does prematurity alter the course of respiratory syncytial virus infection?we compared previously healthy prematurely born infants with full-term infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection to evaluate the role of prematurity on the clinical course of the illness. during a 5-yr period (1984 to 1989), 484 previously healthy patients were admitted to the hospital with rsv infection. no differences were found in the presenting symptoms of respiratory distress, cough, fever or shock, although the premature group was more likely to present with apn ...19902245609
[epidemiologic studies of the detection of viral infection agents in calf losses in the weser-ems region].in 961 calves up to an age of 6 months which were sent to the animal health center in oldenburg between march 1987 and march 1990 for necropsy the results of determination of different viruses were calculated: bvd-, rota-, corona-, parainfluenza-3- (pi-3)-, bovine herpes-1 (bhv-1)- and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). in 122 and 104 randomly collected health calves of 22 farms antibodies against brsv and bovine adeno virus-types 5, 7 and 8 were determined. 50.1% of the necropsied calve ...19902245783
analysis of polypeptides synthesized in bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells.ten virus-specific polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from approximately 200k to 11k were identified in bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv-)infected cells. time course analysis of the induction of the viral polypeptides indicated that they could be detected as early as 30 min post-infection and their synthesis reached a plateau 12 h after infection. cell free translation of total infected-cell mrna in a rabbit reticulocyte system yielded 7 proteins corresponding in size to virus-spec ...19902248551
frame shift mutations as a novel mechanism for the generation of neutralization resistant mutants of human respiratory syncytial virus.the genetic characterization of four previously reported mutants of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus resistant to monoclonal antibody 63g is described. sequences of the g protein genes were obtained from: (i) mrna derived cdna recombinants, (ii) direct mrna sequencing and (iii) amplified vrna derived cdnas. the results obtained indicate that the original escape mutants, recovered from individual plaques, contained heterogeneous viral populations. this heterogeneity affected the number of a ...19902249671
acute upper respiratory tract viral illness and influenza immunization in homes for the elderly.occupants of 482 long-stay and 33 short-stay beds in 11 leicester city council homes for the elderly were studied during a 30-week period from september 1988 to march 1989 to determine the incidence, aetiology, morbidity, and mortality of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections and the use of influenza vaccine. influenza immunization rates by home ranged from 15.4 to 90% (mean 45%). there were no differences in the distribution of medical conditions by home. the highest immunization rates ...19902249724
enhanced pulmonary histopathology is observed in cotton rats immunized with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) or purified f glycoprotein and challenged with rsv 3-6 months after immunization.formalin-inactivated (fi) rsv, purified f glycoprotein in alum, and rsv infection (intranasal) were compared for their immunogenicity, efficacy, and ability to enhance pulmonary histopathology during rsv infection 3 and 6 months following immunization by the intramuscular route. purified influenza virus in alum was used as a control immunogen. at 1 month following immunization with one dose of purified f glycoprotein (5 micrograms), cotton rats developed levels of f antibodies (elisa) higher tha ...19902251875
evaluation of direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, centrifugation culture, and conventional culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus.four methods of detecting respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) from clinical specimens were evaluated. a total of 410 specimens consisting of nasopharyngeal washes, aspirates, and swabs were simultaneously tested for the presence of rsv by direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa), enzyme immunoassay (eia) (kallestad pathfinder), shell vial centrifugation culture (svc), and conventional culture. dfa identified 146 (83%) of the 175 positive cases, eia detected 153 (87%), svc detected 127 (73%), and conv ...19902254415
virus-induced alterations in macrophage production of tumor necrosis factor and prostaglandin e2.the cellular immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is felt to contribute to viral clearance and/or the inflammation accompanying pulmonary infections with this virus. both tumor necrosis factor (tnf) and prostaglandin e2 (pge2) are important regulatory mediators of the cellular immune response. we examined the production of these mediators from purified human alveolar and blood mononuclear phagocytes (mp) after rsv infection in vitro and compared production induced by virus with t ...19902260674
molecular mechanisms of action of ribavirin.ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent whose molecular mode of action remains remarkably controversial. this antiviral agent was approved by the u.s. food and drug administration in 1986 for use as an aerosol for infants with serious infections due to respiratory syncytial virus. ribavirin is and has been under clinical investigation for activity against a variety of viral illnesses, including those due to influenza virus, lassa fever ...19902267489
dogs, distemper and osteitis deformans: a further epidemiological study.there is extensive evidence linking paramyxoviruses, notably measles and respiratory syncytial virus, with paget's disease of bone. the epidemiology of paget's disease does not fit with that of known human paramyxovirus infections and it is possible that the disease is a zoonosis with domestic animals acting as host. canine distemper, a paramyxovirus of the morbillovirus family (closely related to measles) is therefore a potential candidate. we have surveyed previous pet ownership in 150 paget's ...19902268748
the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection in young children: comparison of findings from several developing countries. coordinated data group of bostid researchers.investigators from 10 countries studied the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection (ari) among children 0-59 months old. data on incidence rates, by age, gender, and season; on pathogenic agents; on case-fatality rates; and on selected risk factor findings are presented. incidence rates from six of the community-based studies ranged from 12.7 to 16.8 new episodes of ari per 100 child-weeks at risk, and rates of lower respiratory tract infection (lri) ranged from 0.2 to 3.4 new episode ...19902270410
etiologic and clinical evaluation of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young argentinian children: an overview.this paper summarizes the first study on clinical, etiologic, and epidemiologic features of acute lower respiratory tract infection (alri) in children in argentina. a total of 1,003 children less than 5 years of age (805 inpatients and 198 outpatients) presenting with alri were studied during a 40-month period. nasopharyngeal aspirate (npa), blood, urine, and throat-swab samples were collected when each child was first seen for care. virologic studies were performed on the npa by means of indire ...19902270411
acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized patients with diarrhea in dhaka, bangladesh.this study focused on 401 children less than 5 years old who were hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection (alri) and diarrhea in dhaka, bangladesh, and who were investigated for the presence of both bacterial and viral respiratory tract pathogens as well as for selected diarrheal pathogens. the most common manifestations of alri were pneumonia (374 cases), bronchiolitis (12 cases), and tracheobronchitis (11 cases). the majority (77%) of the illnesses were in children less than ...19902270412
diagnoses of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children in rawalpindi and islamabad, pakistan.a hospital-based inpatient and outpatient study of 1,492 cases of acute lower respiratory tract infection (alri) was conducted from november 1986 to march 1988 in two hospitals in rawalpindi and islamabad, pakistan. specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were processed for viral studies in all cases; blood cultures were performed in 1,331 cases; and urine was obtained for detection of bacterial antigen in 378 cases, but 227 of these samples had bacterial contamination and were discarded. respirato ...19902270413
microbial agents associated with pneumonia in children from uruguay.the etiology of severe pneumonia, not frequently encountered in a community-based study, was determined in 204 hospitalized children less than 5 years of age. potential pathogens were identified in 41% of episodes. viruses were isolated or antigen was detected in 36.3% of cases; 82.4% of these cases were due to respiratory syncytial virus. bacteria or bacterial antigens were identified in 13.2% of cases; streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae were the most frequently identified bact ...19902270414
etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children from alabang, metro manila.the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection (alri) was identified in 235 (43.8%) of 537 hospitalized children less than 5 years of age. clinical evidence of measles was found in 258 (48.0%) patients, of whom 59 had a second viral infection. a viral agent was identified in an additional 121 patients, so that a total of 379 (70.6%) had viral infections. after measles, respiratory syncytial virus was the most common respiratory virus. bacteremia was noted in 72 children (13.4%), occurri ...19902270415
patterns of acute respiratory tract infection in children: a longitudinal study in a depressed community in metro manila.the incidences of acute respiratory tract infection (ari) and acute lower respiratory infection (alri) were 6.1 and 0.5 per child-year, respectively, in children less than 5 years old in a depressed urban community in manila. the peak age-specific incidence occurred in those children 6-23 months old for ari and 6-11 months old for alri. age less than 2 years, malnutrition, household crowding, and parental smoking were associated with a statistically significant, though modest, increase in ari mo ...19902270416
acute respiratory tract infections among a birth cohort of children from cali, colombia, who were studied through 17 months of age.for this study, 340 children less than 18 months old from a low-income, urban neighborhood in cali, colombia, were observed from birth by means of weekly home visits to detect cases of acute respiratory tract infection. all suspected cases were confirmed by trained doctors in a special clinic. information on symptoms, signs, and potential risk factors was documented prospectively. etiologic agents were identified in cases of lower respiratory tract infection (lri). the overall incidence of acute ...19902270417
a community-based study of acute respiratory tract infection in thai children.a 2-year longitudinal study was conducted among the population of a socioeconomically depressed urban community in bangkok, thailand, from january 1986 through december 1987 to determine the incidence, etiologic agents, and risk factors associated with acute respiratory tract infection (ari) in children less than 5 years of age. data were obtained for a total of 674 children, who were visited twice weekly for detection of signs and symptoms of ari. during the first year of the study, throat-swab ...19902270418
identification of viruses in a study of acute respiratory tract infection in children from uruguay.for the purpose of identifying viral agents associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ari) in children less than 5 years old, a longitudinal community study was undertaken in montevideo, uruguay, from may 1985 to december 1987. this report includes results obtained by cell culture and immunofluorescence techniques for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), influenza a and b viruses, parainfluenza 1 and 3 viruses, and adenovirus. two populations were studied: children visited a ...19902270420
the two open reading frames of the 22k mrna of human respiratory syncytial virus: sequence comparison of antigenic subgroups a and b and expression in vitro.the sequence of the 22k mrna of strain 18537 of antigenic subgroup b of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was determined by sequencing cloned cdnas of intracellular mrna. comparison with the corresponding sequence of the a2 strain of subgroup a showed that there is 78% nucleotide sequence identity overall, that the amino acid sequence of the 22k protein is 92% identical between subgroups and that the 22k mrna of both subgroups contains a second, internal, overlapping open reading frame (or ...19902273393
immunoglobulin e responses and lung pathology resulting from aerosol exposure of calves to respiratory syncytial virus and micropolyspora faeni.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection of calves has been associated with a type-i hypersensitivity syndrome not unlike respiratory syncytial virus-associated pulmonary symptomatology in humans. to study the mechanism of pulmonary pathology in calves and define the relationship with both viral-specific ige response and ige titers to concurrent aerosol of micropolyspora faeni (mf) we subjected groups of calves to inhalation of mf during acute brsv infection. the calves were divided i ...19902276846
epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in young children from thailand.a prospective evaluation of the epidemiology and presentations of acute respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years of age admitted to children's hospital bangkok (1988 to 1989) was supported by the world health organization. there were 226 patients with the inclusion criteria: 1 to 5 years of age; duration of illness less than 2 weeks; no prior antibiotic therapy; and low socioeconomic status. the disease categories included: croup, 19 cases; bronchiolitis, 60 cases; and pneumonia, ...19902277743
monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassays for specific serum immunoglobulin g (igg), iga, and igm antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the fusion protein (f), attachment protein (g), and nucleoprotein (n) of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus were evaluated for use as detector antibodies in immunoglobulin g (igg), iga, and igm capture enzyme immunoassays. mab assays were tested against assays using polyclonal antibodies (pabs) with serum specimens from patients with and without evidence of recent rs virus infection. assays developed with n mabs were comparable to or better than pab assays for detec ...19902280004
[serologic response measured by complement fixation in children with acute respiratory infection].the aim of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of complement fixation for serological diagnosis of lower acute respiratory infections (ari) in small children in comparison with direct methods such as indirect immunofluorescence (iif) on nasopharyngeal aspirate and tissue culture isolation. sera from children under 5 year of age with ari were studied by complement fixation for 6 respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), adenovirus, influenza a and b and parainfluenza 1 and 3). ...19902287713
cot deaths in canterbury (nz): lack of association with respiratory virus patterns.this study was done to see whether any association between sids and respiratory viruses might be more obvious in canterbury where the cot death rate is so high (about seven per thousand live births). the numbers of common respiratory virus identifications for the eight year period july 1981 to june 1989 were analysed for associations with cot death. the identifications were from inpatients at the christchurch public hospital and other community sources in canterbury. weak associations were found ...19902291729
analysis of genetic variability in human respiratory syncytial virus by the rnase a mismatch cleavage method: subtype divergence and heterogeneity.we have applied the rnase a mismatch cleavage method to the analysis of genetic variability among human respiratory syncytial (rs) viruses. antisense rna probes of the long strain were hybridized to total rna extracted from cells infected with other strains. the rna:rna heteroduplexes were digested with rnase a and the resistant products analyzed by gel electrophoresis. each virus generated characteristic band patterns with the different probes. comparative analyses of the cleavage patterns indi ...19902294636
serodiagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in children as measured by detection of rsv-specific immunoglobulins g, m, and a with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the diagnostic value of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific immunoglobulin g (igg), igm, and iga in sera from infants and children with proven rsv infection, from a control group, and from patients with symptoms of viral respiratory disease was analyzed. compared to virus isolation and rsv antigen detection methods, the sensitivity of this assay was 87% and the specificity was 79%. for igg alone, these were 45 and 92%, for igm alone th ...19902298874
viral infections and recurrences of febrile determine whether complicated febrile seizures occur more often in children with a proven viral infection, we performed viral examinations on 144 children with febrile convulsions, of whom 112 had simple and 32 had complicated seizures. a diagnosis of virus infection was verified in 46% of the former patients and 53% of the latter. three adenoviruses, one parainfluenza virus type 2 and one type 3, one respiratory syncytial virus, one echovirus type 11, one herpes simplex virus type 2, and one ...19902299489
bacterial tracheitis associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection and toxic shock syndrome. 19902302615
severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in older children.serious respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) disease requiring hospitalization occurs primarily in infants younger than 12 months. the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features in older children have not been studied extensively. of 282 children hospitalized at our institution with severe rsv disease during a 3-year period, 62 (22%) were older than 12 months. these 62 older children were matched for sex, onset of illness, and hospital location with 62 hospitalized children younger than 12 mont ...19902305743
sequence comparison of the phosphoprotein mrnas of antigenic subgroups a and b of human respiratory syncytial virus identifies a highly divergent domain in the predicted protein.the sequences of the p mrna and protein of strain 18537 of antigenic subgroup b of human respiratory syncytial virus were determined by sequencing cloned cdnas of intracellular mrna. comparison with the corresponding sequences of the a2 strain of subgroup a showed that there was extensive sequence identity at both the nucleotide (80% identity) and amino acid (90% identity) levels. the p proteins contained a single divergent region (52% amino acid identity) flanked by highly conserved domains (96 ...19902307966
use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: the national experience, 1983 to an effort to obtain data to provide the basis for the design of controlled clinical trials, we contacted all u.s. participants in the national ecmo registry to assemble the national experience on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis during the past 5 years. twelve infants were treated at nine centers between 1983 and 1988. eight had been born prematurely, and five had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. the mean age at onset of infection with res ...19902308023
refractory congestive heart failure after ribavirin in infants with heart disease and respiratory syncytial virus.although treatment with ribavirin has been known to be associated with a decreased mortality in infants with congenital heart disease (chd) who have respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), few data are available regarding morbidity. we reviewed records of 10 consecutively hospitalized infants with chd during a recent rsv epidemic. despite the presence of left-to-right shunt in each patient, symptoms of rsv were respiratory at presentation. after ribavirin, decreased respiratory symptoms were found in ...19902308658
a seroepidemiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in this study, a survey of cattle for neutralizing antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in turkey is presented. 490 serum samples were collected from several state farms and some private flocks in different regions of turkey. the serologic examination was done by the microtiter serum-neutralization technique. in this report, a positive serum antibody titer at dilutions of 1:2 was demonstrated in 226 (46.12%) of the 490 sera tested.19902311535
viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children in north india.two hundred and thirty children clinically diagnosed as suffering from acute respiratory infection were tested for four major groups of viral aetiological agents, i.e. influenza para-influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and adenoviruses using indirect immunofluorescence technique. at least one of the respiratory viruses was identified in 51 (22 per cent) specimens, which included influenza a in 6 (3 per cent), influenza b in 3 (1 per cent), para-influenza type 1 in 3 (1 per cent), para-i ...19902313777
association between respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks and lower respiratory tract deaths of infants and young children.the temporal patterns of respiratory virus isolations from 10 laboratories in the usa were compared with that of deaths of children less than 5 years old from july 1975 through june 1984. isolations of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) occurred as yearly winter outbreaks; parainfluenza virus 1 and 2 isolations occurred as well-defined outbreaks every other year in the autumn; parainfluenza virus 3 isolations occurred throughout the year with periodic, increased isolations suggestive of outbreaks ...19902319164
respiratory syncytial virus in a community population: circulation of subgroups a and b since 1965.respiratory syncytial viruses were isolated from residents of tecumseh, mi, with illnesses of all severities during the periods 1965-1971 and 1976-1981. these isolates were grouped using one monoclonal antibody specific for each subgroup. all were identified as either subgroup a or b. subgroup a predominated in most years. no differences in age distribution or illness characteristics could be found between the subgroups. this study demonstrated that the currently recognized subgroups have been p ...19902319169
the 22,000-kilodalton protein of respiratory syncytial virus is a major target for kd-restricted cytotoxic t lymphocytes from mice primed by infection.recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the 22-kilodalton protein (matrixlike or 22k protein) or phosphoprotein gene from respiratory syncytial virus were constructed. these recombinant viruses expressed proteins which were immunoprecipitated by appropriate respiratory syncytial virus antibodies and comigrated with authentic proteins produced by respiratory syncytial virus infection. the new recombinant viruses (and others previously described containing the attachment glycoprotein, fusion, or n ...19902319650
molecular cloning of pneumonia virus of mice.cdna clones representing nine genes of pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) have been generated. the sizes of the corresponding mrnas and a provisional transcriptional map of the virus genome have been determined. the apparent gene order is very similar to that of respiratory syncytial virus. the sequences adjacent to the 3' termini of the pvm genes were determined and are very similar to those of respiratory syncytial virus. several pvm gene polypeptide products have been assigned.19902319655
severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in an adult renal transplant recipient: successful treatment with ribavirin.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) pneumonia may be a severe disease especially in immunocompromised patients. it is quite rare in adults. we report a case of severe rsv pneumonia in a 38-year-old male renal transplant recipient with successful outcome after ribavirin aerosol therapy.19902320966
isolation of respiratory syncytial virus from liver tissue and extrahepatic biliary atresia material.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was isolated from liver tissue in a 7-month-old infant with extrahepatic biliary atresia. to our knowledge this is the first report of rsv isolation from human liver tissue.19902320967
chest x-ray appearances in pneumonia and bronchiolitis. correlation to virological diagnosis and secretory bacterial findings.chest x-ray findings were related to virus diagnosis, age and secretory bacterial findings in 128 infants and children under 7 years of age with clinical pneumonia and bronchiolitis. they belonged to a cohort examined in connection with the introduction of rapid methods for virological diagnosis. seventy-six children had a virus infection diagnosed by examination of nasopharyngeal secretion and/or by serological methods. thirty-seven of these children were classified as having pathogenic bacteri ...19902321485
mechanical ventilation and respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19902334216
evaluation in chimpanzees of vaccinia virus recombinants that express the surface glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus.the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express the two major protective antigens of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), the f and g glycoproteins, were evaluated in chimpanzees. in previous studies in rodents and monkeys the f and g proteins expressed by the same recombinants were highly immunogenic and induced high levels of resistance to rsv replication following subsequent challenge. in contrast, in chimpanzees, a single intradermal immunization i ...19902336876
exposure of health care workers to ribavirin during therapy for respiratory syncytial virus care workers (hcw) are exposed to ribavirin aerosol during therapy of infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections. to assess the degree of hcw exposure, we analyzed air samples from patient rooms and hcw personal breathing zones during ribavirin aerosol delivery by ventilator (two samples), oxygen hood (two samples), and a new vacuum exhaust hood (four samples). hcw exposure to ribavirin during aerosol delivery by ventilator or vacuum exhaust hood system was substantially lower th ...19902344173
screening for respiratory syncytial virus and assignment to a cohort at admission to reduce nosocomial limit nosocomial spread of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, a longitudinal intervention trial was instituted. nasal secretions or washes were screened for rsv antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients were assigned to an rsv-infected or an rsv-uninfected cohort. the baseline (preintervention) rate of 7.17 nosocomial cases of rsv per 1000 patient-days of care was used for comparison. despite continued infections in the community after screening was initiated, there ...19902348292
respiratory syncytial virus and ribavirin therapy: winter 1987-spring 1988. a report of 74 cases treated at providence hospital, anchorage, alaska.seventy-four pediatric cases of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection were treated at providence hospital, anchorage, alaska between september 1, 1987 and april 30, 1988. these patients are described with illustrative case reports. twenty-one patients were treated with ribavirin and these patients are further analyzed as a special interest group. a disproportionate number of the ribavirin treated group were alaskan natives. in the discussion we address concerns of possibl ...19902353740
respiratory syncytial virus infection in bone marrow transplantation: a case report (syncytial virus infection).the authors describe the case of a patient receiving a second bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed, in the early post transplant period, an interstitial pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus. the patient promptly recovered, but radiological findings of interstitial pneumonia lasted for three months.19902358206
an outbreak of an influenza-like illness in a nursing part of an ongoing infection surveillance program, data were collected on an outbreak of respiratory illness affecting 29% of residents in a 231-bed long-term care facility. viral titers could be collected on 60% of the ill residents and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was established in 14 of the symptomatic patients and was thought to be the probable cause of the outbreak. compared with previously reported long-term institutional outbreaks of rsv, there were significantly fewer cases of p ...19902358628
determinants of susceptibility to challenge and the antibody response of adult volunteers given experimental respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.the virulence and immunogenicity of a wild-type respiratory syncytial (rs) virus together with four temperature sensitive (ts) mutants derived from this isolate were tested by intranasal inoculation into adult volunteers. resistance to challenge correlated with neutralizing antibody titres in nasal secretions and to a lesser extent in serum. all ts mutants were reduced in virulence. mutant ts1b caused mild or asymptomatic infections yet induced antibody responses comparable with wild-type rs vir ...19902363300
productive infection of isolated human alveolar macrophages by respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a significant cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children and individuals with cell-mediated immunodeficiencies. airway epithelial cells may be infected with rsv, but it is unknown whether other cells within the lung permit viral replication. we studied whether human alveolar macrophages supported rsv replication in vitro. alveolar macrophages exposed to rsv demonstrated expression of rsv fusion gene, which increased in a time-dependent manner and co ...19902365811
elevated viral antibody titres in spontaneous assess the possible role of virus infections in spontaneous abortion we undertook a prospective study of three groups of patients: women who had a spontaneous abortion; women seen in the antenatal booking clinic; and those undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy. venous blood was taken for antibody detection, cervical swabs for virus isolation, and in the cases of spontaneous and therapeutic abortion products of conception were sent for virus culture. the infectious agents studied wer ...19902369525
local antibody production and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with leukaemia.children undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (all) are at increased risk of severe viral respiratory infection, and some find it difficult to terminate virus secretion. this increased severity may result from a defect in the mucosal immune response. to test this hypothesis, nasal immunoglobulin secretion and specific antiviral antibody responses to infection with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus in children with all have been compared with those in a normal age-matched compariso ...19902370522
chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and viral infections in acute respiratory disease in a university student health clinic population.clinical and serologic data were collected on 667 university of washington students who presented to the david hall student health center between 1983 and 1987 with acute respiratory disease. sera were tested for evidence of acute or past infections with chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar, chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza a virus, influenza b virus, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. pharyngeal swab specimens were cultured for c. pneumoniae and c. trachomatis, but ...19902372005
the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus: comparison between antigenic subgroups a and b.the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the mrna and predicted polypeptide of the integral membrane small hydrophobic (sh) protein of human respiratory syncytial virus strain 18537 (a prototype strain of antigenic subgroup b) were determined from cloned cdna. at the nucleotide and amino acid levels there was 78% and 76% identity, respectively, with the previously described sh mrna and protein of strain a2 (a prototype strain of subgroup a). most of the amino acid substitutions occurred in the ...19902374008
paget's disease of bone and previous pet ownership in the united states: dogs exonerated.paget's disease of bone is currently believed to be the result of a paramyxovirus infection of osteoclasts. previously reported immunohistological data have suggested that a virus resembling either the measles virus or a respiratory syncytial virus is the probable causative agent, but no organism has been isolated or definitively identified to date. a recent study reporting an increased exposure to dogs during childhood and adolescence in a small series of cases from the north west of england pr ...19902376461
respiratory syncytial virus. 19902377106
respiratory syncytial virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. 19902380825
high-dose, short-duration ribavirin aerosol therapy in children with suspected respiratory syncytial virus infection.nine children (aged 6 weeks to 7 years) with suspected respiratory syncytial virus infection received aerosal treatment with ribavirin, 60 mg/ml for 2-hour periods three times daily for up to 5 days. five children received treatment via an endotracheal tube and four via an oxygen hood. blood samples (3 to 17 per patient) and respiratory secretions (4 to 23 per patient) were assayed for ribavirin with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. ribavirin triphosphate in erythrocytes was ...19902380833
induction of a neutralizing immune response to human respiratory syncytial virus with anti-idiotypic antibodies.anti-idiotypic (anti-id) antibodies were raised in rabbits against monoclonal antibodies that recognized either f glycoprotein 47f or g glycoprotein 63g, 62g, or 74g of the human respiratory syncytial virus long strain. anti-id sera inhibited the virus binding of the immunizing monoclonal antibodies and in some cases the binding of other antibodies reacting with overlapping epitopes. the anti-id sera also inhibited virus neutralization mediated by the original monoclonal antibodies. affinity pur ...19902384917
detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infected cells by in situ hybridization in the lungs of cotton rats immunized with formalin-inactivated virus or purified rsv f and g glycoprotein subunit vaccine and challenged with rsv.the replication of rsv in unimmunized cotton rats was evaluated by quantitating the amount of infectious virus in the lung and the number of rsv infected cells in a histopathological section of lung by in situ hybridization. rsv infected cells were detected only in alveoli and bronchioles and constituted only a small minority of the cell population. the temporal patterns of rise to the peak number of infected cells (day 4) and the peak titer of infectious virus (day 3) were similar. the clearanc ...19902385958
[seroepidemiologic studies of the agent of respiratory diseases in cattle].in a period of three years epidemiological studies were carried out in styria concerning the occurrence of antibodies against brsv (bovine respiratory syncytial virus), adeno i species 3-virus, adeno ii species 8-virus, pi-iii (parainfluenza 3-virus), ibr/ipv-virus and chlamydia. a total of 1376 serum samples were examined and showed different titers of specific antibodies against respiratory pathogens. 449 blood samples were submitted to serological examinations in the year 1984, 525 in 1985 an ...19902387232
establishment of an attenuated strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus for live virus develop a live virus vaccine for the prevention of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus infection in calves, an attempt was made to produce an attenuated virus. the rs-52 strain of brs virus, isolated from the nasal secretions of a naturally infected calf, was subjected to serial passages in adult hamster lung established (hal) cells at 30 degrees c and the attenuated rs-52 strain as a live virus vaccine was established. the rs-52 strain multiplied better at 30 degrees c than at 34 or 37 ...19902391771
igg-subclass-specific antibody reactivity to respiratory syncytial virus polypeptides investigated by western blot.igg1 and igg3 subclass-specific antibody reactivity (abr) in serum samples obtained from infants and children in relation to acute lower respiratory disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was investigated by western blot. igg1 abr was directed against the nucleocapsid polypeptides vpn and vpp as well as against the glycoproteins gp48 (f1) and gp90. igg3 abr was directed only against vpn and vpp. in infants, a low igg1 reactivity against glycoproteins was observed. when ser ...19902392617
[a bronchiolitis epidemic caused by respiratory syncytial viruses].in the typical period of the year (autumn-winter 1986-1987) an outbreak of bronchiolitis in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) occurred. the acute course of the illness, a severe clinical picture, and a very fast spread of infection called for the very rapid techniques for detecting the etiological agent. applying the direct immunofluorescent antibody test (dfta) in samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, rsv was found to be responsible for the epidemic. later the same samples of ...19902396494
impact of treatment guidelines on use of ribavirin.during the 1987 through 1988 seasonal peak of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), 177 courses of ribavirin were administered at st christopher's hospital for children, a tertiary care medical center in philadelphia, pa. charts were reviewed on 100 treated patients with proved or suspected rsv disease to determine adherence to american academy of pediatrics treatment guidelines. ninety-four percent fulfilled criteria for the risk of significant morbidity: cardiac, pulmonary, or immunodeficiency co ...19902396611
bronchiolitis in tropical south a prospective hospital-based study of 328 children under 5 years of age with acute lower respiratory infections, 114 (35%) were diagnosed to have acute bronchiolitis. of them, 87 (76%) were less than 1 year and 107 (94%) were less than 2 years of age. signs of severe lower respiratory infections, namely tachypnea (respiratory rate greater than 50/min) and subcostal retraction, were present in 95% and 93%, respectively. of 88 children of whom roentgenographs were taken, 30 (34%) had evidence o ...19902396617
pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimentally infected lambs.twenty-four 6-8-week-old conventionally reared lambs were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. infected lambs showed mild clinical signs characterized by slight serous nasal discharge, coughing, lachrymation and bronchovascular sounds on the middle part of the lung 5-9 days post-inoculation (pi). virus was isolated in nasal swabs from 9 of 24 lambs between 3 and 7 days pi. however, virus was recovered from tracheal and lung tissue of all lambs kill ...19902402874
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions.the combined use of fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibody and a cytocentrifuge for preparation of cell spots greatly reduced the time for rapid diagnosis, and improved the sensitivity and ease of detection of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus antigen in specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions.19902407745
cytotoxic t-cell response to respiratory syncytial virus in mice.the role of the humoral and cellular arms of the immune response in protection against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection and in the pathogenesis of the severe forms of this disease is poorly understood. the recent demonstration that some inbred mouse strains can be infected with rsv has opened the way to a detailed investigation of rsv immunity. we report here the finding of major histocompatibility complex-restricted, rsv-specific memory cytotoxic t cells in the spleens of balb/c and ...19852411951
two distinct subtypes of human respiratory syncytial virus.antigenic variation of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus strains was analysed using a collection of nine, six, six, nine and one monoclonal antibodies respectively directed against the large glycoprotein (g), fusion protein (f), matrix protein (m), nucleoprotein (np) and phosphoprotein (p) components of the long strain of rs virus. a comparison was made with seven other strains isolated during different years in radioimmune precipitation analyses and immune fluorescence tests. two different ...19852413163
antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and rs virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen involved ...19862416956
respiratory syncytial virus infection in transported calves.nasal swab samples were collected from calves on individual farms in tennessee and sequentially at an auction barn and at a feedlot to detect respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). in 1976, rsv was isolated from 5 of 225 calves at the auction barn and from 13 of 92 calves examined at the feedlot. of the 13 isolations, 11 were from calves with acute respiratory tract disease. most (14/18) calves infected with rsv were also shedding parainfluenza-3 virus in their nasal secretions. attempts to isolate ...19852417510
clinical applications of antiviral agents for chemophrophylaxis and therapy of respiratory viral infections.table iii summarizes clinical applications of antiviral agents in respiratory viral infections. (table: see text) for influenza a virus infections, both oral amantadine and rimantadine are effective when used for seasonal prophylaxis and for prophylaxis in institutional populations. both of these drugs, as well as aerosolized ribavirin, have antiviral and therapeutic effects in uncomplicated influenza. it remains to be determined whether any of these modalities or possibly their combined use [44 ...19852417551
concurrent circulation of antigenically distinct strains of respiratory syncytial virus during community outbreaks.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is considered to be of a single serotype. antigenic variants are detectable both by neutralization and monoclonal antibodies and have been divided into two broad categories, groups 1 and 2. group 2 isolates have been considered to be uncommon. we used indirect immunofluorescence with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies to study rsv isolates from hospitalized infants in the greater boston area. of 223 rsv isolates recovered over a five-month period in 1983-1984 ...19862418126
analysis of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein using monoclonal and polyclonal least four distinct epitopes are described on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (vp70) using 13 monoclonal antibodies in solid-phase competitive binding studies. two, and possibly three, fusion-inhibiting epitopes, one non-fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope, and one non-neutralizing epitope are described. all but the latter site demonstrated partial overlap, suggesting possible topographical proximity of these epitopes. polyclonal rabbit sera to vp70, which neutralized virus ...19862419491
the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates: assessment, formulation, and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as a diagnostic reagent.comparisons were made between standard methods of cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence (if) using hyperimmune respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antiserum, and indirect if using mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against various epitopes of rsv for the detection of rsv in nasopharyngeal aspirates. the monoclonal antibodies were used singly and in pools of different specificities which in turn were tested in both direct and indirect if. in a preliminary study, aspirates from 227 infants wer ...19862419492
enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus pulmonary pathology in cotton rats by prior intramuscular inoculation of formalin-inactiva ted virus.cotton rats previously inoculated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were challenged intranasally with live rsv to induce an enhancement of rsv disease similar to that observed after the administration of formalin-inactivated rsv vaccine to human infants 20 years ago. within 24 h after infection with rsv, cotton rats developed pulmonary lesions that reached a maximum by day 4. histologically, the lesions resembled an experimental pulmonary arthus reaction. an action of f ...19862419587
[natural killers and interferon in complicated influenza and other acute respiratory viral diseases in children].the results of the study on the functional activity of natural killers (nk) and serum interferon in 118 children ranging in age from 3 months to 5 years suffering from influenza and other acute respiratory viral diseases complicated with croup, pneumonia, and obstructive syndrome (66 children with influenza, 21 with parainfluenza, 16 with adenovirus infection, and 15 with respiratory syncytial virus diseases) are presented. the control group consisted of 22 normal children. decreased nk activity ...19852420069
identification of epitopes on respiratory syncytial virus proteins by competitive binding characterize the interrelationship of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and their respective epitopes, we developed a competitive binding assay based on the biotin-avidin system and a tissue culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the competitive binding assay clearly distinguished between competing and noncompeting mabs. eight mabs against the fusion protein (f protein) demonstrated two blocking patterns consistent with two antigenic sites. mabs reacti ...19862420819
murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize different antigenic subtypes of the virus.the aim of this study was to establish whether cytotoxic t cells (tc), raised against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the mouse, are specific to the strain of immunizing virus, or cross-reactive between virus strains. several recent studies using monoclonal antibodies have begun to define the antigenic variation among strains of rsv. it is likely that a successful rsv vaccine will need to contain antigenic determinants from more than one subtype, but since only the highest levels of neutral ...19862420922
immunovirological studies on human respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins.immunovirological studies suggest that human respiratory syncytial virus may well be composed of five structural proteins as are other members of the paramyxoviridae family: the two external membrane glycoproteins h (90 000) and fo (f1, 49 000; f2, 20 000; disulfide linked), the internal membrane protein m (34 000), the nucleoprotein n (42 000), and a protein (78 000) designated p that could be the equivalent of the polymerase of the morbillivirus and paramyxovirus genus. neutralizing monoclonal ...19862421860
[respiratory syncytial virus infection, with special reference to recent findings]. 19852422814
respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein expression in human and simian cell lines.glycoproteins synthesized in both human (hela and hep-2) and simian (vero and bs-c-1) cell lines following infection with two different strains of respiratory syncytial virus (a2 and long) were analysed by sds-page following immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies. minor virus strain-dependent differences in the large glycoprotein, g, and the fusion protein polypeptides f1 and f2 were observed together with minor cell line-dependent differences in the size of the f2 polypeptide. major qua ...19862427648
human and murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize the viral nucleoprotein (n), but not the major glycoprotein (g), expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants.the viral antigens recognized by cytotoxic t cells (ctl) have not been defined in most viruses infecting mouse or man. natural or artificial virus recombinants can be used to determine the antigen specificity of ctl directed against viruses with segmented genomes, such as influenza, but this technique is more difficult to apply to the study of unsegmented viruses. we describe here the use of recombinant vaccinia viruses, containing cdna corresponding to either the nucleoprotein (n) gene or the m ...19862431051
interferon-mediated self-limiting growth of respiratory syncytial virus in mouse embryo cells.the growth of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus in primary mouse embryo (me) cells was investigated. the virus yields in me cells were markedly lower if compared with those in hep-2 cells, which are fully permissive for rs virus, and a remarkable production of interferon (ifn) was found in the early period of infection of the former cells. the virus yields in me cells were enhanced when antimouse ifn serum was added to the medium. indirect immunofluorescent staining of infected me cells showed th ...19862432168
gene overlap and site-specific attenuation of transcription of the viral polymerase l gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.sequence analysis of the gene encoding polymerase l protein of respiratory syncytial virus showed that l-gene transcription initiates within its upstream neighbor, the gene encoding the 22-kda protein 22k. this is an exception to the canonical mode of sequential transcription of nonoverlapping genes described for other nonsegmented negative-strand rna viruses. as a consequence of the gene overlap, the termination/polyadenylylation signal for the 22k gene is located at nucleotides 56-68 within th ...19872440043
modulation of monocyte mo2 surface antigen expression by exposure to respiratory syncytial virus.the mo2 antibody recognizes a monocyte-specific cell surface antigen of unknown function. upward modulation of mo2 surface epitope density was demonstrated in response to 72-hr culture of monocytes with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), but this was not seen after culture with phytohemagglutinin or other respiratory viruses. monoclonal antibody probes for rsv proteins were used to demonstrate probable replication of rsv proteins in peripheral blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. ...19872440300
monoclonal antibodies to the large glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus: possible evidence for several functional antigenic sites.employing different routes of immunization and different adjuvants, a large number of hybridomas were produced that secreted monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the large envelope glycoprotein (gp90) and the fusion glycoprotein (gp70) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the antigenic specificity of the mabs was established by immunoblot analysis and radioimmunoprecipitation. three hybridomas secreting anti-gp90 mabs were established from mice immunized by intraperitoneal injection of purified ...19872440982
the g glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial viruses of subgroups a and b: extensive sequence divergence between antigenically related proteins.two major antigenic subgroups (designated a and b) have been described for human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). previously, on the basis of reactivity patterns with monoclonal antibodies, the greatest intersubgroup variation was shown to occur in the g protein, the putative attachment glycoprotein. to delineate the molecular basis for this variation, we have determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the g mrnas and proteins representing a subgroup a (long strain) and a su ...19872441388
identification of a synthetic peptide as part of a major neutralization epitope of respiratory syncytial virus.a 7000 mr cleavage fragment of the f1 subunit that carries the major neutralization epitope has been identified by chemical and enzymatic cleavage of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (long strain) with an efficient rs virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. based on the published mrna-deduced sequence of the a2 strain, coupled to the hydropathicity profile and prediction of protein conformation, the neutralization epitope has tentatively been localized on the first third of ...19872443612
respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: further characterization of a major epitope involved in virus neutralization.competition experiments and biological assays with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of at least four antigenic sites on the fusion protein of human respiratory syncytial virus, three of which were involved in virus neutralization. one antigenic site, recognized by two strongly neutralizing antibodies, was conserved after reduction and denaturation and shown by immunoblotting to be localized on the f1 fragment of the fusion protein. cleavage of this protein with staphylo ...19872446731
antiviral chemotherapy and prophylaxis of viral respiratory disease.respiratory viruses continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality. currently available chemotherapy is limited to oral amantadine for uncomplicated influenza a and aerosolized ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. amantadine is also efficacious for chemoprophylaxis of influenza a virus infections. rimantadine has similar clinical efficacy and is better tolerated than amantadine. aerosolized ribavirin may be useful in the treatment of serious respiratory illness cau ...19872446820
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against five structural components of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b.mouse hybridomas producing antibodies against the structural proteins of strain wv4843, a subgroup b strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, were produced by fusion of sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with purified preparations of the virus. after immunoprecipitation test with [35s]methionine-labelled extracellular virions, 35 clones found to produce antibodies against the fusion (f) protein, six against the member (m) protein, 21 against the nucleocapsid (np) ...19872447224
promising new antiviral drugs.we now have a basis for a more rational approach to rapid evaluation and development of antiviral drugs by screening for activity in vitro, testing for toxicity and efficacy in animals, and clinical testing in humans. acyclovir is a prototype of this improved process. interferon has a beneficial effect against cmv infection in renal transplant patients and has promising results in the treatment of papillomas and rhinovirus infections. it does not seem to be as effective against genital herpes or ...19882448352
antiviral drugs for common respiratory diseases. what's here, what's to come.progress is being made in the development of drugs for the prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections. two drugs currently available to clinicians are amantadine (symmetral) and ribavirin (virazole). oral amantadine is effective for both treatment and prevention of uncomplicated influenza a infections. although vaccination continues as the mainstay of influenza prevention, amantadine is useful for unvaccinated patients if complications are likely. when used for treatment, it must b ...19882448762
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions. this assay employed as immunoreagents two monoclonal antibodies directed against two distinct epitopes of the viral nucleocapsid. one of them (rsv 4) was used for antigen capture and the other (nc 4) was labelled with n-hydroxy-succinimide-epsilon-caproil biotin and used for antigen detection. streptavidin biotin-peroxidase complexes were employed as ampl ...19882455493
tonsillitis and respiratory infections of viral aetiology in a developing country.among 75 clinically diagnosed cases of tonsillitis, 55 (73.3%) were found to be of viral aetiology. serological and virological investigations identified adenovirus as the main causative agent in children as well as in adults. in only two instances, both in children, was an association with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in tonsillitis detected, an extremely rare finding. a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of respiratory infections caused by adenovirus, rsv, influenza (a,b) and para ...19882456726
association of bovine respiratory syncytial virus with atypical interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle.thirty-three cattle with fatal respiratory tract disease were examined for gross and histologic lesions and for the presence of viral and bacterial agents in the lungs. fifteen cattle had lesions characteristic of atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip), and 18 had other respiratory tract diseases, including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary abscess, and edema of the trachea. gross necropsy findings in the cattle with aip were uncollapsed and ...19882458690
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