the immunobiology of respiratory syncytial virus: prospects for a vaccine. 19892694814
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus by a biotin-enhanced immunoassay: test performance by laboratory technologists and housestaff.a biotin-enhanced enzyme immunoassay (eia) for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen detection (testpack rsv) was prospectively compared with virus isolation in cell culture and immunofluorescence. of 156 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from infants with respiratory symptoms, 81 (52%) yielded rsv in culture. compared with culture the sensitivity of the eia was 95% and specificity was 92%; the specificity increased to 97% with a blocking assay. compared with immunofluorescence the sensitivity o ...19892696927
nosocomial viral respiratory infections.nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each ...19892697050
ribavirin in respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19892705808
serum immunoglobulin g antibody subclass response to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins after first, second, and third infections.serum samples from 31 children who experienced two or three infections with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the first four years of life were tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to examine the immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass responses to the rsv f and g surface glycoproteins associated with primary infection and reinfection. we sought to determine whether the greater degree of glycosylation of the g glycoprotein was reflected in an igg subclass immune response more like that to a ...19892715331
characterization of prolonged apneic episodes associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection.we used high-speed polygraphic recordings to document in detail the sequence of events during prolonged apneic spells in two infants with respiratory syncytial viral (rsv) infection. also, we elicited upper airway reflexes by stimulating the airway with saline during sleep. spontaneous prolonged apneic spells were recorded in both infants, and these consisted of two distinctly different apnea types. a number of similarities between apnea of prematurity, upper airway reflex apnea and the apneas i ...19892717245
detection of ige antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the role of ige antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus has attracted attention for both human and bovine disease. to detect such antibodies, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) specific for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). firstly, antiserum strongly positive for brsv-specific ige was produced by immunizing a levamisole-treated calf with brsv. the presence and specificity of brsv-specific ige in this animal was confirmed with the praunitz-kustner (pk) ...19892718372
experimental polyvalent iscoms subunit vaccine induces antibodies that neutralize human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate experimentally, in guinea-pigs, the immunogenicity of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus subunit vaccines. immunostimulating complexes (iscoms), made from the surface proteins of both human (long) and bovine (a-51908) rs strains adsorbed to the adjuvant quil a, were assayed for their capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies, in comparison to experimental live virus vaccines. serums from animals vaccinated with either the human or bovine rs subunit ...19892718604
interprotein disulfide bonding between f and g glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus.the envelope glycoprotein g, of human respiratory virus was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody reacting with g glycoprotein. the purified material was analyzed for its protein patterns and by western blot for its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies. in addition to the g specific proteins at 90 and 55 kilodalton (kda) range, high molecular weight species were coeluted with g protein. three high molecular weight species were noticed: one (140 kda) reac ...19892719556
rna fingerprinting of respiratory syncytial virus using ribonuclease protection. application to molecular epidemiology.we have used the technique of ribonuclease protection to define genomic variation among circulating isolates of subgroup a respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. rnas extracted from hep-2 cells infected with strains to be analyzed were hybridized with a 32p-labeled rna probe corresponding to the rs virus g glycoprotein (a2 strain). areas of nonhomology were detected by cleavage with ribonuclease a. using this technique, multiple distinct rna cleavage patterns could be distinguished among viral isolat ...19892723064
immunoglobulin-class-specific immune response to respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins in infants, children, and adults.the protein specificities of igg, igm, and iga antibodies induced during respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in 74 patients (4 weeks to 81 years of age) were investigated using the technique of immunoblotting. although the pattern of antibody reactivity varied among patients, most of the humoral immune response in all age groups was directed against the 48, 42, 35, and 27 k proteins. an infant's own antibody response was discernible in 55 of the 57 children below 1 year of age, despite t ...19892723614
mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing dengue 4 virus structural proteins with or without nonstructural protein ns1 are protected against fatal dengue virus encephalitis.we have constructed vaccinia virus recombinants expressing dengue virus proteins from cloned dna for use in experimental immunoprophylaxis. a recombinant virus containing a 4.0-kilobase dna sequence that codes for three structural proteins, capsid (c), premembrane (pre-m), and envelope (e), and for nonstructural proteins ns1 and ns2a produced authentic pre-m, e, and ns1 in infected cv-1 cells. mice immunized with this recombinant were protected against an intracerebral injection of 100 50% letha ...19892724416
the tucson children's respiratory study. ii. lower respiratory tract illness in the first year of life.lower respiratory tract illnesses occurring during the first year of life in 1,179 healthy infants enrolled in the children's respiratory study, tucson, arizona, are described. the children, who use the pediatricians of a health maintenance organization, were enrolled into the study between may 1980 and january 1984. data were collected on signs, symptoms, and diagnosis for each illness; nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected at the acute visit for viral, chlamydial, and mycoplasmal cult ...19892729259
pathogenesis of naturally acquired bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves: morphologic and serologic findings.lesions in 32 calves that died or were euthanatized during the course of severe natural infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) are described. all calves had been dyspneic for 1 to 2 days. at necropsy, lesions that could be related to dyspnea included congested and cyanotic mucosae and widespread petechiae. the lungs had various lesions in the cranioventral (cv) and caudodorsal (cd) portions. the cv portion of the lungs was consolidated, firm, and edematous. histologically, the ...19892729714
fatty acid acylation of the fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus.we describe the covalent attachment of palmitate to the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus and the identification of the attachment site. labeling of respiratory syncytial virus-infected vero cells with [3h]palmitate, followed by the purification and subsequent analysis of the fusion glycoprotein in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that the fatty acid is covalently attached to the f1 subunit of the fusion glycoprotein. the bound palmitate was sens ...19892732224
in vitro enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus infection of u937 cells by human sera.human sera containing respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific antibodies enhance rs virus infection of the u937 macrophage cell line. there was an increase in the number of cells expressing virus antigen when u937 cells were infected with rs virus in the presence of human serum compared to cells infected in the absence of human serum. human sera enhanced virus yield, as measured by the cell-released infectious virus, by an average of 50-fold compared to virus infection in the absence of human ...19892732688
immune response to experimentally induced infection with respiratory syncytial virus: possible role in the development of pulmonary disease.groups of mice were immunized intraperitoneally with hep-2 lysate or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected hep-2 cells with or without adjuvant(s). the animals were subsequently challenged intranasally (i.n.) with rsv and/or hep-2 lysate and studied for rsv shedding in the lung, antigen-specific antibody response and pulmonary histopathology. a significant decrease in virus shedding was detected in each of four groups of animals immunized with a virus preparation and in two of four groups t ...19892732693
analysis of the antibody response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus proteins in calves.the antibody response in calves to natural infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was analysed by radioimmunoprecipitation assays. antibodies to virus proteins of mr 200k (l), 87k (g), 46k (f1), 41k (n), 35k (p), 28k and 24k (f2), 27k (m), 22k and less than 14k could be identified. recovery of 6- to 7-month-old calves from severe brsv-associated disease was accompanied by the development of an antibody response to the virus, which was directed mainly o the f and n proteins. ca ...19892732702
polypeptides of pneumonia virus of mice. i. immunological cross-reactions and post-translational modifications.a murine polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies have been employed to identify pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) polypeptides in infected cells and to study post-translational modifications. immunoprecipitation experiments using a murine polyclonal antiserum and a monoclonal antibody directed against a 39k protein have established an antigenic relationship between two pvm proteins and the n and p proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus. although 20 virus-specific polypeptides have been ...19892732719
polypeptides of pneumonia virus of mice. ii. characterization of the glycoproteins.the kinetics of synthesis and the nature of the oligosaccharides of the glycoproteins of pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) were studied. tryptic peptide mapping showed that the two major glycosylated polypeptides g1 and g2 were different forms of the same protein. g2 was derived from g1 which in turn appeared to be derived from an unidentified precursor. the g1/g2 protein of pvm is probably a haemagglutinin since a monoclonal antibody directed against it has a high haemagglutination inhibition titre ...19892732720
bronchial reactivity in infants in acute respiratory failure with viral bronchiolitis.airway reactivity and the effects of bronchodilators in infants are controversial. we studied the response to bronchodilator treatment in 14 mechanically ventilated infants (mean age, 2.74 months; range, 0.6-5.9) in respiratory failure caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-associated bronchiolitis. sixteen infants without lung disease, undergoing elective surgery, provided normal values. maximum expiratory deflation flow-volume (dfv) curves were produced by manual inflation of the lungs wi ...19892748221
prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups over six consecutive outbreaks: 1981-1987.indirect immunofluorescence with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the phenotype of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolates obtained from infants hospitalized in greater boston over six successive outbreaks from 1981 to 1987. of 981 isolates, 591 (60%) were classified as subgroup a and 383 (39%) as subgroup b. the prevalence of subgroups varied both between and within yearly outbreaks. in 1983-84 and 1984-85, both subgroups circulated concurrently and in almost equal ...19892760479
the frequency, distribution and effects of antibodies, to seven putative respiratory pathogens, on respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves in ontario.during 1983-85, 279 calves requiring treatment for bovine respiratory disease and 290 comparison (control) animals from 15 different groups of feedlot calves were bled on arrival and again at 28 days postarrival. their sera were then analyzed for antibodies to seven putative respiratory pathogens. on arrival, the prevalences of indirect agglutination titers to pasteurella haemolytica, p. haemolytica cytotoxin, mycoplasma bovis and m. dispar were greater than 50%, the prevalence of titers to bovi ...19892766158
the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in formalin fixed bovine lung with commercially available monoclonal antibodies and avidin biotin complex immunohistochemistry.eight commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus antigens were tested for ability to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bovine lung using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining. monoclonal antibodies from clone 18b2 purchased from biosoft, paris, france and those from clone 8g12 purchased from the department of veterinary sciences, university of nebraska, lincoln, nebraska staine ...19892766160
use of nasal and pharyngeal swabs for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.nasal and pharyngeal swabs from 134 children with acute respiratory diseases were examined for the presence of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and adenovirus antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the results were compared with those obtained by virus isolation and serology. altogether, 56 rs virus-positive (prospective study), 51 adenovirus-positive (retrospective study), and 27 negative (prospective study) samples were examined. the sensitivities of elisa were 96 and 98% for r ...19892768473
evidence that the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus exists as a dimer in its native form. brief report.the quaternary structure of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion protein has been studied. crosslinking studies were done to stabilize the noncovalently associated proteins. these stable, heat-resistant, covalently linked complexes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. in situ crosslinking studies demonstrated that the fusion protein of rsv exists as a dimer in its native form on the surface of infected cells. the purified protein was also found to be presen ...19892774976
immunoglobulin a antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins in colostrum and milk.immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) structural proteins in colostrum and milk was investigated by a radioimmunoprecipitation assay. by using [35s]methionine-labeled rsv-infected hep-2 cells and antiserum to human iga as the capture antibody, iga antibody responses to large glycoprotein, fusion protein, nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and matrix protein were demonstrated in colostrum and milk. the iga antibody response was mainly directed against fusion pr ...19892778061
evaluation of exposure of health care personnel to ribavirin.reports that ribavirin was teratogenic in animals raised concerns of female health care personnel about possible occupational exposure during the care of infants having respiratory syncytial virus infections. under simulated operational conditions, experiments were conducted to measure ribavirin residues in room air, in surface wipe samples, and in personal sampling devices worn by volunteers. there was exposure to a dispersible dust, presumably dried ribavirin, deposited inside the croupette or ...19892778845
prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in plasma and lung lavage fluids during sequential infection of vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the potential action of immunologic reactions and mediators released during the course of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in pathogenesis of the ensuing disease process was examined in an experimental infection study. prostaglandin (pg) e2, pgf2 alpha 6-keto-pgf1 alpha, and thromboxane b2 (txb2) concentrations were quantitated in plasma and lung lavage fluid by radioimmunoassay at 3- to 4-day intervals during a primary and secondary virus infection of vaccinated, nonvaccinated, and ...19892782709
flow cytometric analysis of pulmonary lymphocytes from mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus.balb/c mice were infected intra-nasally with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and cells recovered from the lungs by single or repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (bal). single bal gave enough cells (1 - 2 x 10(5) cells/mouse) for morphological study of giemsa stained cytospin preparations, and allowed the same mouse lungs to be assayed for virus titre or processed for histology. in normal or sham-infected mice the majority of recovered cells were macrophages, with less than 5% lymphocytes. followin ...19892784741
pathogenesis of naturally acquired bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves: evidence for the involvement of complement and mast cell mediators.indicators of immune-mediated disease were studied in calves with severe natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection. although antigen and antibody were detected concurrently in most calves, immune complexes were not detected by use of immunofluorescence, elisa, and binding of the 1q component of complement. complement component c3, however, was observed by immunofluorescence in the cranioventral, virus-infected portion of the lungs of 19 of 25 calves. reductions in the amount of histam ...19892786355
interleukin-1 inhibitor production by human mononuclear leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations exposed to respiratory syncytial virus: analysis and comparison with the response to influenza interleukin-1 (il-1) inhibitor activity is induced by exposure of purified human monocytes-macrophages to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). furthermore, il-1 inhibitor activity was produced by monocytes-macrophages exposed to rsv in the presence of lymphocytes, that is, by unseparated mononuclear leukocytes (mnl). purified rsv-exposed lymphocytes, as well as the lymphocytes exposed within mnl preparations, produced net il-1 inhibitor activity. in contrast, net il-1 activity was produced whe ...19892788203
[the role of cellular immunity in the etiopathogenesis of obstructive bronchitis in childhood].the development and aetiopathogenetic role of the immune response were studied in group of infants and children aged 4-6 years by comparison of clinical status, concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, virological tests (levels of specific antibodies and cultivation of viruses) and the macrophage migration inhibition test. a respiratory syncytial virus was found in 44% of virologically positive children. the macrophage migration inhibition test was positive in 45% of infants suffering from obstr ...19892791084
childhood asthma following hospitalization with acute viral bronchiolitis in infancy.a prospective follow-up of 48 infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in the first year of life revealed that 44 of these infants had symptoms suggestive of asthma in the 5 years following their initial illness (cumulative prevalence 92%). symptoms became less frequent and less troublesome during the follow-up period. thirty-five of these children visited the laboratory for clinical examination, pulmonary function testing, and histamine challenge. twenty-five children ...19892797929
clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus infections in healthy versus previously compromised an effort to delineate the clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in the compromised host, we compared children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (bpd), congenital heart disease (chd), premature birth, failure to thrive, and gastroesophageal reflux to previously healthy children. during a four-year period, 262 patients were admitted to the hospital with rsv infection diagnosed by a rapid rsv antigen detection test. children with bpd or chd had more hospital days ...19892797931
duration of hospitalization in previously well infants with respiratory syncytial virus describe the typical hospital course of infection in previously well infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, we reviewed the charts of 196 patients with laboratory-proved respiratory syncytial virus infection in the 1987-1988 respiratory disease season. eighty-seven of the children had been previously well. their mean duration of hospitalization was 3.4 days. previously well infants younger than 6 weeks of age experienced significantly longer hospitalizations an ...19892797955
effect of vaccination on cell populations in lung washes from calves after infection with respiratory syncytial virus.the inflammatory response in the air-passages of the lungs of calves after intranasal inoculation with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was compared in rsv-vaccinated and control animals. total cells recovered from lung washings remained the same; however, the fold by eight days after infection and the type of cells changed from a predominance (85 per cent) of macrophages to equal proportions of macrophages and neutrophils (45 per cent) during the course of infection. the absolute numbers of ne ...19892799080
disturbance in respiratory mechanics in infants with bronchiolitis.the passive flow-volume and partial forced expiratory flow-volume techniques were used to assess pulmonary function in 14 spontaneously breathing infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. two additional infants were studied while paralysed and ventilated. during the acute stage of the illness there was a significant reduction in forced expiratory flow rates and an increase in respiratory resistance. although the mean thoracic gas volume for the group was increased, five infan ...19892799745
activation of complement by bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells.because complement activation is probably involved in the pathogenesis of as well as in recovery from the disease induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), we studied the activation of complement by brsv-infected cells in vitro in a homologous system. binding of c3 on the surface of infected cells was measured in a biotin-streptavidin amplified elisa, and complement-mediated lysis was measured in a 51cr release assay. without antibody, infected cells activated and bound more c3 than ...19892800328
comparison of caprine, human and bovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus.a new continuous ovine kidney cell line allowing the growth of caprine, human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus was used to minimize host cell related variations for the direct comparison of the viral ultrastructures, serological relationships and structural protein profiles. results show that all three strains are closely related although a closer relationship was found between bovine and caprine rs.19892803001
hilar enlargement in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia.the clinical and radiographic features of ten children with hilar enlargement in association with proven respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection are described. hilar enlargement was seen in 10/35 children with rsv infection, and was invariably unilateral and right sided. it is recommended that rsv pneumonia be considered in children with unilateral hilar enlargement if tuberculosis has been excluded, and the onset of disease is rapid.19892806272
antibody-mediated enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus infection in two monocyte/macrophage cell lines.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for two surface glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were found to enhance rsv infection in two macrophagelike cell lines (p388d1 and thp-1). mabs to an irrelevant antigen (pneumococcal polysaccharide) and to the nucleocapsid of rsv did not enhance infection. blocking either the fc segment of the monoclonal antibody of the fc receptor on the cells diminished the enhancement, suggesting that this phenomenon involves attachment of the monoclonal ...19892809253
bacterial coinfection in children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus infections.clinical and bacterial findings were prospectively studied in 90 children hospitalized because of middle or lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) during a surveillance period of 12 months. the results were compared with those of rsv-negative children hospitalized with identical indications during the 3 peak months of the rsv epidemic (n = 91) or for the 3 months after the outbreak (n = 99). a high frequency of pneumonia and acute otitis media were found in ...19892812913
respiratory syncytial virus infections in children admitted to the intensive care unit.during the winter of 1986-1987, 64 children with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection were admitted to our hospital. the diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescent antibody technique. twenty-three children (36%) needed intensive care treatment. nearly 11 (52%) had a preexisting disease state, identified as a risk factor i.e., prematurity (n = 8), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (n = 2), congenital heart disease (n = 1). twelve patients (50%) were intubated and ventilated. conditions for in ...19892812976
surveillance of respiratory viral infections by rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis, with emphasis on virus interference.during the 7-year period from september 1978 to august 1985, smear specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions from 3132 patients mainly hospitalized children, taken in different regions in norway, were examined for respiratory viruses by the rapid immunofluorescence (if) technique. a positive diagnosis for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenza virus type 1, 2 and 3 or influenza a and b virus was made for 896 patients (29%). the greatest prevalence for all these viruses was observed during ...19872824225
cryogenic preservation of virus-infected cells used as immunofluorescent assay substrates.cells infected with herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus were subjected to several cryogenic regimens to determine whether these procedures were detrimental to the performance and results obtained with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). infected cells were harvested and divided into equal aliquots prior to freezing at different temperatures (-20, -70 and -165 degrees c). cells fixed onto glass slides immediately after harvesting were used as controls. for the ...19872824546
field trial of a quadrivalent vaccine against calf respiratory disease.a quadrivalent vaccine containing the killed antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, mycoplasma dispar and m bovis, emulsified with an oil adjuvant, was tested for efficacy against naturally occurring calf respiratory disease. three batches of beef cattle aged 12, seven and three weeks at the time of first vaccination were used. within each batch of approximately 100 animals, half were vaccinated subcutaneously on three occasions, three weeks apart and half served as ...19872825397
epidemiology of viral infections in singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) being the most important ones. seasonal variation occurs with influenza, rsv and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. the age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar ...19872825585
hospital-acquired pneumonia in children: the role of respiratory viruses.the most frequent agents of pneumonia acquired by children in the hospital are viruses. the characteristics of these nosocomial viral agents differ appreciably from the more classical bacterial nosocomial infections. the viral agents tend to be more contagious, with normal children being as susceptible as the predisposed, high-risk child. the epidemiology of these hospital-acquired infections tends to mimic the patterns of activity of the respiratory viruses in the community. the major causes of ...19872827278
pulmonary infections with respiratory syncytial virus and the parainfluenza viruses.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and the parainfluenza viruses (pivs) are the most important causes of acute lower respiratory illness (lri) in infants and children under 6 years of age. these enveloped viruses are members of the paramyxovirus family. they infect cells in the epithelium lining the trachea and intrapulmonary airways, and cause croup, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia. rsv causes annual midwinter to early spring outbreaks of respiratory disease in temperate climates ...19872827280
[infectious respiratory tract diseases in cattle in the winter of 1985/86: detection of infection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 by immunofluorescence in nasal swab samples and by antibody titer increase in serum (elisa)]. 19872827303
protection against respiratory disease in calves induced by vaccines containing respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, mycoplasma bovis and m dispar.a field trial to assess the ability of two vaccines to protect calves against respiratory disease was carried out on a large beef rearing unit in southern england over the two winters of 1983 to 1984 and 1984 to 1985. a quadrivalent vaccine containing the killed antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, mycoplasma bovis and m dispar or a vaccine containing only the respiratory syncytial virus component were inoculated into 246 and 245 calves, respectively; 245 calves r ...19872827366
roentgenographic features of common pediatric viral respiratory tract infections.viral infections of the respiratory tract in infants and children are common. little has been reported on roentgenographic findings associated with infection caused by common viruses other than with respiratory syncytial virus. we studied chest roentgenograms from 128 previously healthy infants and children who were infected with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, or adenovirus. four common roentgenographic findings were detected: parahilar peribronchial infiltrat ...19882829619
viral infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients.the records of 96 pediatric patients with aplastic anemia or a malignancy who underwent bone marrow transplantation between 1979 and 1986 at the children's hospital of philadelphia were reviewed for laboratory evidence of viral infections. the most common viral diseases identified were herpes simplex virus (hsv), cytomegalovirus and adenoviruses, which were found in 19 (20%), 17 (18) and 17 (18) patients, respectively. hsv was more common in patients with than without graft vs. host disease (gvh ...19882830586
serological investigations for some bacterial and viral pathogens in fallow deer (cervus dama) and wild boar (sus scrofa) of the san rossore preserve, tuscany, italy.sera of 43 fallow deer (cervus dama) of the san rossore preserve (tuscany, italy) were examined for antibodies against eight pathogens; one proved positive for brucella sp., 21 for listeria monocytogenes, 34 for chlamydia psittaci, three for coxiella burnetii, one for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, 11 for parainfluenza-3 virus, 25 for bovine viral diarrhea virus and six for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. no age and sex difference in the positivity rates and titers was evidenced, w ...19882832622
viral "bronchitis" in childhood: relationship to asthma and obstructive lung disease.lower respiratory tract infections in children, including group, bronchiolitis, and bronchitis are frequently associated with recurrent episodes of wheezing. different respiratory viruses assume greater importance at different ages of children. respiratory syncytial virus is the most prevalent viral respiratory infection in preschool children, while rhinovirus is of increasing importance in older children. asymptomatic virus shedding and mild respiratory infections do not provoke asthma symptoms ...19882834808
detection of respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus by enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of luminol was used in a chemiluminescence avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cl-abe) to detect respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and rotavirus (rov). this cl-abe was carried out in a new apparatus constructed for the photographic registration of the light emission produced. when measured in a spectrophotometer, the light emission produced by the oxidation of luminol showed a peak emission at 425 nm. the chemiluminescence output reache ...19882835387
participation of cytoskeletal intermediate filaments in the infectious cycle of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).rsv infection of hep-2 or hela cells leads to biochemical and morphological changes of cytoskeletal intermediate filaments (if). thus, human cytokeratin 18 is modified to generate a more acidic polypeptide of slightly larger apparent molecular weight. in addition, the amounts of vimentin and other cytokeratins are reduced, probably as a consequence of proteolytic degradation. these changes are reflected in a decrease of immunofluorescence with specific antibodies in rsv-induced syncytia and a mo ...19882837016
prevalence of antibodies to seven viruses in a flock of ewes in minnesota.blood samples were collected from a flock of healthy ewes at a university of minnesota research station. sera from these blood samples were tested for antibodies against 7 viruses, using 3 tests (eg, virus-neutralization test for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenovirus type 3, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus; hemagglutination inhibition test for parainfluenza virus type 3; and agar-gel immunodiffusion test for lentivirus of ovine progressive ...19882837112
use of a-549 cells in a clinical virology laboratory.a-549 cells were compared with other cell lines for virus recovery, except from specimens submitted specifically for detection of cytomegalovirus. of 589 specimens submitted specifically for detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv), 163 (28%) were positive for hsv--159 (97.5%) in a-549 cells and 156 (96%) in primary rabbit kidney cells. hsv cytopathic effect was identified an average of 0.6 day earlier in a-549 cells. virus was recovered from 194 (11%) of 1,790 specimens submitted for general vir ...19882838502
live viral vaccines for respiratory and enteric tract its programme for accelerated development of vaccines for viral respiratory and enteric tract diseases the who has assigned a very high priority to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenza viruses and rotaviruses. there is also some interest in alternative approaches to immunization against influenza viruses because of the failure of inactivated vaccines to provide complete and reasonably durable immunity. current attempts to develop satisfactorily attenuated viruses for use in preven ...19882838984
simultaneous infection with respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory pathogens.the presentation and subsequent course of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis may be atypical and unusually severe when simultaneous infection due to other pathogenic agents is present. during the past two years, nine of the 189 pediatric patients hospitalized with documented rsv infection were found to have the following simultaneous isolates from initial respiratory tract specimens: four adenovirus, four pneumococcus, one cytomegalovirus, and one pneumocystis carinii. noted complic ...19882839976
mycoplasma pneumoniae and other pathogens in the aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections among japanese children.the causes of lower respiratory tract infections in 1544 children attending a japanese hospital over a period of 7 years were investigated. both cultivation and two serological techniques were used to detect mycoplasma pneumoniae whereas viral involvement was investigated only by serology. pathogens were identified in 52% of 1175 patients with pneumonia and 36% of 369 patients without pneumonia. mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was specifically diagnosed in 414 (26.8%) of the 1544 patients. respi ...19882840466
associations between viral infection and respiratory disease in young beef bulls.blood samples were taken from bull calves at two meat and livestock commission performance testing centres, just after weaning at six months of age and at six weekly intervals until the end of the performance test seven months later. sera were assayed by specific elisas for antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv1), respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza 3 (pi3) and adenoviruses a and b. seroconversions between each sampling were related to the occurrence of clinical respiratory disease usi ...19882842921
current approaches to the development of vaccines effective against parainfluenza viruses.infection of infants and children with parainfluenza viruses can lead to serious lower respiratory tract disease. in order to review new information on the genetic organization, epidemiology, and immunobiology of these viruses and of respiratory syncytial virus, who, in conjunction with the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases, held a workshop in bethesda, md, usa, 4-5 may 1987. new data on the immunobiology and epidemiology of human parainfluenza 3 virus were presented that sho ...19882844427
infection of human thymic epithelial cells by human cytomegalovirus and other viruses: effect on secretion of interleukin 1-like activity.cultures of human thymic epithelial (te) cells are able to produce a interleukin 1 (il-1) like activity. this il-1 activity can be detected either using mouse thymocytes in a traditional il-1 assay, or using thymic lymphocytes obtained from cases of pediatric cardio-vascular surgery. production of il-1 activity by te cells was found to be maximal between 3 and 4 weeks after culture initiation. human thymocytes worked best as targets in an il-1 assay, when these cells were derived from donors you ...19882844452
contribution of rhinoviruses to respiratory viral infections in childhood: a prospective study in a mainly hospitalized infant population.a prospective study was carried out to investigate the contribution of rhinoviruses to respiratory viral infections in children and to investigate the influence of age, passive smoking, and educational level of the head of the family on the clinical course of viral respiratory disease. nasopharyngeal aspirates from 519 infants (90.8% inpatients, 9.2% outpatients) were screened for the presence of rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), adenoviruses, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, in ...19882844986
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
upper respiratory tract infection and serum antibody responses in nursing home patients.residents of a veterans administration nursing home care unit (nhcu) were observed for the development of upper respiratory tract infection (uri) during 12 consecutive months to determine the frequency of sporadic cases or outbreaks of uri and to characterize them clinically and by laboratory means. fifty-nine episodes of uri occurred in 56 residents during the study period. serologic testing or virus isolation proved or suggested an etiologic agent on 22 occasions. uri was more common in late f ...19882847597
serologic study of febrile upper respiratory tract infections in adults.we prospectively studied serum antiviral antibody response in adult patients with febrile upper respiratory tract infections. paired sera were obtained in 158 patients from january 1982 to december 1983. eighteen patients (11.4 percent) showed a significant antibody rise in the convalescent phase of the disease compared to the acute phase. significant antibody rise was observed against all viruses examined: influenza viruses type a and b, adenovirus type 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and parai ...19882848145
peptides as potential virus inhibitors. synthesis and bioassay of five respiratory syncytial virus peptide analogs with antimeasles activity.five carbobenzoxylated and d-amino acid containing-peptide analogs of the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) f1 glycoprotein amino terminus were chemically synthesized by solution and fmoc-solid phase peptide synthesis methods. several of these peptides, ranging from 3 to 6 residues in length, raised the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine. none of these peptides were specific inhibitors of rsv or herpes simplex virus infection. two of the serie ...19882850279
antiviral therapy with small particle aerosols.the generation and use of small particle aqueous aerosols (1.23 microns aerodynamic mass median diameter, gsd = 2.0 microns) containing ribavirin is described. administered via aerosol, ribavirin will be deposited rather uniformly on the surface of the nasopharynx, the tracheobronchial tree and in the pulmonary area. examples of aerosol-delivered dosages found to be effective in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection and influenza a and b virus infections are as follows: 12.8 mg ...19882850911
the disinfection of respiratory syncytial virus by isopropanol and a chlorhexidine-detergent handwash.two of the products commonly used to disinfect the hands of nursing staff are 70% isopropanol and aqueous chlorhexidine-detergent solutions. these have been shown to rapidly destroy respiratory syncytial virus, and are therefore suitable for use where contagious spread of this virus is suspected. the virucidal component of the chlorhexidine-detergent preparation has been shown to be primarily the detergent base and not the chlorhexidine.19852859328
monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza a and b virus infections by immunofluorescence.mouse monoclonal antibodies, directed against antigenic sites on influenza a and b viruses and found to be type-specific in an immunoassay, were assessed for use as diagnostic reagents in an indirect immunofluorescence assay on nasopharyngeal secretions. the influenza a antibodies were directed against nucleoprotein or matrix protein antigens and the influenza b antibodies against nucleoprotein and haemagglutinin antigens. the influenza a anti-matrix monoclonal antibody was found to give a stron ...19852865418
cytotoxic lymphocytes in the lungs of mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus.mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) developed cytotoxic lymphocytes in the lungs, which lysed rsv-infected, but not uninfected cells. cytotoxic activity was greatest 7 to 9 days after infection, was virus-specific, mhc-restricted and abolished by treatment of lymphocytes with anti-thy 1.2 or with anti-lyt 2.2 sera and complement. there was a close temporal relationship between the appearance of these cytotoxic lymphocytes in the lung and clearance of virus. in contrast, rsv pers ...19852866227
ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus. 19862868301
dynamics of some genetic marker changes of respiratory-syncytial virus strains circulating among nursery-school children.respiratory-syncytial (rs) virus strains circulating during several years appeared polymorphic in respect of two genetic markers: the regression coefficient of infectious activity (rcia39) characterizing the isolates by their reproduction in tissue cultures at supraoptimal temperature (39 degrees c) and the regression coefficient of neutralization indices (rcni) characterizing the degree of sensitivity of the strains to antibodies. high-yield rs viruses were more often isolated from children fre ...19862871732
simultaneous infection with bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children.we compared three groups of hospitalized children with bordetella pertussis infection, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection and dual b. pertussis/rsv infections in an effort to establish clinical and laboratory criteria by which to distinguish children with dual infections from children infected with either organism alone. the groups were compared for admission laboratory data, history of present illness, perinatal history and immunization history. children with pertussis were more likely ...19862876415
complete sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein gene of human parainfluenza type 3 virus: comparison with other negative strand viruses.the sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein (np) mrna and its encoded protein were deduced by sequencing a cdna clone representing the complete mrna. the cdna sequence was confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of purified viral genomic rna by primer extension using synthetic oligonucleotides. the np mrna contains 1,641 nucleotides exclusive of poly(a) and encodes an np protein of 515 amino acids. alignment of the human parainfluenza type 3 virus (pf3) np protein sequence with that of send ...19862878059
cell-mediated cytotoxic response to respiratory syncytial virus in infants with bronchiolitis.a cell-mediated cytotoxic response to respiratory syncytial (rsv) was demonstrated in the peripheral blood of 4 of 22 infants with acute bronchiolitis. these 4 infants were aged 3 weeks to 3 months. no such response was found in infants older than 4 months. all 4 infants with a positive response had mild infections.19872888988
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical specimens.results of the direct immunofluorescence (if) test in 152 clinical specimens (throat swabs) were compared with those of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolation. the prevalence of rsv infections in the upper and lower respiratory tract was high especially in infants until 12 months of age. the average rsv isolation rate was 18.42%, whereas the virus antigen detection was positive in 19.74% of cases. the agreement between virus isolation and direct if was 92.1%, the sensitivity of if being 82. ...19872891280
respiratory syncytial virus infections in adult bone marrow transplant recipients. 19882898070
characterization of bovine respiratory syncytial virus proteins and mrnas and generation of cdna clones to the viral mrnas.we have characterized the proteins and mrnas of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus strain 391-2 and constructed cdna clones corresponding to 9 of the 10 brs virus mrnas. the proteins of brs virus-infected cells were compared with the proteins from human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus-infected cells. nine proteins specific to brs virus-infected cells, corresponding to nine hrs virus proteins, were identified. only a brs virus polymerase protein remains to be identified. the brs virus g g ...19892911122
fatal respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis in a previously healthy child. 19892913902
failure to detect antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in bovine fetal serum.sera obtained from 147 bovine fetuses estimated to be between 120 and 270 days of gestation at an abattoir were tested for antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus. antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus was not detected in any of the sera examined. based on the results of this study and a review of the literature, it appears that transplacental infection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus does not occur, or is uncommon.19892914217
respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibody responses in immunoglobulin a and e isotypes to the f and g proteins and to intact virus after natural infection.we studied the antibody response to the fusion (f) and attachment (g) proteins of respiratory syncytial virus and to purified intact virus in the respiratory secretions of 29 infants and children. the goal of the study was to determine whether the immune response to either of the glycoproteins occurred predominantly in the immunoglobulin a (iga) as opposed to the ige isotype, which would indicate that one protein subunit would be a better candidate as a potential vaccine. antibody responses were ...19892915022
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected man. 19892915431
respiratory syncytial virus outbreak on american samoa. evaluation of risk factors.acute respiratory illness is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in developing nations. we investigated an increase in hospitalizations of children less than 2 years old for severe lower respiratory tract illness (lri) from october 1986 through december 1986 on the island of american samoa. hospitalization rates were highest in children less than 6 months of age (60 of 1000 compared with 22 of 1000 for those 6 to 11 months of age, and seven of 1000 for those 12 to 24 months of age). ...19892916509
a concurrent epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus 7 infections in an intensive care nursery.we describe concurrent outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and echovirus 7 (echo 7) infections in a neonatal intensive care unit, including infants who had dual infections. seventy-three infants were identified as having rsv from january through june, 1984. during the same surveillance period echo 7 was cultured from 20 infants, and 6 infants had concurrent rsv and echo 7 and rsv were isolated, but not concurrently. this dual outbreak of rsv and echo 7 infections persisted for months ...19892922234
production of interferon in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.production of interferon alfa in vitro was significantly reduced during acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis but subsequently returned to normal. nasopharyngeal and endotracheal interferon alfa were detected intermittently and in low concentrations. the degree of impairment of in vitro production and poor in vivo production of interferon alfa suggest the need for a therapeutic trial of nebulised or systemic interferon in acute bronchiolitis.19892923479
effect of breast feeding on the development of anti-idiotype antibody response to f glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus in infant mice after post-partum maternal immunization.groups of lactating balb/c mice were immunized in the immediate postpartum period with high doses of mab (ab-1) to the f-glycoprotein (f-gp) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). this antibody possessed neutralizing activity against the whole virus. the immune response to f-gp was studied in the breast feeding infant mice of such mothers at regular intervals before and after weaning. all infant mice exhibited anti-f-gp activity in serum, which was detected until 6 wk of age. splenic cells of suc ...19892926142
the envelope proteins from purified respiratory syncytial virus protect mice from intranasal virus challenge.a lyophilized subunit vaccine prepared from purified respiratory syncytial virus, which contained the envelope glycoproteins f and g and the nonglycosylated matrix protein vpm, was tested in sjl mice for its ability to protect the lungs of mice from intranasal viral challenge. initially, the mice were injected subcutaneously with one, two, or three doses of 5 or 25 micrograms of vaccine in 50% complete freund's adjuvant or with complete freund's adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline only. althou ...19892928348
role of ige in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in sequential infections in vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves.a study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of ige in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection. fifteen calves were allotted at random to 3 treatment groups. one group of 6 calves was vaccinated with attenuated brsv vaccine before live-virus challenge exposure, another group of 6 was not vaccinated before challenge exposure, and the remaining 3 calves served as controls (nonvaccinated, nonchallenge exposed). calves of the 2 experimental groups were exposed ...19892930022
respiratory syncytial virus infection of human mononuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.recurrent infections with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) have been well documented despite serological evidence of prior exposure of the host and the absence of clear evidence of antigenic variation of the virus. therefore, human mononuclear leukocytes, as well as purified lymphocytes and monocytes-macrophages, were exposed to rsv in vitro and examined for expression of viral antigens by using indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies to rsv. rsv infected both human monocytes-mac ...19852931491
[respiratory syncytial virus infections and apnea in low birth-weight infants].respiratory syncytial virus infection was observed in 20 infants of less than 6 months of age who had a low weight at birth, were premature and/or presented with intra-uterine growth retardation. except for rhinitis, which was present in all cases, the symptoms were closely correlated to the gestational age: beyond 48 weeks they were those of a common lower respiratory tract infection, but below 48 weeks attacks of apnea predominated, associated or not with signs of bronchitis. the apnea was of ...19872953011
study of prolonged virus infection in cattle stocks infected by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. 19862953213
[severe bronchospasm disclosing a respiratory syncytial virus infection in a non-immunocompromised adult]. 19872954123
local and systemic antibody response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection and reinfection in calves with and without maternal antibodies.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of immunoglobulin m (igm), iga, igg1, and igg2 antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were used to measure antibody responses of calves after experimental or natural infection with brsv. serially collected sera, lung lavage samples, nasal and eye secretions, and feces were tested for the presence of these antibodies. lung lavage fluids and nasal secretions were further examined for the presence of virus. after experimenta ...19872954996
effect of ipratropium bromide on respiratory mechanics in infants with acute bronchiolitis.the effect of nebulized ipratropium bromide in 14 infants (mean age: 20 weeks, range: 4-41) with acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis was examined. a modified rapid chest compression technique was used to obtain partial expiratory flow-volume curves and maximum flow at functional residual capacity. passive respiratory mechanics were assessed by brief occlusion at end inspiration. thoracic gas volume was measured in a body plethysmograph. no significant difference was found in forced a ...19872959249
[respiratory syncytial virus infection in chronic bronchitis patients].two groups of patients with acute respiratory disease (ard) were examined: 57 (the 1st group) had chronic bronchitis, 265 patients (the 2nd group) had no previous history of chronic bronchitis. the investigation was performed using serological and immunofluorescent methods and was repeated in the course of 12-18 months. respiratory syncytial (rs) viral infection was diagnosed significantly more frequently in the 1st group whereas the frequency of influenza, parainfluenza and adenoviral infection ...19872960023
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