culture vs direct antigen assays for detection of microbial pathogens from lower respiratory tract specimens suspected of containing the respiratory syncytial virus.following the introduction of effective antiviral chemotherapy, rapid antigen assays have been utilized increasingly, instead of cell cultures, for detection of the respiratory syncytial virus from lower respiratory tract specimens. because antigen assays, unlike cell culture, cannot amplify low levels of the virus to a detectable level, assay sensitivity is especially dependent on high-quality specimens. in addition, the assays are unable to detect other viruses or bacteria with which the patie ...19912021312
cytotoxic t cell activity against the 22-kda protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is associated with a significant reduction in pulmonary rsv replication.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the rsv f glycoprotein (vac-f), or a previously described chimeric protein consisting of the extracellular domains of the f and g glycoproteins (vac-fg), or the 22-kda membrane protein (vac-22 kda) were evaluated for their ability to protect balb/c mice against infection by rsv subgroup a or subgroup b viruses and for their ability to induce a humoral immune response or a cytolytic t lymphocyte (ctl) response. immunization with vac-f or vac-fg fully protec ...19912024493
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for nonneonatal respiratory failure.extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo) has been used for 20 years in neonates and children with cardiac and respiratory failure. the number of neonates treated with ecmo has increased exponentially, but the number of older children treated is small. the selection and exclusion criteria for pediatric ecmo are poorly defined, and the results vary because of variable selection criteria and institutional experience with the technique. in order to help define the role of pediatric ecmo, we review ...19912030480
development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.from 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 o c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha inte ...19912032914
use of synthetic peptides to locate neutralizing antigenic domains on the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus.chemical and enzymic cleavages of the f1 subunit of the fusion (f) protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus showed that the sequence 184-gly to 314-trp reacted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs). twelve synthetic peptides covering a part of this sequence were analysed for their immunoreactivity with neutralizing mabs and anti-rs virus rabbit serum. two sequential antigenic domains corresponding to amino acids 200 to 225 and 255 to 278 were defined with anti-rs virus rabbit serum. ...19912033389
risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life.the relation of breast feeding and other factors to the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus-associated lower respiratory tract illness (rsv-lri) in the first year of life is examined. the study population is 1,179 healthy infants enrolled at birth between may 1980 and january 1984 into the tucson children's respiratory study, tucson, arizona. each subject's data were assessed at each month of age during the first year of life, during those months when respiratory syncytial virus was isolate ...19912035517
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by shell vial technique.a shell vial technique was used to recover respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) from frozen nasopharyngeal specimens previously tested by rapid diagnostic methods. with specimens determined to be positive by direct fluorescence assay (dfa), the shell vial technique was at least as sensitive as conventional tissue culture (92 versus 90%). the majority of rsv isolates were detected within 16 h postinoculation, versus an average of 4.5 days by conventional techniques. also, the shell vial method recov ...19912037662
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and virus isolation for detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions.nasopharyngeal secretions obtained from 94 children with acute respiratory illness were examined for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), adenovirus, and influenza virus type a by virus culturing (virus isolation technique [vit]), immunofluorescence assay (ifa), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). similar results were obtained in at least two tests for rsv, influenza virus type a, and adenovirus in 92 (97.9%), 88 (93.6%), and 88 (93.6%) cases, respectively. both rapid vi ...19912037663
antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus group a and b isolates in rio de janeiro, brazil.the antigenic characteristics of 87 strains of respiratory syncytial virus isolated in rio de janeiro, brazil, from 1982 to 1988 were determined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) in an enzyme immunoassay. four of these mabs immunoprecipitated the fusion protein, and five immunoprecipitated the large glycoprotein. on the basis of the patterns of reaction of these mabs to respiratory syncytial virus isolates in an enzyme immunoassay, we were able to separate isolates into the two major ...19912037672
comparison of two rapid methods for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) (testpack rsv and ortho rsv elisa) with direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation for the diagnosis of pediatric rsv infection.the ability of two commercial immunoassays to detect respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in respiratory specimens was evaluated as follows: 152 specimens were tested by testpack rsv (abbott), and 72 were tested by ortho rsv elisa (ortho). test outcomes were compared with those of virus isolation alone, direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa) alone, or virus isolation and/or dfa. testpack rsv versus virus isolation showed 91% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 93% positive predictive value (ppv), and 95% ...19912037684
[respiratory tract infection and acute deterioration of obstructive lung disease].respiratory infection may aggravate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. viral respiratory infections may aggravate asthma, particularly in young individuals. respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus dominate in children while, in adults, influenza or rhinovirus infections are most frequently concerned. viral respiratory infections may also cause exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. bacteria and their products scarcely play any part in asthmatic disease but may possibly aggravate chronic bron ...19912042239
effect of passive antibody on the immune response of cotton rats to purified f and g glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).the effect of passively transferred rsv immune serum on the antibody response to a single dose of purified rsv fusion (f) and large (g) glycoproteins was studied in cotton rats. passively transferred antibody that achieved serum antibody levels similar to those seen in newborn human infants resulted in a seven- to eightfold suppression of the neutralizing antibody response of cotton rats to low doses of purified f and g glycoproteins (0.2-1.7 micrograms) and a twofold suppression to higher doses ...19912042390
the nucleotide sequences of intergenic regions between nine genes of pneumonia virus of mice establish the physical order of these genes in the viral genome.we have cloned eight intergenic regions from the pneumovirus pneumonia virus of mice that link the nine small and medium sized genes previously described (chambers et al., 1990). the nucleotide sequences of the clones confirm the locations of these genes and their mrna transcripts in the viral genome. the intergenic regions vary in size from 2-56 nucleotides and show only faint homology to each other or to their analogues in respiratory syncytial virus. sequence alignments suggest that the locat ...19912042399
location of phosphorylated residues in human respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein.the phosphoprotein (p protein) from human respiratory syncytial virus long strain, labelled in vivo with [32p]orthophosphate, was purified from virions or virus-infected human epithelial (hep-2) cells. the main phosphorylated amino acid found was serine. the determination of the n-terminal sequence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated fragments of p protein obtained after chemical or enzymic treatments suggested that some or all of the six serines present at positions 116, 117, 119, 143, 156 a ...19912045795
respiratory syncytial virus--from chimps with colds to conundrums and cures. 19912046710
nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of feedlot cattle.feedlot economics dictate that highly fermentable rations be fed, leaving the ruminant constantly on the edge of lactic acidosis. consequently, a number of subtle changes in feed, environment, or management can tip the balance, causing ruminal acidosis. even though the animal may not die from the immediate effects of a metabolic acidosis, there are sequelae such as mycotic rumenitis, hepatic abscesses, cauda vena cava thrombosis, and pulmonary arterial thromboemolism that may cause subsequent lo ...19912049665
sequence analysis of the polymerase l gene of human respiratory syncytial virus and predicted phylogeny of nonsegmented negative-strand viruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the large (l) polymerase gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strain a2 was determined by analysis of cloned-cdnas representing the entire gene and confirmed in part by dideoxy sequencing of genomic rna. the rsv l gene is 6578 nucleotides in length and contains a single major open reading frame that encodes a protein of 2165 amino acids. the molecular weight (250,226) and amino acid composition of the deduced rsv l protein are similar to those of ot ...19912053282
rapid identification of respiratory syncytial virus infections by direct fluorescent antibody testing: reliability as a guide to patient cohorting.this study compared the results of a commercially available, direct fluorescent antibody (dfa) test with viral culture in 880 specimens obtained from 690 patients by means of nasopharyngeal swabs. the two tests were congruent in 92.5% (814) of the specimens. the sensitivity of the dfa was 0.95, the specificity was 0.91, the positive predictive value was 0.82, and the negative predictive value was 0.98. among 548 inpatients, there were 3 mixed infections (rsv and another virus), 8 rsv infections ...19912053715
group-specific serum antibody responses in children with primary and recurrent respiratory syncytial virus infections.antigenic group-specific serum antibody responses to first and second respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections were studied in children who had been followed longitudinally from early infancy in a research day-care center. plaque-reduction neutralizing (prn) antibody assays and elisas for the fusion (f) and attachment (g) glycoproteins were done using antigens of prototype rsv strains from groups a and b. responses to antigens of viruses homologous and heterologous to the antigenic group of ...19912056202
evaluation of an enzyme membrane immunoassay (directigen rsv) for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections.a rapid enzyme immunoassay (eia) membrane test, the directigen respiratory syncytial virus (becton dickinson), was compared with cell culture, an indirect immunofluorescence (if) test, the monofluokit respiratory syncytial virus (diagnostics pasteur), and a conventional enzyme immunoassay antigen test, the abbott respiratory syncytial virus enzyme immunoassay in nasal aspirates specimens from children with suspected respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis. the sensibility and specificity ...19912062553
prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and b in france from 1982 to 1990.a fluorescence antibody test with monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the subgroup (a or b) of respiratory syncytial virus from infants hospitalized in caen, france, over eight consecutive epidemics from 1982 to 1990. from 1982 to 1985, 27 (30%) out of 90 frozen nasal slides were classified as subgroup a strains and 63 (70%) were classified as subgroup b. b strains predominated over a in 1983-1984 and 1984-1985. from 1985 to 1990, 284 respiratory syncytial virus field strains were reisol ...19912064681
early use of indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in hep-2 cell culture.respiratory syncytial virus is detected in cell culture by the presence of cytopathic effect. to detect rsv before cytopathic effect is usually seen, slides were evaluated retrospectively from 482 hep-2 cell cultures on days 2-4 after inoculation. indirect immunofluorescent staining detected rsv in 57 of 94 cultures that eventually were found positive by cytopathic effect. in an additional 19 cases that ultimately showed no cytopathic effect, rsv also was detected. in 15 of the latter cases, the ...19912069130
antiviral activities of 5-ethynyl-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4- carboxamide and related compounds.a series of novel compounds, 5-alkynyl-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4- carboxamides, have been identified as broad-spectrum antiviral agents. 5-ethynyl-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4- carboxamide (eicar), the most potent congener of the group, showed antiviral potency about 10- to 100-fold greater than that of ribavirin. similar in spectrum to ribavirin, eicar was particularly active (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.2 to 4 micrograms/ml) against poxviruses (vaccinia virus), togaviruses (si ...19912069373
nosocomial pneumonia in a canadian tertiary care center: a prospective surveillance determine the contribution of etiologic agents, including legionella pneumophila and respiratory viruses to nosocomial pneumonia at a tertiary care center.19912071878
respiratory syncytial virus infection in c57bl/6 mice: clearance of virus from the lungs with virus-specific cytotoxic t cells.we describe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific cytotoxic t-cell (ctl) lines and clones developed from the spleens of c57bl/6 and balb/c mice. line 7 and clones derived from it were h-2kb restricted, whereas line 12 had both kb and db components. both lines, and all the clones except one, could lyse targets infected with either strain a or strain b rsv. line 7 or 7-11e1 cells (8 x 10(6) to 10 x 10(6) given intravenously cleared rsv from the lungs of infected mice. there was no morbidity o ...19912072460
[ultrastructural changes in middle ear and cochlea caused by respiratory syncytial virus in guinea pigs].respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was inoculated into the middle ear of guinea pigs. preyer's reflex began to decrease since 21st day. the positive rate of rsv culture from middle ear mucosa within the first week was 50%. the titer of igg antibody against rsv in sera rose gradually. electron microscopy showed enlarged rough endoplasmic reticulum, swelling mitochondria and pyknosis of nuclei in the epithelial and mononuclear cells of middle ear. the surface of corti's organ was covered with exuda ...19902076325
primary pulmonary murine cytotoxic t lymphocyte specificity in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia.effector cells capable of lysing respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected cells were isolated from the lungs of intranasally infected mice. an examination of their specificity showed that cytolysis was major histocompatibility complex restricted. using recombinant vaccinia viruses containing cloned rsv genes to infect target cells, balb/c (h-2d) pulmonary effector cells were shown to recognize the fusion protein (f) and to a lesser extent the nucleoprotein (n). cells specific for the major gly ...19902077342
[seroepidemiologic studies of the distribution of respiratory syncytial virus in wild ruminants].sera from wild ruminants (302 roe, 39 red deer, 17 fallow deer, 1 mouflon) were tested for antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). 22 sera (6.1%) were positive: 20 roe, 1 red deer, 1 mouflon. the findings are discussed from the epizootiological point of view.19902078187
increased susceptibility to pasteurella haemolytica in lambs infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.groups of conventionally reared, 6- to 8-week-old lambs were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with either bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) or brsv followed by pasteurella haemolytica 6 days later or with p. haemolytica alone. lambs infected with p. haemolytica 6 days after experimental infection with brsv had significantly higher disease scores, greater magnitudes of fever, and higher mortality rates than those infected with brsv alone or with p. haemolytica alone (p less tha ...19902079556
the efficacy of intranasal interferon alpha-2a in respiratory syncytial virus infection in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, self-administered intranasal interferon alpha-2a or placebo was given both before and after challenge with respiratory syncytial virus. the incidence of colds and the severity of signs and symptoms were reduced in those receiving interferon alpha-2a as compared with those given placebo. in a further double-blind, placebo-controlled study, self-administered interferon alpha-2a or placebo was given only to those volunteers who developed colds following ...19902080867
comparison of lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in mice and cotton rats infected with respiratory syncytial virus.lung histology as well as cell number and size distribution in bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) were compared in balb/c mice and in cotton rats, of various immune status regarding the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), when subjected to challenge with rsv. in mock-immunized animals, rsv infection typically caused microscopic inflammatory lesions of the lungs and the presence of inflammatory cells in the bal. immunization with a formalin inactivated vaccine prior to challenge increased the severity o ...19902087875
[evaluation of methods for the detection of syncytial respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal secretions].the screening for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in nasopharyngeal secretions with enzyme immunoassay (elisa) and indirect immunofluorescence (iif) has been evaluated in infants and young children with acute respiratory infection. both methods were compared with viral isolation in hep-2 cells and the investigation of fluorescent foci in cell cultures inoculated by centrifugation. 226 samples were evaluated by iff, 182 of which were also evaluated by elisa while 158 were inoculated into cell c ...19902098144
[clinical diagnosis and laboratory study of acute respiratory diseases of viral origin in children].the authors analyzed retrospectively a group of 477 children aged two months to 16 years (mean age 6 years and 5 months), hospitalized on account of acute respiratory disease and subjected to virological examination. the aetiology was revealed in 53% of the sick children. in the elucidation of the aetiology participated a number of respiratory viruses, in particular the respiratory syncytial virus. the clinical picture of the disease was very varied. it was confirmed that the clinical picture do ...19902101749
[pneumonia in adults caused by the respiratory syncytial virus].respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) usually affects children but sometimes affects a certain group of adults. a case of an 81 year old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who had pneumonia caused by rsv is presented. the literature is reviewed as well as the most frequent clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatment.19902103289
targeted immunoglobulin therapy for the prevention of neonatal infections.premature infants demonstrate hypoglobulinemia and are at increased risk for serious infections. although a cause-and-effect relation between low serum igg levels and neonatal infections has not been established, prophylaxis of such severe infections may be possible by replacement of antibody with intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig). for success, ivig must provide specific antibodies to neonatal pathogens and reach therapeutic serum igg target levels. pilot investigations have demonstrated that iv ...19902114035
variation in severity of respiratory syncytial virus infections with subtype.two major subtypes of respiratory syncytial virus have been identified. this study assessed the hypothesis that a-subtype infections were more severe than b-subtype infections among the 157 infants hospitalized in two hospitals in rochester, n.y., during two winters. severity was measured both by specific clinical observations and by a severity index that was derived empirically. among all subjects, several clinical observations suggested that a-subtype infections were more severe. for example, ...19902115082
cytolytic t-lymphocyte responses to respiratory syncytial virus: effector cell phenotype and target proteins.cytolytic t-lymphocyte (ctl) activity specific for respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was investigated after intranasal infection of mice with rs virus, after intraperitoneal infection of mice with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the f glycoprotein, and after intramuscular vaccination of mice with formalin-inactivated rs virus or a chimeric glycoprotein, fg, expressed from a recombinant baculovirus. spleen cell cultures from mice previously infected with live rs virus or the f-protein reco ...19902117070
acute and long-term effects of viral bronchiolitis in infancy.about 1% of infants are admitted to hospital with acute bronchiolitis; 85% of cases are caused by infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the pathophysiological changes during the acute illness are inflammatory obstruction in the small airways with submucosal cellular infiltration, epithelial necrosis and mucous plugging; frc increases and dynamic compliance falls. failure to respond to bronchodilator drugs suggests that muscle spasm contributes relatively little to the airway narrowin ...19902117143
economic and long-term benefits of ribavirin therapy on respiratory syncytial virus infection.ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. administered as an aerosol, it has been shown to be clinically effective in improving the signs and symptoms of viral bronchiolitis in infancy, particularly cases due to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). this paper reviews the evidence for economic and/or long-term clinical benefits from using ribavirin in the acute illness. there are data to suggest that use of ribavirin may lead to a reduction in therapeutic interventions and duration of hospital ...19902117144
differentiation of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups with cdna probes in a nucleic acid hybridization assay.a new approach to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus subgroup determination was developed by using a simple nucleic acid filter hybridization technique. by this method, virus-infected cells are bound and fixed in a single step, and the viral rna in the fixed-cell preparation is characterized directly by its ability to hybridize to cdna probes specific for either the a or b subgroups of rs virus. the subgroup-specific probes were constructed from cdna clones that corresponded to a portion of the ex ...19902118548
respiratory syncytial virus infection. a brief review of epidemiology and current research in china. 19902119965
excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone in infections with respiratory syncytial virus.the association between infections with respiratory syncytial virus and plasma concentrations of antidiuretic hormone was assessed in 48 patients who had been admitted to hospital. the mean (sem) concentration of antidiuretic hormone was significantly raised in patients with bronchiolitis (9.3 (1.4) ng/l) compared with non-pulmonary respiratory syncytial virus infections that cause apnoea or upper respiratory tract symptoms (6.1 (1.7) ng/l). the highest concentrations of antidiuretic hormone wer ...19902123382
a study of nonbacterial agents of acute lower respiratory tract infection in thai children.from january 1986 to december 1987, 596 children less than 5 years of age with lower respiratory tract infection (lri)--manifested as laryngitis, croup, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia--were studied for evidence of infection with respiratory tract viruses mycoplasma pneumoniae, and chlamydia trachomatis. of the 596 children in the study, 315 were ambulatory and 281 were hospitalized. virologic studies included isolation and rapid diagnosis of virus from specimens of nasopharyngeal aspir ...19902125359
respiratory syncytial virus modulation of adult and neonatal lymphocyte mitogenic responses and the role of interferon-gamma.infection of human adult and neonatal mononuclear leukocytes (mnls) with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) caused significant inhibition of lymphoproliferation in response to various mitogens (heat-killed staphylococcus aureus, phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin-a and pokeweed mitogen). antibody to human interferon-gamma enhanced the rsv-induced suppression of lymphoproliferation in adult, but not neonatal mnls. these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rsv can suppress the developmen ...19902129048
effective inhibition of viral reproduction by hydrophobised antiviral antibodies.a method is proposed for the inhibition of viral reproduction in cells by means of fatty-acylated antiviral antibodies which, in contrast to the unmodified antibodies, have the ability to enter the cells. the potential of this technique is demonstrated in experiments involving inhibition of the reproduction of various strains of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus.19902130920
lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood of normal lambs and lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were analysed by flow cytometry, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific lymphocyte epitopes. experimental infection with bovine rsv was characterized by a significant rise in sbu-t8+ (cd8+ or cytotoxic) t cells and a significant reduction in sbu-t4+ (cd4+ or helper) t cells and b (lca p220+) lymphocytes (p less than 0.05). the helper/s ...19902140217
[immunodiagnostic methods in interpreting an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection].in the determination of the etiology of the outbreak of respiratory viral diseases, caused mainly by respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, on the basis of the comparison of the results of different laboratory tests and some epidemiological and clinical data high specificity of the detection of rs virus antigen and antibodies to it by means of erythrocyte diagnostica (newly developed antibody and commercial antigenic preparations) has been revealed. in the epidemiological situations the rapid methods ...19902151499
[the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of the course of a mixed epidemic of influenza and respiratory syncytial infection in novoshakhtinsk in the summer of 1986].in the summer of 1986 the epidemic, whose etiological agents were influenza viruses a (h1n1) and respiratory syncytial virus, was registered among the population of novoshakhtinsk. in a number of mines 15.3-16.7% of the employees were affected. influenza viruses a (h1n1) proved to be closely related in their antigenic and biological properties to viruses isolated in the ussr in march-june 1986, as well as to viruses a (h1n1), the etiological agents of the epidemic which developed in the ussr in ...19902151553
respiratory syncytial virus: occurrence of subgroups a and b strains in rio de janeiro. 19902152204
viral lower respiratory tract infections in filipino children.viral causes of acute lower respiratory tract infection were studied prospectively between 15 june and 31 october 1984 in 312 filipino children less than 5 years old living in periurban slums and middle-class housing. the cause was based on viral antigen detection, virus isolation, and antibody assays. there were 131 children (41.2%) who were admitted to the hospital, and 150 (47%) had an infiltrate on chest radiograph. a total of 198 viral infections were confirmed in 162 patients (51.9%), 42.3 ...19902153734
outbreak of parainfluenza virus type 3 in a neonatal nursery.human parainfluenza type 3 is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia after respiratory syncytial virus. in a recent outbreak of nosocomial respiratory illness in a neonatal intensive care unit, parainfluenza type 3 virus was isolated in 6 of 17 neonates cultured (5 symptomatic patients and 1 asymptomatic patient). eighteen of 52 nursing personnel had been ill during the previous week and concomitantly, with cough and nasal congestion. these personnel and all patient care givers wer ...19902153949
viral and toxoplasma gondii infections in children after liver transplantation.the incidence and morbidity of viral and toxoplasma gondii infections were studied in 40 children who underwent liver transplantation between december 1983 and february 1988. the incidence of primary and reactivated cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection was 19% and 47%, respectively; primary infection caused clinical disease in all five cases affected and was fatal in one. primary epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection occurred in 10 (26%) recipients but caused only mild disease. no reactivated ebv infect ...19902155947
surveillance of viral respiratory tract infections over a one year period in mainly hospitalized austrian infants and children by a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay order to obtain more information on viral respiratory tract infections in austrian infants and children, nasopharyngeal secretions from 1432 infants and children, collected from october 1984 to october 1985, were screened for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), adenoviruses, parainfluenza virus type 1, 2, and 3, and influenza viruses type a and b, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the results obtained were analyzed with respect to incidence, seasonal distribution an ...19902156381
viral pneumonia in recipients of solid organ transplants.viral pulmonary infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. the herpes viruses-cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, and epstein-barr virus--cause most of the viral infections in this population. respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus also cause pneumonitis in the transplant recipient. differences in the clinical and laboratory presentation of pneumonitis due to the various viral agents ...19902160718
new acquisitions in the chemotherapy of viral infections.the development of new antiviral agents has gained increasing momentum. it has kept pace with the identification of specific sites ("targets") in the virus replicative cycle at which potential antiviral drug can interact. the current armamentarium of available antiviral drugs consists of amantadine and rimantadine (against influenza a), ribavirin (against respiratory syncytial virus infection), idoxuridine and trifluridine (against herpetic keratitis), vidarabine and acyclovir (against herpes si ...19902162118
o glycosylation of glycoprotein g of human respiratory syncytial virus is specified within the divergent ectodomain.cdnas encoding the g glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein of parainfluenza virus type 3 were modified by site-specific mutagenesis and restriction fragment replacement to encode chimeric proteins consisting of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of one protein fused to the ectodomain of the other. in the case of the hn ectodomain attached to the g transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, cell surface expression of the chimera was r ...19902164608
a group level analysis of the associations between antibodies to seven putative pathogens and respiratory disease and weight gain in ontario feedlot calves.the associations, at the group level, between serological titer to pasteurella haemolytica surface antigens (ph), pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin (ph-cytox), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv), bovine virus diarrhea virus (bvdv), parainfluenza-3 virus (piv3), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), mycoplasma dispar (md), m. bovis (mb), and respiratory disease treatment rates, relapse rates, and 28 day weight gains were investigated in 14 groups of calves entering two feedlots during ye ...19902165846
respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus surveillance--united states, 1989-90. 19902172757
pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves.our objectives were to describe the ultrastructural morphogenesis of pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole in 30- to 45-day-old holstein calves and to determine whether toxic exposure to 3-methylindole exacerbates pulmonary lesions induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. administration of 3-methylindole (0.25 g/kg) to calves resulted in interstitial edema and ultrastructural swelling of type-i alveolar epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells as early as 4 to 6 ...19902173450
primate viral diseases in perspective.the recent occurrence of fatal herpesvirus simiae (b virus) infection in human subjects has again focused the attention of primatologists on this virus. b virus, however, is only one of a number of viral diseases that plays a role in primate colony management. this report is to emphasize to the primatologist a number of viruses other than h. simiae, with high morbidity and mortality rates, of importance for health management of nonhuman primate animal colonies. this concept is supported by the r ...19902174083
clinical role of respiratory virus infection in acute otitis media.the clinical characteristics of acute otitis media in relation to coexisting respiratory virus infection were studied in a 1-year prospective study of 363 children with acute otitis media. respiratory viruses were detected using virus isolation and virus antigen detection in nasopharyngeal specimens of 42% of the patients at the time of diagnosis. rhinovirus (24%) and respiratory syncytial virus (13%) were the two most common viruses detected. adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and coronavirus o ...19902174535
isolation and identification of viral agents in argentinian children with acute lower respiratory tract infection.from a total population of 1,002 children with acute lower respiratory infection (alri), identification of virus was achieved in 304 cases. in this survey, 1,000 nasopharyngeal aspirate and 13 lung tissue samples were tested in four cell lines (hep-2, mrc-5, mdck, and llc-mk2) and by indirect immunofluorescence (iif), while 242 paired sera were studied by complement fixation. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was the most frequently detected agent (n = 183), followed by adenovirus (n = 28), para ...19902176736
acute lower respiratory tract infection due to virus among hospitalized children in dhaka, bangladesh.the nature of acute lower respiratory tract infection (alri) in hospitalized children and of the associated viral agents was assessed in a study of 601 children less than 5 years old over a 24-month period. of these children, 80% were less than 24 months of age and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.7:1. pneumonia (86.5% of cases) was the most frequently observed clinical manifestation. shedding of virus was detected in 21.1% of the children; the highest rate occurred in infants 0-5 months old (27 ...19902176737
a hospital-based study of acute viral infections of the respiratory tract in thai children, with emphasis on laboratory diagnosis.the hospital-based study described here examined the viruses found in 738 children less than 5 years old who presented at ramathibodi hospital, bangkok, thailand, from january 1986 to december 1987 with acute respiratory tract infections. three methods for detection of viral infection are compared: direct examination of epithelial cells of the respiratory tract with the use of fluorescent antibody staining, isolation of virus, and measurement of antibody in acute- and convalescent-phase sera. vi ...19902176738
viral pneumonia in the first month of life.we performed a 5-year review of 40 patients less than or equal to 30 days of age with viral pneumonia. isolates included respiratory syncytial virus (55%), enteroviruses (15%), rhinoviruses (15%), adenoviruses (10%), parainfluenza virus (7.5%) and herpes simplex virus (5%). most infants were previously healthy but had ill family members. nine were born at less than 37 weeks of gestation. symptoms and signs included tachypnea, decreased feeding, cough, cyanosis, lethargy, retractions, apnea, brad ...19902177540
an epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus in elderly people: clinical and serological 1984-1985, an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection occurred in two geriatric wards. among 68 patients (mean age +/- sd = 82.5 +/- 12.5 with respiratory signs, 52 had signs caused by rsv infection. among all patients, the clinical and serological attack rates were 61.2% and 75.0%, respectively. the most frequent clinical presentation was intensive coughing (96.1%) and fever (96.1%) associated with expectorate (63.5%). the duration of the respiratory symptoms was 5 to 7 days. ...19902179469
comparison of directigen rsv with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the identification of respiratory syncytial enzyme immunoassay membrane test (directigen rsv) for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical specimens was compared prospectively with isolation in cell culture and direct immunofluorescence (if). a total of 315 nasopharyngeal wash specimens from pediatric patients were examined. directigen rsv was 86.1% sensitive and 91.3% specific for specimens positive by isolation in cell culture and/or if, with 88.6% agreement. the false-positive rate was 16%; 2 of 20 specimens giving f ...19902182668
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal specimens obtained with the rhinoprobe scraper.we compared the rhinoprobe scraping technique for collection of superficial nasal mucosa epithelial cells and rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus by immunofluorescence with paired, swab-collected specimens for virus culture from 1,257 infants and children with acute respiratory infections. compared with viral culture as the reference test, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the immunofluorescence test were 83.6, 93.6, and 91.3%, respectively. we found the rhinoprobe method ...19902185261
mechanism of antibody-mediated viral clearance in immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection of cotton rats.antibody-mediated clearance of respiratory syncytial virus from cotton rat pulmonary tissues occurs in the absence of complement and in the absence of the fc portion of the immunoglobulin g molecule, suggesting that complement-independent, cell-independent neutralization is the major mechanism of clearance.19902186179
[laboratory diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection].we study 18 children with acute respiratory infection diagnosed early by direct immunofluorescence (dif) using monoclonal antibodies to synticial respiratory virus (srv). antibodies to adenovirus, influenza virus a and b, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, mycoplasma, q fever, herpes and cytomegalovirus (cmv) are also studied. we consider that in most cases the diagnosis of infections caused by srv cannot be established by complement fixation, and should be accompanied by some antigen detection tec ...19902189329
evaluation of five methods for respiratory syncytial virus detection.a total of 117 nasal aspirates were cultured for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and tested for rsv antigen by a direct fluorescent-antibody (dfa) test (bartels immunodiagnostic supplies, inc., bellevue, wash.), the directigen enzyme immunoassay (eia; becton dickinson microbiology systems, cockeysville, md.), the testpack eia (abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill.), and rsv eia (abbott). agreement of two of five methods or a positive rsv culture were required to validate a result. a total o ...19902191003
immunoprophylaxis of infections with respiratory syncytial virus: observations and hypothesis.infections with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) may cause substantial morbidity and increased mortality in neonates and infants, especially those born before term and/or with pulmonary or cardiac disease. humoral immunity was long thought to play only a small role in prevention, reduction of severity, or recovery from rsv infections of the lower respiratory tract. we recently performed a series of experiments in rsv-infected cotton rats, owl monkeys, and human infants to assess the role of hum ...19902194271
immunity to human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses resemble each other closely. during annual winter outbreaks, they cause similar respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. the disease is most severe in children and calves between 1 and 3 months old, when maternal antibodies against the virus are usually present. reinfections, which are common, are accompanied by progressively milder illnesses in children, but are symptomless in calves. because maternal antibodies suppress serum and mucosal a ...19902196033
a rapid test for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretion.a new rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay (meia; directigen rsv) for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was evaluated using samples of nasopharyngeal secretion from infants and children with acute respiratory disease. the meia was compared with an immunofluorescent antibody (if) technique using a sensitive biotin-avidin (ba) eia as reference. of 242 samples tested, 108 were positive by the meia and 123 by the ba-eia. of 144 samples which were also tested by the if technique, 57 were po ...19902197094
serologic evidence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in nursing home patients. 19902197348
analysis of the local and systemic immune responses induced in balb/c mice by experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection.pulmonary a2 strain respiratory syncytial virus infection of balb/c laboratory mice persisted for up to 7 days after initial infection with peak virus titres being recovered on day 4. virus antigen within the lungs was found to be restricted essentially to the alveolar regions. similarly, pulmonary histopathological changes remained confined to the peri-alveolar regions being consistent with mild pneumonia. infection was found to elicit a pulmonary major histocompatibility complex-restricted cyt ...19902197371
what is the clinical role of aerosolized ribavirin?aerosolized ribavirin is the first approved agent for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. however, the clinical use of ribavirin is controversial. although ribavirin-treated patients appear to be subjectively improved, the benefit in terms of decreased morbidity and mortality is not well established. furthermore, the drug has been found to be teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic, depending upon the scientific model. because of its unique mode of administration, envi ...19902197815
clinical uses of intravenous immune globulin.the preparation, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses, dosage and administration, and adverse effects of intravenous immune globulin (ivig) are reviewed. ivig, which consists primarily of immunoglobulin g (igg), is initially prepared from pooled human plasma by using the cohn-oncley fractionation procedure. secondary treatments render the preparation suitable for i.v. use. the specific antibody content of ivig depends on the geographic location of the plasma donors, the product, and the product lot. ...19902198124
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a virus in cell cultures by immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies.peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza a virus were used for immunoperoxidase staining (ips) of cell cultures inoculated with nasopharyngeal aspirates. cells were grown in 24-well plates, and specimens were inoculated by low-speed centrifugation. cultures were incubated for 2 days at 37 degrees c and then fixed, stained, and observed by light microscopy. ips was compared with standard virus isolation by using cultures of human diploid fib ...19902199488
detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in nasal washings by abbott testpack enzyme immunoassay.we compared the new abbott testpack (tp) respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) enzyme immunoassay (eia) with cell culture and two commercial rsv eias (from abbott diagnostics and kallestad laboratories) by using split samples of fresh nasal washings from children with suspected rsv disease. two tubes of hep-2 cells were inoculated and observed for cytopathic effect for 14 days, and isolates were confirmed by immunofluorescence. the tp eia was performed by following the manufacturer's instructions. s ...19902199500
evaluation of the becton dickinson directigen test for respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates.a premarket trial of the becton dickinson directigen respiratory syncytial virus membrane-based enzyme immunoassay compared the test with virus isolation for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in 583 nasopharyngeal aspirates. after modification, the directigen test showed a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 90%. it offers the potential for an efficient bedside test--without the need for any equipment--for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection and requires only a ...19902199510
detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen after seventy-two hours of culture.between september, 1987, and april, 1989, three techniques for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were compared: indirect immunofluorescence (if) on the sample, indirect immunofluorescence after 72 h of mrc-5 cell culture (if 72h), and detection of the cytopathic effect (cpe) by mrc-5 and hep-2 cell culture. a study of 383 nasal aspirates from young children admitted to the centre hospitalier de nantes (chr) showing miscellaneous respiratory symptoms produced the following result ...19902202784
nebulized albuterol in acute a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 infants between 6 weeks and 24 months of age who had a first episode of wheezing and other signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis were randomly assigned to receive either nebulized albuterol (0.15 mg/kg/dose) or placebo (saline solution) for two administrations 1 hour apart. the albuterol therapy resulted in a significantly greater improvement in the accessory muscle score (decreases 0.70 vs decreases 0.30; p = 0.03), oxygen saturation (increases 0.71 ...19902213394
nucleotide sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vectors demonstrate that the attachment protein g of bovine respiratory syncytial virus is distinct from that of human respiratory syncytial virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus causes a severe lower respiratory tract disease in calves similar to the disease in children caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus. while there is antigenic cross-reactivity among the other major viral structural proteins, the major glycoprotein, g, of brs virus and that of hrs virus are antigenically distinct. the g glycoprotein has been implicated as the attachment protein for hrs virus. we have carried out a molecular comparison of the glyc ...19902214024
[seroconversion to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in goats with pneumonia in zaire].coupled sera were taken among goats suffering from pneumonia in zaire. the presence of antibodies to bovine syncytial respiratory virus was investigated by a seroneutralization test. out of 26 animals, 9 already had antibodies at the time of the first blood sampling, 9 presented a seroconversion and 8 remained seronegative during the two months of observation. these results suggest it would be useful to study the frequency of the infection of small ruminants with this virus and its clinical and ...19902218031
[benign acute myositis associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection]. 19902221639
latent sensitisation to respiratory syncytial virus during acute bronchiolitis and lung function after determine whether latent sensitivity to respiratory syncytial virus antigen(s) occurs after infection, 27 infants with acute bronchiolitis were studied and compared with 15 hospital controls. blood was collected for whole blood challenge, and histamine release was measured by a high performance liquid chromatography technique with fluorometric detection. there was a significantly greater histamine release to respiratory syncytial virus antigen(s) in those with bronchiolitis than in controls, ...19902221967
comparison of immunofluorescence & culture for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus 809 infants and children with acute respiratory infection, hep-2 cells were used for the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and an indirect immunofluorescence technique (iif) was used for the detection of rsv antigen in the epithelial cells of nasopharyngeal secretions. while rsv was detected in culture in only 87 subjects, iif was positive for viral antigen in 158 subjects. in children with bronchiolitis and in those with pneumonia 57 and 19 per cent respectively, had evidence of ...19902228050
antibody-mediated enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19902230249
occurrence of groups a and b of respiratory syncytial virus over 15 years: associated epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in hospitalized and ambulatory children.over 15 years respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolates from 1209 hospitalized and ambulatory children were examined for strain group and in a subset for subgroup to determine the associated epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. three patterns of yearly outbreaks existed: (1) strong predominance of group a strains (9 years with 83%-100% a strains), (2) relatively equal proportions of group a and b strains (4 years), and (3) strong predominance of group b strains (78%-85%) in 2 years, sepa ...19902230258
early ribavirin treatment of respiratory syncytial viral infection in high-risk children.a 3-year prospective, blinded, multicenter study was done to assess the efficacy of early ribavirin intervention in mild respiratory syncytial virus illness in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or with congenital heart disease. a cohort of 178 children younger than 36 months of age with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or congenital heart disease were followed. forty-seven infants whose respiratory syncytial virus infection resulted in mild symptoms of less than or equal to 72 hours' duration r ...19902231215
[the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome].although sudden infant death syndrome (sids) has been well known for a long time, in our country it has not been registered adequately yet and has seemed not to be present those years. but, it has not been true. a number of predisposing factors make that this phenomenon has a high share in postneonatal mortality, especially in those environments where the infant's mortality rate is low. a pathologist is imperative to establish a diagnosis following not only inadequate clinical picture and sudden ...19902233110
antibiotics for respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19902235156
pulmonary function testing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis requiring mechanical ventilation. 19902235204
prioritizing research questions on the safety of ribavirin in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19902235207
early ribavirin aerosol treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk children. 19902235211
viral pneumonias. a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.viral pneumonias are both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for primary care physicians. the illness should be suspected when an upper respiratory tract infection progresses to include dyspnea and cyanosis. rapid diagnostic tests are now available to detect most of the viruses that cause pneumonias. fortunately, viral pneumonias usually resolve without specific antiviral therapy; however, ribavirin is indicated for respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in children and ganciclovir sodium ( ...19902235793
acute respiratory disease in spain: seven years of experience.the clinical and epidemiologic features of viral and nonviral pathogens involved in acute respiratory diseases are described in the context of cases of infection (especially atypical pneumonia and bronchiolitis) studied at the centro nacional de microbiología, virología e immunología sanitarias in madrid during a 7-year period (1979-1986). these etiologies were demonstrated in 1,637 (36.2%) of 4,521 cases. among viruses, respiratory syncytial virus most frequently infected children; influenza vi ...19902237112
systemic and secretory antibody responses to sequential bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in vaccinated and nonvaccinated investigate the influence of humoral immunity on the severity of disease caused by infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), an experimentally induced infection study was performed on vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves. fifteen weanling calves were allotted to 3 groups: 1 group of 6 calves was exposed to 2 live virus aerosols, 35 days apart; another group of 6 calves was vaccinated prior to the same aerosol exposures; and the remaining 3 calves served as controls. clinical si ...19902240782
rapid recovery in mice after combined nasal/oral immunization with killed respiratory syncytial virus.based on the concept of a common mucosal immune system, the murine gastrointestinal tract was inoculated (oral) with three doses (5, 20, and 40 micrograms) of uv-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in order to elicit a virus-specific immune response in the respiratory tract. only the 40 micrograms dose induced significant (p less than 0.01) anti-rsv-igg rises in serum and lung wash compared to controls. to improve the immune response, mice were immunized intranasally under light anesth ...19902243208
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