lymphocyte transformation in response to antigens of respiratory syncytial virus. 1979482291
respiratory syncytial virus: a community problem. 1979486998
[results obtained using an attenuated bovine syncytial virus vaccine against bronchopneumonia of yearlings (author's transl)].bronchopneumonia of yearlings is a respiratory infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brs virus) occurring as a herd disease in young cattle. in severe cases, the clinical picture is identifiable; characteristic features are laboured respiration and a high morbidity rate. following an acute onset, atypical interstitial pneumonia is observed on postmorten examination and bacteriological studies are negative. an attenuated live brs virus vaccine was used against bronchopneumonia of yea ...1979494211
solid-phase radioimmunoassay of serum immunoglobulin a antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detecting respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus serum immunoglobulin a (iga) antibodies was developed. an antigen consisting of purified adenovirus type 2 hexons or a crude lysate of respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells was first adsorbed onto polystyrene beads. the coated beads were then incubated with dilutions of serum, and iga antibodies which attached to the solid-phase virus antigen were subsequently detected with 125i-labeled anti-human alpha ...1979511988
[the significance of respiratory syncytial virus as pathogen in respiratory tract infections in infants (author's transl)].ten out of twenty babies aged up to twelve months and admitted during the months february and march 1978 were shown to be infected with respiratory syncytial virus. during the first 6 months of life the disease usually presents as bronchiolitis. serologically only neutralising antibodies were demonstrable in this age group. iga was usually raised in babies with bronchopneumonia. an allergic reaction between virus antigen and maternal antibodies is considered to occur, assuming an activation of t ...1979516739
a respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in a transitional care nursery. 1979517481
experimentally induced respiratory syncytial viral infection in lambs.signs of clinical illness, lesions, and seroconversion were observed in lambs experimentally inoculated with a respiratory syncytial virus of bovine origin. signs of clinical illness were mild and consisted of fever and hyperpnea. multifocal areas of interstitial pneumonia were seen in lambs necropsied during the period of clinical response. all lambs seroconverted to viral antigen, and the virus was isolated from two of the lambs.1979517825
respiratory syncytial virus with apnoea treated with theophylline. 1979522760
lesions in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus was inoculated intratracheally into five 1-week-old lambs. three of the lambs responded clinically with fever, hyperpnea, and listlessness. pulmonary lesions consisted of multifocal areas of consolidation, with necrosis of individual epithelial cells of the airways and accumulation of necrotic debris, macrophages, and few neutrophils in terminal airways and alveoli. pulmonary septa in affected areas were infiltrated with numerous macrophages and lymphocytes. viral par ...1979525867
experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection in feeder-age lambs.signs of disease, lesions, and serologic response were seen in six 6-month-old-lambs experimentally inoculated with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). a transient febrile response, mild hyperpnea, and listlessness were seen. multifocal areas of interstitial pneumonia and bronchiolitis were seen in lambs necropsied during the period of clinical response. a serologic response to rsv was seen in all lambs, and rsv was recovered from five lambs.1979525890
effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose and glucosamine on bovine respiratory syncytial virus.2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-dg) and glucosamine reversibly inhibited the replication and cytopathic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in bovine turbinate cell cultures. the inhibitors were effective when added up to 12 hours after cell cultures were inoculated. their effectiveness decreased as the time between inoculation of cells and drug treatment lengthened. the sugars did not inactivate the virus directly, and inoculation of drug-treated cells in drug-free medium produced normal yield o ...1979525934
respiratory syncytial virus, 1979: scotland. 1979526842
secretory immunity in influenza.the dynamics of secretory antibody formation, the duration of secretory antibody preservation, and changes in the concentration of secretory antibodies to antigens other than influenza virus were studied in 64 patients with influenza a, 105 patients with influenza b, and 23 persons who had had influenza a. severe forms of influenza a were accompanied by antibody accumulation in sera and nasal secretions; in some cases of mild forms of this infection, this process was limited by the humoral immun ...1979541522
clinical and radiological studies in children with respiratory syncytial virus infection. 1979546771
respiratory syncytial virus infection in inbred mice.respiratory syncytial virus infected the nose and lungs of each of 20 strains of inbred mice, with viral titers varying 100-fold from least permissive to most permissive strains. viral titers appeared to be under genetic control, but did not correlate with the h-2 haplotype.1979546793
[respiratory infection epidemic during the winter of 1979 in umbria].the aa, report the results of virological and serological investigations performed during an epidemic of acute respiratory diseases in umbria. the epidemic was associated with respiratory syncytial virus; other virus infections were sporadic.1979553517
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection of bovine embryonic lung cultures: enhancement of infectivity with diethylaminoethyl-dextran and virus-infected cells.the effects of incorporating diethylaminoethyl-dextran (deae-d) in the inoculum with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) on the infectivity of brsv was evaluated. a concentration of 40 microgram deae-d/ml provided maximal enhancement of infection as determined by the time of onset of cytopathic effect (cpe), the percentage of cells infected by the inoculum, and the amount of virus produced. when deae-d was used in the inoculum, the cpe appeared a day earlier, the percentage of cells infect ...1978565198
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus: characterization of in vitro and in vivo in vitro 51cr release assay for human antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) against hela cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) has been characterized by using leukophoresed and adherent cell-depleted adult lymphocytes. lymphoytes from rsv seronegative children were also competent as effector cells. sera from children with :1) primary and recurrent natural rsv infections, or 2) live attenuated rsv vaccine infection were examined to characterize the behavior of ad ...1979571890
intramuscular inoculation of live respiratory syncytial virus induces immunity in cotton rats.intramuscular inoculation of infant or weanling cotton rats with 10(2.2) to 10(4) plaque-forming units of respiratory syncytial virus induced significant or complete resistance to infection in both the upper and lower portions of the respiratory tract. this resistance did not appear to be the result of in vitro neutralization of virus during homogenization of tissue. virus was not recovered from the local site of inoculation after 5 min and was never detected in the respiratory tract of intramus ...1979572342
study of 8-year-old children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy.thirty-five children known to have had respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy were examined at the age of 8 and their respiratory function tested. the results were compared with those in 35 controls matched for age, sex, and social class. although 18 of the children who had had bronchiolitis in infancy had experienced subsequent episodes of wheezing, these were neither severe nor frequent in most cases and had apparently ceased by the age of 8. nevertheless, the mean exercise bronc ...1978620129
the tecumseh study of respiratory illness. x. relation of acute infections to smoking, lung function and chronic symptoms.the relationship of acute respiratory illness and infection to chronic bronchitis was investigated in the community of tecumseh, michigan. families were randomly selected for study from among all those in the community and they were followed for periods of one year. occurrence of acute respiratory illnesses was identified on a weekly basis. frequency of chronic symptoms of cough and sputum production was separately ascertained. lung function studies were performed three times during the course o ...1978623090
interferon in nasal secretions from infants with viral respiratory tract infections.interferon levels in nasal secretions of infants under one year of age, and hospitalized with lower repiratory tract disease, were measured during two respiratory infection seasons. in the first year serial secretions from 50 infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined. undetectable or low levels of interferon were found in all samples, and mean levels did not fluctuate significantly in relation to disease and recovery. this was in contrast to anti-rsv iga, which appeared an ...1978650342
live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine administered parenterally. 1978652803
development of in vitro correlates of cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in humans.groups of infants and children with infections due to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were tested at the onset of illness and one, two, and five months later for the presence of rsv-specific cell-mediated immunity, as determined by in vitro lymphocyte transformation (ltf) activity, and for complement-fixing (cf) antibody. an ltf response specific for rsv was observed in 65 % of patients, and the response was largely associated with e-rosette-forming thymus-derived (t) lymphocytes. a significan ...1978659924
juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in pregnant women: failure to associate with coxsackie b1-6, mumps, or respiratory syncytial virus infections. 1978660368
studies on the occurrence and significance of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in saskatchewan.seventy-six percent of 49 blood samples from saskatchewan cattle had serum antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus. experimental infection of one week and seven month old calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (iowa strain) caused transient fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and coughing but no macroscopic or microscopic lesions attributable to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.1978667711
determination of human immunoglobulin m rheumatoid factor by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay which uses human immunoglobulin g in antigen-antibody complexes.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the rapid determination of human immunoglobulin m (igm) rheumatoid factor (rf) has been developed. preparation of the solid phase for the assay involved the formation of complexes between respiratory syncytial virus-specific human igg antibodies and virus antigen on the surface of polystyrene balls. binding of serum rf to igg in the immune complex was subsequently detected by 125i-labeled mu-chain-specific antibodies to human igm. the amount of radioactive indi ...1978701459
seven complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus temperature-sensitive mutants.fifteen temperature-sensitive mutants of the rsn-2 strain of respiratory syncytial virus have been classified into six complementation groups, two of which appeared to be homologous with two of the three complementation groups of the a2 strain described by wright et al. (p. f. wright, m. a. gharpure, d. s. hodes, and r. m. chanock, arch. gesamte virusforsch, 41:238--247). thus seven complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus, designated a, b, c, d, e, f, and g, have been defined. the ...1978702637
initiation and maintenance of persistent infection by respiratory syncytial virus.propagation of cells infected with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus at nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees c) resulted in cytolytic, abortive, or persistent infection, depending on the mutant used to initiate infection. five mutants from complementation group b produced cytolytic or abortive infections, whereas a single mutant (ts1) from group d and a noncomplbmenting mutant produced persistent infections. the persistently infected culture initiated by mut ...1978702647
[study and identification of the respiratory syncytial virus isolated from a leukemic cow].a virus was isolated from the lymph nodes of a cow. by its cultural, physical, chemical, and biologic properties it proved identical with the standard bovine respiratory syncytial virus. it multiplied well in cell cultures of calf kidney at ph 7--7.5. introduced in 20-day-old guinea pigs the virus caused anorexia, bristling up of hairs, stunting, and occasionally death. the inoculated guinea pigs developed pneumonia of a proliferative type with langhans' giant cells. the interrlationship between ...1978706146
behavior of respiratory syncytial virus in piglet tracheal organ culture.piglet tracheal organ cultures were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and observed for 21 days. light and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated destruction of the ciliated epithelial cells and the presence of viral antigens in the epithelium. virus was shed in high titer for 12--19 days. ciliostasis could be quantitated, and it was shown that several strains of rsv grew and damaged tracheal organ cultures in a similar fashion. a temperature-sensitive mutant of rsv, ts-1, was e ...1978712118
breast-feeding as protection against respiratory syncytial virus. 1978719443
neutralisation of respiratory syncytial virus by cat serum. 1978723929
control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial viral infections.we evaluated methods to control the spread of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) on our infants' ward during a community outbreak of rsv infection. methods included isolation and cohorting of infected infants, strict handwashing, use of gowns, and the cohorting of staff to the ill infants. of 123 infants studied, 36 were admitted with rsv infections. of the remaining 87 contact infants, eight (19%) acquired nosocomial rsv disease. three of the eight developed pneumonia and one died. of the 43 sta ...1978724317
neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection.respiratory syncytial virus infections are thought to be uncommon in the first month of life. during a community outbreak, we prospectively studied such infection in our neonatal units. of 82 neonates studied, 66 were hospitalized for six days or longer, and 23 (35 per cent) acquired this virus. four infants died, two unexpectedly. infected infants had a significantly shorter gestation and birth weight. illness was often atypical, with nonspecific signs, especially in infants under three weeks o ...1979759915
respiratory syncytial virus in nurseries. 1979759920
respiratory-syncytial-virus infections, reinfections and immunity. a prospective, longitudinal study in young better understand acquired immunity to respiratory-syncytial-virus infections, we analyzed data from a 10-year study of respiratory illness in normal children who were followed longitudinally from early infancy. immunity was measured in terms of failure to become infected or reduction in severity of clinical illness upon reinfection. outbreaks of infections occurred seven times over the 10-year-period. during epidemics the attack rate for first infection was 98 per cent. the rate for second i ...1979763253
infections in preschool children in group day care.viral and bacterial infections in 20 children under 3 years of age were studied in a day centre for 12 weeks. febrile illnesses were found on one occasion in each of 11 children but no serious infection occurred. pneumococci types 6, 9, or 19 were isolated from all children but more often from those with rhinitis or cough. the individual child had an average of 2 viral infections. adenovirus types 1, 2, 5, coxsackievirus type b5, herpes simplex virus or respiratory syncytial virus was isolated f ...1976779398
the incidence and aetiology of respiratory tract infections in general practice--with emphasis on mycoplasma pneumoniae.the incidence of respiratory tract infections in patients seeking medical advice at a community care centre (dalby) during 1973 and 1974 was studied. about every third patient seen at this primary health station presented with signs of such infections. in the age groups less than 10, 10-19, 20-39, 40-59 and greater than or equal to 60 years, respiratory tract infections accounted for 65, 45, 32, 18 and 9% of the fotal number of diagnoses made during 1974. the aetiology of acute respiratory tract ...1976783048
detection of antibody to respiratory syncytial virus by membrane indirect membrane fluorescent antibody technique was established to study hep 2 cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. it was possible to detect igg and igm antibody to rs virus in the sera of patients with respiratory infections using this technique. the technique was further applied to the detection of iga antibody to the same virus in colostrum.1976793751
scanning electron microscopical demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus antigens by immunological markers. 1975807741
quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in infants.quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in 40 infants hospitalized with acute disease of the lower respiratory tract were determined for elucidation of the pathophysiology of infection with the virus. nasal wash specimens were collected on admission and daily thereafter and were tested for the presence and quantities of respiratory syncytial virus. the following pattern of shedding was observed. (1) the virus was shed for prolonged periods. for the first seven days of hospi ...1975808581
cytopathological and cytochemical studies on respiratory viruses in tissue cultured cells. iv. infection with mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. 1975814094
polypeptides of respiratory syncytial virus.radiolabeled respiratory syncytial virus was purified from medium that had been harvested from infected hela cell monolayers before it contained much cellular debris. after isopycnic centrifugation in linear gradients prepared with sucrose dissolved in hanks balanced salt solution, almost all the infectivity and most of the radioactivity were recovered in a single band with density from 1.16 to 1.23 g/cm3 and a peak at 1.2 g/cm3. analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the purifi ...1977833931
respiratory syncytial virus in early infancy. circulating antibody and the severity of infection.forty-one children less than 6 months of age from whom respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was isolated were divided into groups of varying severity of illness. no relationship was demonstrated between severity of illness and the complement fixation titer to rsv in cord sera, acute sera, or convalescent sera. an increase in igm level of greater or equal to 15 mg/100 ml in association with the rsv infection was seen more frequently in infants who had higher igm levels in their acute sera than in in ...1977835529
apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in young infants.the hospital charts of 274 infants under 6 months of age with culture-proved respiratory syncytial virus infections were reviewed. fifty-six infants (20.4%) demonstrated apnea in association with rsv infection. predisposing factors significantly correlated with apnea included premature birth and young chronologic age at the time of virus infection. the clinical implications of this association are discussed.1977839330
respiratory syncytial virus infections. comments. 1977846773
the shedding and spreading of respiratory syncytial virus. 1977846775
prospects for prevention of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus. 1977846778
human antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.a chromium release assay was established to study human antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) of hep 2 cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of specific antibody to rs virus caused in vitro lysis of rs virus infected target cells. adcc was detected in sera of infants with rs virus infections and in specimens of colostrum. the ability of serum or colostrum to mediate the cytotoxic reaction appeared to be related to ...1977862248
mycoplasma pneumonia: a study on hospitalized american patients with pneumonia in vietnam.a prospective study on consecutively hospitalized pneumonia patients showed that 41.5% of 58 patients had a fourfold rise in the complement-fixation titer for mycoplasma pneumoniae. viral isolation techniques and serologic tests for influenza a1, a2 and b, parainfluenza 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus and the adeno virus group yielded only a single positive isolate for influenza a2. serologic tests for melioidosis, leptospirosis, scrub, murine and epidemic typhus and psittacosis were all ne ...1977889014
isolation and characterization of further defective clones of a temperature sensitive mutant (ts-1) of respiratory syncytial virus.after exposure of the temperature sensitive ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus to the chemical mutagne, nitrosoguanidine (ng), 2 clones of virus were recovered which were more temperature sensitive and stable genetically than the ts-1 mutant. the initial criterion used for selection of the 2 clones was decreased ability to produce plaques at 36 degrees c. subsequently it was shown that the 2 clones grew less well at the restrictive temperatures of 37 degrees and 38 degrees c than did the ...1977889442
[chronic infection of hela cells with respiratory syncytial virus].chronic infection of hela cells with respiratory syncytial virus (hela-rs) was produced at a multiplicity of infection of 0.00005 tcd50/cell. during 144 days, 21 passages of hela-rs culture were done. the chronically infected cells did not differ from the control culture in the growth pattern and their proliferative activity. the infectious virus was found in the culture fluid with cells at 7 and 14 days after inoculation of the culture. subsequent attempts at isolation of the infectious virus f ...1977898888
further characterization of the complementation group b temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus.ts-2, a temperature-sensitive and plaque morphology mutant of respiratory syncytial virus and sole representative of complementation group b, was compared with members of the other complementation groups of respiratory syncytial virus (group a [ts-1] and group c [ts-7]). ts-2 was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold more restricted in growth and ability to spread at restrictive temperatures (37, 38, and 39 degrees c) than at the permissive temperature (32 degrees c). in temperature shift-up experiments ...1977904033
a field outbreak caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. 1977910662
effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection of hela-cell macromolecular synthesis.cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus eventually die but there appears to be no specific mechanism for shutting off cellular synthesis of macromolecules. dna and rna synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of labelled thymidine or uridine, do not begin to shut down until some time between 11 and 18 h after infection. by 18 h their rates of synthesis are reduced to approx. 50% for dna and 35% for rna. protein synthesis continues throughout the course of infection at approximate ...1977915484
respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. practical community surveillance.concurrent and sequential outbreaks of infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza a virus were studied, utilizing a local surveillance system for infectious diseases that involved weekly reports from primary care physicians. the patterns of illness in the community and in hospital admissions were relatively specific for these two viruses, and differed according to whether rsv and influenza a virus occurred together or separately. this surveillance system appeared to be a prac ...1976937281
growth and genetic stability of the ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus at restrictive in vitro study was performed to define in greater detail those factors which favored the growth of the ts-1 mutant of respiratory syncytial virus under restrictive conditions and the emergence of genetically altered virus with decreased temperature sensitivity. replication of ts-1 occurred at each of the restrictive temperatures of 37, 38, and 39 c, even through plaque formation was not observed. the level of virus growth under restrictive conditions was inversely related to the incubation te ...1976943572
breast-feeding protects against respiratory syncytial virus infections.eight out of 115 infants admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection had been breast-fed compared with 46 out of 167 controls; this difference was statistically significant. twenty-one specimens of human colostrum were examined, and all contained rs virus neutralising activity. specific iga and igg were detected in 18 specimens, whereas igm was detected in none. the titre of iga antibody was usually higher and correlated more closely to the titre of neutralising activity ...1976953560
respiratory syncytial virus proteins. 1976960560
isolation of respiratory syncytial virus from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in a paediatric observation ward in kenya. 1976964190
[role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the aetiology of viruspneumonia in calves and yearlings ("pinkengriep") (author's transl)].the clinical picture of "pinkengriep", an enzootic form of bronchopneumonia in young cattle, is described. in addition to cough, conjunctivitis and a soporous state, accelerated respiration initially is an outstanding clinical symptom. in some cases, symptoms of fog fever appear during the second stage of the disease. in the autumn of 1973 and that of 1974, a total number of 292 animals with "pinkengriep" were serologically examined for known respiratory virus infections and chlamydia. complemen ...1976968892
role of maternal antibody in pneumonia and bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus.fifteen infants with pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and 19 infants with bronchiolitis caused by rsv were studied for the influence of homologous, circulating neutralizing antibody on the severity of their illness. all infants were under nine months of age. although maternal neutralizing antibody did not prevent infection with rsv and illness, the severity of pneumonia caused by rsv was inversely related to the level of neutralizing antibody. the severity of bronchiolitis c ...1976977992
effect of serum and nasal neutralizing antibodies on bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.calves exposed to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus showed mild clinical signs of respiratory illness and responded serologically. the disease occurred in the presence or absence of circulating antibodies, but there was no evidence of exacerbation of the disease due to preexisting serum antibody. nasal secretory antibody appeared to protect the calves against the disease. calves previously exposed to the virus were immune to challenge. the virus was recovered at a high frequency when specimen ...1976978005
respiratory syncytial virus infection in north-east england.during a period covering four winter epidemics 987 respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infections were identified in the children's wards that served a total population of about 875 000 in north-east england. the incidence of admission to hospital with rs virus infection tended to be twice as high among children in tyneside as that among children from the rest of the catchment area. the risk of hospital admission with rs virus infection in the first year of life for city children was about 1 in 50. ...1976990783
events following the infections of enucleate cells with measles virus.the development of measles virus (edmonston) and sspe measles virus (horta-barbosa) has been examined in enucleate bsc 1 cells. new antigen synthesis in measles virus infected enucleate cells has been demonstrated by fluorescent antibody, by the formation of extensive syncytia from enucleate cells alone and by analysis of polypeptide formation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. all polypeptides formed in nucleate cells were also present in enucleate cells but the amount synthesized was reduc ...19761018171
a comparison of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections among infants admitted to hospital with acute respiratory infections.among 741 children under 5 years admitted to hospital with respiratory infections during two winters, infection with influenza a virus was diagnosed in 70 (9%), with influenza b virus in 8 (1%), and with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in 259 (35%). both influenza virus and rsv infections were diagnosed most frequently in children under the age of one year, and diagnosed more frequently in males than females. influenza illnesses were more severe in boys than girls. both infections occurred mor ...19761069818
respiratory virus disease in malaysian children: a serological study.paired sera from 101 malaysian children aged up to 10 years and suffering from respiratory illnesses were examined serologically for evidence of respiratory viral infections. of these children, 32.6% showed rising antibody titres for one or more of the test agents. respiratory syncytial virus appeared to be the main respiratory pathogen involved, followed by mycoplasma pneumoniae, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, and influenza a virus. these findings are generally similar to those reported b ...19751084808
[infections in children with respiratory syncytial virus. a rapid diagnostic method for virus isolation in the nasopharyngeal aspirate]. 19751096354
effect of acetone fixation on infectivity and antigenicity of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus in the fluorescent antibody investigation was made on the effect of acetone fixation on infectivity and immunofluorescent antigenicity of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus type 5, lipid- and nonlipid-containing viruses, respectively. viruses were allowed to replicate in hep-2 cells, and the cells were then fixed in acetone at 5 c for periods ranging from 30 s to 7 days. treatment for 10 min was sufficient to inactivate respiratory syncytial virus, whereas infectious adenovirus type 5 could be isolated from cell ...19751100650
recovery of infectious proviral dna from mammalian cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the dna fraction from a line of bovine embryonic kidney cells originally exposed as primary cultures several months earlier to a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus could be used to transfect human hep-2 cells with the production of infectious rs virus. the dna donor cells, designated bek/rs ts, retained their healthy fibroblastic appearance during continuous cultivation at a temperature (39 degrees) restrictive for growth of the original infecting mutant and sh ...19751103142
viral and mycoplasmal pneumonias: reviewing current concepts.the pathogenesis of viral and mycoplasmal infections is probably similar, but pathologic findings vary, depending on the etiologic agent. in the absence of inclusion bodies in epithelial cells, definitive diagnosis of viral pneumonia depends on isolation of the virus. viral pneumonias are more insidious in onset than bacterial types. in the early stages, physical findings may be minimal. complications include those associated with viremia or bacterial superinfection. culture of a throat swab is ...19751105492
isolation, characterization, and pathogenicity studies of a bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the isolation and characterization of a bovine respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is described. serological studies indicate that bovine rs virus is widespread in iowa cattle and that it is involved in some outbreaks of respiratory disease. experimental infection in calves indicates that the virus can cause illness in calves, particularly those with serum neutralizing antibody.19751119944
hospital cross-infection on children's wards with respiratory syncytial virus and the role of adult carriage.a further 18 children who acquired respiratory syncytial (r.s.) virus infection on general paediatric wards have been identified, bringing the total number of hospital cross-infections by this virus to 46 for the last 3 annual r.s. virus epidemics on tyneside. 25 of these 46 illnesses involved the lower respiratory tract. carriage of r.s. virus by staff and visitors was studied on one ward, and appeared to be responsible for at least 2 and probably 4 of the 6 cross-infections detected on this wa ...19751155072
[formation and action of interferon in experimental respiratory syncytial infection].respiratory syncytial virus multiplying activity in the lungs of newborn and 6-day-old cotton rats, induced production of considerable amounts of interferon. interferon production correlated with virus multiplication. lower interferon titers were observed in the lungs of newborn cotton rats than in the lungs of 6-day-old animals. rs virus also induced production of serum interferon upon intraperitoneal inoculation, its titers being 2 times as low as after inoculation of equal doses of newcastle ...19751162951
viral antibodies in the csf after acute cns infections.viral antibodies were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum from 25 patients having acute viral central nervous system (cns) infections, and from 39 control patients. the results, collected two weeks after the clinical onset, revealed the presence of antibodies in nine of 13 (69%) csf specimens from patients suffering from encephalitis of myelitis, and in only one of nine (11%) of the csf samples of those presenting a viral meningitis infection. this difference was statistically si ...19751164214
reye syndrome with associated influenza a and b early 1974, seventeen children were treated for reye syndrome. thirteen of these were studied for laboratory evidence of concomitant viral infection. influenza b/hong kong was isolated from the pharynx in four of nine 1974 cases tested. one child had just recovered from varicella. adenovirus type 2 and respiratory syncytial virus were isolated from two additional patients. serologic tests for influenza suggested concomitant or recent influenza b infection in ten of 13 of 1971 cases. during fe ...19751174373
stability of respiratory syncytial virus in a new bentonite holding medium.stability of respiratory syncytial virus was determined in a new bentonite holding medium and compared with two other commonly used media. eventual infectivity titers were similar with all three preparations.19751176622
nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections.we studied the frequency and severity of respiratory syncytial virus infections acquired nosocomially on an infants' ward during a community outbreak. every three or four days all infants and staff were examined, and specimens were obtained for viral isolation. during two months, 14 of 44 contact infants acquired the virus. all were ill, and four had pneumonia. infected infants had a significantly longer mean hospital stay (21.5 days) than uninfected ones (9.2 days, p less than 0.001). risk of n ...19751186836
[frequency of serologic conversion of complement fixing antibodies fc by respiratory viruses in cases of acute juvenile respiratory disease].the complement fixation test, run on double samples of serum pertaining to 447 children hospitalized between january 1971 and june 1974 at ospedale maggiore in novara, or checked in consulting rooms for acute phlogosis of the respiratory organs, has permitted to detect in 241 children, equal to the 53,9% of the total cases, a significant increase of antibodies for respiratory viruses (influenza a, b, c, parainfluenza 1, 2, 3. respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, reovirus). specifically, in t ...19751205032
[viremia in respiratory syncytial virus infection].viremia was demonstrated to occur in experimental respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection in suckling cotton rats and in natural infection in children. rs virus was isolated from the whole blood of the animals in 3 out of 6 experiments at 2, 5, 6, 7 and 15 days after inoculation, the maximum infectious titer being more than 10(4) tcpd50/0.1 ml. rs virus was also isolated from the blood of 7 out of 15 examined children presenting the typical clinical picture of rs virus disease during the epid ...19751216838
cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus induced by inactivated vaccine or by infection.transformation and increased mitotic activity in donor lymphocytes exposed to specific antigens is considered by many to be a manifestation of cell-mediated immunity. in attempts to understand the apparent "sensitization" of individuals to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) as a result of receiving inactivated rsv vaccine, in vitro lymphocyte transformation studies were carried out on infants who had received inactivated rsv vaccine and on infants who had received a similarly prepared inactivated ...19761246465
the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infant ferrets.the infant ferret is susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus infection in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. in the nose, viral replication is restricted to the surface respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages and turbinates. in the lungs, viral replication is of a lower order of magnitude and is localized in the alveolar cells. the pattern of viral replication in nasal tissues is independent of the age of the animal at infection, whereas the pattern in lung tissues shows a stri ...19761251889
persistent infection of cells in culture by respiratory syncytial virus.the virus-cell relationship of rs virus and the hep-2 cell line has been examined. the production of cytopathic effect (c.p.e.) on hep-2 cells has been found to be dependent upon the passage level of the cell line. cells at lower passage levels exhibit c.p.e. in the form of syncytium formation, while those at higher passage levels no longer exhibit this effect. cells infected at higher passage levels are covertly infected and continue to produce large amounts of infectious virus which remains c ...19761265052
human monoclonal fab fragments derived from a combinatorial library bind to respiratory syncytial virus f glycoprotein and neutralize infectivity.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most important cause, throughout the world, of severe viral lower respiratory tract illness in young children. antibodies are known to mediate resistance to rsv infection and illness. we have isolated a number of human monoclonal fab fragments to rsv f glycoprotein from a combinatorial antibody library expressed on the surface of phage. one of these neutralized a wide range of virus isolates, 10 subgroup a and 9 subgroup b isolates, with a titer (60% neut ...19921279672
[influenza a infection in children. clinical spectrum and comparison with respiratory syncytial virus infection during the winter 1989-1990].respiratory syncytial viral (rsv) infection can be rapidly differentiated from influenza viral infection by immunofluorescence techniques. these tests were used to identify some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of both infections.19921288452
[clinical manifestation and prognosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants].to evaluate the clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection and relation with bronchial asthma, 233 infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection during winters from 1988 to 1990 were enrolled in this study. rsv antigen was detected from half of them by immunofluorescent antibody test. children with rsv infection showed the characteristic findings as follows; wheeze (71.6%), elevated serum 2-5 as activity, a marker for viral infection, low level of acute phase r ...19921290411
[ezhu intravenous injection in treating infantile respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia and its therapeutical mechanism].ezhu intravenous injection (eii) in treating respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) pneumonia was studied. 45 patients in therapeutic group were treated with 0.04% eii in dose of 20 ml/kg/day for 7-14 days. 20 patients in the control group were treated with huayu decoction, its efficacy on rsv pneumonia has been confirmed. the results showed that all the patients of both groups were cured and there were no statistic differences in the average days of clearing up the temperature, dyspnea and wheezing ...19921304837
[clinical and experimental study of xiao er ke cuan ling oral liquid in the treatment of infantile bronchopneumonia].xiao er ke chuan ling oral liquid (kcl) is a chinese herbal preparation consisted of 10 herbs such as prunus armeniacae, scutelaria baicalensis, lonicera japonica etc. 30 children suffering from bronchopneumonia and/or acute bronchitis were treated with kcl (treated group) and another 30 cases were treated with penicillin and aminophylline (control group). results: cure rate and effective rate in treated group was 26.6%, and 93.3% respectively. while in control group was 30% and 96.6% respective ...19921304839
interaction of respiratory syncytial virus with human cord blood mononuclear cells.this study on the interaction between respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and human cord blood mononuclear cells shows that rsv replication can occur in neonatal macrophages. although neonatal lymphocytes were not supportive of rsv replication, exposure to rsv resulted in significant inhibition of mitogen-induced transformation. both adult and neonatal nk cell cytotoxicity were unaffected by exposure to rsv. these results suggest that rsv has preferential effects on human cord blood mononuclear ce ...19921305815
sequence analysis of m2 mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus obtained from an f-m2 dicistronic mrna suggests structural homology with that of human respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequences of the f and m2 mrnas of strain a51908 of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined by sequencing cdna of an intracellular dicistronic mrna. comparison of the f mrna sequence with those of other brsv strains showed that there was extensive sequence identity at both the nucleotide (95% identity) and amino acid (94% identity) levels. alignment of the nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of m2 mrna of brsv with those of human respiratory syncytial vir ...19921312130
release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from bovine alveolar macrophages stimulated with bovine respiratory viruses and bacterial endotoxins.the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) from cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) was evaluated following stimulation of bam with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), escherichia coli 0111:b4 endotoxin, pasteurella haemolytica type 1 endotoxin, pasteurella multocida endotoxin, and virus/endotoxin combinations. a cytotoxic assay system using georgia bovine kidney cells as targets was used to measure tnf-alpha a ...19921312264
epidemiology and aetiology of acute bronchiolitis in hong kong infants.the epidemiological, clinical and virological features of 1220 children with acute bronchiolitis admitted to the prince of wales hospital, hong kong, from 1985 to 1988 are reported. they accounted for 6.6% of total paediatric admissions and provided a case incidence of bronchiolitis requiring admission to hospital of approximately 21 per 1000 children 0-24 months of age. the clinical course and outcome was in general benign. the average hospital stay was 5 days and there were no deaths. ten per ...19921312477
effect of macrophages and in vitro infection with parainfluenza type 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses on the mitogenic response of bovine lymphocytes.bovine blood lymphocytes, depleted of macrophages by absorption on plasma-gelatin coated plastic flasks, followed by passage through sephadex g-10 columns, failed to respond to pokeweed mitogen stimulation. adherent monocytes or alveolar macrophages added to purified lymphocyte preparations at 10% or less were able to restore the transformation response. exposure of alveolar macrophages or purified lymphocytes to 2 bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains for 24 hours substantially reduced the ...19921315492
protein of macaques against infection with simian type d retrovirus (srv-1) by immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope glycoproteins of either srv-1 or mason-pfizer monkey virus (srv-3).rhesus macaques were immunized with live vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the envelope glycoproteins (gp70 and gp22) of simian type d retrovirus (srv), serotype 1 or 3. all of the animals immunized with either the srv-1 env or the srv-3 env vaccinia virus recombinant developed neutralizing antibodies against the homologous srv. in addition, both groups developed cross-reactive antibodies and were protected against an intravenous live-virus challenge with srv-1. the four control animals imm ...19921316495
bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein gene: sequence analysis of cdna and expression using a baculovirus vector.the nucleotide sequence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), atcc strain a51908 fusion (f) glycoprotein gene cdna was determined. the amino acid sequence deduced was then compared to those of two different isolates of bovine rsv, strains rb 94 and 391-2, and the a and b subtypes of human rsv, strains 18537 and a2. the bovine rsv f protein is highly conserved between the three isolates, a51908 has 97% amino acid identity to rb 94, and 99% identity to 391-2. the f proteins of both the a an ...19921318950
paget's disease of bone--current thinking and management.the objective of this article was to critically review the current knowledge on paget's disease of bone, focusing primarily on possible etiologies and trends in management. current courses of treatment are described, including calcitonin, diphosphonate and mithramycin therapy and the efficacy of each drug regime is analyzed. finally, newer, more experimental pharmaceutical agents, such as gallium nitrate, are described.19921321871
activation of human eosinophils in vitro by respiratory syncytial determine the nature of the interaction between viruses and eosinophils, normodense eosinophils were separated from the blood of healthy volunteers and incubated in vitro with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). after incubation for 2 h with the virus, 29.5 +/- 15.8% of the eosinophils demonstrated specific binding of the virus to the cell membrane, as detected by fluorescent staining with an anti-rsv mab. superoxide production and leukotriene c4 release were measured as determinants of cell a ...19921324464
synthesis and antiviral properties of (+/-)-5'-noraristeromycin and related purine carbocyclic nucleosides. a new lead for anti-human cytomegalovirus agent design.(+/-)-5'-noraristeromycin (3) has been prepared in three steps beginning with the 2,3-o-isopropylidene derivative of (+/-)-(1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 beta, 4 alpha)-4-amino-1,2,3-cyclopentanetriol (7). also prepared from the same starting material were the related hypoxanthine (4), guanine (5), and 2,6-diaminopurine (6) analogues. compounds 3-6 were evaluated for antiviral activity against a large number of viruses with marked activity being observed for 3 towards vaccinia virus, human cytomegalovirus, ...19921326633
treatment of acute pulmonary failure with extracorporeal support: 100% survival in a pediatric population.since february 1990, five children, aged 10 days to 6.5 years, were treated with extracorporeal lung support at our hospital for acute, unrelenting pulmonary failure. two had viral pneumonia: one with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis, and one with herpes simplex virus pneumonia, encephalitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. one presented with a febrile illness followed by a pulmonary hemorrhage. two patients had adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) complicating s ...19921328587
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