TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
studies on the sporulation of phytophthora parasitica dastur var. piperina dast. responsible for leaf and foot-rot of pan, piper betle. l. 196113716994
selection of antagonistic soil microbes against a few fungal pathogens of piper betle l. 196314111112
antifertility effect of betal leaf stalk (tambul patrabrint): a preliminary experimental study.this study was undertaken to determine possible antifertility properties of the stalk of the betel plant, piper betle, which is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of india for its leaves. the thin stalks were dried, powdered, and extracted with alcohol; the residue was used in the study and named betel leaf stalk extract (blse). it was macerated with gum acacia, suspended in distilled water, and diluted to 25 mg/ml. the drug was fed by oral intubation. initially 20 rats were used in ...197012305561
studies on leaves of piper betle. 19715170641
organic amendments and control of foot rot of piper betle caused by phytophthora parasitica var. piperina.experiments have been performed to control foot rot of piper betle by organic amendments and antagonists in soil. soil amended with corn straw gave best control. corn straw supplemented with nitrogen (nh4no3) gave still better control. the effect of different antagonists growing on corn-straw and til (sesamum indicum) oil cake amendments showed that trichoderma viride gave best control. aspergillus terreus failed to control the disease although it showed great antifungal activity under controlle ...1976952442
chromosome-damaging activity of saliva of betel nut and tobacco chewers.saliva of volunteers chewing betel quid, cured betel nut (areca catechu), betel leaves (piper betle), a mixture of quid ingredients (dried betel nut flakes, catechu, cardamon, lime, copra and menthol) and indian tobacco was collected and examined for its genotoxic activity. chromosome aberrations (chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells were used to estimate the genotoxic effect. no detectable levels of clastogenic activity were observed in the saliva of no ...19827116324
effect of piper betle l. and its extracts on the growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus.ground powder of the leaf and fruit of piper betle l., a tropical spice plant grown in southeast asia, was prepared and extracted by chloroform, ethanol and water with one solvent only or with 3 solvents in sequence. the betel powder and various extracts were added to yes broth to determine their effects on the growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus. results showed that betel leaf powder exhibited higher antimycotic activity than fruit. one half percent of ground leaf powder ...19846531413
the mutagenicity of nitrite-treated aqueous extract of piper betle l.betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of asia. the quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. the mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. only nitrite-treated aqueous extract of piper betle l fruits, leaves or rhizoma were demonstrated to exhibit a mutagenic response, using salmonella typhimurium strains ta100 and ta1535 in the ames test. when the aqueous extract of the fruit was nitrosat ...19846531415
inhibitors of certain enzymes (of botryodiplodia theobromae) in piper betle leaf extracts. 19846746311
inhibitory action of piper betle on the initiation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats.when an aqueous extract of the leaves of piper betle, a medicinal plant, was given orally at different dose levels during the initiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats, higher doses of the extract inhibited the emergence of tumors. however, when the extract was fed to the rats bearing dmba-induced mammary tumors for 8 weeks, no appreciable degree of inhibition of tumor growth was noticed. betel leaf extract at the dose levels used in the pre ...19853919938
[quid of betel].after clarifying some necessary terminology to understand what quid of betel is, the authors, in the first part of this article, expose its location around the world. then, they report on the three main basic components: piper betle l. leaf, areca catechu nut, and slaked lime. they add too some other ingredients which modify the taste of the quid to a certain extent. in the third part, the authors expose the role given to betel in the traditional medicine according to bibliographical sources ava ...19854068974
oral lesions, genotoxicity and nitrosamines in betel quid chewers with no obvious increase in oral cancer risk.a link between the generation of areca nut-related n-nitrosamines in the saliva, the induction of genotoxic damage in the oral mucosa, as judged by an increase in micronucleated exfoliated cells (mec), and a low incidence of oral cancer was studied in 2 population groups characterized by their habit of chewing quids without tobacco: guamanians, who chew areca nuts (areca catechu) with or without the addition of betel leaf (piper betle); taiwanese, who use areca nut, betel leaf or inference and s ...19863697952
antifertility effect of piper betle linn. extract on ovary and testis of albino rats.chronic administration (sc) of the extract of the stalk of p. betle at 30 mg/kg body weight daily for 21 days produced significant decrease in oestrogen and androgen dependent target organ weights along with increase in cholesterol in adrenal, ovary and testis. acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum, liver and kidney did not exhibit any toxic effect. there was marked change in morphology of testis and ovary. vaginal smear showed prolonged dioestrus in treated female. the treated male ...19892635145
slaked lime and betel nut cancer in papua new guinea.oral squamous cell cancer is the most common malignant tumour in papua new guinea. we have found that oral cancer in this region is concentrated at the corner of the mouth and cheek, by striking contrast with western populations, and corresponds precisely with the site of application of lime in 77% of 169 cases. powdered slaked lime applied to the chewed areca nut with piper betle inflorescence at the corner of the mouth causes the mean ph to rise to 10, at which reactive oxygen species are gene ...19921355157
triterpenes and b-sitosterol from piper betle: isolation, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects. 19938132030
genotoxic and non-genotoxic effects of betel quid ingredients on oral mucosal fibroblasts in understand the role of betel quid (bq) in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (osf) and oral cancer, we used dna damage, cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation assays to study the pathobiological effects of aqueous extracts of three bq constituents [betel nut (areca catechu, bn), inflorescence of piper betle (ipb), and lime], one bn alkaloid (arecoline), and one bn polyphenol [(+)-catechin] on cultured oral mucosal fibroblasts. extracts of bn and ipb induced dna strand break formation i ...19948006230
effect of orally administered betel leaf (piper betle linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.the influence of two varieties of betel leaf (piper betle linn.) namely, the pungent mysore and non-pungent ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. the betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. the results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influen ...19958575807
c-fiber-evoked autonomic cardiovascular effects after injection of piper betle inflorescence extracts.piper betle inflorescence extracts contain eugenol (6.2%) and safrole (78.9%). intravenous injections of water extracts of p. betle inflorescence (pbe), eugenol, and safrole in rats induced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, whereas both intraarterial and intrathecal injections of pbe, eugenol and safrole resulted in hypotensive and tachycardiac effects. moreover, the effects of intravenous injections of pbe were reversed or inhibited by the pretreatment with bilateral vagotomy, atropine (1 m ...19957542715
the mutagenicities of alkaloids and n-nitrosoguvacoline from betel taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, piper betle and slaked lime paste. areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. n-nitrosoguvacoline (ng), one of the n-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one n-nitrosamine found in taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. the mutagenic studies in ames salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in salmonella ...19968692215
role of oxidative dna damage in hydroxychavicol-induced genotoxicity.chewing betel quid has been linked to the development of oral cancer. in taiwan, fresh piper betle inflorescence is uniquely added to betel quid, and hydroxychavicol is the major phenolic components of p.betle inflorescence. in this study, we tested the mutagenic potential of hydroxychavicol in salmonella typhimurium ta97, ta98, ta100 and ta102 with and without aroclor-1254 induced s9 fraction. the results showed that hydroxychavicol was positive in s.typhimurium ta102 without metabolic activati ...19968921515
piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a and piperol b: a new series of highly specific paf receptor antagonists from piper betle.piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a, and piperol b, isolated from piper betle, selectively inhibited the washed rabbit platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (paf) in a concentration-dependent manner. the ic50 values of piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a, piperol b, and ginkgolide b were about 18.2, 10.6, 114.2, 11.8, and 4.8 mumol/l, respectively. the inhibitory potency of ginkgolide b was about 2.8, 1.2, 22.8, and 1.4 times higher than those of piperbetol, methylpi ...19979270371
effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in taiwan. many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. in this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, piper betle inflorescence and red t ...19979369022
betel: consumption and consequences.betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western pacific basin and south asia. only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. when betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. there ...19989448210
jamu gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of jamu gendong (jg) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the department of health of indonesia in 1986. samples of jg and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of surabaya. the samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (tpc), mpn coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the pres ...199810030724
contact leukomelanosis induced by the leaves of piper betle l. (piperaceae): a clinical and histopathologic april 1997, an unusual pigmentary disorder was noticed by dermatologists in taiwan. all patients had a history of using facial dressings with steamed leaves of piper betle l. (piperaceae).199910188678
the antimicrobial efficiency of piper betle linn leaf (stalk) against human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi.the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different varieties of piper betle linn, leaf stalk extracts were studied against human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi by comparing the results with standard microbial susceptibility testing biodiscs. the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of all the four varieties have shown significant activity against bacteria vibrio cholerae ogawa, staphylococcus aureus, diplococcus pneumoniae and klebsiella aerogenes. the hexane and benzene extracts have ...199910499145
effects of areca nut, inflorescence piper betle extracts and arecoline on cytotoxicity, total and unscheduled dna synthesis in cultured gingival keratinocytes.betel quid (bq) chewing has a strong correlation with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. for elucidation of its pathogenesis, we investigated the effects of areca nut (an) and inflorescence piper betle (ipb) extracts and arecoline on the growth, total dna synthesis (tds) and unscheduled dna synthesis (uds) of cultured human gingival keratinocytes (gk). arecoline and an extract suppressed the growth of gk over 5 days of incubation in a dose-dependent fashion. at concentrations ...19999950252
screening for the in vitro anti-tumor-promoting activities of edible plants from malaysia.a total of 114 methanol extracts from 42 plant families of edible malaysian plants were screened for their inhibitory activities toward tumor promoter 12-o-hexadecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (hpa)-induced epstein-barr virus (ebv) activation in raji cells. by testing at a concentration of 200 micrograms/ml, 74% of the 114 extracts inhibited ebv activation by 30% or more. this rate is comparable to those observed in the previous tests on edible thai (60%) and indonesian (71%) plants, and, importantly, ...200010705442
the presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in piper betle linn.the crude aqueous extract of piper betle leaves ( was studied for the possible presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents. at doses of 1-10 mg/ml caused a moderate spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum and this activity was concentrated in the aqueous fraction, which was found to be about 5 times more potent. pretreatment of the tissue with atropine (1 microm) but not hexamethonium (100 microm) completely abolished the contractile effect of the a ...200010960898
pre-clinical toxicity evaluation of leaf-stalk extractive of piper betle linn. in rodents.studies on pre-clinical toxicity were undertaken to determine the haematological and biochemical changes after administration of alcoholic extract of leaf-stalk of p. betle in rats and mice. acute and chronic toxicity experiments were performed on mice and rats according to who protocol. different doses of plant extractive were administered for toxicity studies on short and long term basis. haematological, biochemical profiles and enzymatic studies (transaminases and phosphatases) indicated that ...200011218809
inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. people say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. in this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, piper betle, and slaked lime p ...200111308356
effects of betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic ...200111385294
hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative dna damage induced by areca quid in vivo.chewing areca quid (aq) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (oscc). recent studies have suggested that aq-generated reactive oxygen species (ros) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. however, the aq used in taiwan is different from that used in other countries. this study is designed to test whether ros are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared aq in vivo. we measured the hydroxyl radical formati ...200211911495
modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.there are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (bq) chewers in the world. areca nut (an), a bq component, modulates arachidonic acid (aa) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. an extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane b2 (txb2) production. contrastingly, piper betle leaf (pbl) extract inhibited aa-, collagen-, and u46619-induced platelet aggregation, and txb2 and prostaglandin-d2 (pgd2) production. pbl extract also inhibited platelet txb2 ...200211978487
biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the taiwanese betel quid chewing.a rapid and sensitive biological monitoring (bm) method for assessing exposure to the environmental carcinogen safrole has been developed. the method is an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) analysis of urinary dihydroxychavicol (dhab) and eugenol, the urinary metabolites of safrole. good linearity, precision, and accuracy were demonstrated. a recovery of 98.8 +/- 5.4% (sd, n = 3) was found for dhab and 84.1 +/- 3.4% (n = 3) for eugenol. the quantitation limits of the metho ...200212399914
phenolic antibacterials from piper betle in the prevention of halitosis.piper betle l. (piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in india and china in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allylpyrocatechol (apc) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. the biological studies with apc indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was mainly due to the anti-microbial activity as established using dynamic ...200212413722
larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (piper betle) on chrysomya megacephala.many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by chrysomya species.200212492975
influence of piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated wistar rats.piper betle l. is a commonly used masticatory in asia. this study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of p. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. oral administration of p. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (p <.05) decreased aspart ...200212639394
antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence piper betle extract.piper betle, belonging to the piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (bq) chewers in taiwan and many other south and southeast asian countries. however, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence piper betle (ipb) toward reactive oxygen species (ros) and platelet functions. in the present work, aqueous ipb extract was shown to be a scavenger of h(2)o(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% ...200312643677
effect of ethanol extract of piper betle linn leaf on healing of nsaid-induced experimental ulcer--a novel role of free radical scavenging action.treatment with ethanol extract of leaf of p. betle at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days, after induction of peptic ulcer by nsaid in albino rats, produced significant healing effect. during healing process, on treatment with the extractive, antioxidative factor, e.g. superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, mucus and total gastric tissue sulfhydryl group were increased. in contrast, oxidised lipid and oxidatively modified proteins were reduced to near normalcy, within 7 to 10 ...200315255639
association of cucumovirus and potyvirus with betelvine (piper betle l.) as evidenced by elisa and attempt was made to detect various viruses of piper betle grown at mahoba and banthara in india. dac-elisa and rt-pcr tests were performed in leaf sap samples of betelvine for detection of a cucumovirus (cucumber mosaic virus) and potyvirus (bean yellow mosaic virus) using specific antibodies and universal primers of respective viruses. dac-elisa could detect only cmv. however, rt-pcr detected both cucumovirus and potyvirus infection in betelvine samples. association of cmv with betelvine was ...200315267161
biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n.collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. in the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against s. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. two strains, pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhi ...200314506865
effect of piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.the protective effect of piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered wistar rats. brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous p. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily ...200314585193
the anti-adherence effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces.the aqueous extracts of piper betle and psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (strep. mitis, strep. sanguinis and actinomyces sp.). the saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. psidium guajava w ...200314763515
vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), piper betle (betel leaf), anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), carica papaya (papaya leaf), and mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while piper betle and cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric ...200415138017
reactive oxygen species are crucial for hydroxychavicol toxicity toward kb epithelial cells.betel quid (bq) chewing shows a strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (osf), leukoplakia and oral cancer. bq contains mainly areca nut, lime, piper betle leaf (pbl) and the inflorescence of p. betle (ipb). hydroxychavicol (4-allyl-catechol, hc), as a major phenolic compound in pbl and ipb, is shown to induce oxidative stress, glutathione (gsh) depletion and cell cycle deregulation. using bivariate brdu/pi flow cytometry, kb cells in dna synthesis (s phase) are shown to b ...200414704856
hydroxychavicol modulates benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity through induction of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.areca quid (aq) chewing and smoking have synergistic potential in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). in taiwan, fresh piper betle inflorescence is uniquely added to aq, and hydroxychavicol (hc) is the major phenolic component of p. betle inflorescence. this study investigated whether hc modulates cigarette carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (b[a]p)-mediated toxic effects. pretreatment of hc and followed by b[a]p challenge resulted in higher cytotoxicity and hprt gene mutation frequen ...200415331132
constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in taiwanese men.two most common types of areca chewing are noted in taiwan: raw betel fruit with piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. one hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% ci, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. sixty-five of the patients were areca ch ...200415361101
genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively propagated plant, betelvine (piper betle l.).betelvine (piper betle l., family piperaceae) is an important, traditional and widely cultivated crop of india. the cultivators and consumers recognize more than 100 cultivars (landraces) based on regional and organoleptic considerations, while in terms of phytochemical constituents only five groups have been identified for all the landraces. since betelvine is an obligate vegetatively propagated species, genomic changes, if any, may have become 'fixed' in the landraces. we carried out random am ...200415381853
the in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by aids patients in southern thailand.this study evaluated the anti-giardial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extracts of 12 medicinal plants (39 extracts), commonly used as self medication by aids patients in southern thailand. the plant extracts and a standard drug, metronidazole, were incubated with 2x10(5) trophozoites of giardia intestinalis per millilitre of growth medium in 96-well tissue culture plates under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. the cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and the minimum inhibi ...200415614584
effects of aqueous extracts of "betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.betel quid (bq) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of asia where it is popular by different names. bq is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the areca catechu linn. (an) tree, leaf from the piper betle linn. (bl) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the acacia catechu tree and other spices. an has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. initially condemned by the medical communities for its hea ...200415633806
cumulative trauma disorders in betel pepper leaf-cullers visiting a rehabilitation clinic: experience in taitung.betel pepper (piper betle l.) cultivation is an important agricultural industry in taitung, taiwan, and culling leaves is very labor-intensive. this case study compares the proportion of cumulative trauma disorders (ctds) between cullers and those with other occupations.200516013343
antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of piper betle leaves in rats.leaves of piper betle (piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. however, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. the aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of piper betle leaves. this was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (hwe) and cold ethanolic extract (cee). in normoglycaemic rats, both hwe and ...200516055288
chemical constituents of piper betle linn. (piperaceae) roots.column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of piper betle roots furnished aristololactam a-ii and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. all these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.200518007349
the anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by aids patients in southern thailand.the anti-amoebic activities of chloroform, methanol and water extracts from 12 thai medicinal plants (39 extracts) commonly used by aids patients in southern thailand were screened, at a concentration of 1,000 microg/ml, against entamoeba histolytica strain hth-56:mutm and strain hm1:imss growing in vitro. the extracts were incubated with 2x10(5) e. histolytica trophozoites/ml of medium at 37 degrees c under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. the cultures were examined with an inverted microscope an ...200616447069
[oral submucous fibrosis in a 31-year-old indian women: first case report from germany].oral submucous fibrosis (osf) is a chronic disease characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition with formation of bands involving the oral cavity and adjacent structures. oral submucous fibrosis is a precancerous condition. it is caused by chewing of betel quid (areca catechu l., piper betle, lime and tobacco) and ready-made products like pan masala and gutka which also contain areca nut. these products are available all over south asia. the hallmark of osf is extremely restricted mouth op ...200616568335
antihyperglycemic activity of piper betle leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.piper betle, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (siddha and ayurvedha) reputation in the rural southern india. the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of p. betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. plasma levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in control and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats were assayed. ora ...200616579737
induction of plant defense enzymes and phenolics by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria serratia marcescens greenhouse experiments, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) serratia marcescens nbri1213 was evaluated for plant growth promotion and biologic control of foot and root rot of betelvine caused by phytophthora nicotianae. bacterization of betelvine (piper betle l.) cuttings with s. marcescens nbri1213 induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase activities in leaf and root. qualitative and quantitative estimation of phenolic compounds was done through high-perf ...200616586018
ingredients contribute to variation in production of reactive oxygen species by areca quid.areca quid (aq) chewing has been implicated an independent risk factor for the development of oral cancer. taiwanese areca quid (aq) refers to a combination of areca nut (an), lime, and inflorescence of piper betle linn. (ipb) or piper betle leaf (pbl). studies of aq in other countries reported that an extract combined with lime generates reactive oxygen species (ros), such as hydroxyl radical (ho.), known to be a contributing factor in oral mucosa damage. to determine whether ho. is formed in t ...200616840253
the effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of selected early settlers of dental plaque.the adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. the hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. in this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (psidium guajava and piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. he ...200616858135
an ethanol extract of piper betle linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.the leaves of piper betle (locally known as paan) have long been in use in the indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of p. betle (100 mg kg(-1); pb) were demonstrated in a complete freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. at non-t ...200717524237
cytokine-mimetic properties of some philippine food and medicinal plants.this study evaluated philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and ph. forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. temperature and ph effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and ph levels and measuring their residual prolife ...200717651065
endothelial cytoprotection from oxidized ldl by some crude melanesian plant extracts is not related to their antioxidant capacity.habitual consumption of some melanesian medicinal and food plants may influence atherosclerosis development via their antioxidant capacity at the endothelial level. areca nut (an; areca catechu), piper inflorescence (pbi; piper betle), betel quid (bq), guava buds (gb; psidium guajava), the leaves (nl), juice (nj), fruit (nf), and root (nr) of noni (morinda citrifolia), the propagules of raw (mbr), and cooked (mbc) mangrove (bruguiera gymnorrhiza) were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the ...200717912700
an ethanolic extract of leaves of piper betle (paan) linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antileishmanial agents. the leaves of piper betle (locally known as paan) have long been in use in the indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves of piper betle (pb) was tested for its antileishmanial activity that was evidenced in both pr ...200818273645
inhibitory effects of piper betle on production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells.the leaves of the piper betle linn. (piperaceae) are used in traditional medicine and possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic and radioprotective activities. however, little is known about their anti-allergic activity. therefore, the effects of p. betle ethanolic extract (pe) on the production of histamine and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) by murine bone marrow mast cells (bmmcs) and on the secretion of eotaxin and il-8 by the human lung epith ...200818279799
ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of piper betle, alpinia galanga and allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.crude ethanolic extracts of piper betle leaves (piperaceae), alpinia galanga rhizomes (zingiberaceae) and allium ascalonicum bulbs (liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (microsporum canis, microsporum gypseum and trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like candida albicans. a broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. all extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a ...200817482221
anti-inflammatory effect of allylpyrocatechol in lps-induced macrophages is mediated by suppression of inos and cox-2 via the nf-kappab pathway.the crude ethanol extract of piper betle leaf is reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity which has been suggested to be mediated by allylpyrocatechol (apc). in the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of apc (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in an animal model of inflammation. to investigate the mechanism(s) of this anti-inflammatory activity, we examined its effects on the lipopolysaccaride (lps)-induced production of no and pge(2) in a murine macrophage cell line, raw 264.7. ...200818602073
arecoline and the 30-100 kda fraction of areca nut extract differentially regulate mtor and respectively induce apoptosis and autophagy: a pilot study.areca nut (an) is recognized as a human carcinogen; however, few studies of the cytotoxic effects of an ingredients on cells have been reported. in taiwan, an, lime and inflorescence of piper betle are the common components of betel quid (bq). we recently noticed that extract of an (ane), but not those of lime and inflorescence of piper betle, induces rounding cell morphology and nuclear shrinkage in different types of carcinoma cells. in this study, the rounding cell activity was first traced t ...200818668345
availability and characteristics of betel products in the u.s.betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. betel use is most common in asia and east india; however, little is known about the availab ...200819004423
influence of piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in d-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.d-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. d-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. the leaves of piper betle l., a commonly used masticatory in asian countries, possess several biological properties. our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of p. betle leaf-extract against oxida ...200819024930
consumption of guava (psidium guajava l) and noni (morinda citrifolia l) may protect betel quid-chewing papua new guineans against diabetes.rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (dm2) in papua new guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (bq) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing dm2. we investigated the dietary habits of kalo residents from coastal central province who are avid bq chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of dm2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent wanigelans wh ...200819114402
effect of piper betle on plasma antioxidant status and lipid profile against d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats.betle leaf chewing is an old traditional practice in india and other countries of east asia. we have investigated the antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic potential of an alcoholic leaf-extract of piper betle against d-galactosamine (d-galn; 400 mg/kg body weight, i.p. single dose) intoxication in male albino wistar rats. rats were treated with leaf-extract (200 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubations daily for 20 days. the animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each ...200919161673
the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of piper betle l. trigger different arms of immune responses in balb/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid brugia malayi.modulation of immune functions by using herbal plants and their products has become fundamental regime of therapeutic approach. piper betle linn. (piperaceae) is a widely distributed plant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been attributed as traditional herbal remedy for many diseases. we have recently reported the antifilarial and antileishmanial efficacy in the leaf extract of bangla mahoba landrace of p. betle which is a female plant. the present report describes th ...200919281872
the gastric ulcer-healing action of allylpyrocatechol is mediated by modulation of arginase metabolism and shift of cytokine balance.the role of the ariginine-metabolism in the healing action of the piper betle phenol, allylpyrocatechol (apc) and omeprazole against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in mouse was investigated. indomethacin (18 mg/kg) was found to induce maximum stomach ulceration in swiss albino mice on the 3rd day of its administration, which was associated with reduced arginase activity (21.6%, p<0.05), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (enos) expression (72%, p<0.001), and il-4 and tgf-beta levels, alo ...200919409889
pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace bangla mahoba of piper betle on leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of the absence of effective and safe treatment for visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar - a devastating parasitic disease caused by leishmania donovani - the search for anti-leishmanial agents from natural resources in common use is imperative. recently, the comparative in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts from two landraces of piper betle - p. betle landrace bangla mahoba (pb-bm) and p. betle landrace kapoori vellaikodi (pb-kv) - has been reported. here, the putative pathway ...200919528177
bacteriostatic effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque this study, the bacteriostatic effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). streptococcus sanguinis, streptococcus mitis and actinomyces sp. were cultured in brain heart infusion (bhi) in the presence and absence of the extracts. the growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. grow ...200919580002
inhibitory effects of safrole on phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the activity of myeloperoxidase released by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.safrole, a component of piper betle inflorescence, inhibits bactericidal activity and the release of superoxide anion (o(2)(-)) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns). this in vitro study further investigated the effects of safrole on phagocytic activity, the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ros), and the activity of the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase (mpo), which is released by human pmns.200919656034
evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.the sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of piper betle leaves were determined. betel leaves artificially inoculated with aeromonas, salmonella and yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees c, indicating a residual antimi ...200919670009
evaluation of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroxychavicol for its potential use as an oral care agent.hydroxychavicol isolated from the chloroform extraction of aqueous extract of piper betle leaves showed inhibitory activity against oral cavity pathogens. it exhibited an inhibitory effect on all of the oral cavity pathogens tested (mics of 62.5 to 500 microg/ml) with a minimal bactericidal concentration that was twofold greater than the inhibitory concentration. hydroxychavicol exhibited concentration-dependent killing of streptococcus mutans atcc 25175 up to 4x mic and also prevented the forma ...200918573934
modulation of th1/th2 cytokines and inflammatory mediators by hydroxychavicol in adjuvant induced arthritic tissues.the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of hydroxychavicol (hc) a major phenolic compound isolated from the aqueous extract leaves of plant piper betle (piperaceae). the compound showed significant lowering of pro-inflammatory (th1) cytokine levels in arthritic paw tissue homogenate supernatant viz. il-2, ifn-gamma, and tnf-alpha with maximum inhibition at higher dose levels of 2 and 4 mg/kg p.o. and enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory (th2) cytokines ...201019782577
in vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from piper betle l.hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of piper betle l., (piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. the leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies.201020128889
efficacy of chemically characterized piper betle l. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.the study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (eo) of piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. a total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. eleven aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) producing strains of a. flavus were recorded from the samples. eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugeno ...201020621374
modulation of ionizing radiation induced oxidative imbalance by semi-fractionated extract of piper betle: an in vitro and in vivo assessment.the study was planned to evaluate modulatory effect of aqueous extract of piper betle leaf (pbl) on ionizing radiation mediated oxidative stress leading to normal tissues damage during radiotherapy and other radiation exposures. the total polyphenols and flavonoids known as free radical scavenger (chelators) were measured in the extract. to ascertain antioxidant potential of pbl extract we studied free radical scavenging, metal chelation, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric ...201020716927
effect of piper betle on cardiac function, marker enzymes, and oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.the present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of piper betle (p. betle) against isoproterenol (isp)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. rats were randomly divided into eight groups viz. control, isp, p. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and p. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) + isp treated group. p. betle leaf extract (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or saline was orally administered for 30 days. isp (85 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at an interval of 24 h on the 28(th) and 2 ...201020846025
antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of piper betle l.the need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. the crude methanol extract of piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against plasmodium berghei (nk65) during early and established infections. the phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. the safety of the ext ...201021189459
scanning electron microscopic study of piper betle l. leaves extract effect against streptococcus mutans atcc 25175.previous studies have shown that piper betle l. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development.201121552715
antitumor activity of npb001-05, an orally active inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase.scientists are constantly searching for phytochemical compounds with anti-cancer activity. in this study, activity of plant extract npb001-05 from piper betle was tested on human chronic myelogenous leukemia (cml) xenograft models. npb001-05 was active when dosed orally (500 mg/kg) once or twice a day in xenograft tumor models. npb001-05 showed activity to t315i tumor xenograft, where imatinib failed to show antitumor activity. npb001-05 showed no relevant toxicity in animal models during 2 week ...201121622141
insights into the mechanism of piper betle leaf-induced contact leukomelanosis using c57bl/6 mice as the animal model and tyrosinase assays.background/objectives:ôçé steamed piper betle leaves (pbl) were once used by many taiwanese women to treat pigment disorders on the face. most women claimed a quick, favourable response at first, only to be overcome with facial leukomelanosis later. methods:ôçé c57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to different groups to study if pbl could cause the following effects: contact dermatitis, leukomelanosis, or hair bleaching. intracellular melanin content was measured by tyrosinase assays. results:ôçé ...201121834811
standardization of spray-dried powder of piper betle hot water extract.the leaves of piper betle linn. (family: piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medical systems of sri lanka. the present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of p. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) fingerprint and densitogram. the percentages ...201121716924
Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even toda ...201122119904
hydroxychavicol, a piper betle leaf component, induces apoptosis of cml cells through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-dependent jnk and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and overrides imatinib resistance.alcoholic extract of piperbetle (piper betle l.) leaves was recently found to induce apoptosis of cml cells expressing wild type and mutated bcr-abl with imatinib resistance phenotype. hydroxychavicol (hch), a constituent of the alcoholic extract of piper betle leaves, was evaluated for anti-cml activity. here, we report that hch and its analogues induce killing of primary cells in cml patients and leukemic cell lines expressing wild type and mutated bcr-abl, including the t315i mutation, with m ...201121943109
Broad spectrum antidermatophytic drug for the control of tinea infection in human beings.During antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts, free and bound flavonoids of Piper betle were found to be most effective as an antidermatophytic against human pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Dermatophytic fungi cause both superficial and internal mycoses. These mycoses, although normally not lethal, are unpleasant and difficult to cure and cause considerable financial losses. Earlier workers prove that a ...201121929713
icb3e induces inos expression by ros-dependent jnk and erk activation for apoptosis of leukemic cells.the role of c-jun n terminal kinase (jnk) has been well documented in various cellular stresses where it leads to cell death. similarly, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) which was identified as a signalling molecule for survival pathway has been shown recently to be involved in apoptosis also. recently we reported that icb3e, a synthetic analogue of piper betle leaf-derived apoptosis-inducing agent hydroxychavicol (hch), possesses anti-chronic myeloid leukemia (cml) acitivity in vitro ...201222252531
antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and chlorella vulgaris in aging c57bl/6 mice.the aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, piper betle, and chlorella vulgaris.201223295600
targeting n-acyl-homoserine-lactones to mitigate membrane biofouling based on quorum sensing using a biofouling reducer.exploring novel biological anti-quorum sensing (qs) agents to control membrane biofouling is of great worth in order to allow sustainable performance of membrane bioreactors (mbrs) for wastewater treatment. in recent studies, qs inhibitors have provided evidence of alternative route to control membrane biofouling. this study investigated the role of piper betle extract (pbe) as an anti-qs agent to mitigate membrane biofouling. results demonstrated the occurrence of the n-acyl-homoserine-lactone ...201222796090
safrole-modulated immune response is mediated through enhancing the cd11b surface marker and stimulating the phagocytosis by macrophages in balb/c mice.safrole, a component of piper betle inflorescence, is a documented rodent hepatocarcinogen and inhibits bactericidal activity and the release of superoxide anion (o(2-)) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns). in the present study, we investigated the effects of safrole on immune responses, including natural killer (nk) cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity and population distribution of leukocytes from normal balb/c mice. the cells population (cell surface markers) and phagocytosis by macropha ...201222531970
psidium guajava and piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.the effect of leaf extracts of psidium guajava and piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "carola" and "pallas orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of p. guajava and p. betle, 8-hqc, or a copper coin). flowers treated with 8-hqc, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and highe ...201222619568
pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in thailand. lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. the present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (a-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion ...201323959497
the antioxidant activity of allylpyrocatechol is mediated via decreased generation of free radicals along with escalation of antioxidant mechanisms.allylpyrocatechol (apc) is responsible for the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by the methanolic extract of leaves of piper betle. as antiinflammatory compounds may display antioxidant properties and vice versa, we investigated the antioxidant effect of apc. apc effectively reduced phorbol-myristate-acetate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and superoxide in murine peritoneal macrophages as well as inhibited escherichia-coli-induced phagocytic activity of macrophages. furthermore ...201322585425
antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, areca catechu, uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide.betel quid chewing is a popular habit in southeast asia. it is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). the correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined.201324330738
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