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leishmanicidal activity of piper nigrum bioactive fractions is interceded via apoptosis in vitro and substantiated by th1 immunostimulatory potential in vivo.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. the deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with aids, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human vl, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been pa ...201526696979
activity of medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen conditions using intracellular and axenic assays.aim. test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. material and methods. acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants acorus calamus l. (rhizome), ocimum sanctum l. (leaf), piper nigrum l. (seed), and pueraria tuberosa dc. (tuber) were tested on mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (a549) infection model. the extracts ...201626941797
effects of thai piperaceae plant extracts on neospora caninum infection.neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. this study investigated the effects of thai piperaceae (piper betle, p. nigrum, and p. sarmentosum) extracts on neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. in an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (gfp) signal, p. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (ic5 ...201728137670
influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected piper nigrum l.expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (piper nigrum) infected with piper yellow mottle virus (pymov) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in pymov infected p. nigrum. our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, iaa and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. there was change in the 2-d separated protein before and after exposure. the 2-d proteo ...201627319055
sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in india.the badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (pymov) is known to infect black pepper (piper nigrum), betelvine (p. betle) and indian long pepper (p. longum) in india and other parts of the world. occurrence of pymov or other badnaviruses in other species of piper and its variability is not reported so far. we have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (rt)/ribonuclease h (rnase h) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus isol ...201425674613
antimalarial activities of medicinal plants traditionally used in the villages of dharmapuri regions of south india.an ethnopharmacological investigation of medicinal plants traditionally used to treat diseases associated with fevers in dharmapuri region of south india was undertaken. twenty four plants were identified and evaluated for their in vitro activity against plasmodium falciparum and assessed for cytotoxicity against hela cell line.201222433533
combined effects of gamma-irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on quality of some spices.thyme (thymus vidgaris l.), rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis l.), black pepper (piper nigrum l.) and cumin (cuminum cyminum l.) in ground form were packaged in either air or 100% n2 and γ-irradiated at 3 different irradiation levels (7kgy, 12kgy, 17kgy). total viable bacterial count, yeast and mould count, colour, essential oil yield and essential oil composition were determined. microbial load was not detectable after 12kgy irradiation of all samples. irradiation resulted in significant changes ...201424518340
down-regulation of osmotin (pr5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (vigs) leads to susceptibility of resistant piper colubrinum link. to the oomycete pathogen phytophthora capsici leonian.piper colubrinum link., a distant relative of piper nigrum l., is immune to the oomycete pathogen phytophthora capsici leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (p. nigrum). the osmotin, pr5 gene homologue, earlier identified from p. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. the present study focuses on the functional validation of p. colubrinum osmotin (pcosm) by virus induced gene silencing (vigs) using tobacco rat ...201526155671
in vivo effect of some home spices extracts on the toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.toxoplasmosis drugs have the longest history and are still the first choice for most conditions. alternative drugs such as co-trimoxazole and tetracycline have been tried and acclaimed successful. the lack of general acceptance, however, is an indication that the results are not very convincing. a wide range of antibiotics is urgently needed for patients with drug reaction or resistance problems. the anti-toxoplasmic activity of water and ethanol extracts as well as the oil of some home spices ( ...200923012192
design, synthesis and trypanocidal evaluation of novel 1,2,4-triazoles-3-thiones derived from natural piperine.the work reported herein describes the synthesis and the assessment of the trypanocidal activity of thirteen new 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones obtained from natural piperine, the main constituent of the dry fruits of piper nigrum. it is part of a research program aiming to use abundant and easily available natural products as starting materials for the design and synthesis of new molecules potentially useful as antiparasitic drugs. the variously substituted triazole derivatives were synthesized from ...201323760033
the srnaome mining revealed existence of unique signature small rnas derived from 5.8srrna from piper nigrum and other plant lineages.small rnas derived from ribosomal rnas (srrnas) are rarely explored in the high-throughput data of plant systems. here, we analyzed srrnas from the deep-sequenced small rna libraries of piper nigrum, a unique magnoliid plant. the 5' end of the putative long form of 5.8s rrna (5.8slrrna) was identified as the site for biogenesis of highly abundant srrnas that are unique among the piperaceae family of plants. a subsequent comparative analysis of the ninety-seven srnaomes of diverse plants successf ...201728145468
interplay of genes in plant-pathogen interactions: in planta expression and docking studies of a beta 1,3 glucanase gene from piper colubrinum and a glucanase inhibitor gene from phytophthora capsici.oomycete pathogen, phytophthora capsici is devastating for black pepper (piper nigrum l.) and causes foot rot disease at all stages of plant growth. phytophthora secretes a glucanase inhibitor protein (gip), which is capable of inhibiting defence proteins like endoglucanases. in this particular study quantitative pcr analysis, molecular docking studies and analysis of sequences of glucanase inhibitor protein and beta-1,3 glucanse genes were done mainly depending on the data derived from phytopht ...201627924129
de novo transcriptome sequencing of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) and an analysis of genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism in response to phytophthora capsici.piper nigrum l., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. however, little is known about the mechanism of anti- p. capsici in black pepper. the molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (piper flav ...201627769171
differential induction of chitinase in piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper.plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. inoculation of piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. a marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60 h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. the level of chitinase in black pe ...200923961037
properties for sourcing nigerian larvicidal plants.aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some asian and african countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in nigeria. the development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activi ...201424950440
a biodegradable device for the controlled release of piper nigrum (piperaceae) standardized extract to control aedes aegypti (diptera, culicidae) larvae.the significant increase in dengue, zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. the aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti.201728001214
physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from piper nigrum linn (piperaceae) against the dengue vector aedes aegypti liston (diptera: culicidae).the leaves of piper nigrum l. (piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of aedes aegypti. gc and gc-ms analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3r-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3h)-furanone, 3,4-bi ...201526277727
aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of piper nigrum black peppercorns.due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female aedes aegypti mosquito. this study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (pnpcme) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th a. aegypti instar larvae to pnpcme of p. nigrum. the pnpcme exhibite ...201525118563
efficacy and safety of topical trikatu preparation in, relieving mosquito bite reactions: a randomized controlled trial.trikatu is composed of dried fruits of piper nigrum l and piper retrofractum vahl, and dried rhizomes of zingiber officinale r. although this preparation has been used to relieve pruritis, pain, and inflammation for a long time, there is no clinical evidence to confirm its efficacy and safety. therefore, we performed a double-blind, within person-randomized controlled study of 30 healthy volunteers to determine efficacy and safety of topical trikatu on mosquito bite reactions.201424559814
synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of annona muricata and piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector aedes aegypti.phytopesticide combinations of different botanical sources are seldom reported. annona muricata seed and piper nigrum fruit ethanolic extracts enriched in acetogenins and piperamides, respectively, were synergistically used as larvicides against the dengue fever vector aedes aegypti.201323112098
olfactory loss management in view of avicenna: focus on neuroprotective plants.loss of olfaction can cause noticeable reduction in general quality of life. only a small portion of patients with olfactory loss respond to current medications. thus, development of novel therapeutic strategies seems to be necessary. looking into traditional medical knowledge can be of great value in addressing useful remedies. traditional persian medicine (tpm) has been practiced in persia for more than 2000 years. avicenna is the most eminent persian physician.201728302020
spices for prevention and treatment of cancers.spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as curcuma longa (tumeric), nigella sativa (black cumin), zingibe ...201627529277
influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers.to study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum l.), garlic (allium sativum), and black pepper (piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens.201627284222
the roman and islamic spice trade: new archaeological evidence.tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. new archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the roman and medieval islamic spice trade are evalu ...201525278182
ethnobiological treatments of neurological conditions in the chota nagpur plateau, india.world health organization (who) has recognized the contribution of traditional medicine in the primary health care system. who also considers neurological disorders as one of the prime concern to the public health. inadequate and inaccessible health facilities in the rural and underprivileged areas have forced the various tribal and non-tribal communities to use ethno-phyto and ethno-zoo therapeutics against different ailments. chota nagpur plateau, india is one of the richest in india in terms ...201728017696
antifertility activity of medicinal plants.the aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. we undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. we performed central, embase, and pubmed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatoge ...201525921562
rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. in this study, a midgut cell line, developed from rhynchophorus ferrugineus (rpw-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 50 ...201525381034
ethnobotanical survey of malaria prophylactic remedies in odisha, india.to investigate the plants traditionally used for prevention of malaria in cuttack, gajapati and koraput districts of odisha state, eastern india.201323434608
in vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of piper longum, piper nigrum, and zingiber officinale extracts against hyalomma anatolicum ticks.ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the indian subcontinent. the development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. an alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of piper longum, piper nigrum and zingiber officinale and their ...201728251408
in vitro anticancer activity of ethanolic extracts of piper nigrum against colorectal carcinoma cell lines.piper nigrum (pn) is well known for its cytotoxic and pharmacological benefits. however, there is minimal documented evidence about its cytotoxic efficacy against colorectal carcinoma. we therefore sought to procure a precisely quantitative and qualitative result, pertaining the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of pn (eepn) against colorectal carcinoma.201728251112
inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant piper nigrum, for possible use in parkinson's disease.a series of compounds related to piperine and antiepilepsirine was screened in a monoamine oxidase a and b assay. piperine is an alkaloid from the source plant of both black and white pepper grains, piper nigrum. piperine has been shown to have a wide range of activity, including mao inhibitory activity. the z-factor for the screening assay was found to be greater than 0.8 for both assays. notably, the compounds tested were selective towards mao-b, with the most potent compound having an ic(50) ...201223102654
evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of alkaloidal fractions of piper nigrum, murraya koenigii, argemone mexicana, and nelumbo nucifera.aldose reductase is primarily involved in development of long-term diabetic complications due to increased polyol pathway activity. the synthetic aldose reductase inhibitors are not very successful clinically. therefore, the natural sources may be exploited for safer and effective aldose reductase inhibitors.201424127538
inactivation of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.this study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried capsicum annuum). black pepper and red pepper inoculated with escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kgy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. a gamma irradiation dose of 5 kgy decreased e. coli o157:h ...201424370971
in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability predictions for gabaa receptor modulating piperine analogs.the alkaloid piperine from black pepper (piper nigrum l.) and several synthetic piperine analogs were recently identified as positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type a (gabaa) receptors. in order to reach their target sites of action, these compounds need to enter the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (bbb). we here evaluated piperine and five selected analogs (sct-66, sct-64, sct-29, lau397, and lau399) regarding their bbb permeability. data were obtained in three in v ...201627018328
effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. this study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa), coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. a total of 210 (cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. the treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (t1 ...201425050023
recent progress for the utilization of curcuma longa, piper nigrum and phoenix dactylifera seeds against type 2 diabetes.diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. the intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes.201627399905
muscodor albus mow12 an endophyte of piper nigrum l. (piperaceae) collected from north east india produces volatile antimicrobials.muscodor albus mow12, an endophytic fungus isolated from piper nigrum in mawlong, meghalaya, india, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of muscodor sp. in addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its its rdna with other m. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other muscodor spp. this xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produ ...201424426163
review of scientific evidence of medicinal convoy plants in traditional persian medicine.one concept used in traditional persian medicine (tpm) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (mobadregh). according to tpm texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. this study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in tpm, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) efflux function, bio ...201727041871
endophytic phomopsis sp. colonization in oryza sativa was found to result in plant growth promotion and piperine production.endophytic fungi have been reported to have the acquired ability to synthesize host plant specific medicinal natural products. many fungi with such properties have been characterized and optimized for the conditions which favor maximal production of desired products. however, the inherent plant colonization property of promising endophytic fungi is least studied. exploiting the transgenome functioning of these fungi have immense applications to add beneficial features to non-host plants. in the ...201728224643
integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for black pepper and cardamom - a review.integrated plant nutrition system (ipns) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. it is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation ...201625834919
in vitro antibacterial activity of seven indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci.the aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (hlgr) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples.201526322099
elucidation of the inhibitory effect of phytochemicals with kir6.2 wild-type and mutant models associated in type-1 diabetes through molecular docking approach.among all serious diseases globally, diabetes (type 1 and type 2) still poses a major challenge to the world population. several target proteins have been identified, and the etiology causing diabetes has been reasonably well studied. but, there is still a gap in deciding on the choice of a drug, especially when the target is mutated. mutations in the kcnj11 gene, encoding the kir6.2 channel, are reported to be associated with congenital hyperinsulinism, having a major impact in causing type 1 d ...201425705171
protective effects of piperine against copper-ascorbate induced toxic injury to goat cardiac mitochondria in vitro.piperine, the main alkaloid of black pepper, piper nigrum linn., is an important indian spice used in traditional food and medicine in india. in the present study, we investigated the antioxidant activities of piperine against copper-ascorbate induced toxic injury to mitochondria obtained from a goat heart, in vitro. incubation of isolated cardiac mitochondria with copper-ascorbate resulted in elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation of the mitochondrial membrane, a reduce ...201425059674
investigation of scavenging activities and distribution of paramagnetic species in zanthoxylum limonella seeds.we investigated the scavenging activities of methanol-extracted oil and the distribution of paramagnetic species in zanthoxylum limonella (zl) seeds using noninvasive 9 ghz electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) imaging and continuous wave epr. epr detected three different stable paramagnetic species that were assigned to stable organic radicals, mn(2+), and other paramagnetic metal complexes. two-dimensional epr imaging showed that the stable paramagnetic species were located in the pigmented se ...201627817252
lc-ms/ms based identification of piperine production by endophytic mycosphaerella sp. pf13 from piper nigrum.piper nigrum is very remarkable for its medicinal properties due to the presence of metabolites like piperine. emerging understanding on the biosynthetic potential of endophytic fungi suggests the possibility to have piperine producing fungi in p. nigrum. in the current study, endophytic fungi isolated from p. nigrum were screened for the presence of piperine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). this resulted in the identification of a mycosphaerella sp. with the ability ...201424691878
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