formulation of the purified fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus with the saponin qs-21 induces protective immune responses in balb/c mice that are similar to those generated by experimental infection.the feasibility of employing a vaccine composed of the purified fraction 21 of quillaja saponaria (qs-21) and the fusion (f) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) to induce protective immune responses in the lower respiratory tract of balb/c mice was examined. our goal was to compare local and systemic immune responses with those induced following immunization with the protein adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (f/aloh) adjuvant or by experimental infection. sera from mice vaccinated with th ...19957793137
current approaches to the development of vaccines against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza virus (piv). a meeting report of the who programme for vaccine development.the paramyxoviruses respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) are the two most common agents of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children throughout the world. rsv causes yearly epidemics of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children, while piv3 is a common cause of bronchiolitis, pneumonia and croup. together these two agents account for up to 30% of all hospitalizations of infants and young children for respiratory tract disease ...19957793140
respiratory syncytial virus and bronchiolitis.viral bronchiolitis is a common world-wide disease of infants and children resulting in respiratory failure and occasionally death. the major underlying pathophysiology is airway inflammation of peripheral airways and airway hyperresponsiveness to bronchoprovocation. management is primarily prevention through strict hand washing and avoidance of exposures during respiratory seasons, especially in small infants who have underlying heart or lung disease. careful supportive therapy, including fluid ...19957793284
safety and bioequivalency of three formulations of respiratory syncytial virus-enriched immunoglobulin.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) causes serious illness (lower respiratory illness) in preterm infants. rsv antibody-enriched immunoglobulin (rsvig) that was lyophilized (lyo) protected against rsv lower respiratory illness. the food and drug administration now requires an additional viral inactivation step (vi). we compared lyo, lyo-vi, and a more convenient liquid rsvig (liq-vi) in 30 preterm infants (median age, 7 months; median weight, 5.4 kg). infants were randomized to receive lyo (n = 10 ...19957793870
etiology of acute respiratory tract infections among children in a combined community and hospital study in rio de janeiro.we reviewed data collected between january 1987 and december 1989 on the etiology of acute respiratory infections (ari) among 827 children in two low-income communities and a hospital in rio de janeiro. respiratory syncytial virus was identified in 38% of cases of ari, influenza a virus in 1%, parainfluenza 3 virus in 1%, and multiple viruses in 1%. respiratory syncytial virus was most prevalent among hospitalized children, with seasonal increases in the late fall and winter. the principal bacte ...19957795085
incidence of acute otitis media associated with group a and b respiratory syncytial virus infections.the comparative association of respiratory syncytial virus group a and b infections with acute otitis media was determined by analysing the hospital records of children with community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus infection during three successive outbreaks from 1987 to 1992. of 326 episodes analysed, 192 (59%) were caused by group a and 134 (41%) by group b infections. acute otitis media was diagnosed in 101 (75%) children with group b infection, compared with 119 (62%) with group a infe ...19957795353
respiratory virus antibodies in adults of a norwegian community: prevalences and risk factors.the aims were to examine prevalences as well as demographic and environmental predictors of respiratory virus antibodies in serum.19957797347
protective and disease-enhancing immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus.the national institutes of health, centers for disease control and prevention, and world health organization jointly sponsored a workshop on protective and disease-enhancing immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the primary purpose of the meeting was to discuss protective and disease-enhancing immune responses to rsv in the context of opportunities and barriers to the development of rsv vaccines. although both live attenuated and subunit vaccines have been developed, it is not y ...19957798649
detection of respiratory syncytial virus by rna-polymerase chain reaction and differentiation of subgroups with oligonucleotide probes.the polymerase chain reaction (rna-pcr) was used for specific detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) genomes in clinical specimens. a set of primers was selected from conserved regions of the 1b and n genes for detection of both subgroups. the primers were found to be rsv specific, all rsv strains generated a 218 bp product, and no rsv specific amplified product was obtained when nucleic acids from a variety of micro-organisms from the respiratory tract were subjected to the rna-pcr. we ...19947798890
respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19947799205
epidemiology of viral infections and evaluation of the potential benefit of om-85 bv on the virologic status of children attending day-care centers.viral investigations were performed during 4 winter seasons (88/89, 89/90, 92/93, 93/94) in children attending day-care centers (dccs) in the rhône département in eastern france. over the total observation period of 4 winter seasons, 780 children were screened with a nasal swab for the presence of viruses. of those, 230 (29.5%) had a positive viral culture. the viruses identified were respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), influenza a and b virus, parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, adenov ...19947800968
acute respiratory tract infection in daycare centers for older evaluate the rate of specific pathogens and clinical syndromes associated with acute respiratory tract infections (arti) in frail older persons attending daycare.19957806736
respiratory syncytial virus infections in human beings and in cattle.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) causes yearly outbreaks of respiratory disease in human beings and cattle all over the world. most severe human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv)-associated disease is observed in children less than 1 year of age while most severe bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv)-associated disease is observed in calves less than 6 months of age. two subgroups of hrsv have been identified. the existence of two subgroups of brsv has been repeatedly suggested but is not ...19947806887
safety and immunogenicity of a subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in children 24 to 48 months old.a subunit vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) consisting of purified fusion glycoprotein (designated pfp-1) was tested in children 24 to 48 months old. two doses of 20 micrograms (n = 13) and 50 micrograms (n = 10) were compared with a saline (n = 24) placebo control group. local and systemic reactions, reported within 96 hours postvaccination, were mild, transient, and did not differ significantly from the control cohort. long term follow-up through at least one, and in some cases two ...19947808848
development of nested pcr assays for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples.two nested pcr assays were developed for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). primers were selected from the gene encoding the f fusion protein (pcr-f) and the gene encoding the g attachment protein (pcr-g). biotinylated oligonucleotide probes, termed f and g, were selected for the hybridization of the respective pcr products. the sensitivities of the pcr-f and pcr-g assays were similar, both detecting 0.1 tissue culture infective dose of the virus. the pcr-f assay amplifi ...19947814551
cytotoxic t cells specific for a single peptide on the m2 protein of respiratory syncytial virus are the sole mediators of resistance induced by immunization with m2 encoded by a recombinant vaccinia virus.we have studied the immunobiology of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a major cause of respiratory tract morbidity in children. as part of these studies, it was previously found that immunization of balb/c (h-2d) mice with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) which encoded the m2 protein of rsv provided complete protection against infection with rsv. this protection was transient and associated with m2-specific cd8+ t-cell (tcd8+) responses. in this study, we used two approaches to demonstrate t ...19957815502
neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus after cell attachment.little is known about the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) which causes recurrent infections in human despite the virtually universal presence of neutralizing serum antibodies. human serum neutralization titers showed strong correlation with post-cell-attachment neutralizing titers for both rsv-convalescent sera and control sera but showed less strong correlation with cell-attachment blocking titers. neutralization was effective for the first 60 ...19957815504
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: respiratory syncytial virus activity--united states, 1994-95 season. 19957815647
[treatment with intermittent high dosage corticotherapy in chronic interstitial pneumonia in an infant. a case report].chronic interstitial pneumonia (pic) are rare in infants. we report a case of an infant who presented with a chronic interstitial pneumonia following an infection with a respiratory syncytial virus. the diagnosis was confirmed histologically (open lung biopsy). the failure of oral steroid therapy (prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day) led to the use of boluses of methylprednisone (30 mg/kg/day, daily for three days in three series one month apart). the treatment led to a progressive improvement and thirty m ...19947816995
[development of pcr tests for the detection of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial viruses and pestiviruses].the development of pcr assays for detection of bhv-1, brsv, bvdv and another pestiviruses is summarized. a polymerase chain reaction assay based on primers selected from the viral gi glycoprotein gene detected 3 fg pure bhv-1 dna, 0.1-1.0 tcid50 or a single infected cell. no amplification was observed with dna from bhv-2, bhv-3, bhv-4, ohv-1 or ohv-2. however, a fragment of the correct size (468 bp) was amplified using dna from herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, red deer and goat. the pcr ass ...19947817501
comparison of various transport media for viability maintenance of herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and viral transport media (vtm) were compared for effectiveness in preserving the infectivity of herpes simplex virus (hsv), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and adenovirus. the media tested were richards viral transport, sucrose-phosphate-glutamate (spg), virocult, hh medium, tryptose phosphate broth, cell culture medium, and bartel's viral transport. two laboratory strains of hsv (mcintyre and 333) and two clinical isolates (a0301 and a0386), comprising two hsv-1 types and two hsv-2 types, ...19947820992
[virological diagnosis and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections].respiratory syncytial virus infections occur frequently in children, often localized in the upper respiratory tract. outcome is usually quite satisfactory, but in nearly one half of the infants lower tract involvement may cause severe respiratory insufficiency leading to hospitalization in about 1% of the cases. its frequency has been estimated at 20 to 30% of the viral infections in hospitalized infants, 10 times the frequency of the other respiratory virus. respiratory syncytial epidemias last ...19947824493
surveillance of respiratory viruses. a 10-year laboratory-based study.respiratory virus isolates made at the national institute for virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. an active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network of monitoring centres--mainly in the witwatersrand and vereeniging area with one centre in middelburg--that represent a cross-section of the population, provided 68% of the specimens and 74% of the isolates, with an isolation rate of 25.5%. this was significantly higher than that of routin ...19947825079
analysis of cells obtained by bronchial lavage of infants with respiratory syncytial virus study the cellular infiltrate that occurs within the airways of infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, samples of airways secretions were obtained by bronchial lavage from the lower respiratory tract of infants ventilated for this condition and from the upper airway of non-intubated infants with this disorder using nasopharyngeal aspirates. cytospin samples were prepared so that differential cell counts could be performed on the cells obtained and alkaline phosphatase-antialk ...19947826113
3-cyclopentyl-1-adamantanamines and adamantanemethanamines. antiviral activity evaluation and convulsions studies.the synthesis of 3-cyclopentyl-1-adamantanamines and adamantanemethanamines and some of their thioureas is described. the antiviral activity examination of these compounds indicated that some of them inhibited respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection at concentrations that were slightly (up to 5-fold) lower than the cytotoxic concentration. behavioral and convulsions studies of the above mentioned amines, in mice, did not show any dopaminomimetic activity and argue in favor of the existence o ...19947826470
treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in children.treatment of the infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) has varied largely in different centres. recently, however, management practices have become more clear based on a number of studies. an infant with rsv bronchiolitis should be hospitalized in case of insufficient oxygenation, as measured by pulse oximetry, and additional oxygen should be supplied. mist treatment and physiotherapy are not beneficial. bronchodilators seem to be the drug of choice in most infants with bron ...19947826594
seasonal respiratory viral infections. impact on infants with chronic lung disease following discharge from the neonatal intensive care determine the frequency and severity of acute respiratory infections in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia following discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.19957827667
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in children in the 1993-94 winter season in izmir, turkey, by two diagnostic methods.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was searched for in 65 children between 2 months and 2 years of age hospitalized with the presumptive diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, and in 35 children aged 6 months to 8 years with upper respiratory tract symptoms, by direct fluorescent antibody (dfa) test and cell culture. rsv infection was detected in 29.2% of the first and in 11.4% of the second group. the overall positivity rate was 23%. the sensitivity and the specificity of the commercially a ...19947833009
can respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a be distinguished clinically in institutionalized older persons? 19957836643
ribavirin. red book committee recommendations questioned. 19957838661
[respiratory syncytial virus infection in children]. 19947839049
eosinophil cationic protein in nasal secretion and in serum and myeloperoxidase in serum in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: relation to asthma and atopy.eosinophil cationic protein (ecp) in nasal secretions was determined in 34 infants with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis during the acute infection stage and one and six months later. ecp in serum was determined in 19 of these children at the same time. myeloperoxidase (mpo) was determined in the same 19 children at the acute infection stage and after one month. all children were followed prospectively for two years after the infection with regard to the development of bronchial o ...19947841728
viral, mycoplasmal and chlamydial lower respiratory tract infections in hong kong: cost and diagnostic value of serology.a hospital virology laboratory in hong kong tested 10,852 sera by complement fixation (cf) for antibodies against agents of respiratory disease between 1 july 1986 and 31 december 1991. ten commercially supplied antigens were used: influenza virus types a and b, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia species and coxiella burnetii. single sera comprised 69% of the total, including sera from 7488 patients investigated f ...19947841840
[respiratory syncytial virus infections in children].respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most frequently isolated agent in acute lower respiratory tract infections in children. it is responsible for severe disease in young infants and patients with immune deficiencies or congenital heart disease, and appears to be involved in sudden death in infancy. there is also some evidence for its involvement in the development of asthma following bronchiolitis. despite encouraging new therapies (ribavirin, immune globulin, recombinant interferon alfa), ...19947842109
the prediction of epidemics of respiratory infection.experience from 25 years of clinical monitoring of influenza and related illnesses has been considered in relation to the prediction of epidemics of influenza. the monitoring has taken place in a network of sentinel practices in england and wales who report new episodes of illness weekly as they occur. the practice data are aggregated at the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners and weekly rates per 100,000 population are published in age-specific groups. major e ...19947843362
systemic immunoprophylaxis of nasal respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats.the cotton rat model was used to test whether systemically administered immunoglobulin could protect nasal tissues against low challenge doses of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). animals were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection of human immunoglobulin with moderate (1:2226) or high (1:15,000) neutralizing antibody titers to rsv (day 0), challenged intranasally with rsv long at doses ranging from 10(1) to 10(5) pfu (day 1), and sacrificed for virus titration (day 5). pretreatment with moder ...19957844385
nucleotide sequence analysis of the non-structural ns1 (1c) and ns2 (1b) protein genes of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the non-structural (ns) protein genes of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a51908 were determined. the ns1 and ns2 genes were 524 and 489 nucleotides long with single open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 136 and 124 amino acids, respectively. comparison of the ns1 gene of brsv with the corresponding sequences of ovine respiratory syncytial virus (orsv) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) subgroups a and b reveale ...19957844532
c-terminal phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus p protein occurs mainly at serine residue determine which human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) p protein serine residues are modified by cellular protein kinase(s), several mutated versions of p protein were expressed in the absence of other viral proteins. mutations at serines 232 or 232 and 237 drastically reduced the extent of phosphorylation p protein in vivo. serine 232 is the main site of modification and is also essential for in vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase ii. additional in vivo phosphorylation was also detected ...19957844563
pediatric investigators collaborative network on infections in canada (picnic) prospective study of risk factors and outcomes in patients hospitalized with respiratory syncytial viral lower respiratory tract provide information on disease attributable to respiratory syncytial viral lower respiratory tract infection (rsv lri) and to quantify the morbidity associated with various risk factors.19957844667
the etiology of pneumonia in malnourished and well-nourished gambian children.during a 2-year period 159 malnourished children ages 3 months to 5 years with radiologic evidence of pneumonia were investigated to determine the cause of their pneumonia. in addition 119 malnourished children without pneumonia, 119 well-nourished children with pneumonia and 52 well-nourished children without pneumonia were studied as controls. percutaneous lung aspiration was performed on 35 malnourished and 59 well-nourished children with pneumonia. bacteria were isolated from the blood, lung ...19947845751
early childhood wheezing.this review touches on what is being learned about wheezing in infants, how it differs from wheezing in later childhood, and what has been relearned about its natural history. wheeze is a common symptom with a number of different causal mechanisms and has a better prognosis in infants than in older children. the current ability to measure the lung function of infants has clearly shown the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. these effects begin in utero and continue during infancy and c ...19947849809
validation of respiratory syncytial virus enzyme immunoassay and shell vial assay results.the pathfinder respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) enzyme immunoassay (eia) (kallestad), the shell vial (sv) technique, and conventional cell culture (cc) were compared for detection of rsv in nasopharyngeal aspirates. we found sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values of 58.4, 100, 100, and 68.2%; 80.7, 97.2, 97.0, and 81.9%; and 77.6, 97.2, 96.9, and 79.5% for the cc, eia, and sv methods, respectively. the sv and eia techniques were both more sensitive than cc (p ...19947852589
water intoxication after nebulised tribavirin. 19957853967
etiology and severity of community acquired pneumonia in children from uruguay: a 4-year study.the 4-year study (1987-1990) covered the major clinical-epidemiological characteristics of pneumonia in children as diagnosed at the emergency service of the children's hospital, as well as etiologies, and factors involved in the most severe cases. etiology was determined in 47.7% of the 541 pneumonia cases, involving 283 pathogens of which 38.6% were viruses and 12.6% bacteria. viral and mixed etiologies were more frequent in children under 12 months of age. bacteria predominated in ages betwee ...19947855490
[treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections--a review. part 1]. 19957857829
[rapid detection for antigens of respiratory tract viruses by using series of monoclonal antibody].a series of monoclonal antibodies (mcab) against six main respiratory tract viruses(rtv)--respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), influenza a virus (flua), influenza b virus(flub), parainfluenza virus type 1.2.3 (piv1.2.3) were developed, and were used in apaap bridge-enzyme assay to rapidly detect the antigens of rtv. total 260 samples of nasopharyngeal exfoliated cells were collected from young men in beijing army suffered from respiratory tract virus infections. the results showed that 18 cases we ...19947859266
respiratory syncytial virus and allergic conjunctivitis.the pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis is largely conjectural. we investigated the possible involvement of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a ubiquitous respiratory pathogen, in the development of allergic conjunctivitis through immune mechanisms. brush cytology technique was used to obtain conjunctival cells from 30 patients with allergic conjunctivitis and 20 controls. samples were assayed for the presence of rsv sequences with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr ...19947861690
pneumonia in military recruits.lower respiratory disease is a major source of morbidity in military recruits, with hospitalization rates for pneumonia more than 30 times that of the non-recruit population. the etiologic agent remains unknown in over 75% of cases. this study prospectively examined the etiology of pneumonia among recruits at naval training center, san diego, california. recruits presenting with cough, fever, or shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates on chest x-ray were eligible for enrollment. a standard ...19947870317
double blind field evaluation of a trivalent vaccine against respiratory disease in veal calves.a field trial was performed to determine the effect of a trivalent vaccine on clinical respiratory tract problems (crtp) in veal calves. the vaccine has been developed to increase immunity against the causal agents of ibr, bvd and brsv infection. in total 928 calves, housed in 16 compartments of one herd, were involved. in four compartments of 58 calves each, vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves were housed together. four other compartments were treated as a whole and 8 compartments were left un ...19947871698
evidence for the role of glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial virus in binding of neisseria meningitidis to hep-2 cells.viral glycoproteins g and f are expressed on the surface of cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). we investigated the role of these proteins in the previously reported enhanced binding of neisseria meningitidis to rsv-infected hep-2 cells. virus particles attached to bacteria were detected by immunofluorescence with flow cytometry. binding of fitc-labelled bacteria to rsv-infected cells was significantly inhibited by monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein g. unlabelled bacteri ...19947874075
nasal cytokine production in viral acute upper respiratory infection of childhood.children in a day care center underwent serial nasal lavages in order to assess nasal cytokine expression during acute upper respiratory infections (uri). interleukin (il)-1 beta, il-8, il-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) were markedly elevated in nasal lavage fluid during acute uri compared to baseline, and all except tnf-alpha decreased significantly by 2-4 weeks later. cytokine patterns in respiratory syncytial virus-positive and -negative illnesses did not differ significantly. ...19957876605
[the role of viral infection in adults with bronchopulmonary infections].we isolated the virus from the respiratory specimens of 16 patients (7.9%) when we investigated the bronchopulmonary infections of 203 adult patients by the viral isolation method for the diagnosis of the viral infection and transtracheal aspiration (tta) for taking directly the specimen from the lower respiratory tract. the bronchopulmonary infections, isolated the virus, consisted of acute bronchitis (3 cases), pneumonia (8 cases) and the acute exacerbation of chronic lower respiratory infecti ...19947876670
respiratory syncytial virus matures at the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infects the epithelium of the respiratory tract. we examined the replication and maturation of rs virus in two polarized epithelial cell lines, vero c1008 and mdck. electron microscopy of rs virus-infected vero c1008 cells revealed the presence of pleomorphic viral particles budding exclusively from the apical surface, often in clusters. the predominant type of particle was filamentous, 80 to 100 nm in diameter, and 4 to 8 microns in length, and evidence from fil ...19957884920
respiratory infection with chlamydia pneumoniae in middle-aged and older adult outpatients.this study was undertaken to characterize the epidemiology and clinical presentation of infection with chlamydia pneumoniae in a population composed primarily of middle-aged and older adults. pharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent phase sera were obtained from outpatients presenting with signs and symptoms of an acute respiratory infection. sera were examined using the micro-immunofluorescence (mif) test to detect antibody to chlamydia pneumoniae and complement fixation tests to detect myco ...19947889946
non-specific interstitial pneumonia (nip): immunohistologic screening of etiologic agents.non-specific interstitial pneumonia (nip) occurs frequently in patients with hiv-infection. to elucidate the etiology of this pulmonary disorder, we searched for 13 different microorganisms in transbronchial biopsies from 15 patients with nip, 15 patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (pcp) and 20 patients with lung diseases not related to hiv-infection using monoclonal antibodies and the apaap- or pap-technique for immunostaining. chlamydia trachomatis and parainfluenza iii were detected ...19947893990
respiratory syncytial virus and allergic conjunctivitis.the pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis is largely conjectural. we investigated the possible involvement of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a ubiquitous respiratory pathogen, in the development of allergic conjunctivitis through immune mechanisms. a new technique of brush cytology was used to obtain conjunctival cells from 30 patients with allergic conjunctivitis and 20 control subjects. samples were assayed for the presence of rsv sequences with the reverse-transcription polymerase chain ...19957897147
an update of rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. ii--virus.diagnosis of viral infections has, until recently, been considered to be retrospective and epidemiological in nature, of little practical significance to patient management and a futile exercise as far as the clinician is concerned. recent advances have enabled the development of new techniques and more sensitive and specific reagents and assays. these allow viral diagnosis to be made within one to two days of receipt of a patient's specimen, a time frame which permits meaningful management to b ...19947899905
torvac rsv withdrawal. 19947900248
respiratory syncytial virus or influenza?we compared data from clinical surveillance of acute respiratory infections in elderly people reported by a network of sentinel general practitioners, virus isolate data for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza a and b viruses, and registered deaths, during the past four winters. cases of acute respiratory disease (ard) and deaths (3-week moving averages) showed strong similarity in timing. periods of high incidence of ard and numbers of deaths were followed within 2-3 weeks by report ...19937902899
[respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. proceedings of an international symposium. wurzburg, 11 september 1993]. 19947910685
nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in a paediatric department.the seasonal problem of respiratory infections in children caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is worldwide. a number of these infections are known to occur by nosocomial acquisition. in order to reduce the risk, measures, such as cohort nursing and handwashing, have been used in the paediatric department of odense university hospital for three years. in a retrospective evaluation of this routine practice the incidence of nosocomial rsv infections was recorded. the overall rate of nosoco ...19947911483
in vivo augmentation of ifn-gamma with a ril-12 human/mouse chimera: pleiotropic effects against infectious agents in mice and rats.a heterodimer containing the mouse 35 kda and human 40 kda subunit of il-12 was expressed in cos cells (cil-12). administration of 25-200 u of the cil-12-cos supernatant to mice twice daily for 2 days augmented spleen cell ifn-gamma production in response to il-2 and peritoneal macrophage activity (superoxide and nitrites) as compared to animals receiving mock transfected supernatants. cil-12 also increased levels of ifn-gamma in serum but most dramatically following an lps injection (50-fold ov ...19947914437
prospects for a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. 19947915433
multinucleated cells formed in vitro from paget's bone marrow express viral antigens.paget's disease of bone is characterized by large numbers of osteoclasts that have viral-like nuclear and/or cytoplasmic inclusions. pagetic osteoclasts express respiratory syncytial viral (rsv) and measles viral (mv) nucleocapsid antigens. the data suggest a possible viral etiology for paget's disease. however, studies to characterize further the putative viral inclusions in paget's osteoclasts have been severely hampered by the extreme difficulty in isolating large numbers of osteoclasts from ...19947917585
gowning does not affect colonization or infection rates in a neonatal intensive care study the effect of gowning in a neonatal intensive care unit on colonization patterns, necrotizing enterocolitis, respiratory syncytial virus and other infections, mortality, and traffic and handwashing patterns.19947921089
[detecting respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory epithelial cells in adult patients by electron microscopy and immune electron microscopy].in order to evaluate the value of electron microscopy (em) in diagnosing respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in adults, the exfoliated cells from nasopharynx of 97 rsv positive patients were examined by em and the gold labelling technique for immune electron microscopy. the viral particles with rsv features were found at the surface of the exfoliated cells only in a few samples by em, and the specific gold labelling were observed in the immune electron microscopy (iem). the results showe ...19937923432
mechanisms of immunoglobulin action: observations on kawasaki syndrome and rsv prophylaxis. 19947927408
effect of respiratory syncytial virus-antibody complexes on cytokine (il-8, il-6, tnf-alpha) release and respiratory burst in human granulocytes.the release of interleukin-8 (il-8), il-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (pmn) after exposure to infectious respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) particles was investigated. our data showed that pmn secreted il-8 and il-6 in a time- and rsv-dose-dependent manner. during the rsv exposure, tnf-alpha was not detected in the cell supernatant of pmn. similar amounts of il-8 were secreted after either incubation with infectious or uv-inactivated rsv ...19947927487
national surveillance for respiratory syncytial virus, united states, 1985-1990.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) causes pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children and serious disease in the elderly and persons with compromised immune systems. to determine the temporal and geographic patterns of rsv outbreaks in the united states, monthly reports from 74 laboratories were analyzed for july 1985 through june 1990. rsv outbreaks were identified in 197 (93%) of the 211 laboratory years analyzed, with widespread activity beginning each fall, peaking in winter, an ...19947930745
biological activity, binding site and affinity of monoclonal antibodies to the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus.the neutralizing activity and fusion-inhibition activity per unit weight of immunoglobulin were determined for each of a panel of 20 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the fusion (f) protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. neutralization did not correlate with fusion-inhibiting activity, suggesting that the f protein plays at least two independent, antibody-sensitive roles in viral infection. antibodies with the highest biological activity against a2, a subgroup a strain of rs virus, neutraliz ...19947931172
high-dose, short-duration ribavirin aerosol therapy compared with standard ribavirin therapy in children with suspected respiratory syncytial virus infection.children with suspected respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined prospectively in a randomized evaluation of standard ribavirin aerosol therapy (6 gm/300 ml water for 18 hours daily) compared with high-dose, short-duration ribavirin aerosol therapy (6 gm/100 ml water given for a period of 2 hours three times a day) by means of an oxygen hood (n = 20) or a ventilator (n = 12). viral shedding was quantitated daily; clinical observations were recorded daily by 2 physicians aware and one ...19947931890
pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade after respiratory syncytial viral infection. 19947937300
[infections with respiratory viruses].worldwide, acute infections of the respiratory tract are one of the main causes of disease, and the majority of these are due to viruses. as a consequence of the development of new methods, rapid laboratory diagnosis of virus-induced acute respiratory tract infections has greatly improved. an efficient immunoprophylaxis is still only available for influenza virus infections, and recent reports indicate that intravenous administration of immunoglobulins can protect against or reduce the severity ...19947940414
cytotoxic t cell responses in lambs experimentally infected with border disease virus.mononuclear cells cytotoxic to a noncytopathic strain of border disease virus (bdv) but not to uninfected cells were detected in the peripheral blood of experimentally infected lambs, 10 days after experimental infection, reaching peak levels of cytotoxicity 15 days post-inoculation. the specificity of the cytotoxic activity to bdv-infected cells was tested by including autologous targets infected with another virus (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, brsv) and normal uninfected autologous targ ...19947941304
spontaneous bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in goats: pathological findings.this paper presents the results of a study of eight cases of natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection in a herd of 50 murciana kids from a intensive goat-farm in spain. clinical and pathological analysis confirmed the existence of natural brsv infection in eight kids. in two of the eight animals there was also evidence of concurrent infection with p. haemolytica a.19947941843
the role of respiratory syncytial virus in acute bronchiolitis in small children in northern japan.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) plays an important role in acute bronchiolitis, which is life threatening in some infants. we investigated the epidemiology of rsv acute bronchiolitis in children less than 3 years old in northern japan. from april 1991 to march 1993, 162 infants with acute bronchiolitis were hospitalized in our pediatric wards. the diagnosis of rsv acute bronchiolitis was based on the typical clinical manifestations and the presence of rsv antigen in their nasopharyngeal specim ...19947941998
purification of a recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus chimeric glycoprotein using reversed-phase chromatography and protein refolding in guanidine hydrochloride.fg glycoprotein is a recombinant chimeric protein consisting of the extracellular portions of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) f and g glycoproteins. in theory, highly purified fg glycoprotein may be effective as a rsv vaccine. recombinant fg glycoprotein was expressed using the baculovirus/insect cell system. fg glycoprotein was isolated from cell culture supernatants using s sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, cu(2+)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography, preparative reversed-pha ...19947950387
effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection on hypersensitivity to inhaled micropolyspora faeni.respiratory syncytial virus causes mild-to-severe respiratory disease in human infants and young children; a closely related bovine respiratory syncytial virus causes a similar disease pattern in calves. increased disease severity in atopic children suggests that allergic reactivity may enhance the severity of rsv-induced disease. to examine the association between bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection and allergic reactivity two groups of calves were exposed to aerosolized micropo ...19947950409
[pathogen role of coronavirus in pediatric intensive care: retrospective analysis of 19 positive samples with indirect immunofluorescence].coronaviruses (cv) are arn-containing agents that are responsible for mild upper respiratory tract infections in adults and children. their pathogenicity in neonates is not wellknown.19947951832
adenovirus vectored vaccines.human recombinant adenoviruses (ad) have been employed to develop experimental vaccines against a number of infectious agents. ad-vectored vaccines express recombinant proteins, including any post-translational modifications, into functioning replicas of the native proteins capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies in both abortive and permissive animal models. human ad types 4, 5, and 7 were used to construct recombinant viruses that express the respiratory syncytial virus f or g glycoprotei ...19947958485
anti-il-4 treatment at immunization modulates cytokine expression, reduces illness, and increases cytotoxic t lymphocyte activity in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus.upon respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) challenge, mice previously immunized intramuscularly with inactivated whole virus express a th2-like pattern of cytokine mrna, while mice immunized with live virus intranasally express a th1-like pattern. in this study, we evaluated the effects of anti-il-4 treatment on the induction of immune responses after immunization. mice treated with anti-il-4 at the time of immunization with inactivated rsv had reduced clinical illness after live virus challenge, as ...19947962541
cytokine response to respiratory syncytial virus stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.a key impediment to developing respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) vaccines is a lack of understanding of enhanced disease that occurred in children who received a formalin-inactivated rsv (fi-rsv) vaccine. studies in mice have suggested that the fi-rsv vaccine induces a th2 and live rsv induces a th1 memory t cell response. in this study, the cytokine mrna response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from adults and children with and without previous rsv infection was characterized using ...19947963714
requirement of casein kinase ii-mediated phosphorylation for the transcriptional activity of human respiratory syncytial viral phosphoprotein p: transdominant negative phenotype of phosphorylation-defective p mutants.the transcription complex of the human respiratory syncytial virus was biochemically dissected and reconstituted in vitro with purified viral macromolecules. the minimal complex consisted of the viral n-rna template, viral phosphoprotein (p), and the large protein (l) along with host cellular factor(s), possibly actin. active transcription could also be reconstituted using bacterially synthesized recombinant p protein provided the p protein was phosphorylated by cellular casein kinase ii. elimin ...19947975205
bacterial expression of human respiratory syncytial viral phosphoprotein p and identification of ser237 as the site of phosphorylation by cellular casein kinase ii.the phosphoprotein p gene of human respiratory syncytial virus has been cloned and the protein expressed in escherichia coli. the expressed protein was soluble, unphosphorylated, and constituted approximately 10% of the total bacterial protein. electrophoretic and antigenic analyses demonstrated the identity of the recombinant protein with viral p protein and p protein synthesized in reticulocyte lysates. purified recombinant p protein was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by purified native a ...19947975241
hiv-1 proteins in infected cells determine the presentation of viral peptides by hla class i and class ii molecules and the nature of the cellular and humoral antiviral immune responses--a review.the goals of molecular virology and immunology during the second half of the 20th century have been to provide the conceptual approaches and the tools for the development of safe and efficient virus vaccines for the human population. the success of the vaccination approach to prevent virus epidemics was attributed to the ability of inactivated and live virus vaccines to induce a humoral immune response and to produce antiviral neutralizing antibodies in the vaccinees. the successful development ...19947975271
a further attenuated derivative of a cold-passaged temperature-sensitive mutant of human respiratory syncytial virus retains immunogenicity and protective efficacy against wild-type challenge in seronegative chimpanzees.a cold-passage (cp), temperature-sensitive (ts) rsv mutant designated rsv cpts-248 (shut-off temperature 38 degrees c), which possesses host-range mutations acquired during 52 passages at low temperature in bovine tissue culture and a ts phenotype introduced by subsequent chemical mutagenesis, was found previously to be attenuated, immunogenic, and protective against wild-type challenge in seronegative chimpanzees. we sought to introduce additional attenuating mutations such as small-plaque (sp) ...19947975856
electron microscopic evidence of a viral nature for osteoclast inclusions in paget's disease of bone.circumstantial evidence from electron microscopic and immunological studies support the view that paget's disease of bone represents a slow virus infection. however, there is only limited information available regarding its electron microscopic, enzyme and immunocytochemical characteristics. two cases were studied using electron microscopy with particular emphasis on the inclusions in osteoclasts. detailed ultrastructural and cytochemical studies including immuno-electron microscopy were perform ...19947981909
study on the children of kaohsiung with acute viral infection of lower respiratory tract by direct immunofluorescence assay.this study retrospectively reviewed those pediatric patients of acute lower respiratory tract infection with positive virus identification by direct immunofluorescence assay (direct if) from jan, 1992 to dec, 1993. one hundred and eighteen patients with 133 positive direct if results (107 cases with single virus identified, and 11 cases with more than one) were included. the sex ratio was 1.6:1 with males predominant; age, 22.1 (1 approximately 154.8) (months); duration of admission, 5.7 (1 appr ...19947983692
respiratory syncytial virus infection in a cardiac surgery intensive care unit. 19947983889
update: respiratory syncytial virus activity--united states, 1994-95 season.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a common cause of winter outbreaks of acute respiratory disease, causes an estimated 90,000 hospitalizations and 4500 deaths each year from lower respiratory tract disease in both infants and young children in the united states. outbreaks occur annually throughout the united states, and community activity usually peaks within 1 month of the national peak. rsv activity in the united states is monitored by the national respiratory and enteric virus surveillance s ...19947984143
viral respiratory infections.viral infections constitute more than 60% of acute lower respiratory illnesses. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza viruses are the most frequent etiologic agents. after transmission by large droplet aerosol or direct contact, the viruses gain entry into host cells through specific viral surface proteins; subsequently, pathogenetic mechanisms cause tissue injury and result in clinical disease. in the intensive care unit the mainstay of treatment is primarily supportive. nonspecif ...19947984389
genetic heterogeneity of the attachment glycoprotein g among group a respiratory syncytial viruses.fifteen independent group a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolates were compared by sequencing a 300-nucleotide interval encoding a variable region of the attachment glycoprotein g. the viruses compared included the reference strains long (usa 1956), a2 (australia 1961), and 669 (sweden 1959), along with 13 clinical isolates obtained at different times and locations throughout the united states. representatives of all six antigenic subgroups, recognized by reactivity patterns with monoclonal ...19947985408
attenuated temperature-sensitive respiratory syncytial virus mutants generated by cold adaptation.two strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), rsv 2b and rsv 3a (representing subgroup b and a virus respectively) were cold-adapted by passaging in vero cells for up to 42 weeks at successively lower temperatures down to 20 degrees c. successful cold adaptation of the virus population was dependent on the amount of time the cultures were maintained at the various low temperatures, as well as on the strain of virus used. temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants appeared in the cold passaged virus ...19947985411
respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized patients and healthy children in el salvador.nasopharyngeal specimens from 42 children less than one-year old hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia in el salvador were analyzed for the presence of subgroup-specific respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. the antigen rsv-a was demonstrated in 28 children, rsv-b in three, and in one child subgroup, specificity could not be determined. the male:female ratio in the rsv-infected children was 1.9:1. the most severe disease, requiring intens ...19947985749
aerosolized ribavirin in mechanically ventilated children. 19947988149
mtt colorimetric assay system for the screening of anti-orthomyxo- and anti-paramyxoviral agents.a rapid and sensitive method was developed for screening potential antiviral agents against orthomyxo- and paramyxoviruses, using the mtt method with cell culture suspensions. the cell lines used for the assay were as follows: mdck cells for the influenza a virus (fluv. a), hela cells for the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and vero cells for the measles virus (msv). test compounds were diluted and plated in 96-well round-bottomed microtiter plates. trypsinized cell suspensions and viruses we ...19947989442
[a summary from a nordic working meeting. ribavirin therapy of rsv-infected children]. 19947990574
inhaled nitric oxide for a severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in an infant with bronchopulmonary report the first case of ards in children treated with nitric oxide (no) inhalation.19947995870
alteration of pulmonary macrophage function by respiratory syncytial virus infection in vitro.alveolar macrophages (al) are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens and are exposed to virus during the course of a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. interference of virus with alveolar macrophage functions may contribute to the risk of acquiring secondary bacterial infections during or after respiratory tract infections with rsv or other viral agents. we studied whether murine al get infected with rsv and whether they support viral replication in vitro. in addition, the ...19957995946
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein, nucleocapsid protein, matrix protein and 22k (m2) protein of the ovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial viruses (rsvs) cause serious respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide and similar disease in calves. strains have been isolated from other ruminant animals such as sheep and goats, but these viruses have not been characterized at the molecular level. in this study, we report the cloning and sequencing of four structural genes coding for the phosphoprotein, nucleocapsid (n) protein, matrix (m) protein and 22k protein of an ovine rsv strain. comparisons of ...19947996153
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