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antibody against testudo herpesvirus is not common in chinese soft-shelled turtles.seventy-six serum samples of chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis) were collected at jiangsu province, china. the neutralization test (nt) was performed with the sera, testudo herpesvirus (thv) and turtle heart cells (thc). neutralizing antibodies were detected in five of 76 samples and the titres were 1:10-1:20. having optimized the conditions, the dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa) was developed and eight serum samples exhibited positive results. five samples were posi ...199910676152
mycobacterium kansasii infection in a chinese soft shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). 200312723632
imp-gmp 5'-nucleotidase in reptiles: occurrence in a turtle, a tortoise and three species of snakes.imp-hydrolyzing activity, which is reactive with goose anti-pig lung imp-gmp 5'-nucleotidase (c-n-ii: ec.3.1.3.5) serum, was detected in extracts from liver, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, skeletal muscle and lung from several species of reptiles: the values found in liver (u/mg protein) of one animal were: 4.5 for an ammono-ureotelic turtle (trionyx sinensis japonicus); 3.7 for an ureo-uricotelic tortoise (testudo elegans); 13-23 for three species of uricotelic snakes: elaphe quadrivirgata, el ...200312892757
hox code in embryos of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis correlates with the evolutionary innovation in the turtle.turtles have the most unusual body plan of the amniotes, with a dorsal shell consisting of modified ribs. because this morphological change in the ribs can be described as an axial-level specific alteration, the evolution of the turtle carapace should depend on changes in the hox code. to identify turtle-specific changes in developmental patterns, we cloned several hox genes from the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, examined their expression patterns during embryogenesis, and co ...200515643629
highly conserved linkage homology between birds and turtles: bird and turtle chromosomes are precise counterparts of each other.the karyotypes of birds, turtles and snakes are characterized by two distinct chromosomal components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. this close karyological relationship between birds and reptiles has long been a topic of speculation among cytogeneticists and evolutionary biologists; however, there is scarcely any evidence for orthology at the molecular level. to define the conserved chromosome synteny among humans, chickens and reptiles and the process of genome evolution in the amniote ...200516170625
purification, characterization and comparison of reptile lysozymes.cation exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify four reptile lysozymes from egg white: sstl a and sstl b from soft shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), astl from asiatic soft shelled turtle (amyda cartilagenea) and gstl from green sea turtle (chelonia mydas). the molecular masses of the purified reptile lysozymes were estimated to be 14 kda by sds-page. enzyme activity of the four lysozymes could be confirmed by gel zymograms and showed charge difference ...200616549391
the complete mitochondrial genome of the korean soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis (testudines, trionychidae).we isolated korean soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, mitochondrial dna by long-polymerase chain reaction (long-pcr) with conserved primers and sequenced this mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) with primer walking using flanking sequences. the p. sinensis mitochondrial dna has 17,042 bp and its structural organization is conserved compared to those of other reptiles and mammals. to unveil the phylogenetic relationship of the turtles, we used the nj, mp, and ml analysis methods after inferr ...200617381049
the immune response and protective efficacy of oral alginate microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine in soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis).aeromonas sobria is an important bacterial pathogen of soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). the effect of an oral alginate microparticle a. sobria vaccine (mav) on immune response and protection efficacy of soft-shelled turtles was investigated. the formalin-killed cultures of a. sobria strain z-1 (fkc) were incorporated into alginate microparticles, and the encapsulated vaccine was orally used for immunizing turtles. the serum agglutinating antibody titers, bactericidal activity of blood le ...200717628697
white-spot disease of chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinens) caused by paecilomyces lilacinus.chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in zhejiang, china, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. the sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. a suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) of its ribosomal dna (rdna). detailed morp ...200818600789
the 1.9 a x-ray structure of egg-white lysozyme from taiwanese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis wiegmann) exhibits structural differences from the standard chicken-type lysozyme.lysozyme from taiwanese soft-shelled turtle (sstlb) has been purified from turtle egg white and crystallized. the crystals diffract x-rays beyond 2 a resolution and belong to the orthorhombic p2(1)2(1)2(1) space group containing one molecule per asymmetric unit. the structure was elucidated using pheasant egg-white lysozyme as the molecular replacement search template. the overall structure of sstlb is very similar to that of hen egg-white lysozyme (hewl). nevertheless, pro104 in the substrate s ...200919029145
arbovirus infections in reptiles: studies on the presence of japanese encephalitis virus antibody in the plasma of the turtle, trionyx sinensis.this study was undertaken to examine further the natural infection of poikilothermic animals e.g. turtles, to japanese encephalitis (je) virus. plasma samples from 75 soft-shelled fresh water turtles (trionyx sinensis wiegman) from china were examined in virus neutralization (vn) and hemagglutination inhibition (hai) tests for the presence of specific antibody. the total incidence of antibody detected by either test to a titer of 10 or greater was 89% while 77% and 60% were positive by vn and ha ...1975170690
vogesella lacus sp. nov., isolated from a soft-shell turtle culture pond.a non-pigmented, gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain gr13(t), was isolated using nutrient agar from a water sample from a pond used for the culture of soft-shell turtles (trionyx sinensis), pingtung county, taiwan. 16s rrna gene sequence studies indicated that the novel strain formed a monophyletic branch at the periphery of the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genus vogesella. its closest neighbours were vogesella indigofera atcc 19706(t) and vogesella perlucida ds-28(t) ...200919625439
molecular characterization and expression profiles in response to bacterial infection of chinese soft-shelled turtle interleukin-8 (il-8), the first reptilian chemokine gene.in this study, an il-8 homologue has been cloned and identified from a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle il-8 was 1188bp and contained a 312bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 104 amino acids. the chemokine cxc domain, which contained glu-leu-arg (elr) motif and four cysteine residues, was well conserved in turtle il-8. the 4924bp genomic dna of turtle il-8 contained four exons and three introns. phylogenetic analysis showed t ...200919428485
igm, igd and igy and their expression pattern in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.three ig isotypes, igm, igd, and iga, were previously known in reptiles. here, in this report we describe igm, igd and a novel immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotype upsilon (igy) in chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). the igm and igy constant domains are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. the expression of igm and igd were detected at mrna level early during embryonic development, and their expression increased during further development. ...200919414198
preparation and characterization of collagen from soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) skin for biomaterial applications.collagen was isolated from the skin of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by acid solubilization with pepsin. the yield of soft-shelled turtle collagen (stc) was 12.1% on a dry weight basis. the electrophoresis assay showed that stc consisted of a alpha(1)alpha(2) heterodimer similar to porcine collagen (pc). amino-acid composition analysis showed that the hydroxyproline content of stc was 7.8%, which was lower than that of pc (9.5%). the denaturation temperature of stc was 36 degrees c f ...200919323876
isolation of laribacter hongkongensis, a novel bacterium associated with gastroenteritis, from chinese tiger frog.laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered novel bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. although the bacterium has been isolated from freshwater fish and natural freshwater environments, it is not known if other freshwater animals could also be a source of l. hongkongensis. in a surveillance study on freshwater food animals (other than fish) in hong kong, l. hongkongensis was isolated from eight of 10 chinese tiger frogs (hoplobatrachus chinensis), a widespread frog ...200919033083
identification of differentially expressed immune-relevant genes in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) infected with aeromonas hydrophila.expressed sequence tag (est) analysis is an efficient tool for gene discovery and profiling gene expression. aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous waterborne bacterium, is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated from diseased aquatic organisms. in order to understand the molecular mechanism of anti-bacteria immune response in reptile, we have investigated the differentially expressed genes in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) experimentally infected with a. hydrophila by suppressio ...200818572252
structure, self-assembly, and dual role of a beta-defensin-like peptide from the chinese soft-shelled turtle eggshell matrix.biomineral matrix formation and molecular recognition are two important processes associated with eggshell biomineralization. to understand these two processes, a major intracrystalline peptide, pelovaterin, was isolated from turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) eggshell and its tertiary and quaternary structures were established. the global fold of pelovaterin is similar to that of human beta-defensins but has a large hydrophobic core and a short hydrophilic n-terminal segment, which is not preserved i ...200818341335
different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken z-linked genes.recent progress of chicken genome projects has revealed that bird zw and mammalian xy sex chromosomes were derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor; however, the evolutionary relationship between bird and reptilian sex chromosomes is still unclear. the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) exhibits genetic sex determination, but no distinguishable (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes have been identified. in order to investigate this further, we performed molecular cy ...200717675849
molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes.secondary edentulism (toothlessness) has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales), birds, and turtles. all edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the cretaceous. by contrast with mammals and birds, t ...201323342979
identification of a heat shock cognate protein 70 gene in chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and its expression profiles under thermal stress.the heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) is a member of a 70-kda heat shock protein (hsp70) family that functions as molecular chaperones. in this study, a novel hsc70 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) (thsc70) was identified. the thsc70 full-length complementary dna (cdna) is 2272 bp long with a 1941-bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 646 amino acids. three characteristic signature regions of the hsp70 family, two major domains of an adenosine triphosphate (atp)/gua ...022661209
discovery of the elusive leptin in birds: identification of several 'missing links' in the evolution of leptin and its receptor.leptin is a pleiotropic protein best known for regulation of appetite and fat storage in mammals. while many leptin orthologs have been identified among vertebrates, an authentic leptin in birds has remained elusive and controversial. here we identify leptin sequence from the peregrine falcon, falco peregrinus (pfleptin), and identify sequences from two other birds (mallard and zebra finch), and 'missing' vertebrates (elephant shark, alligator, indian python, chinese soft-shelled turtle, and coe ...201424663438
the xenopus alcohol dehydrogenase gene family: characterization and comparative analysis incorporating amphibian and reptilian genomes.the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene family uniquely illustrates the concept of enzymogenesis. in vertebrates, tandem duplications gave rise to a multiplicity of forms that have been classified in eight enzyme classes, according to primary structure and function. some of these classes appear to be exclusive of particular organisms, such as the frog adh8, a unique nadp+-dependent adh enzyme. this work describes the adh system of xenopus, as a model organism, and explores the first amphibian and r ...201424649825
traditional chinese medicine bao gan ning increase phosphorylation of creb in liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.previous studies have demonstrated that traditional chinese medicine bao gan ning, which contains six different drugs: trionyx sinensis wiegmann shell, prunus persica (l.) batsch seed, salvia miltiorrhiza bge. root, mallotus opelta (lour.) muell-arg root, astragalus membranaceus (fisch.) bge. var. mongho-licus (bge.) hsiao root and scutellaria baicalensis georgi root, was able to protect liver against fibrosis in ccl4 models. in an effort to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which bao gan ning e ...200616293380
chinese soft-shelled turtle egg powder lowers serum cholesterol, increases faecal neutral steroids and bile acid excretion, and up-regulates liver cytochrome p450 mrna level in rats.the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chinese soft-shelled turtle whole egg powder (te) on cholesterol metabolism in sprague-dawley rats to determine whether it has a cholesterol-lowering effect. forty male sprague-dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with te (0, 0.75, 1.50 or 3.00 g/kg body weight) administrated by gavage for 24 weeks. serum total cholesterol (tc), hdl-cholesterol (hdl-c), ldl-cholesterol (ldl-c) and faecal total bile acids levels were deter ...200516176600
acute and subchronic toxicity studies of cryogenically-frozen, cryomilled, pelodiscus sinensis (japanese soft-shelled turtle--suppon) powder administered to the rat.sprague-dawley rats received "cryogenically-frozen suppon" (cfs), a cryomilled product derived for the japanese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis), widely consumed for its nutritious value and medicinal properties, especially for the maintenance of normal blood pressure and insulin levels, and in women for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. in this acute study, a single limit dose of 2.0 g/kg was given po. common to 10 male and 10 female rats. no adverse effects or mortality were obser ...200515721205
a combination of soft-shell turtle powder and essential oil of a unicellular chorophyte prevents bone loss and decreased bone strength in ovariectomized rats.the effects of soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis) powder (sst) on the proximal tibiae of ovariectomized (ovx) rats were investigated using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pqct) and examination of serum biochemical markers. considering the relationship between the antioxidative property and antiosteoporotic activity, the synergistic effects of a mixture of sst and essential oil of the microalgae haematococcus pluvialis (ohp) with strong antioxidant activity were also examined. oral ...200515684483
molecular cloning of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) cdna from mud turtle, pelodiscus sinensis.the complete complementary dna (cdna) of proopiomelanocortin (pomc), a common precursor of opioid hormone beta-endorphin, melanotropin (msh), and corticortropin (acth), was cloned and sequenced from pituitary and hypothalamus of mud turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) methods. two transcripts of pomc mrnas with different polyadenylation sites were observed. both transcripts had an open reading frame encoding a 261-amino acid peptide containing nine d ...200312679096
antimicrobial effects of novel peptides cot2 and sot2 derived from crocodylus siamensis and pelodiscus sinensis ovotransferrins.in light of the increasing threat of bacterial drug resistance to human health on a global scale, research and development of antimicrobial peptides as a novel class of potent antibiotics has gained considerable attention. the present study focuses on the structural evaluation and membrane interaction of two new cationic antimicrobial peptides, cot2 and sot2, derived from siamese crocodile (crocodylus siamensis) and chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) ovotransferrins. here, cot1 (+3) ...201728159460
cdna cloning and functional expression of growth hormone receptor from soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis japonicus).the growth hormone receptor (ghr) cdna was cloned from the liver of soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis japonicus) using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). although ghr has been cloned from several mammalian and avian species, this is the first description of the reptilian receptor. as deduced from the nucleotide sequence, the precursor ghr of soft-shelled turtle (tghr) is a protein of 615 amino acids which presents 72% identity with the chicken receptor and 57-64% identity with ghrs of s ...200011017774
effects of local tissue environment on the differentiation of neural crest cells in turtle, with special reference to understanding the spatial distribution of pigment cells.the spatial distribution of neural crest-derived pigment cells in turtles differs markedly from those found in chickens and mice. one hypothesis to explain such differences in the spatial distribution of pigment cells is that local tissue factors interact with neural crest cells, thereby determining their differentiation into pigment-synthesizing cells. it is reported here that local tissue factors in the soft-shell turtle (trionyx sinensis japonicus) play a critical role in the development of m ...199910231195
the zw micro-sex chromosomes of the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae, testudines) have the same origin as chicken chromosome 15.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae, testudines) has zz/zw-type micro-sex chromosomes where the 18s-28s ribosomal rna genes (18s-28s rdna) are located. the w chromosome is morphologically differentiated from the z chromosome by partial deletion and amplification of 18s-28s rdna and w-specific repetitive sequences. we recently found a functional gene (top3b) mapped on the p. sinensis z chromosome, which is located on chicken (gallus gallus, gga) chromosome 15. then ...200919729916
ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (rana catesbeiana and rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. in particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (t(4)) and triiodothyronine (t(3)) from thyroids in american bullfrogs (rana catesbeiana), chinese bullfrogs (rana rugulosa wiegmann), and chinese soft-shell turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) at differe ...200919535032
identification and characterization of the first reptilian cd9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial infection.in this study, a cd9 homologue in a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle, has been cloned and identified for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle cd9 was 1146bp and contained a 672bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 224 amino acids. four transmembrane domains (tms) divided the turtle cd9 into several parts: short n-, c-termini, an intracellular loop and two (small and large) extracellular loops (sel and lel). a ccg motif, a potential n-linked glycosylation site and 10 c ...201019747940
immunoglobulin joining (j) chain and its expression in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).the immunoglobulin (ig) joining (j) chain plays an important role in the formation of polymeric igs and their transport into secretions. in the present study, the cdna sequence of j chain has been cloned from the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the cdna sequence is 2347 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 480 bp encoding 160 aa including the signal sequence. the deduced amino acid sequ ...200919409620
isolation and sequence analysis of the sox-1, -2, -3 homologs in trionyx sinensis and alligator sinensis having temperature-dependent sex determination.members of the sox gene family are characterized by an hmg-box that shows sequence similarity with that of the mouse testis-determining gene sry. using degenerate primers pcr, seven and eight hmg-box motifs of sry-related genes were cloned and sequenced from genomic dna of trionyx sinensis (termed ts41-47) and alligator sinensis (as41-48) with tsd (temperature-dependent sex determination). among 15 sry-related genes, ts41, ts42, as41, and as42 shared 80, 72, 81, and 79% amino acid identity, resp ...200616691434
a zz/zw microchromosome system in the spiny softshell turtle, apalone spinifera, reveals an intriguing sex chromosome conservation in trionychidae.reptiles display a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms ranging from temperature-dependent sex determination (tsd) to genotypic sex determination (gsd) with either male (xy) or female (zw) heterogamety. despite this astounding variability, the origin, structure, and evolution of sex chromosomes remain poorly understood. in turtles, tsd is purportedly ancestral while gsd arose multiple times independently. here we test whether independent (xy or zw) or morphologically divergent heterogame ...201323512312
anatomy of the fully formed chondrocranium of emydura subglobosa (chelidae): a pleurodiran turtle.the chondrocranium is a cartilaginous structure that forms around and protects the brain and sensory organs of the head. through ontogeny, this skeletal structure may become more elaborate, remodeled and reabsorbed, and/or ossified. though considerable attention has been given to the formation of the chondrocranium and a great amount of data has been gathered on the development of this structure among many craniates, the anatomy of this structure in turtles often is neglected. we describe the ma ...201322972700
skeletal development in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis (testudines: trionychidae).we investigated the development of the whole skeleton of the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis, with particular emphasis on the pattern and sequence of ossification. ossification starts at late tokita-kuratani stage (tk) 18 with the maxilla, followed by the dentary and prefrontal. the quadrate is the first endoskeletal ossification and appears at tk stage 22. all adult skull elements have started ossification by tk stage 25. plastral bones are the first postcranial bones to ossify, whereas ...200919530096
sequence of a cdna encoding turtle high mobility group 1 protein.in order to understand sequence information about turtle hmg1 gene, a cdna encoding hmg1 protein of the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) was amplified by rt-pcr from kidney total rna, and was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. the results revealed that the open reading frame (orf) of turtle hmg1 cdna is 606 bp long. the orf codifies 202 amino acid residues, from which two dna-binding domains and one polyacidic region are derived. the dna-binding domains share higher amino acid identi ...200516152797
resistance characterization, virulence factors, and eric-pcr fingerprinting of aeromonas veronii strains isolated from diseased trionyx sinensis.aeromonas veronii (av) is an important pathogen causing severe diseases in aquaculture. fifteen a. veronii strains isolated from diseased trionyx sinensis from four aquafarms was characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (eric-pcr), antibiotic susceptibility testing, and identification of virulence factors. a. veronii strains were grouped into nine eric types with discriminatory ability (d) of 91.43 based on 90% similarity. the virulence genes wer ...201223134287
the draft genomes of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle-specific body plan.the unique anatomical features of turtles have raised unanswered questions about the origin of their unique body plan. we generated and analyzed draft genomes of the soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and the green sea turtle (chelonia mydas); our results indicated the close relationship of the turtles to the bird-crocodilian lineage, from which they split ∼267.9-248.3 million years ago (upper permian to triassic). we also found extensive expansion of olfactory receptor genes in these turtl ...201323624526
rapid evolution of beta-keratin genes contribute to phenotypic differences that distinguish turtles and birds from other reptiles.sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. a prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. evidence suggests that the shell of pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set an ...201323576313
identification of five reptile egg whites protein using maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms analysis.proteomics of egg white proteins of five reptile species, namely siamese crocodile (crocodylus siamensis), soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis taiwanese), red-eared slider turtle (trachemys scripta elegans), hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricate) and green turtle (chelonia mydas) were studied by 2d-page using ipg strip ph 4-7 size 7 cm and ipg strip ph 3-10 size 24 cm. the protein spots in the egg white of the five reptile species were identified by maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms ...201222266102
cross-reactivity of a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vitellogenin with the vitellogenins of other turtle species: chelydra serpentina , macrochelys temminckii , and pelodiscus sinensis.vitellogenin (vtg), a yolk-precursor protein in oviparous vertebrates, is a useful biomarker for reproductive physiology and environmental estrogenic pollution. to examine interspecific applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for quantifying chinemys reevesii vtg, we observed cross-reactivity between a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vtg and the vtgs from other turtle species: chelydra serpentina (chelydridae), macrochelys temminckii (chelydridae), and pelodis ...200819267600
turtle-chicken chimera: an experimental approach to understanding evolutionary innovation in the turtle.turtles have a body plan unique among vertebrates in that their ribs have shifted topographically to a superficial layer of the body and the trunk muscles are greatly reduced. identifying the developmental factors that cause this pattern would further our understanding of the evolutionary origin of the turtles. as the first step in addressing this question, we replaced newly developed epithelial somites of the chicken at the thoracic level with those of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus ...200515580555
cdna-based gene mapping and gc3 profiling in the soft-shelled turtle suggest a chromosomal size-dependent gc bias shared by sauropsids.mammalian and avian genomes comprise several classes of chromosomal segments that vary dramatically in gc-content. especially in chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher gc-content and a higher gene density than macrochromosomes. to understand the evolutionary history of the intra-genome gc heterogeneity in amniotes, it is necessary to examine the equivalence of this gc heterogeneity at the nucleotide level between these animals including reptiles, from which birds diverged. we isolated cdnas ...200616544192
complete amino acid sequence of three reptile lysozymes.to study the structure and function of reptile lysozymes, we have reported their purification, and in this study we have established the amino acid sequence of three egg white lysozymes in soft-shelled turtle eggs (sstl a and sstl b from trionyx sinensis, astl from amyda cartilaginea) by using the rapid peptide mapping method. the established amino acid sequence of sstl a, sstl b, and astl showed substitutions of 43, 42, and 44 residues respectively when compared with the hewl (hen egg white lys ...201019747569
genome-wide analyses of proliferation-important genes of iridovirus-tiger frog virus by rnai.tiger frog virus (tfv), a species of genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, is a nuclear cytoplasmic large dna virus that infects aquatic vertebrates such as tiger frog (rana tigrina rugulosa) and chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis). based on the available genome sequences of tfv, the well-developed rna interference (rnai) technique, and the reliable cell line for infection model, we decided to analyze the functional importance of all predicted genes. firstly, a relative quantita ...201424886972
exploring the genetic basis of adaptation to high elevations in reptiles: a comparative transcriptome analysis of two toad-headed agamas (genus phrynocephalus).high elevation adaptation offers an excellent study system to understand the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. we acquired transcriptome sequences of two closely related lizards, phrynocephalus przewalskii from low elevations and p. vlangalii from high elevations. within a phylogenetic framework, we compared their genomic data along with green anole, chicken and chinese softshell turtle, and identified candidate genes and functional categories that are potentially linked to adaptation to high ...201425386640
follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the female reproductive cycle.the follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction, with the actions of fsh mediated by fsh receptors (fshrs) on the granulosa cells of the ovary. the present study reports the cloning and characterization of fshr in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis (cafshr), and its tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the reproductive cycle. the mature protein of cafshr displays typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, but also con ...201525765682
the zw sex microchromosomes of an australian dragon lizard share no homology with those of other reptiles or birds.reptiles show a diverse array of sex chromosomal systems but, remarkably, the z sex chromosomes of chicken are homologous to the zw sex chromosomes of a species of gecko, gekko hokouensis, suggesting an ancient but common origin. this is in contrast to the zw sex chromosomes of snakes and a species of soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, which are nonhomologous to those of chicken or each other and appear to have been independently derived. in this paper, we determine what homology, if any, ...200919967443
hepatocyte growth factor is crucial for development of the carapace in turtles.turtles are characterized by their shell, composed of a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron. the carapace first appears as the turtle-specific carapacial ridge (cr) on the lateral aspect of the embryonic flank. accompanying the acquisition of the shell, unlike in other amniotes, hypaxial muscles in turtle embryos appear as thin threads of fibrous tissue. to understand carapacial evolution from the perspective of muscle development, we compared the development of the muscle plate, the anlage o ...201121535464
the origin and differentiation process of x and y chromosomes of the black marsh turtle (siebenrockiella crassicollis, geoemydidae, testudines).the black marsh turtle (siebenrockiella crassicollis) has morphologically differentiated x and y sex chromosomes. to elucidate the origin and evolutionary process of s. crassicollis x and y chromosomes, we performed cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific dna from chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and chromosome mapping of the sex-linked genes of s. crassicollis using fish. the x and y chromosomes of s. crassicollis were hybridized with dna probe of p. sinensis ...201122183803
acute cold stress improved the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines of chinese soft-shelled turtle against aeromonas hydrophila.chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, is widely cultured in east and southeast asian countries. it frequently encounters the stress of abrupt temperature changes, which leads to mass death in most cases. however, the mechanism underlying the stress-elicited death remains unknown. we have suspected that the stress impaired the immune function of chinese soft-shelled turtle, which could result in the mass death, as we noticed that there was a clinical syndrome of infection in dead turt ...201525450906
comprehensive survey of carapacial ridge-specific genes in turtle implies co-option of some regulatory genes in carapace evolution.the turtle shell is an evolutionary novelty in which the developmental pattern of the ribs is radically modified. in contrast to those of other amniotes, turtle ribs grow laterally into the dorsal dermis to form a carapace. the lateral margin of carapacial primordium is called the carapacial ridge (cr), and is thought to play an essential role in carapace patterning. to reveal the developmental mechanisms underlying this structure, we systematically screened for genes expressed specifically in t ...200515642085
production of chimeras between the chinese soft-shelled turtle and peking duck through transfer of early blastoderm cells.chimeras are useful models for studies of developmental biology and cell differentiation. intraspecies and interspecies germline chimeras have been produced in previous studies, but the feasibility of producing chimeras between animals of two different classes remains unclear. to address this issue, we attempted to produce chimeras between the chinese soft-shelled turtle and the peking duck by transferring stage x blastoderm cells to recipient embryos. we then examined the survival and developme ...201323348946
inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. however, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. we constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinen ...201223300852
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against aeromonas hydrophila in chinese soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis).the single-dose disposition kinetics of the antibiotic marbofloxacin were determined in chinese soft-shelled turtles (n = 10) after oral and intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. the in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum against a pathogenic strain of aeromonas hydrophila were determined. a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin was confirmed for levels lower than 4 × mic. for in vivo pk data, values of auc: minimum inhibitory concentratio ...201525694049
cloning, expression and antioxidant activity of a novel collagen from pelodiscus sinensis.collagen is the main structural protein of various connective tissues in animals and naturally plays an important role within the body. it is increasingly used within certain areas, such as medicine, citology and cosmetology. the soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is a commercially important aquatic species rich in collagen. in this study, a novel collagen gene fragment of 756 bp, which encodes 252 deduced amino acid residues, including 25 conserved gly-x-y motifs, was cloned from a soft- ...201627116966
in vitro synergistic effects of fisetin and norfloxacin against aquatic isolates of serratia marcescens.serratia marcescens is a common pathogenic bacterium that can cause infections in both humans and animals. it can cause a range of diseases, from slight wound infections to life-threatening bacteraemia and pneumonia. the emergence of antimicrobial resistance has limited the treatment of the diseases caused by the bacterium to a great extent. consequently, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial strategies against this pathogen. synergistic strategy is a new approach to treat the i ...201626567906
pesticide contamination profiles of water, sediment and aquatic organisms in the effluent of gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant.organochlorine pesticides (ocps, including ddt, hch and hcb) and six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in water, sediment, zooplankton, fish and chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) from gaobeidian lake, which is located in the effluent of gaobeidian wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) in beijing, china. ddts were dominant except for in water. in water, the concentrations of ddts (6.22 ng l(-1)) and hchs (18.0 ng l(-1)) were less than ...200818472141
characterization and functional analysis of toll-like receptor 4 in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.mammalian toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (lps) in initiating the innate immune responses. early studies indicate that turtles are more resistant to lps challenge than mammals. it remains unknown if turtles express tlr4 and why they are more resistant to lps. in this study, tlr4 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, was cloned and characterized. the full length cdna of turtle tlr4 (ttlr4) consists of 3396 base pairs with an 2499-bp open reading fra ...201627259833
identification and functional analysis of interleukin-1β in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is commercially cultured in east and southeast asia for its nutritional and medicinal values. in this study, we identified interleukin-1β (il-1β) from chinese soft-shelled turtle. the full-length cdna of pelodiscus sinensis il-1β (til-1β) consists of 1529 base pairs with an 831-base-pair open reading frame, encoding 277 amino acids. the guanine-cytosine (gc) content in the coding sequence and 3' untranslated region of til-1β is considerably highe ...201627153094
establishment and characterization of a cell line from the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the establishment and partial characterization of pelodiscus sinensis continuous cell line is described here. a novel p. sinensis fibroblast cell line, designated psf, was established from heart tissue by the semi-digestion explant culture technique. since its initiation in july 2013, the cell line has been subcultured at 30°c in minimal essential medium (mem) containing 15% (v/v) fetal bovine serum for more than 50 passages. the growth curve of the cell line revealed the population doubling tim ...201627059326
partial sequence of a novel virus isolated from pelodiscus sinensis hemorrhagic disease.outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome-like disease with high mortality rates have frequently occurred in pelodiscus sinensis farms. the purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen through challenge infection assays and partial sequencing of the genome of the pathogen. a 453-bp amplicon was obtained by random pcr using the nucleic acid extracted from the tissue homogenate filtrate and showed 32% identity at the amino acid level with the replicase polyprotein of the porcine reproductive and ...201526279281
immunoreactive endothelin in plasma of nonmammalian vertebrates.immunoreactive endothelin (ir-et) was estimated in plasma of nonmammalian vertebrates, using radioimmunoassay (ria) for endothelin-1 (et-1). blood samples were collected from unanesthetized animals. plasma et was determined by ria after extraction. plasma levels of ir-et were 0.7 +/- 0.2 pg/ml (n = 6) in the hagfish eptatretus burgeri, 4.3 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 5) in the banded dogfish triakis scyllia, 3.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml (n = 3) in the common japanese conger conger myriaster, 9.6 +/- 1.4 pg/ml (n = ...19911725396
molecular cloning of full-length dmrt1 cdna of reeves turtle (chinemys reevesii).we cloned and sequenced a full-length open reading frame turtle dmrt1 cdna (crdmrt1) that was 1,504 bp in length and encoded 371 amino acid residues. rt-pcr analysis in different tissues of adult male turtle showed that the crdmrt1 cdna fragment was only detected in the testis. the amino acid sequence derived from crdmrt1 demonstrated high homology to sequences from dmrt1 of pelodiscus sinensis (92% identities and 93% positives) and elaphe quadrivirgata (75% identities and 83% positives). the de ...200818685240
reduced egg shell permeability affects embryonic development and hatchling traits in lycodon rufozonatum and pelodiscus sinensis.the response of embryos to unpredictable hypoxia is critical for successful embryonic development, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of such responses in reptiles with different types of egg shell. we experimentally generated external regional hypoxia by sealing either the upper half or bottom half of the surface area of eggs in 2 species of reptiles (snake [lycodon rufozonatum] with parchment egg shell and chinese soft-shelled turtle [pelodiscus sinensis] with rigid egg she ...201828504478
the full globin repertoire of turtles provides insights into vertebrate globin evolution and functions.globins are small heme proteins that play an important role in oxygen supply, but may also have other functions. globins offer a unique opportunity to study the functional evolution of genes and proteins. we have characterized the globin repertoire of two different turtle species: the chinese softshell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) and the western painted turtle (chrysemys picta bellii). in the genomes of both species, we have identified eight distinct globin types: hemoglobin (hb), myoglobin, ne ...201526078264
immunoglobulin genes of the turtles.the availability of reptile genomes for the use of the scientific community is an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of immunoglobulin genes. the genome of chrysemys picta bellii and pelodiscus sinensis is the first one that has been reported for turtles. the scanning for immunoglobulin genes resulted in the presence of a complex locus for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (igh). this igh locus in both turtles contains genes for 13 isotypes in c. picta bellii and 17 in p. sinensis. thes ...201323208582
purification effects of two eco-ditch systems on chinese soft-shelled turtle greenhouse culture wastewater pollution.the present study used an eco-ditch system that employed eichhornia crassipes, bacillus subtilis, and bellamya aeruginosa (e-b-b) during the summer and fall (high temperature) seasons and a second eco-ditch system that employed elodea nuttallii, a compound microbial preparation called "em bacteria", and hypophthalmichthys molitrix (e-e-h) during the winter and spring (low temperature) seasons successively to purify the discharged wastewater produced by chinese soft-shelled turtle greenhouse cult ...201424420561
complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of iridoviridae.soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). to our knowledge, the only molecular information available on stiv mainly concerns the highly conserved stiv major capsid protein. the complete sequence of the stiv genome is not yet available. therefore, determining the genome sequence of stiv and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate furthe ...200919439104
molecular characterization and functional analysis of myd88 in chinese soft-shelled turtle trionyx sinensis.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is one of the key adaptor proteins to signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in this study, the myd88 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) (tmyd88) was identified, representing the fist example from reptile species. the tmyd88 has a 894-bp orf and encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acids including a typical death domain (dd) at the n-terminus and a conservative toll/il-1r (tir) domain at the ...201120850547
the localization of vagal neurons in the terrapin (trionyx sinensis) as revealed by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase method.after the application of horseradish peroxidase in nonidet p40 solution to the right cervical vagus in the terrapin, the neurons giving origin to efferent fibers and the transganglionic sensory fibres are labeled. the neurons forming the vagus nerve at the mid-cervical level are located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmx), in the nucleus ambiguus (na), in an area located ventral to the dmx, and less definitely in the nucleus of the spinal accessory nerve. the dmx and na neurons ...19846512177
putative thyroid hormone receptors in red blood cells of some reptiles.putative triiodothyronine (t3) receptors have been detected in the nuclei of red blood cells (rbc) in a number of reptile species. the binding characteristics of t3 receptors in vitro were dissociation constant (kd) 9.1 to 28.58, 36.8 and 40, and 11.12 and 11.36 pm, and binding capacity (bmax) 0.12 to 0.37, 0.17 and 0.24, and 0.19 and 0.28 fmol per million cells in the rat snake (ptyas korros), soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), and tokay gecko (gekko gecko), respectively. these data were o ...19873609713
purification and characterization of turtle pepsinogen and pepsin.pepsinogen was purified from the gastric mucosa of soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) by a series of chromatographies on deae-cellulose, sephadex g-100, and q-sepharose. upon chromatography on q-sepharose, it was separated into nine isoforms. these isoforms showed a relative molecular mass of approximately 43,000 da on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and isoforms 4 through 9 contained carbohydrate (approx. 2% each). insofar as they were examined, their nh2-terminal ...19968889828
characterization of dna aptamers generated against the soft-shelled turtle iridovirus with antiviral effects.soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) causes severe systemic disease in farmed soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). more efficient methods of controlling and detecting stiv infections are urgently needed.201526419355
de-novo characterization of the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis transcriptome using illumina rna-seq technology.the soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis is a high-profile turtle species because of its nutritional and medicinal value in asian countries. however, little is known about the genes that are involved in formation of their nutritional quality traits, especially the molecular mechanisms responsible for unsaturated fatty acid and collagen biosynthesis. in the present study, the transcriptomes from six tissues from pelodiscus sinensis were sequenced using an illumina paired-end sequencing platfor ...201323303632
ifn-γ in turtle: conservation in sequence and signalling and role in inhibiting iridovirus replication in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.the ifn-γ gene was identified in a turtle, the chinese soft-shelled turtle, pelodiscus sinensis, with its genome consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns. the deduced amino acid sequence of this gene contains a signal peptide, an ifn-γ family signature motif (130)iqrkavnelfpt, an nls motif (155)krkr and three potential n-glycosylation sites. as revealed by real-time quantitative pcr, the gene was constitutively expressed in all tested organs/tissues, with higher level observed in blood, intestine and ...201424239708
involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in soft-shelled turtle iridovirus-induced apoptosis.iridoviruses are large dna viruses that infect invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates, and result in significant economic losses in aquaculture production, and drastic declines in amphibian populations. soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in farm-raised soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). in the present study, the mechanisms of stiv-induced cell death and the roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathway wer ...201121442306
a new iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle.a virus was isolated from soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) with 'red neck disease' on a farm in shenzhen, china, the virus multiplied and caused a cytopathogenic effect (cpe) at 15-30 degrees c in co, fhm, ck and bf-2 cells. the optimum conditions for replication was in co cells at 25-30 degrees c. the virus was sensitive to chloroform treatment, acid (ph 3) or alkaline (ph 10) conditions and heating at 56 degrees c for 30 min. treatment with 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (iudr) inhibited viral re ...199910509727
metabolism of pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in freshwater turtles.reptile population decrease is an alarming trend all around the world. yet little is known about the role of xenobiotics in this decrease. in this study, we investigated the metabolism of pyrene in three freshwater turtle species (red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans), chinese pond turtles (mauremys reevesii) and chinese softshell turtles (pelodiscus sinensis). compared to other vertebrates, all turtles showed an unique metabolite distribution, pyrene-1-sulfate being the main metabolite. ...201323631161
the effect of high fat diet on daily rhythm of the core clock genes and muscle functional genes in the skeletal muscle of chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis).in the present study, we sought to investigate the influence of high fat diet on the core clock genes and the muscle functional genes daily expression in the skeletal muscle of chinese soft-shelled turtle. the turtles were fed by two diets including a control fat diet (the con treatment, 7.98% lipid) and a high fat diet (the hfd treatment, 13.86% lipid) for six weeks and administrated by the photophase regimen of 24h light/dark (12l:12d) cycle. after the feeding trial experiment, we measured the ...201728729066
number of olfactory receptor neurons in the chinese soft-shelled turtle.the olfactory organ of turtle consists of the upper chamber epithelium (uce) and the lower chamber epithelium (lce), detecting air-borne odorants and water-borne odorants, respectively. in this study, we investigated the number of olfactory receptor neurons (orns) in the uce and lce of soft-shelled turtle in order to find their possible differences among terrestrial, semi-aquatic and highly-aquatic turtles. the number of orns in the soft-shelled turtle was higher in the lce than in the uce, sugg ...201728781329
towards binding mechanism of cu2+ on creatine kinase from pelodiscus sinensis: molecular dynamics simulation integrating inhibition kinetics study.cu2+ is well known to play important roles in living organisms having bifacial distinction: essential microelement that is necessary for a wide range of metabolic processes but hyper-accumulation of cu2+ can be toxic. the physiological function of cu2+ in ectothermic animals such as pelodiscus sinensis (chinese soft-shelled turtle) has not been elucidated.201728245755
dmrt1 is required for primary male sexual differentiation in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.in vertebrates, the primary sex-determining signals that initiate sexual development are remarkably diverse, ranging from complete genetic to environmental cues. however, no sex determination-related genes have been functionally identified in reptiles. here, we characterized a conserved dm domain gene, dmrt1, in chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis (p. sinensis), which exhibits zz/zw sex chromosomes. dmrt1 exhibited early male-specific embryonic expression, preceding the onset of gona ...201728667307
a comparative study on genetic characteristics of two new varieties of pelodiscus sinensis and their hybrid.chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis has been an important aquaculture species in southeast asian countries. to breed a new variety of soft-shelled turtle with excellent properties and to evaluate the effect of hybridization of two turtle strains with a highly different trait phenotype, inheritance, microsatellite loci, and transcriptome analysis were studied in the hybrid turtles and their parents of p. sinensis japanese strain and qingxi black turtle. the genotypic characteristics a ...201728973716
entosis acts as a novel way within sertoli cells to eliminate spermatozoa in seminiferous tubule.the present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis thatin vivoentosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (st) during hibernation of the chinese soft-shelled turtle. western blot analysis revealed that the expression of lamp1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. immunohistochemistry reaction showed that lamp1-positive substance was distributed within the sertoli cells of the testis. further ex ...201728611685
constant temperature artificial incubation of spawned eggs in natural nests from the chinese freshwater soft-shelled turtle,tryonyx sinensisstrauch(1862).on june 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and july 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the boseong river and the sandy beaches, seokgok-myun, moksadong-myun, gokseong-gun in jeollanam province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). the temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9±0.5℃, the depth of ...201728484749
the histopathological characteristics caused by trionyx sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (tshsv) and comparative proteomic analysis of liver tissue in tshsv-infected chinese soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis).trionyx sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (tshsv) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic syndrome and irreversible damage to different infected tissues of pelodis cus sinensis, ending in the death of affected organisms. in the present study, the histopathological characteristics of tshsv-infected p. sinensis were analyzed and compared by he staining. relative and absolute quantification (itraq)-based proteomic analysis was employed to explore the molecular pathology of liver injury. anat ...201728877517
antioxidant responses in hibernating chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings.the antioxidant defense system protects turtles from oxidative stress during hibernation. the present study examined changes of the antioxidant enzymes both on mrna level and enzyme activity level during hibernation of chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings. the upstream regulator nf-e2 related factor 2 (nrf2) mrna was also measured. samples were taken at pre-hibernation (17.0°c, mud temperature (mt)), hibernation (5.8°c, mt) and arousal (20.1°c, mt). nrf2 exhibited a tissue- ...201727816518
molecular cloning of the cdna encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the chinese soft-shell turtle pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. these hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of fshbeta in reptilian species. for better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of fsh molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary dna (cdna) encoding the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, family of ...200515748721
the study of microanatomy of intestinal epithelium in the chinese soft-shelled turtle(pelodiscus sinensis).the microanatomy of the intestinal epithelium in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (cst) was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy (tem). the small intestinal epithelium (sie) was single layered or pseudostratified. the enterocytes contained mitochondria or mitochondria and lipid droplets. the enterocytes were arranged tightly in the apical parts of epithelium and connected by desmosomes and interdigitations. the large intestinal epithelium (lie) was pseudostratified and the entero ...201729387103
molecular cytogenetic map of the central bearded dragon, pogona vitticeps (squamata: agamidae).reptiles, as the sister group to birds and mammals, are particularly valuable for comparative genomic studies among amniotes. the australian central bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps) is being developed as a reptilian model for such comparisons, with whole-genome sequencing near completion. the karyotype consists of 6 pairs of macrochromosomes and 10 pairs microchromosomes (2n = 32), including a female heterogametic zw sex microchromosome pair. here, we present a molecular cytogenetic map for p. ...201323703235
reptile embryos are not capable of behavioral thermoregulation in the egg.reptile embryos have recently been observed moving within the egg in response to temperature, raising the exciting possibility that embryos might behaviorally thermoregulate analogous to adults. however, the conjecture that reptile embryos have ample opportunity and capacity to adaptively control their body temperature warrants further discussion. using turtles as a model, we discuss the spatiotemporal constraints to movement in reptile embryos. we demonstrate that, as embryos grow, the internal ...201829194953
shotgun label-free proteomic analysis for identification of proteins in hacat human skin keratinocytes regulated by the administration of collagen from soft-shelled turtle.soft-shelled turtles (pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some asian countries, and we previously reported that soft-shelled turtle tissue could be a useful material for collagen. in the present study, we performed shotgun liquid chromatography (lc)/mass spectrometry (ms)-based global proteomic analysis of collagen-administered human keratinocytes to examine the functional effects of collagen from soft-shelled turtle on human skin. using a semiquantitative method based on spectral cou ...201729193735
latitudinal and temperature-dependent variation in embryonic development rate and offspring performance in a freshwater turtle.the thermal environment of embryos differs significantly along a latitudinal cline, and the mechanism by which embryos respond to this geographic temperature variation has attracted increasing attention recently. here, we carried out a common-garden experiment of egg incubation at two fluctuating temperature regimes to elucidate the latitudinal pattern and thermal dependence of the embryonic development rate and offspring performance in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). our ...201729116881
preganglionic neurons projecting to the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion in the terrapin (trionyx sinensis).after injection of hrp into the first right thoracic sympathetic ganglion of the terrapin, labeled cells are found in the central autonomic area, intercalated area, intermediolateral cell column, dorsal horn, ventrolateral edge of the dorsal column, dorsolateral edge of the ventral white column, and the ventral and ventromedial border of the ventral horn. they form one discontinuous column in the portion of the spinal cord marking the attachments of the tenth or eleventh to the fourteenth spinal ...19836672048
division of chinese soft-shelled turtle intestine with molecular markers is slightly different from the morphological and histological observation.the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) is a commercially important species in asian countries. knowledge of its nutritional requirements and physiology is essential for determining the appropriate content of the feed for this animal. however, the lack of functional characterization of the intestine of this turtle limits the understanding of its absorption and utilization of nutritional materials. to solve this problem, this work utilized anatomical and histological methods to char ...201828271603
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