinese soft-shell turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) at differe ...200919535032
fine structural observation on the oogenesis and vitellogenesis of the chinese soft-shelled turtle ( pelodiseus sinensis).fine structure observations were performed by means of electron microscopy on oogenesis and vitellogenesis and the special functions of follicular cells in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiseus sinensis). histological examination of the ovary showed a well developed lacunae system containing fine granules, fibres or gelatiniform materials with one or two germinal beds dispersed on the dorsal surface of the ovarian cortex. the process of oogenesis comprised 10 consecutive phases according t ...201019586560
evolution of the turtle body plan by the folding and creation of new muscle connections.the turtle shell offers a fascinating case study of vertebrate evolution, based on the modification of a common body plan. the carapace is formed from ribs, which encapsulate the scapula; this stands in contrast to the typical amniote body plan and serves as a key to understanding turtle evolution. comparative analyses of musculoskeletal development between the chinese soft-shelled turtle and other amniotes revealed that initial turtle development conforms to the amniote pattern; however, during ...200919590000
vogesella lacus sp. nov., isolated from a soft-shell turtle culture pond.a non-pigmented, gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain gr13(t), was isolated using nutrient agar from a water sample from a pond used for the culture of soft-shell turtles (trionyx sinensis), pingtung county, taiwan. 16s rrna gene sequence studies indicated that the novel strain formed a monophyletic branch at the periphery of the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genus vogesella. its closest neighbours were vogesella indigofera atcc 19706(t) and vogesella perlucida ds-28(t) ...200919625439
the zw micro-sex chromosomes of the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae, testudines) have the same origin as chicken chromosome 15.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae, testudines) has zz/zw-type micro-sex chromosomes where the 18s-28s ribosomal rna genes (18s-28s rdna) are located. the w chromosome is morphologically differentiated from the z chromosome by partial deletion and amplification of 18s-28s rdna and w-specific repetitive sequences. we recently found a functional gene (top3b) mapped on the p. sinensis z chromosome, which is located on chicken (gallus gallus, gga) chromosome 15. then ...200919729916
complete amino acid sequence of three reptile lysozymes.to study the structure and function of reptile lysozymes, we have reported their purification, and in this study we have established the amino acid sequence of three egg white lysozymes in soft-shelled turtle eggs (sstl a and sstl b from trionyx sinensis, astl from amyda cartilaginea) by using the rapid peptide mapping method. the established amino acid sequence of sstl a, sstl b, and astl showed substitutions of 43, 42, and 44 residues respectively when compared with the hewl (hen egg white lys ...201019747569
identification and characterization of the first reptilian cd9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial infection.in this study, a cd9 homologue in a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle, has been cloned and identified for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle cd9 was 1146bp and contained a 672bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 224 amino acids. four transmembrane domains (tms) divided the turtle cd9 into several parts: short n-, c-termini, an intracellular loop and two (small and large) extracellular loops (sel and lel). a ccg motif, a potential n-linked glycosylation site and 10 c ...201019747940
the zw sex microchromosomes of an australian dragon lizard share no homology with those of other reptiles or birds.reptiles show a diverse array of sex chromosomal systems but, remarkably, the z sex chromosomes of chicken are homologous to the zw sex chromosomes of a species of gecko, gekko hokouensis, suggesting an ancient but common origin. this is in contrast to the zw sex chromosomes of snakes and a species of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, which are nonhomologous to those of chicken or each other and appear to have been independently derived. in this paper, we determine what homology, if any, ...200919967443
hatching mechanism of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the mechanism by which the embryo hatches out of the egg envelope, the vitelline membrane and egg white, was studied in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis. the cdna of the turtle hatching enzyme (he) was 1555bp-long and a mature enzyme of 321 amino acids. the mature he was composed of an astacin protease domain of 200 amino acids and a cub domain of 121 amino acids, and the estimated molecular size was 35,311. the protease domain contained two active site consensus sequences, he ...201020109577
sixteen polymorphic microsatellites for breeding of chinese soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis). 201020331610
molecular characterization and functional analysis of myd88 in chinese soft-shelled turtle trionyx sinensis.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is one of the key adaptor proteins to signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in this study, the myd88 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) (tmyd88) was identified, representing the fist example from reptile species. the tmyd88 has a 894-bp orf and encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acids including a typical death domain (dd) at the n-terminus and a conservative toll/il-1r (tir) domain at the ...201120850547
acute phase response in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) with aeromonas hydrophila infection.chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) is an important culture reptile. however, little is known about its acute phase response (apr) caused by bacteria. serum amyloid a (saa) is a major acute phase protein (app). in this study, a turtle saa homologue was identified and described in reptiles. the full-length cdna of turtle saa was 554 bp and contained a 381 bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 127 aa. similar to other known saa genes, the turtle saa gene contained three ex ...201021095204
involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in soft-shelled turtle iridovirus-induced apoptosis.iridoviruses are large dna viruses that infect invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates, and result in significant economic losses in aquaculture production, and drastic declines in amphibian populations. soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in farm-raised soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). in the present study, the mechanisms of stiv-induced cell death and the roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathway wer ...201121442306
sites of origin and developmental dynamics of the neurons in the core and shell regions of torus semicircularis in the chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).to know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)h]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. the expression of vimentin (vm), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance p were also studied. the results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for t ...201121484802
an immunohistochemical study of s-100 protein in the intestinal tract of chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the present work describes the distribution of s-100 protein in the intestinal tract of a chinese soft-shelled turtle specimen (pelodiscus sinensis). s-100 protein positive cells were located in the intestinal tract, from the proximal small to distal large intestine. s-100 protein positive dendritic cells had irregular shape and were positive in both cytoplasm and nucleus. most of them were located both lamina propria and submucosa in the small intestine, while few were found in the large intest ...201121486673
hepatocyte growth factor is crucial for development of the carapace in turtles.turtles are characterized by their shell, composed of a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron. the carapace first appears as the turtle-specific carapacial ridge (cr) on the lateral aspect of the embryonic flank. accompanying the acquisition of the shell, unlike in other amniotes, hypaxial muscles in turtle embryos appear as thin threads of fibrous tissue. to understand carapacial evolution from the perspective of muscle development, we compared the development of the muscle plate, the anlage o ...201121535464
isolation and characterization of 21 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.twenty-one novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (trionychidae). this is a commonly consumed asian species, especially in china, where it is reared in large numbers on farms. we screened 34 unrelated individuals from wuhu of anhui province in china and detected high levels of polymorphism for all 21 loci, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 5 to 23 (mean 15.67). the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged fro ...201121710450
the origin and differentiation process of x and y chromosomes of the black marsh turtle (siebenrockiella crassicollis, geoemydidae, testudines).the black marsh turtle (siebenrockiella crassicollis) has morphologically differentiated x and y sex chromosomes. to elucidate the origin and evolutionary process of s. crassicollis x and y chromosomes, we performed cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific dna from chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and chromosome mapping of the sex-linked genes of s. crassicollis using fish. the x and y chromosomes of s. crassicollis were hybridized with dna probe of p. sinensis ...201122183803
identification of five reptile egg whites protein using maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms analysis.proteomics of egg white proteins of five reptile species, namely siamese crocodile (crocodylus siamensis), soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis taiwanese), red-eared slider turtle (trachemys scripta elegans), hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricate) and green turtle (chelonia mydas) were studied by 2d-page using ipg strip ph 4-7 size 7 cm and ipg strip ph 3-10 size 24 cm. the protein spots in the egg white of the five reptile species were identified by maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms ...201222266102
folding studies on muscle type of creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis.a folding study of creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis has not yet been reported. to gain more insight into structural and folding mechanisms of p. sinensis ck (psck), denaturants such as sds, guanidine hcl, and urea were applied in this study. we purified psck from the muscle of p. sinensis and conducted inhibition kinetics with structural unfolding studies under various conditions. the results revealed that psck was completely inactivated at 1.8 mm sds, 1.05 m guanidine hcl, and 7.5 m ure ...201222405779
identification of a heat shock cognate protein 70 gene in chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and its expression profiles under thermal stress.the heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) is a member of a 70-kda heat shock protein (hsp70) family that functions as molecular chaperones. in this study, a novel hsc70 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) (thsc70) was identified. the thsc70 full-length complementary dna (cdna) is 2272 bp long with a 1941-bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 646 amino acids. three characteristic signature regions of the hsp70 family, two major domains of an adenosine triphosphate (atp)/gua ...022661209
the ultrastructural characteristics of the spermatozoa stored in the cauda epididymidis in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis during the breeding season.the ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis of soft-shelled turtle, p. sinensis during breeding season was investigated by light microscopy (lm) and electron microscopy (tem and sem). the mature spermatozoa appeared elongated and filiform. in general, the turtle spermatozoon contains a characteristic head, midpiece and tail, similar in morphology to that of birds, amphibians and other reptiles. however, several features are unique. these include (1) three intranuclear tubules contain ...201322858349
the effect of zn(2+) on pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: unfolding and aggregation studies.we studied the effects of zn(2+) on creatine kinase from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis (psck). zn(2+) inactivated the activity of psck (ic(50) = .079 ± .004 mm) following first-order kinetics consistent with multiple phases. the spectrofluorimetry results showed that zn(2+) induced significant tertiary structural changes of psck with exposure to hydrophobic surfaces and that zn(2+) directly induced psck aggregation. the addition of osmolytes such as glycine, proline, and l ...201322888913
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