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recent observations regarding the pathogenesis of recurrent respiratory syncytial virus infections: implications for vaccine development.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza virus are common pathogens for all age groups. currently licensed influenza virus vaccines generally provide protection from clinically detectable disease caused by antigenically matched challenging viruses. in contrast, vaccine development for rsv has been hampered by the inability of candidate vaccines to induce protective immunity to naturally occurring infection. the precise mechanism(s) responsible for the rsv vaccine failures have not been de ...19921621415
rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections by using a shell vial assay and monoclonal antibody pool.we compared the detection of seven respiratory viruses by using a commercially available monoclonal antibody pool in a 2-day shell vial assay with that by using standard cell culture with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)-negative nasal secretions from hospitalized children. we found 179 respiratory virus isolates by either method in 675 specimens. overall, the shell vial assay detected 147 of 179 (79%) of the positives after 2 days; cell culture detecte ...19921624569
oesophageal foreign body: an unusual cause of respiratory symptoms in a three-week-old baby.impaction of a foreign body in the oesophagus is common in children. if the event is not witnessed by an adult or the object is radiolucent the diagnosis is difficult as respiratory symptoms may predominate. we report a three-week-old child with respiratory symptoms who had both a respiratory syncytial virus infection and a radio-lucent oesophageal foreign body. this case is the youngest yet reported and serves as a remainder of the difficulties in the diagnosis of this important condition.19921624897
respiratory syncytial virus infection reinforces reflex apnea in young lambs.to evaluate the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on reflex apnea elicited by application of water on the laryngeal mucosa, 11 healthy, term lambs were chronically instrumented at 2 wk of age. six lambs were inoculated with bovine rsv, and five lambs were mock-infected. the lambs were studied awake and unsedated before and 4, 8, 14, and 21 d after infection. rsv infection was associated with slight rhinorrhea and with moderately increased tracheal mucous discharge. there was ...19921570205
epidemiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially those due to haemophilus influenzae type b, in the gambia, west africa.mortality surveys undertaken in rural areas of the gambia, a small country on the west coast of africa, indicate that acute lower respiratory tract infections (alri) are the most frequent cause of death among children and that approximately 1 in 25 rural gambian children dies from an alri before the age of 5 years. community surveys suggest that each child experiences an average of one episode of alri accompanied by radiographic changes before reaching this age. etiologic studies have shown that ...19921588169
pulmonary eosinophilic response to respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice sensitized to the major surface glycoprotein g.to investigate the contribution of immunity to individual respiratory syncytial (rs) virus proteins to the augmentation of pulmonary pathology, mice were scarified with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvv) expressing individual rs virus proteins. the pulmonary response to infection with rs virus was monitored by bronchoalveolar lavage (bal). in mice vaccinated with the major surface glycoprotein (g), 14-25% of bal cells were eosinophils; these comprised less than 3% of bal cells from other groups ...19921591217
effect of respiratory syncytial virus on adherence, colonization and immunity of non-typable haemophilus influenzae: implications for otitis media.adherence of non-typable haemophilus influenzae to respiratory epithelium was evaluated in a cotton rat model of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. colonization with non-typable h. influenzae increased to a maximum within 4 days of rsv infection compared to rsv negative controls (4.58 +/- 0.17 vs 3.82 +/- 0.23 log colony forming units (cfu) per ml, p less than 0.05) and then declined over the subsequent 10 days (2.0 +/- 0 vs 3.78 +/- 0.39 cfu per ml, p less than 0.0001). in a second se ...19921592548
effect of "in vitro" exposure of bovine alveolar macrophages to different strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.a vaccine strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and an isolate from pneumonic calves (ac2) were inoculated onto cultures of bovine alveolar macrophages recovered by lung lavage, and the functional properties of the cells observed over a period of 10 days. in most cultures no infectious virus was produced although immunofluorescence indicated the presence of virus antigens in some cells. no significant difference was noted between infected and control macrophage cultures in their capacity to ...19921595187
[induction of il2 responsiveness in allergen-stimulated lymphocytes from children with post respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection].induced interleukin 2 (il2) responsiveness in allergen-stimulated lymphocytes from children with post respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was studied. induction of il2 responsiveness in the patients lymphocytes was observed upon stimulation with allergens such as dermatophgoides farinae (df) antigen, ovalbumin (ova) and alpha-casein. such responses were not induced in age-matched normal lymphocytes. maximum response was shown in lymphocytes from children who had been suffering from the i ...19921622335
approaches to immunization against respiratory syncytial virus. 19921600380
successful therapy with ribavirin of late onset respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis complicating allogeneic bone transplantation.a 21-year-old patient developed interstitial pneumonitis nine months post bone marrow transplant for acute myeloblastic leukaemia. immunofluorescence of broncheoalveolar lavage fluid revealed the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). aerosolized ribavarin therapy resulted in rapid resolution of the pneumonitis with full recovery without any side effects. ribavarin therapy should be considered early in the management of bmt patients who develop rsv pneumonitis.19921600691
respiratory syncytial virus infection in an adult with wegener's granulomatosis.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) has been documented as a pathogen in adults who are immunocompromised because of various underlying conditions. to our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with wegener's granulomatosis (wg) and rsv infection resulting in a fatal outcome.19921600799
serious respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus: prospects for improved therapy and effective immunization. 19921603639
summertime respiratory syncytial virus infection: epidemiology and clinical manifestations.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common serious pathogen known to produce annual winter epidemics in young children. a 2-year study of children with significant respiratory disease during the summer revealed a 21% incidence of rsv infection. respiratory secretions collected from ill children in the lsumc outpatient clinics, from children seen by private physicians, and from children hospitalized with respiratory tract disease were assayed for rsv antigens. approximately 39% of those survey ...19921604385
immunoglobulin g antibody avidity in patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection.the titer and avidity of respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibodies were measured in 196 serum specimens from 93 children with an acute, laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus infection. an enzyme immunoassay method based on the ability of urea to dissociate the bound antibodies with low avidity from the antigen was used. three patterns of immune responses were observed. children less than 6 months of age usually had low titers of antibodies with high avidity in their acute-phase ...19921624567
pneumonia in childhood: etiology and response to antimicrobial therapy.a prospective eight-month study was carried out in 50 children admitted to hospital for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia. a potential causative agent of infection was identified in 44 (88%) cases. using virus isolation, virus antigen detection and enzyme immunoassay serology, respiratory virus infection was diagnosed in 30 (60%) patients. antibody assays for seven bacteria and antigen detection from serum and urine for streptococcus pneumoniae produced evidence of bacterial ...19921597197
oligomerization and post-translational processing of glycoprotein g of human respiratory syncytial virus: altered o-glycosylation in the presence of brefeldin a.the post-translational maturation of the attachment g glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was investigated. the g protein formed homo-oligomers which sedimented in sucrose gradients at the same rate as the fusion f protein tetramer. oligomerization of the g protein was insensitive to carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine, showing that this step occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum prior to o-glycosylation which initiated in the trans-golgi compartment. the sedimentation of t ...19921634876
bovine respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein: mrna sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.the nucleotide sequence of the mrna encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus, strain 391-2, was determined. recombinant vectors containing a cdna of the complete n gene were constructed, and expression of the n protein in eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using two different vector systems. the brs virus n mrna was 1197 nucleotides in length, exclusive of poly(a), and had a single major open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 391 amino acids with ...19921634882
[evaluation of 5 methods for the diagnosis of infections by respiratory syncytial virus].to compare and evaluate four different rapid methods of respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection with the isolation of the virus in cell culture.19921643129
vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.several viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. the protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. measles vaccines, which are based on attenuated live virus, have been quite effective in controlling the diseas ...19921587542
gene junction sequences of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequences of seven gene junctions (n-p, p-m, m-sh, sh-g, g-f, f-m2 and m2-l) of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a51908 were determined by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of cdnas from polytranscript mrnas and from genomic rna. by comparison with the consensus sequences derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) mrnas, gene-start and gene-end sequences were found in all brsv mrnas. there was a perfect match between the brsv and hrsv in all gene-start sequen ...19921626423
sequence analysis of the 22k, sh and g genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus and their intergenic regions reveals a gene order different from that of other pneumoviruses.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of three genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) together with the nucleotide sequences of the relevant intergenic regions were determined. the deduced amino acid sequence of one of the genes shows significant identity (42%) to that of the 22k protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the trtv 22k gene, like that of rsv, has a second open reading frame, although the amino acid sequence deduced from this reading frame does not show an ...19921629697
[isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae and antibodies to the agent in patients with acute bronchitis].isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae and serologic tests were performed on 85 children and adults patients with acute bronchitis admitted to the kitasato institute hospital from january 1989 to may 1991. c. pneumoniae was isolated from sputa or tonsillar swabs in 11 of 57 (19%) patients examined. of these, 10 patients were tested serologically and 9 (90%) had 16 or higher titer of igg antibody. a total of 68 patients were tested serologically, and 17 (25%) revealed positive; 14 had a fourfold rise ...19921624841
antiviral activities of ribavirin, 5-ethynyl-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide, and 6'-(r)-6'-c-methylneplanocin a against several ortho- and paramyxoviruses.5-ethynyl-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (eicar) and 6'-(r)-6'-c-methylneplanocin a (tj13025) are two novel antiviral agents which are targeted against imp dehydrogenase and s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, respectively. these compounds have been examined for their activities against various strains of orthomyxoviruses (influenza virus) and paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza virus, mumps virus, measles virus, and respiratory syncytial virus) in vitro. eicar was 10- to 59-fold more ac ...19921605607
characteristics of successive epidemics of respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19911681283
immunoglobulin therapy in older infants and children.the availability of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations and human monoclonal antibodies has broadened the potential utility of antibody therapy to include treatment of viral infections such as cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and prevention and treatment of serious bacterial infections such as endotoxic shock and pneumonia in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. as new polyclonal and monoclonal immunoglobulin preparations are developed for specific organisms or cl ...19921578124
respiratory syncytial virus in children's hospitals. 19911683996
pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory infections in the developing world: respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza viruses (pivs) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in infants and children with acute lower respiratory infection (lri) in the developed world. less information is available about their importance in lri in the developing world, but they are probably important there also. the pathogenesis of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia involves inoculation and early replication in the upper respiratory tract, followed by aspiration into the lower r ...19911650494
viral vaccines for the prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing nations: priorities and prospects.in concert with bacteria, respiratory viruses play a major role in the high rates of acute lower respiratory infection (alri) experienced in developing nations. respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and influenza viruses, and the adenoviruses are the predominant viral causes of alri in both developed and developing regions. in this review, the epidemiologic data from developing nations for these viral infections are summarized and the current status of viral vaccines for prevention of alri ...19911650495
[epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infections in the canary islands].respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. outbreaks of rsv infection occur yearly during the winter or spring in temperate climates. our study of 634 hospitalized children under 3 years of age with bronchiolitis and pneumonia (november 1988 to january 1990) revealed that 227 (35.8%) had vrs infections. these cases showed a yearly epidemic pattern with 86.8% of the cases occurring during the winter. furthermore, 67.4% of the cases ...19921605415
viral pneumonitis.viral pneumonitis can affect all age groups and normal as well as compromised hosts. this article discusses salient features of pneumonitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza a and b viruses, and cytomegalovirus. the clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for each agent are discussed.19911649731
serum antibodies against respiratory tract viruses in episodes of acute otitis media.although the findings of epidemiological studies have suggested viral respiratory tract infection (rti) to be crucially involved in the development of acute otitis media (aom), the relationship between aom and viral rti remains unclear. serum samples, obtained in the acute and convalescent phases of 57 aom episodes (in 35 children during the first three years of life) were analysed for igg antibodies against influenza a viruses, influenza b viruses, parainfluenza virus type 1, respiratory syncyt ...19911645761
antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.this article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. to study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, pluronic f-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultu ...19911660151
testing of bronchoalveolar lavage for the laboratory diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19921625081
testing of bronchoalveolar lavage for the laboratory diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19921625082
longitudinal study of acute respiratory diseases in rio de janeiro: occurrence of respiratory viruses during four consecutive years.the occurrence of different viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions from children less than 5 years old with acute respiratory infections (ari) was investigated over a period of 4 years (1982-1985) in rio de janeiro. of the viruses known to be associated with ari, all but influenza c and parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 4 were found. viruses were found more frequently in children attending emergency or pediatric wards than in outpatients. this was clearly related to the high incidence of respiratory sy ...19911668974
rotavirus infection of the oropharynx and respiratory tract in young children.oropharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 89 infants hospitalized with respiratory illnesses accompanied or not by diarrhea and 33 control patients without the diseases. rotavirus was detected from 25 of these patients by immunocytology, isolation of the virus in cultures of ma104 cells, or both. none of the control patients gave a positive result. the infection involves squamous cells and globlet cells probably originating from the oropharynx, and ciliated columnar epithelial cells from the re ...19911653306
isolation of adenovirus from lambs with upper respiratory syndrome.the role of viruses in the etiology of recurrent upper respiratory disease in newly weaned lambs was studied during 1984-1985 at the north dakota sheep experiment station. serum samples collected from lambs at weaning, from lambs with signs of respiratory disease, and 3 weeks following the onset of clinical signs were tested for antibodies to ovine adenovirus (oav), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and parainfluenza type-3 virus (pi-3). virus isolation studies were performed on nasal secretion ...19911655060
surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus infection: england and wales 1988-91. 19911669860
acute respiratory infections. 19911669902
viral pneumonia.viral pneumonias are common in infants and young children but rare in adults. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral pathogens in infants and children. influenza virus types a and b account for over one half of viral pneumonias in adults. immunocompromised hosts are susceptible to pneumonias caused by cytomegalovirus (cmv) and other herpesviruses, as well as rubeola and adenovirus. diagnosis of viral pneumonia depends on appropriate viral culture ...19911659594
expression of the f glycoprotein gene from human respiratory syncytial virus in escherichia coli: mapping of a fusion inhibiting epitope.a cdna copy of the gene encoding the entire amino acid sequence of the fusion (f) protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (strain a2) was inserted into a bacterial expression vector containing the lambda pr promoter. upon heat induction, escherichia coli cells harboring the vector produced a 45-kda peptide which reacted with rabbit polyclonal antiserum to the native f protein. expression of the f gene resulted in severe inhibition of bacterial growth, which was overcome by deletion of the d ...19911714666
detection of cattle infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus using nucleic acid hybridization.a ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridization assay to identify cattle infected by bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is described. the rna probe was derived from the coding region at the 3' end of the genome of the nadl strain of bvdv. total rna from infected cell cultures or peripheral blood leukocytes from suspect animals was extracted and applied to nylon membranes with a slot blot apparatus. peripheral blood leukocytes were tested concurrently for bvdv by virus isolation. the results of hybridizat ...19911645592
genomic sequences of respiratory syncytial virus in otitis media with effusion. 19911681337
[epidemiologic and etiologic study of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age].this study also included epidemiologic data to determine the risk factors for the enhancement of these infections. the coagglutination technique for the rapid diagnosis of streptococcus was tried. five hundred and thirty one samples of pharingeal swabs were obtained from children with ari. 74% were younger than one year old. brochopneumonias constituted 66.39% of the cases. in total 357 agents were isolated 35% corresponding to bacteria in pure culture, 23.3% to mixed infections and 11.6% only v ...19911670472
clinical and serological studies in a series of 45 patients with guillain-barré syndrome.we retrospectively reviewed the clinical files of 45 guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) patients admitted to our department between 1979 and 1989. the age distribution was bimodal with a first peak in young adults (20-40 years), and a second one between 60 to 70 years. seasonal distribution showed a late fall and a hivernal predominance. three patients experienced a second attack of gbs 2-9 years after the first one. thirty-one (69%) presented antecedent events, most often a respiratory tract infecti ...19911655983
purification of human respiratory syncytial virus: superiority of sucrose gradient over percoll, renografin, and metrizamide gradients.a method was devised for producing and purifying human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) preparations with high titers. previous attempts to obtain substantial amounts of purified human respiratory syncytial virus have been unsuccessful due to the extreme lability of this virus, its close association with the host cell membrane, and its tendency to aggregate during concentration procedures. we describe a comparative study of various purification media as well as a novel approach for obtaining h ...19911650782
suppressed expression of icam-1 and lfa-1 and abrogation of leukocyte collaboration after exposure of human mononuclear leukocytes to respiratory syncytial virus in vitro. comparison with exposure to influenza virus.human mononuclear leukocytes (mnl) exposed to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) produce net il-1 inhibitor bioactivity with the anticipated consequences of cell cycle arrest, suppressed virus-specific proliferation, and reduced expression of activation markers. these studies were undertaken to investigate effects of exposure and resultant net il-1 inhibitor activity on the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1), and its ligand the lymphocyte function-associated antigen (lfa ...19911677945
respiratory syncytial virus: virology, diagnosis, and vaccination.attempts to develop a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine have revealed the antigenic heterogeneity of the virus and have highlighted the difficulties of inducing protective responses in very young infants. of the two subgroups of the virus, a and b, that cocirculate, a appears to be the most aggressive in infants, but protection against both will be required. although a degree of protection is transferred from mother to the infant via the placenta and by breast feeding, the mechanisms of protec ...19901696677
could preventive intranasal interferon lower the morbidity in children prone to respiratory illness?recent studies have demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be prevented in the family setting through use of intranasal interferon sprays which are commenced when another family member develops a cold. one hundred and twenty-seven children aged 4-9 years who had been hospitalized during their first year of life for severe infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus were studied virologically and epidemiologically during a seven-month period which included the winter months. the hypothe ...19901692602
synthetic peptides corresponding to the f protein of rsv stimulate murine b and t cells but fail to confer protection.we have previously located a major neutralization site of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the polypeptide region extending from amino acids ile221 to glu232. in this report, 8 peptides corresponding to the six major hydrophilic regions of the f1 subunit were selected to analyse their immunogenic and protective capacities as well as their ability to block the high neutralization activities of 4 monoclonal antibodies (mabs). only 5 of the 8 peptides tested induced specif ...19911706591
the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b attachment glycoprotein: analysis of sequence, expression from a recombinant vector, and evaluation as an immunogen against homologous and heterologous subgroup virus challenge.the attachment glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is important in both the antigenic and molecular diversity of the rs viruses. previous work has shown that the glycoprotein g of a subgroup a rs virus expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus provides significant protection against homologous but not heterologous subgroup virus challenge. we undertook the cdna cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the g mrna of a subgroup b rs virus (8/60) to extend molecular comparisons of the ...19901697126
mapping of a fusion related epitope of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein.the region of the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus which reacts with a neutralizing and fusion inhibiting monoclonal antibody, was mapped using a deductive method derived from analysis of western blot reactivity of proteolytic fragments. reaction of the whole fusion protein was found to be so conformationally dependent, that complete digestion of the protein with a variety of proteases resulted in fragments which were not sufficiently reactive to permit mapping. for this reason ...19911711741
respiratory viruses induce production of histamine-releasing factor by mononuclear leukocytes: a possible role in the mechanism of virus-induced asthma.histamine-releasing factor (hrf) is a cytokine produced by mononuclear leukocytes when stimulated with antigens or mitogens. hrf is capable of inducing degranulation of basophils and release of histamine. to determine if respiratory viruses can induce hrf production, mononuclear leukocytes from healthy adult donors were exposed to influenza or respiratory syncytial virus in vitro. hrf activity was tested by culturing the supernatants with fresh peripheral blood leukocytes and measuring the perce ...19911714484
replication of parainfluenza type-3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in isolated bovine type-ii alveolar epithelial cells.the objectives of our research were to determine whether bovine pulmonary type-ii alveolar epithelial cells could be isolated from bovine lung and maintained in tissue culture and to determine whether isolated bovine type-ii alveolar epithelial cells would support productive viral replication of bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. type-ii alveolar epithelial cells were isolated from lungs of 4- to 7-day-old male holstein calves by enzymatic dissociation of p ...19911652906
location of a highly conserved neutralizing epitope in the f glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus.trypsin digestion of the purified f protein from human respiratory syncytial virus (long strain) generated a set of fragments in the amino-terminal third of the f1 subunit which contained the epitope 47f involved in neutralization. sequencing of five escape mutant viruses selected with monoclonal antibody 47f allowed us to map precisely two amino acid residues (262 and 268) of the f1 subunit which are essential for the integrity of this important epitope. the results are discussed in terms of th ...19901688629
[virological surveillance of acute respiratory tract illnesses of children in morioka, japan. i. epidemiological patterns of infection with respiratory viruses over a 10-year period].a virological surveillance of acute respiratory tract illnesses (rti) of children in morioka, japan, was maintained from september 1973 to december 1983. nasal and throat swabs were collected from 4,334 children with rti. these patients consisted of 3,500 children (80.8%) with upper rti (urti) and 834 children (16.2%) with lower rti. when these patients with urti were classified by maximum temperature recorded into 4 groups (less than or equal to 37.0 degrees c, 37.1-37.9 degrees c, 38.0-38.4 de ...19911649233
[respiratory syncytial virus, a pathogenic agent of the respiratory system]. 19911665224
use of intravenous gamma globulin to passively immunize high-risk children against respiratory syncytial virus: safety and pharmacokinetics. the rsvig study group.infants with cardiopulmonary disease develop severe illness from respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. safety, feasibility, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous gamma globulin (ivig) to prevent rsv illness were studied in 23 high-risk infants in a phase i trial. ivig with an rsv neutralizing antibody titer of 1:1,100 in 5% solution was given monthly over a 2- to 4-h period in a clinical setting during the rsv season. the first group (n = 7) received 500 mg/kg of body weight, the second gro ...19911718213
monoclonal antibodies to the fusion protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.five monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine respiratory syncytial virus were characterized by western immunoblotting, radioimmunoprecipitation, and epitope mapping assays. the monoclonal antibodies were found to be specific for the fusion protein, and there were at least two antigen binding sites, one of which was neutralizing.19911723078
immunodominant t-cell epitope on the f protein of respiratory syncytial virus recognized by human lymphocytes.the lymphocyte proliferative responses to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were evaluated for 10 healthy adult donors and compared with proliferative responses to a chimeric glycoprotein (fg glycoprotein) which consists of the extracellular domains of both the f and g proteins of rsv and which is produced from a recombinant baculovirus. the lymphocytes of all 10 donors responded to rsv, and the proliferative responses to the whole virus were highly correlated with the responses to the fg glycop ...19911710289
humanised monoclonal antibody to respiratory syncytial virus. 19911674780
respiratory syncytial virus infections in pediatric liver transplant recipients.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. the charts of 17 children found to have rsv among 493 children who underwent liver transplantation between february 1985 and february 1991 were reviewed. the median age at diagnosis was 20 months. median time of diagnosis was 24 days after transplantation. thirteen patients developed nosocomial infections while convalescing from their transplant. common symptoms inclu ...19921727886
protection of balb/c mice from respiratory syncytial virus infection by immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the g glycoprotein.a synthetic peptide homologous to amino acids 174-187 of the g glycoprotein of the a2 strain of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (g/174-187) was shown to induce protection from live virus challenge of balb/c mice after immunization with three doses of 50 micrograms of peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. immunized mice showed high levels of circulating rs-specific antibodies as detected by elisa assay; however, no neutralizing antibodies were found. moreover, an important short-te ...19911720589
detection of rotavirus antigen in tracheal aspirates of infants and children with pneumonia.clinical manifestations of respiratory tract infection often precede or coincide with rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children. to investigate the possible association between respiratory tract manifestations and rotavirus infection, the authors determined human rotavirus (hrv) antigen and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen in tracheal aspirates of 58 children with clinically diagnosed pneumonia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunofluorescent antibody technique ...19911661224
the role of barrier precautions in infection control.barrier precautions are a fundamental component of any infection control strategy and a critical aspect of all isolation systems. because many infections are transmitted from patient-to-patient via the hands of personnel, gloves and gowns are widely recommended to provide an extra measure of protection against cross-infection. it is not clear whether gloves are superior to handwashing (if performed obsessionally) in this respect, and there is little evidence that gowns confer additional benefit. ...19911679825
[respiratory syncytial virus and immune response: from the diagnosis of infection to prospects of vaccination]. 19911665219
[from prevention to treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections]. 19911665220
ventilatory casebook. respiratory syncytial virus infection complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 19911770400
resistance to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) challenge induced by infection with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rsv m2 protein (vac-m2) is mediated by cd8+ t cells, while that induced by vac-f or vac-g recombinants is mediated by antibodies.it was previously demonstrated that the vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) f, g, or m2 (also designated as 22k) protein (vac-f, vac-g, or vac-m2, respectively) induced almost complete resistance to rsv challenge in balb/c mice. in the present study, we sought to identify the humoral and/or cellular mediators of this resistance. mice were immunized by infection with a single recombinant vaccinia virus and were subsequently given a monoclonal antibody dire ...19921731105
sequence comparison between the fusion protein of human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.the nucleotide sequence was determined for the fusion (f) protein-coding mrna of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (strain rb 94) and the amino acid sequence of the f protein was deduced for comparison with the sequence of human respiratory syncytial virus subtypes a and b (rss-2 and 18537 strains). the human and bovine rs virus f proteins (excluding the cleaved signal peptide) share 83 to 84% homology. the greatest divergence occurred within the f2 subunit in the region preceding the cleav ...19901703214
further studies with short duration ribavirin aerosol for the treatment of influenza virus infection in mice and respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats.ribavirin aerosol administration has been shown to be effective in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in infants and in influenza a and b virus infections in young adults. long treatment schedules and potential for environmental contamination have stimulated the search for alternative dosing schedules. thus, we attempted to determine the length of time of ribavirin aerosol necessary for effective treatment of influenza and rsv. in rsv-infected cotton rats, aerosolizati ...19921736809
viral respiratory infections in the institutionalized elderly: clinical and epidemiologic findings.to prospectively evaluate the incidence and impact of viral respiratory infection in the institutionalized elderly during a winter season.19921740594
depression of lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutinin in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.eight lambs were experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and the responses of their peripheral blood lymphocytes to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin and brsv antigen compared with that of control lambs injected with tissue culture fluid. the lymphocyte transformation responses to phytohaemagglutinin were significantly reduced five and 10 days after experimental infection with brsv (p less than 0.05). it appears that these reductions were associated with cd4+ lymphoc ...19911674620
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv): a common health problem.rsv infections pose a variety of considerations for emergency personnel. nurses should be suspicious of this cause of illness during the winter months because of its prevalence, should be able to recognize and treat those who are experiencing or are at risk for acquiring lower respiratory tract complications, and should be aware of the need to reduce the spread of the virus by using isolation techniques, vigorous hand-washing protocol, and other protective measures to reduce contact with the org ...19921740879
[atypical pathogen spectrum in community-acquired infections of the lower respiratory tract in childhood].over a period of 14 months, we obtained nasal and throat swabs for virological examinations from patients, admitted to hospital with suspected pneumonia. fifty-five cases of perihilar bronchitis and 103 cases of pneumonia were diagnosed based on radiological criteria. in 36% (n = 57) of the children, a pathogen could be determined by antigen elisa. we found the following spectrum: respiratory syncytial virus: 42%; influenza a: 8%; influenza b: 10%; parainfluenza 1: 3%; parainfluenza 2: 10%; para ...19911745250
identification of a linear epitope on the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus.the fusion glycoprotein of the edinburgh strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was cloned from infected cell mrna. a full-length clone was subjected to sequence analysis, and compared with other strains of rs virus. the inferred primary amino acid sequence was used to generate a nested set of overlapping peptides spanning the mature protein. peptides were synthesized on polyethylene pins and examined for their reactivity towards high titre human antisera. decameric peptides spanning the hig ...19901689370
psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold.it is not known whether psychological stress suppresses host resistance to infection. to investigate this issue, we prospectively studied the relation between psychological stress and the frequency of documented clinical colds among subjects intentionally exposed to respiratory viruses.19911713648
cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, il-6, and il-8) production by respiratory syncytial virus-infected human alveolar macrophages.human alveolar macrophages (am) are susceptible to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), but the infection is abortive after the initial cycles of virus replication. we have investigated if rsv infection of am results in the production of cytokines tnf, il-6, and il-8, all of which may modulate inflammatory and immune responses to the virus, as well as may directly protect respiratory epithelial cells against spread of infection. within 1 h after interaction with rsv, increased mrna ...19911753101
a subgroup-specific antigenic site in the g protein of respiratory syncytial virus forms a disulfide-bonded loop.an antigenic site (represented by 15 amino acids, residues 174 to 188, designated peptide 12) of the large glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial virus was demonstrated to be subgroup specific in peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests with murine monoclonal antibodies and human postinfection sera. the role of individual amino acids in this subgroup-specific site was determined by use of single-amino-acid-deletion sets of peptides. when monoclonal antibodies were reacted with the deleti ...19901697913
high dose-short duration ribavirin aerosol treatment--a review.a high-dose, short-duration treatment with ribavirin aerosol consisting of a three-fold increase in concentration of drug (60 mg versus 20 mg of ribavirin per ml in the liquid reservoir of the generator administered for about one-third the time of the standard treatment) was as effective as the standard dosage in the treatment of experimental influenza a and b infections in mice and in the treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats. despite some minor pulmonar ...19911756300
the pneumographic and medical investigation of infants suffering apparent life threatening episodes.investigation of 340 babies who suffered from apparent life threatening episodes (alte) was performed using pneumographic studies and a variety of medical investigations. a number of medical abnormalities were demonstrated by history or investigation, including gastro-oesophageal reflux (211), airways pathology (17), evidence of fits (25), brain-stem tumour (2), hypoglycaemia (2), respiratory syncytial virus (8) and possible munchausen by proxy (5). pneumographic abnormalities were detected in 2 ...19911756076
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in hospitalized adults. 19911747009
acute respiratory infections in australian aboriginal children: current knowledge and future requirements.although inadequately documented, it is clear that acute respiratory infection (ari) is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in australian aboriginal children. aris continue to cause substantial mortality in aboriginal children, and they are likely to cause a variety of potentially serious sequelae. the literature emphasizes the importance of pneumonia as a cause of hospitalization of aboriginal children. there is good evidence that streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae a ...19911750265
impact of influenza virus infection as a cause of pediatric hospitalization.from winter 1989 to spring 1990, a severe epidemic caused by influenza a (h3n2) and b viruses developed in japan. during the epidemic (december 1989 to february 1990), 244 children were admitted to the pediatric ward of nippon kokan hospital: 53 (21.7%) were hospitalized with influenza virus infection, 22 (9.0%) with rotavirus gastroenteritis, and 17 (7.0%) with respiratory syncytial virus infection. among those with influenza, 24 had type a and 29 had type b. most were young healthy children wi ...19921730904
eosinophil degranulation in the respiratory tract during naturally acquired respiratory syncytial virus infection.eosinophil cationic protein (ecp), a cytotoxic protein contained in the granules of eosinophils, has been suggested as having an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. to determine whether ecp plays a similar role in bronchiolitis, we tested samples of nasopharyngeal secretions, obtained from a group of 47 children with various forms of illness related to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and from 26 children with non-rsv upper respiratory tract illness or bacterial pneumonia, for the pre ...19921731020
[detection of rs viral sequences in otitis media effusion from children].the role of respiratory syncytial virus (rs virus) in otitis media with effusion was studied. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested pcr) were used to provide accurate methods for detection of rs viral sequences in the otitis media effusion from children. we could find rs viral sequences in 10/12 samples tested which had been collected during and even after natural outbreak of rsv in the community. these observations suggest rs virus ...19911757848
demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus in an autopsy series.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen was demonstrated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy tissue using an immunoperoxidase technique. eighteen autopsy cases were selected on the basis of one of the following criteria: a positive culture for rsv, antemortem or postmortem; positive elisa test for rsv, antemortem or postmortem; or postmortem histology suggestive of paramyxovirus infection. controls included three cases from which parainfluenza or influenza virus had been cultured and ...19901695371
occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes in hospitalized children in cleveland, ohio from 1985 to 1988.in order to determine the frequency of occurrence of the two respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subtypes in hospitalized children in cleveland, ohio, we analyzed clinical isolates obtained during three consecutive winter epidemic seasons between 1985 and 1988. rsv was recovered from the frozen clinical specimens of 197 patients: 176 subtype a, and 21 subtype b. subtype a predominated during all three epidemic seasons, ranging from 83 to 94% of isolates. we surveyed the clinical records of 16 chil ...19911758737
"management of the infant with respiratory syncytial virus". 19911762047
the cold war against rsv.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in high risk patients. the authors discuss prevention and treatment of this virus.19911765449
post-translational processing and oligomerization of the fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus.the post-translational maturation of the fusion protein (f) of human respiratory syncytial virus was investigated. chemical cross-linking experiments indicated that f forms homotetramers and provided evidence that the intermonomer contacts involve primarily the f1 subunit. homooligomerization as measured by sedimentation in sucrose gradients was insensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, indicating that it occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. cleavage of the f0 precursor to yield t ...19911765771
[pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus in the adult]. 19911768759
cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (m) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus.several biochemical properties and the sequence of the fusion glycoprotein (f) have indicated that turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) is a pneumovirus, subfamily pneumovirinae of the paramyxoviridae family. as trtv was known to generate polycistronic mrnas, cdna was generated from trtv strain uk/3bv/85-infected vero cell mrnas using an oligonucleotide primer corresponding to a region of the f gene. sequencing of four cdnas revealed that the gene adjacent to the beginning (3' end) of the f gene ...19921733097
[indices of the humoral response to respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with acute bronchitis].examinations of 30 children with acute bronchitis have revealed a respiratory syncytial (rs) viral infection in 18. a reduced response to rs virus was seen in patients with bronchitis complicated by obstruction, in contrast to that in cases without obstruction. humoral response to this virus was reduced and delayed in younger children as against that in elder ones. even high levels of specific igg did not result in vitro neutralization of rs virus.19911724037
immune responses of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica.the immune responses of lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and pasteurella haemolytica were compared with lambs infected with bovine rsv or pasteurella haemolytica alone. superinfection with p. haemolytica aggravated the reduction in the number of cd5+, cd4+ and lca p220+ (b) lymphocytes caused by bovine rsv, but it had no effect on the neutralizing antibodies against p. haemolytica cytotoxin. serum samples obtained from lambs experimentally infected with ...19911779037
respiratory syncytial virus infection and prevalence of subgroups a and b in hawaii.respiratory syncytial virus was isolated from hospitalized children in hawaii in each month of the year during the period january 1987 to august 1989. subgroup a and subgroup b strains cocirculated, with subgroup a predominating. there was an alternating early-season and late-season peak incidence cycle as reported elsewhere.19911774271
rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection by using pernasal swabs.the sensitivity and specificity of direct immunofluorescence microscopy performed on pernasal swab specimens and compared with those of nasopharyngeal aspirates were 93 and 99%, respectively. posterior nasopharyngeal swabs applied immediately to microscope slides allow a rapid and simple screening procedure for the diagnosis of acute respiratory syncytial virus infections.19911774282
spontaneous pasteurellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis): clinical, laboratory, and epizootiological observations.we observed clinical signs, compared adrenal responses, and performed diagnostic tests on 12 captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) during a spontaneous outbreak of pasteurellosis. cortisol in urine and feces was measured for bighorns sampled three times between 20 october and 1 november 1986. by 6 november, four of these had developed pneumonia, four showed only mild rhinitis, and four remained clinically normal. bighorns that ultimately developed pneumonia showed ele ...19911758018
[virological surveillance of acute respiratory tract illnesses of children in morioka, japan. ii. rhinovirus infection].rhinoviruses (hrvs) were isolated from 307 children (7.1%) in the virological surveillance of 4334 children with acute respiratory tract illnesses in morioka, japan (september 1973-december 1983). although hrvs were isolated throughout the year, frequency of hrv infection was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) during the april-november (233/2853; 8.2%) than during the december-march (47/1481; 5.0%). there were two peaks of incidence in may (9.5%) and september (9.1%). during the may-septem ...19911665166
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