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diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection by complement fixation test.the complement fixation test by the microtiter method was applied to the serological diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection. when used as complement fixing antigens, untreated infected cell culture fluid, fluorocarbon-treated, and ether-treated materials showed no differences in antigenicity among them. the complement fixing antigenicity of bovine rs virus appeared in bovine kidney and vero cell cultures for the first time 4 days after inoculation. both the infectivity an ...1975174010
experimental infection of calves with respiratory syncytial virus.three bovine isolates and one human isolate of rs virus were given intranasally to gnotobiotic, colostrum-deprived and conventional calves. all isolates produced a biphasic pyrexia associated with a serous nasal discharge. virus was recovered from nasal secretions 4-10 days after inoculation from nasal, tracheal and bronchial mucosae and lung of animals killed 7-13 days after inoculation. infection did not produce any macroscopic lesions, but histologically there was a focal degenerative rhiniti ...1975167410
scanning electron microscopical demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus antigens by immunological markers. 1975807741
cytopathological and cytochemical studies on respiratory viruses in tissue cultured cells. iv. infection with mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. 1975814094
viral and mycoplasmal pneumonias: reviewing current concepts.the pathogenesis of viral and mycoplasmal infections is probably similar, but pathologic findings vary, depending on the etiologic agent. in the absence of inclusion bodies in epithelial cells, definitive diagnosis of viral pneumonia depends on isolation of the virus. viral pneumonias are more insidious in onset than bacterial types. in the early stages, physical findings may be minimal. complications include those associated with viremia or bacterial superinfection. culture of a throat swab is ...19751105492
isolation, characterization, and pathogenicity studies of a bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the isolation and characterization of a bovine respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is described. serological studies indicate that bovine rs virus is widespread in iowa cattle and that it is involved in some outbreaks of respiratory disease. experimental infection in calves indicates that the virus can cause illness in calves, particularly those with serum neutralizing antibody.19751119944
viral antibodies in the csf after acute cns infections.viral antibodies were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum from 25 patients having acute viral central nervous system (cns) infections, and from 39 control patients. the results, collected two weeks after the clinical onset, revealed the presence of antibodies in nine of 13 (69%) csf specimens from patients suffering from encephalitis of myelitis, and in only one of nine (11%) of the csf samples of those presenting a viral meningitis infection. this difference was statistically si ...19751164214
[frequency of serologic conversion of complement fixing antibodies fc by respiratory viruses in cases of acute juvenile respiratory disease].the complement fixation test, run on double samples of serum pertaining to 447 children hospitalized between january 1971 and june 1974 at ospedale maggiore in novara, or checked in consulting rooms for acute phlogosis of the respiratory organs, has permitted to detect in 241 children, equal to the 53,9% of the total cases, a significant increase of antibodies for respiratory viruses (influenza a, b, c, parainfluenza 1, 2, 3. respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, reovirus). specifically, in t ...19751205032
quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in infants.quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in 40 infants hospitalized with acute disease of the lower respiratory tract were determined for elucidation of the pathophysiology of infection with the virus. nasal wash specimens were collected on admission and daily thereafter and were tested for the presence and quantities of respiratory syncytial virus. the following pattern of shedding was observed. (1) the virus was shed for prolonged periods. for the first seven days of hospi ...1975808581
[viremia in respiratory syncytial virus infection].viremia was demonstrated to occur in experimental respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection in suckling cotton rats and in natural infection in children. rs virus was isolated from the whole blood of the animals in 3 out of 6 experiments at 2, 5, 6, 7 and 15 days after inoculation, the maximum infectious titer being more than 10(4) tcpd50/0.1 ml. rs virus was also isolated from the blood of 7 out of 15 examined children presenting the typical clinical picture of rs virus disease during the epid ...19751216838
respiratory virus disease in malaysian children: a serological study.paired sera from 101 malaysian children aged up to 10 years and suffering from respiratory illnesses were examined serologically for evidence of respiratory viral infections. of these children, 32.6% showed rising antibody titres for one or more of the test agents. respiratory syncytial virus appeared to be the main respiratory pathogen involved, followed by mycoplasma pneumoniae, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, and influenza a virus. these findings are generally similar to those reported b ...19751084808
[infections in children with respiratory syncytial virus. a rapid diagnostic method for virus isolation in the nasopharyngeal aspirate]. 19751096354
effect of acetone fixation on infectivity and antigenicity of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus in the fluorescent antibody test.an investigation was made on the effect of acetone fixation on infectivity and immunofluorescent antigenicity of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus type 5, lipid- and nonlipid-containing viruses, respectively. viruses were allowed to replicate in hep-2 cells, and the cells were then fixed in acetone at 5 c for periods ranging from 30 s to 7 days. treatment for 10 min was sufficient to inactivate respiratory syncytial virus, whereas infectious adenovirus type 5 could be isolated from cell ...19751100650
recovery of infectious proviral dna from mammalian cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the dna fraction from a line of bovine embryonic kidney cells originally exposed as primary cultures several months earlier to a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus could be used to transfect human hep-2 cells with the production of infectious rs virus. the dna donor cells, designated bek/rs ts, retained their healthy fibroblastic appearance during continuous cultivation at a temperature (39 degrees) restrictive for growth of the original infecting mutant and sh ...19751103142
hospital cross-infection on children's wards with respiratory syncytial virus and the role of adult carriage.a further 18 children who acquired respiratory syncytial (r.s.) virus infection on general paediatric wards have been identified, bringing the total number of hospital cross-infections by this virus to 46 for the last 3 annual r.s. virus epidemics on tyneside. 25 of these 46 illnesses involved the lower respiratory tract. carriage of r.s. virus by staff and visitors was studied on one ward, and appeared to be responsible for at least 2 and probably 4 of the 6 cross-infections detected on this wa ...19751155072
reye syndrome with associated influenza a and b infection.in early 1974, seventeen children were treated for reye syndrome. thirteen of these were studied for laboratory evidence of concomitant viral infection. influenza b/hong kong was isolated from the pharynx in four of nine 1974 cases tested. one child had just recovered from varicella. adenovirus type 2 and respiratory syncytial virus were isolated from two additional patients. serologic tests for influenza suggested concomitant or recent influenza b infection in ten of 13 of 1971 cases. during fe ...19751174373
stability of respiratory syncytial virus in a new bentonite holding medium.stability of respiratory syncytial virus was determined in a new bentonite holding medium and compared with two other commonly used media. eventual infectivity titers were similar with all three preparations.19751176622
nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections.we studied the frequency and severity of respiratory syncytial virus infections acquired nosocomially on an infants' ward during a community outbreak. every three or four days all infants and staff were examined, and specimens were obtained for viral isolation. during two months, 14 of 44 contact infants acquired the virus. all were ill, and four had pneumonia. infected infants had a significantly longer mean hospital stay (21.5 days) than uninfected ones (9.2 days, p less than 0.001). risk of n ...19751186836
[formation and action of interferon in experimental respiratory syncytial infection].respiratory syncytial virus multiplying activity in the lungs of newborn and 6-day-old cotton rats, induced production of considerable amounts of interferon. interferon production correlated with virus multiplication. lower interferon titers were observed in the lungs of newborn cotton rats than in the lungs of 6-day-old animals. rs virus also induced production of serum interferon upon intraperitoneal inoculation, its titers being 2 times as low as after inoculation of equal doses of newcastle ...19751162951
growth and genetic stability of the ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus at restrictive temperatures.an in vitro study was performed to define in greater detail those factors which favored the growth of the ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus under restrictive conditions and the emergence of genetically altered virus with decreased temperature sensitivity. replication of ts-1 occurred at each of the restrictive temperatures of 37, 38, and 39 c, even through plaque formation was not observed. the level of virus growth under restrictive conditions was inversely related to the incubation te ...1976943572
cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus induced by inactivated vaccine or by infection.transformation and increased mitotic activity in donor lymphocytes exposed to specific antigens is considered by many to be a manifestation of cell-mediated immunity. in attempts to understand the apparent "sensitization" of individuals to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) as a result of receiving inactivated rsv vaccine, in vitro lymphocyte transformation studies were carried out on infants who had received inactivated rsv vaccine and on infants who had received a similarly prepared inactivated ...19761246465
infections in preschool children in group day care.viral and bacterial infections in 20 children under 3 years of age were studied in a day centre for 12 weeks. febrile illnesses were found on one occasion in each of 11 children but no serious infection occurred. pneumococci types 6, 9, or 19 were isolated from all children but more often from those with rhinitis or cough. the individual child had an average of 2 viral infections. adenovirus types 1, 2, 5, coxsackievirus type b5, herpes simplex virus or respiratory syncytial virus was isolated f ...1976779398
the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infant ferrets.the infant ferret is susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus infection in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. in the nose, viral replication is restricted to the surface respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages and turbinates. in the lungs, viral replication is of a lower order of magnitude and is localized in the alveolar cells. the pattern of viral replication in nasal tissues is independent of the age of the animal at infection, whereas the pattern in lung tissues shows a stri ...19761251889
persistent infection of cells in culture by respiratory syncytial virus.the virus-cell relationship of rs virus and the hep-2 cell line has been examined. the production of cytopathic effect (c.p.e.) on hep-2 cells has been found to be dependent upon the passage level of the cell line. cells at lower passage levels exhibit c.p.e. in the form of syncytium formation, while those at higher passage levels no longer exhibit this effect. cells infected at higher passage levels are covertly infected and continue to produce large amounts of infectious virus which remains c ...19761265052
[role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the aetiology of viruspneumonia in calves and yearlings ("pinkengriep") (author's transl)].the clinical picture of "pinkengriep", an enzootic form of bronchopneumonia in young cattle, is described. in addition to cough, conjunctivitis and a soporous state, accelerated respiration initially is an outstanding clinical symptom. in some cases, symptoms of fog fever appear during the second stage of the disease. in the autumn of 1973 and that of 1974, a total number of 292 animals with "pinkengriep" were serologically examined for known respiratory virus infections and chlamydia. complemen ...1976968892
role of maternal antibody in pneumonia and bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus.fifteen infants with pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and 19 infants with bronchiolitis caused by rsv were studied for the influence of homologous, circulating neutralizing antibody on the severity of their illness. all infants were under nine months of age. although maternal neutralizing antibody did not prevent infection with rsv and illness, the severity of pneumonia caused by rsv was inversely related to the level of neutralizing antibody. the severity of bronchiolitis c ...1976977992
effect of serum and nasal neutralizing antibodies on bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.calves exposed to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus showed mild clinical signs of respiratory illness and responded serologically. the disease occurred in the presence or absence of circulating antibodies, but there was no evidence of exacerbation of the disease due to preexisting serum antibody. nasal secretory antibody appeared to protect the calves against the disease. calves previously exposed to the virus were immune to challenge. the virus was recovered at a high frequency when specimen ...1976978005
respiratory syncytial virus infection in north-east england.during a period covering four winter epidemics 987 respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infections were identified in the children's wards that served a total population of about 875 000 in north-east england. the incidence of admission to hospital with rs virus infection tended to be twice as high among children in tyneside as that among children from the rest of the catchment area. the risk of hospital admission with rs virus infection in the first year of life for city children was about 1 in 50. ...1976990783
events following the infections of enucleate cells with measles virus.the development of measles virus (edmonston) and sspe measles virus (horta-barbosa) has been examined in enucleate bsc 1 cells. new antigen synthesis in measles virus infected enucleate cells has been demonstrated by fluorescent antibody, by the formation of extensive syncytia from enucleate cells alone and by analysis of polypeptide formation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. all polypeptides formed in nucleate cells were also present in enucleate cells but the amount synthesized was reduc ...19761018171
a comparison of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections among infants admitted to hospital with acute respiratory infections.among 741 children under 5 years admitted to hospital with respiratory infections during two winters, infection with influenza a virus was diagnosed in 70 (9%), with influenza b virus in 8 (1%), and with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in 259 (35%). both influenza virus and rsv infections were diagnosed most frequently in children under the age of one year, and diagnosed more frequently in males than females. influenza illnesses were more severe in boys than girls. both infections occurred mor ...19761069818
respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. practical community surveillance.concurrent and sequential outbreaks of infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza a virus were studied, utilizing a local surveillance system for infectious diseases that involved weekly reports from primary care physicians. the patterns of illness in the community and in hospital admissions were relatively specific for these two viruses, and differed according to whether rsv and influenza a virus occurred together or separately. this surveillance system appeared to be a prac ...1976937281
breast-feeding protects against respiratory syncytial virus infections.eight out of 115 infants admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection had been breast-fed compared with 46 out of 167 controls; this difference was statistically significant. twenty-one specimens of human colostrum were examined, and all contained rs virus neutralising activity. specific iga and igg were detected in 18 specimens, whereas igm was detected in none. the titre of iga antibody was usually higher and correlated more closely to the titre of neutralising activity ...1976953560
respiratory syncytial virus proteins. 1976960560
the incidence and aetiology of respiratory tract infections in general practice--with emphasis on mycoplasma pneumoniae.the incidence of respiratory tract infections in patients seeking medical advice at a community care centre (dalby) during 1973 and 1974 was studied. about every third patient seen at this primary health station presented with signs of such infections. in the age groups less than 10, 10-19, 20-39, 40-59 and greater than or equal to 60 years, respiratory tract infections accounted for 65, 45, 32, 18 and 9% of the fotal number of diagnoses made during 1974. the aetiology of acute respiratory tract ...1976783048
detection of antibody to respiratory syncytial virus by membrane fluorescence.an indirect membrane fluorescent antibody technique was established to study hep 2 cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. it was possible to detect igg and igm antibody to rs virus in the sera of patients with respiratory infections using this technique. the technique was further applied to the detection of iga antibody to the same virus in colostrum.1976793751
rhinovirus and influenza type a infections as precipitants of asthma.specimens from 49 persons, 3 to 60 years of age, who were prone to attacks of apparently infectious asthma were cultured for viruses and bacteria during episodes of symptomatic respiratory infection from september 1972 to june 1973. seventy-one of 128 episodes (55 per cent) of symptomatic respiratory infection occurred with asthma. shedding of respiratory pathogens was associated with 43 of the 128 episodes, and 19 of the 43 etiologically defined episodes occurred with wheezing. seven of 15 rhin ...1976174464
isolation and properties of reovirus from cattle in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease.a cytopathogenic virus was isolated in the primary culture of bovine kidney cells from a nasal swab of affected calves in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in japan in 1971. it agglutinated human type o erythrocytes and produced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. viral replication was inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that the viral nucleic acid was rna. the virus was resistant to ether, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate, and acid, and passed readily through sartorius' membrane fil ...1976181678
[elaboration of a method of producing a highly-active respiratory-syncytial virus diagnosticum for the indirect hemagglutination test]. 197667717
[changes in cell mitosis under the influence of antigenically different strains of respiratory syncytial virus].a peculiar effect on mitosis of rh cells of the reference long strain and strain no. 14 of respiratory syncytial virus isolated during a rise of the incidence of acute respiratory diseases in kharkov was observed. the long strain affected mostly the qualitative and strain no. 14 the quantitative aspects of cell mitosis. the character of pathological mitoses under the influence of the long strain indicated more considerable impairment of the mitotic apparatus of the cells than that caused by the ...197664029
evaluation of a live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in infants.respiratory syncytial virus ts-1 is a live attenuated experimental vaccine which was administered intranasally to 25 infants 11 to 19 months of age. clinical evaluation was carried out following a controlled, double-blind protocol which eliminated observer bias, assessed intercurrent illness, and was designed to detect virus transmission. at the low dose of virus of virus used (100 tcid50) 8 of the 25 recipients were successfully infected with rs virus ts-1 as determined by virus shedding or ant ...1976178852
isolation of viruses and mycoplasmas from middle ear effusions: a review.reports of studies of middle ear effusions (mee) obtained by needle aspiration are reviewed in this paper; viruses were isolated from 29 of 663 patients (4.4%) and respiratory syncytial virus was isolated most frequently (22 patients); only one mycoplasma, m. pneumoniae, was recovered from the mee of 771 patients. viruses were also sought from the throat or nasopharynx of 249 patients with mee; 59 patients (23.7%) had a respiratory virus present. m. pneumoniae was isolated from the throat or nas ...1976178266
respiratory syncytial virus-specific rna synthesis in primary monkey kidney cell cultures.primary rhesus monkey kidney (mk) cell cultures were inoculated with respiratory syncytial virus and treated or untreated with actinomycin d before pulse labeling with uridine-5-3h. the virus-specific rna synthesis was noted at its peak in the nucleoplasm and possibly less so in the cytoplasm of infected cells. at 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation (p.i.), small fractions of available cells were synthesising virus-specific rna with labeling index of 15% and 18% respectively. by 48 hours p.i. syncy ...19769807
the growth of respiratory syncytial virus in organ cultures of bovine foetal trachea.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus grown in organ cultures of bovine foetal trachea at 37 degrees c and ph 7.2 reached maximum titres of up to 1 x 10(5) pfu/ml between 11 and 21 days after inoculation. virus yield was increased three fold by incubation at 33 degrees c, but depressed by the addition of rs virus antiserum, with or without bovine complement, or by the addition of alveolar macrophages. variation in ph or the concentration of foetal calf serum and magnesium chloride did not affect the ...197611765
respiratory syncytial virus infections within families.to examine intrafamily spread of respiratory syncytial virus infections and their associated illnesses, 36 families with 188 members were studied during an outbreak of such infections. nurses visited every three to four days to obtain specimens for viral isolation and interview household members. the virus infected 44.4 per cent of families, and 21.9 per cent of all members. all age groups had appreciable attack rates (with a range of 16.8 per cent in adults to 29.4 per cent in infants). in infe ...1976173995
immunity after infections with myxoviruses.influenza, parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial viruses cause respiratory infections in man with consequent transient and sometimes imperfect against reinfection. humoral immunity and probably cell-mediated immunity contribute to resistance. whereas circulating antibodies are more important for influenza viruses, secretory antibody are relatively speaking more important for parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virsues. measles and mumps induced longlasting immunity which can be correlated ...197659707
a study of possible biohazards in the fluorescent antibody test using adenovirus, coxsackievirus, herpesvirus, and respiratory syncytial virus as antigens.infectious adenovirus type 5 and coxsackievirus type b5, both nonlipid-containing viruses, were isolated from cells fixed in acetone at 22 degrees c for 15 min, from acetone used for fixation, from the solution used for washing slides during the fluorescent antibody procedure, and after complete processing of antigen preparations with serial twofold dilutions of human antisera and fluorescein-labeled goat anti-human immunoglobulin g. lipid-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 and respiratory s ...197661971
respiratory syncytial virus ts mutants and nuclear immunofluorescence.a replicated sector-plating procedure was used to isolate 35 induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and one spontaneous ts mutant from a wild-type stock of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus cloned from recent clinical material. seven of these mutants were ts for plaque formation at 37 degrees c as well as at the restrictive temperature of 39 degrees c. the wild-type strain did not differ markedly from standard laboratory strains of rs virus. it was dependent on exogenous arginine (84 mug/ml) ...197662058
respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: quantitation and duration of shedding.infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied to delineate the quantitative shedding patterns and duration of shedding of rsv. nasal wash specimens collected daily from 19 infants contained a mean maximal titer of 4.34 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses per milliliter. on admission, the mean titer was 4.14 log10 tcid50, with no consistent decline until after day 6. the mean duration of shedding for 23 patients until they were virus negative was 6.7 days with ...1976180274
effect of passive antibody on parainfluenza virus type 3 pneumonia in hamsters.both parainfluenza virus type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus may produce life-threatening pneumonia or bronchiolitis in infants less than 6 months old. almost all infants in this age group possess passively acquired maternal antibodies to both viruses. it has been suggested that maternal antibodies may actually participate in the pathogenesis of these diseases in early infancy. this investigation examined the effect of moderate levels of passive antibody on the development of pneumonia in ham ...1976181324
respiratory syncytial virus and heart disease. a report of two cases.two patients had cardiac disease and serological evidence for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. the first patient had myocarditis and complete atrioventricular heart block with repeated syncopal episodes two weeks following infection. the second patient had alcoholic cardiomyopathy and worsening congestive heart failure associated with rsv infection. the significance of rsv infection in these two patients may bear a significant relationship to sudden infant death syndrome, chronic car ...1976181602
viral infection in wheezy bronchitis and asthma in children.virus isolation was attempted on 267 out of 360 patients with wheezy bronchitis or asthma admitted to hospital during a 3-year period. viruses were isolated on 39 occasions, the most common being respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus. the peak months for virus isolation were february and august. virus isolation was significantly more common in readmissions than in first admissions (p less than 0-01). viruses were isolated in both sexes throughout childhood and though the admission rate fell ...1976187127
virus antibody levels in iga deficiency.iga-deficient blood donors and their age- and sex-matched controls were compared for the occurrence of complement-fixing antibodies in serum against several viruses. the level in the iga-deficient persons was slightly higher against several respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, type b influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus) that give rise to localized infections, and against coxsackie b group of viruses. no corresponding difference was observed in mumps, varicella, ...1976189383
viral, mycoplasma and bacterial infections in nurses with symptoms of respiratory diseases.a consecutive series of 282 nurses of the university hospital, groningen, with complaints of the nose and/or throat associated with coughing and/or hoarseness were examined between april 1965 and february 1968. the intent was to obtain information on the incidence of viral, mycoplasma and bacterial infections, and on the relationship of these infections in nurses with chronic nonspecific lung disease (cnsld). the following results were obtained: 1. virus infections caused by influenza virus (a, ...1976189386
isolation of respiratory syncytial virus from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in a paediatric observation ward in kenya. 1976964190
correlation of exposure to various respiratory pathogens with farmer's lung disease.complement-fixing antibodies (cfa) to a panel of microorganisms commonly associated with respiratory disease were measured in a number of agricultural populations. the panel included mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza viruses a and b, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. the agricultural populations were grouped according to a clinical history of farmer's lung disease (fld) and the presence of antibodies to the thermophilic actinomycetes (ta). farmers ...1977197136
hospital-acquired viral respiratory illness on a pediatric ward.all 171 patients admitted to four study rooms containing cribs were under surveillance during the winter and spring for development of nosocomial respiratory and infection. one sixth of the 90 children at risk acquired respiratory illness while in the hospital. viruses were isolated from two thirds of the patients with nosocomial infections: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and influenza a and b. serial viral cultures of the children under surveillance suggested that nine ...1977197478
enzyme immunoassays for viral diseases.microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for viral diseases were investigated with special reference to rubella. standardization of the carrier plates, antigens, conjugates, and substrate was found to be essential. the elisa results were compared with results of hemagglutination-inhibition tests for rubella, and elisa was used in an epidemiologic study. antibodies to cytomegalovirus, measles, adenovirus, coxsackieviruses, and herpesviruses were also assayed by elisa. elisa has veter ...1977198490
quantitative, semiautomated, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for viral antibodies.a quantitative, semiautomated, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for viral antibodies was developed. the quantitation was based on the comparison of the antibody activity of a serum to a standard curve obtained from a reference serum. this comparison was made automatically by a programmable calculator connected with the spectrophotometer. the assay was simplified further by use of specially designed disposable microcuvettes and micropipettes. the reproducibility of the test was good (1 sd = 5%), ...1977198492
[immunofluorescent method of studying autopsy material in acute pneumonia].the immunofluorescent procedure in examinations of the autopsy material from 304 fatal cases hospitalized for acute pneumonia permitted to diagnose influenza a2 in 29.0%, influenza b in 18.1%, parainfluenza in 3.5%, adenovirus infection in 9.2% and respiratory syncytial virus infection in 3.5% of the cases. in the period of a high incidence of acute respiratory infection, influenza a2 was detected by this method in 40.9% and influenza b in 50% of the cases. simultaneous examinations of the mater ...1977198964
susceptibility of bovine macrophage and tracheal-ring cultures to bovine viruses.cultures of macrophages initiated from peripheral blood monocytes and organ cultures of tracheal rings were tested for their susceptibility to bovine viruses. with several notable exceptions, viruses cytopathogenic for bovine embryonic lung cultures were cytopathogenic for macrophages. although cowpox virus replicated in macrophages, pseudocowpox did not, and although pseudorabies virus replicated within macrophages, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and dn-599 herpesviruses did not. bluetongue ...1977201195
investigation of causative agents of bovine respiratory tract disease in a beef cow-calf herd with an early weaning program.serum samples were collected from early weaned fall calves shortly after the onset of respiratory tract disease. antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, parainfluenza type 3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 (bav-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined on paired (acute and convalescent) serums. seroconversion rate (a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer) for ibr virus was 4.3%, pi-3 virus--16.3%, bv ...1977201196
[virus inactivation by hydrogen peroxide].the effect of h2o2 on adenovirus types 3 and 6, adenoassociated virus type 4, rhinoviruses 1a, 1b, and type 7, myxoviruses, influenza a and b, respiratory syncytial virus, strain long, and coronavirus strain 229e was studied in vitro, using different h2o2 concentration and timec of exposure. h2o2 in a 3 percent concentration inactivated all the viruses under study within 1--30 min. coronavirus and influenza viruses were found to be most sensitive. reoviruses, adenoviruses and adenoassociated vir ...1977203115
use of the indirect fluorescent antibody test in the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antibodies in bovine serum.the indirect fluorescent antibody test was adapted for identifying bovine respiratory syncytial virus and its specific antibody, using goat turbinate (gtu) cells. the virus caused maximal cytopathic effects in gtu cells 4 to 8 days postinfection, but fluorescence was not readily detected during this period. fluorescence was maximal in infected gtu cells at 24 to 36 hours postinfection, but could be detected 48 hours postinfection. bovine serums (331) which had been submitted to the oklahoma anim ...1977335928
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection of bovine embryonic lung cultures: a kinetic study by the fluorescent antibody technique.development of fluorescence in bovine embryonic lung cells infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was studied by the fluorescent antibody (fa) test. similar patterns of fluorescence were seen with the direct fa test, in which the immunoglobulin g fraction of antiserum to brsv was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and used; and the indirect test, in which antiserum to the long strain of respiratory syncytial virus and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-rabbit imm ...1977337862
the viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in children in uganda.the role of viruses in respiratory diseases of young children in uganda was studied. a viral etiology was established in 36% of the infections investigated. the most important pathogens were found to be respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses, which were responsible for 26% of infections investigated. they caused both upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. there was little or no seasonal variation in the etiology of these infections. adenoviruses were found to be less importan ...1977201391
respiratory syncytial virus infections. comments. 1977403500
experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection of four species of primates.four species of nonhuman primates were inoculated intranasally with 10(3.1) to 10(3.7) plaque forming units (pfu) of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. adults squirrel monkeys and newborn rhesus monkeys became infected and shed small quantities (peak titer 10(2.0) pfu/ml of nasopharyngeal swab specimen) of virus, but illness did not develop. infant cebus monkeys aged 2 months became infected, shed 10(2.3) to 10(3.8) pfu/ml of nasopharyngeal swab specimen, but did not become ill. chimpanzees aged ...1977416176
a field outbreak caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. 1977910662
polypeptides of respiratory syncytial virus.radiolabeled respiratory syncytial virus was purified from medium that had been harvested from infected hela cell monolayers before it contained much cellular debris. after isopycnic centrifugation in linear gradients prepared with sucrose dissolved in hanks balanced salt solution, almost all the infectivity and most of the radioactivity were recovered in a single band with density from 1.16 to 1.23 g/cm3 and a peak at 1.2 g/cm3. analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the purifi ...1977833931
respiratory syncytial virus in early infancy. circulating antibody and the severity of infection.forty-one children less than 6 months of age from whom respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was isolated were divided into groups of varying severity of illness. no relationship was demonstrated between severity of illness and the complement fixation titer to rsv in cord sera, acute sera, or convalescent sera. an increase in igm level of greater or equal to 15 mg/100 ml in association with the rsv infection was seen more frequently in infants who had higher igm levels in their acute sera than in in ...1977835529
apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in young infants.the hospital charts of 274 infants under 6 months of age with culture-proved respiratory syncytial virus infections were reviewed. fifty-six infants (20.4%) demonstrated apnea in association with rsv infection. predisposing factors significantly correlated with apnea included premature birth and young chronologic age at the time of virus infection. the clinical implications of this association are discussed.1977839330
mycoplasma pneumonia: a study on hospitalized american patients with pneumonia in vietnam.a prospective study on consecutively hospitalized pneumonia patients showed that 41.5% of 58 patients had a fourfold rise in the complement-fixation titer for mycoplasma pneumoniae. viral isolation techniques and serologic tests for influenza a1, a2 and b, parainfluenza 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus and the adeno virus group yielded only a single positive isolate for influenza a2. serologic tests for melioidosis, leptospirosis, scrub, murine and epidemic typhus and psittacosis were all ne ...1977889014
respiratory syncytial virus infections. comments. 1977846773
human antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.a chromium release assay was established to study human antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) of hep 2 cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of specific antibody to rs virus caused in vitro lysis of rs virus infected target cells. adcc was detected in sera of infants with rs virus infections and in specimens of colostrum. the ability of serum or colostrum to mediate the cytotoxic reaction appeared to be related to ...1977862248
isolation and characterization of further defective clones of a temperature sensitive mutant (ts-1) of respiratory syncytial virus.after exposure of the temperature sensitive ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus to the chemical mutagne, nitrosoguanidine (ng), 2 clones of virus were recovered which were more temperature sensitive and stable genetically than the ts-1 mutant. the initial criterion used for selection of the 2 clones was decreased ability to produce plaques at 36 degrees c. subsequently it was shown that the 2 clones grew less well at the restrictive temperatures of 37 degrees and 38 degrees c than did the ...1977889442
the shedding and spreading of respiratory syncytial virus. 1977846775
effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection of hela-cell macromolecular synthesis.cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus eventually die but there appears to be no specific mechanism for shutting off cellular synthesis of macromolecules. dna and rna synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of labelled thymidine or uridine, do not begin to shut down until some time between 11 and 18 h after infection. by 18 h their rates of synthesis are reduced to approx. 50% for dna and 35% for rna. protein synthesis continues throughout the course of infection at approximate ...1977915484
prospects for prevention of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus. 1977846778
[chronic infection of hela cells with respiratory syncytial virus].chronic infection of hela cells with respiratory syncytial virus (hela-rs) was produced at a multiplicity of infection of 0.00005 tcd50/cell. during 144 days, 21 passages of hela-rs culture were done. the chronically infected cells did not differ from the control culture in the growth pattern and their proliferative activity. the infectious virus was found in the culture fluid with cells at 7 and 14 days after inoculation of the culture. subsequent attempts at isolation of the infectious virus f ...1977898888
further characterization of the complementation group b temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus.ts-2, a temperature-sensitive and plaque morphology mutant of respiratory syncytial virus and sole representative of complementation group b, was compared with members of the other complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus (group a [ts-1] and group c [ts-7]). ts-2 was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold more restricted in growth and ability to spread at restrictive temperatures (37, 38, and 39 degrees c) than at the permissive temperature (32 degrees c). in temperature shift-up experiments ...1977904033
the tecumseh study of respiratory illness. x. relation of acute infections to smoking, lung function and chronic symptoms.the relationship of acute respiratory illness and infection to chronic bronchitis was investigated in the community of tecumseh, michigan. families were randomly selected for study from among all those in the community and they were followed for periods of one year. occurrence of acute respiratory illnesses was identified on a weekly basis. frequency of chronic symptoms of cough and sputum production was separately ascertained. lung function studies were performed three times during the course o ...1978623090
respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults: clinical, virologic, and serial pulmonary function studies.we prospectively studied 10 previously healthy adults who developed an acute respiratory illness while working in an infants' ward during a community outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection. in addition to clinical and viral evaluation, total respiratory resistance before and after carbachol aerosol inhalation was measured. all 10 subjects had respiratory syncytial virus infection documented by viral isolation, and all developed pronounced cough, nasal congestion, and fever. eight subj ...1978415653
studies on the occurrence and significance of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in saskatchewan.seventy-six percent of 49 blood samples from saskatchewan cattle had serum antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus. experimental infection of one week and seven month old calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (iowa strain) caused transient fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and coughing but no macroscopic or microscopic lesions attributable to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.1978667711
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection of bovine embryonic lung cultures: enhancement of infectivity with diethylaminoethyl-dextran and virus-infected cells.the effects of incorporating diethylaminoethyl-dextran (deae-d) in the inoculum with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) on the infectivity of brsv was evaluated. a concentration of 40 microgram deae-d/ml provided maximal enhancement of infection as determined by the time of onset of cytopathic effect (cpe), the percentage of cells infected by the inoculum, and the amount of virus produced. when deae-d was used in the inoculum, the cpe appeared a day earlier, the percentage of cells infect ...1978565198
behavior of respiratory syncytial virus in piglet tracheal organ culture.piglet tracheal organ cultures were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and observed for 21 days. light and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated destruction of the ciliated epithelial cells and the presence of viral antigens in the epithelium. virus was shed in high titer for 12--19 days. ciliostasis could be quantitated, and it was shown that several strains of rsv grew and damaged tracheal organ cultures in a similar fashion. a temperature-sensitive mutant of rsv, ts-1, was e ...1978712118
juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in pregnant women: failure to associate with coxsackie b1-6, mumps, or respiratory syncytial virus infections. 1978660368
evaluation of five temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus in primates: i. viral shedding, immunologic response, and associated illness. 1978104004
evaluation of five temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus in primates: ii. genetic analysis of virus recovered during infection.five temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (ts-1, ts-1 ng-1, ts-1 ng-16, ts-2, and ts-7), previously evaluated forinfectivity and virulence in chimpanzees and owl monkeys, were also assayed for in vivo genetic stability. none of the five mutants tested was completely stable genetically. thus, virus which had lost some or all of the ts property was recovered from each infected chimpanzee. significantly, each ts-1 ng-1 isolate retained some degree of temperature se ...1978104003
interferon in nasal secretions from infants with viral respiratory tract infections.interferon levels in nasal secretions of infants under one year of age, and hospitalized with lower repiratory tract disease, were measured during two respiratory infection seasons. in the first year serial secretions from 50 infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined. undetectable or low levels of interferon were found in all samples, and mean levels did not fluctuate significantly in relation to disease and recovery. this was in contrast to anti-rsv iga, which appeared an ...1978650342
live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine administered parenterally. 1978652803
development of in vitro correlates of cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in humans.groups of infants and children with infections due to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were tested at the onset of illness and one, two, and five months later for the presence of rsv-specific cell-mediated immunity, as determined by in vitro lymphocyte transformation (ltf) activity, and for complement-fixing (cf) antibody. an ltf response specific for rsv was observed in 65 % of patients, and the response was largely associated with e-rosette-forming thymus-derived (t) lymphocytes. a significan ...1978659924
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of serological response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the detection of serum antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus. the end points of the various sera tested in the assay were approximately 100 times higher than in the complement-fixation test and 2 to 4 times higher than in the plaque reduction test. in addition, the immunosorbent assay appeared to be more efficient than the plaque reduction and complement-fixation techniques for detecting a serological response in young infants (1 to 6 ...1978352952
seven complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus temperature-sensitive mutants.fifteen temperature-sensitive mutants of the rsn-2 strain of respiratory syncytial virus have been classified into six complementation groups, two of which appeared to be homologous with two of the three complementation groups of the a2 strain described by wright et al. (p. f. wright, m. a. gharpure, d. s. hodes, and r. m. chanock, arch. gesamte virusforsch, 41:238--247). thus seven complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus, designated a, b, c, d, e, f, and g, have been defined. the ...1978702637
initiation and maintenance of persistent infection by respiratory syncytial virus.propagation of cells infected with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus at nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees c) resulted in cytolytic, abortive, or persistent infection, depending on the mutant used to initiate infection. five mutants from complementation group b produced cytolytic or abortive infections, whereas a single mutant (ts1) from group d and a noncomplbmenting mutant produced persistent infections. the persistently infected culture initiated by mut ...1978702647
[study and identification of the respiratory syncytial virus isolated from a leukemic cow].a virus was isolated from the lymph nodes of a cow. by its cultural, physical, chemical, and biologic properties it proved identical with the standard bovine respiratory syncytial virus. it multiplied well in cell cultures of calf kidney at ph 7--7.5. introduced in 20-day-old guinea pigs the virus caused anorexia, bristling up of hairs, stunting, and occasionally death. the inoculated guinea pigs developed pneumonia of a proliferative type with langhans' giant cells. the interrlationship between ...1978706146
determination of human immunoglobulin m rheumatoid factor by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay which uses human immunoglobulin g in antigen-antibody complexes.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the rapid determination of human immunoglobulin m (igm) rheumatoid factor (rf) has been developed. preparation of the solid phase for the assay involved the formation of complexes between respiratory syncytial virus-specific human igg antibodies and virus antigen on the surface of polystyrene balls. binding of serum rf to igg in the immune complex was subsequently detected by 125i-labeled mu-chain-specific antibodies to human igm. the amount of radioactive indi ...1978701459
breast-feeding as protection against respiratory syncytial virus. 1978719443
neutralisation of respiratory syncytial virus by cat serum. 1978723929
control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial viral infections.we evaluated methods to control the spread of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) on our infants' ward during a community outbreak of rsv infection. methods included isolation and cohorting of infected infants, strict handwashing, use of gowns, and the cohorting of staff to the ill infants. of 123 infants studied, 36 were admitted with rsv infections. of the remaining 87 contact infants, eight (19%) acquired nosocomial rsv disease. three of the eight developed pneumonia and one died. of the 43 sta ...1978724317
study of 8-year-old children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy.thirty-five children known to have had respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy were examined at the age of 8 and their respiratory function tested. the results were compared with those in 35 controls matched for age, sex, and social class. although 18 of the children who had had bronchiolitis in infancy had experienced subsequent episodes of wheezing, these were neither severe nor frequent in most cases and had apparently ceased by the age of 8. nevertheless, the mean exercise bronc ...1978620129
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