modes of transmission of respiratory syncytial virus. 19817252646
bronchomammary axis in the immune response to respiratory syncytial virus.the products of lactation from 26 nursing mothers were sequentially examined over several months for the presence or appearance of antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus. antiviral igm and igg were rarely identified in either colostrum or milk. rsv-specific iga was found in 75% (18/24) of specimens of colostrum; 40% (6/15) and 59% (4/7) of milk samples obtained at three and six months still contained specific iga antibody. the latter increase was felt to represent boosting of ex ...19817252673
acute fatal pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial acute pneumonia developed in 28 calves which had been housed together from one to two weeks of age. the clinical signs included pyrexia, tachypnoea, respiratory distress and coughing. some of the calves died. the pneumonia was characterised by an alveolitis with multinucleated syncytia, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and bronchiolitis. interstitial emphysema was also present. fifteen of 19 calves examined serologically had rising neutralising antibody titres to respiratory syncytial virus; i ...19817257127
activation of complement by cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the ability of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected he(p)-2 cells in culture to activate complement was investigated. after incubation of cells with various complement sources and buffer, binding of c3b to surfaces of infected cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescence with a double-staining technique. nonsyncytial and syncytial (i.e., fused, multinucleated) cells were separately enumerated. also, lysis of rsv-infected cells was assessed by lactic dehydrogenase release. in this system on ...19817263071
acute fatal pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial virus. 19817269190
characteristics of a persistent respiratory syncytial virus infection in hela cells. 19817269238
infectivity of respiratory syncytial virus by various routes of understand the transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, we examined the frequency of infection in volunteers after inoculation by different routes with varying doses of virus. thirty-two adult volunteers received serial dilutions of a safety-tested live strain of respiratory syncytial virus instilled into nose, eye, or mouth. the highest inoculum, 5.2 log10 50% tissue culture infective dose (tcid50), was administered to four groups of four subjects each, by nose to one group, by eye to on ...19817287181
antigen and polypeptide synthesis by temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus.a revised nomenclature for the polypeptides of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus has been devised on the basis of comparison of the long, a2 and rsn-2 strains by slab-gel electrophoresis. seven polypeptides, now designated vp200, vgp48, vpn41, vpp32, vpm27, vp25 and vp10, were observed in preparations of all three strains of rs virus, irrespective of the host cell of origin. in addition, a slowly migrating glycopolypeptide gp1 was prominent in partially purified rs virus of the long and a2 strain ...19817288405
acute fatal pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial virus. 19817292939
secretory antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.the secretory antibody response to primary and secondary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in igg, igm and 11s iga immunoglobulin classes was determined using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody technique. nasopharyngeal secretions were collected after naturally acquired primary or secondary infection with rsv. immunoglobulin a responses to rsv were significantly greater in infants older than 6 months of age at the time of infection than in younger infants. reinfection with rs ...19817294005
monoclonal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus: detection of virus neutralization and other antigen-antibody systems using infected human and murine cells.monoclonal antibodies to human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific antigens can be obtained without preliminary recourse to large-scale culture and purification of the virion. lytically infected human and persistently infected murine cultured cells expressing rs virus-specific cell surface and cytoplasmic antigens were substituted as priming immunogens and as substrates in solid-phase antibody radioimmunoassays. seven hybridoma clones secreting murine igg of either the gamma 1 or the gamma ...19817298794
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by inhibition of enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed for the demonstration of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus immunoglobulin g antibodies was used for the detection of rs virus in specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) obtained from children with acute respiratory disease. samples of nps were incubated with a fixed amount of standard serum (human serum antibodies to rs virus) before being added to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test plate. a decrease in the optical density value determin ...19817309848
respiratory syncytial virus antibodies in nonhuman primates and domestic animals. 19817311470
causes of pneumonia presenting to a district general hospital.the incidence of bacterial, viral, mycoplasma, and rickettsial infections has been assessed prospectively in 210 adult patients with pneumonia who presented to a district hospital over a six-year period. one hundred and thirteen infective agents were detected in 103 patients. the agent most frequently detected was mycoplasma pneumoniae which accounted for 30 infections. a bacterial pathogen was found in 43 patients. streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common of these (24 patients); staphylococ ...19817314031
acute fata; pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial virus. 19817324346
concentration of human respiratory syncytial virus using ammonium sulfate, polyethylene glycol or hollow fiber ultrafiltration.human respiratory syncytial virus was concentrated by polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate precipitation as well as by hollow ultrafiltration. recoveries obtained were respectively 49.4%, 47.7%, and 75.2%; however, further analysis of these results by resuspension experiments showed that all the infectivity could be recovered from the different concentrates. the protein content of polyethylene glycol concentrates was much lower than those of ammonium sulfate or hollow fiber ultrafiltration. e ...19817328162
a reverse passive haemagglutination test for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal secretions from infants.a reverse passive haemagglutination (rph) test has developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus in nasal secretions, taken from infants with acute respiratory illness. in the final form of the procedure, rs virus was detected in 24 of 25 samples positive for rs virus by tissue culture and/or fluorescence antibody staining and in two samples negative for rs virus by these techniques. the simplicity of the technique and the rapidity with which it may be performed together with i ...19817328421
correlation of proliferation of lung epithelium with intramuscular sensitization and complement-fixing antibody to respiratory syncytial virus in the golden hamster.intramuscular sensitization of hamsters with several forms of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) caused proliferation of lung epithelium. in contrast, intranasal injection of live virus rarely resulted in this phenomenon. a correlation existed between proliferation of lung epithelium and presence of complement-fixing antibody, but not between lung disease and delayed skin reactions. complement-fixing antibody to rsv was found to be independent of the influence of the thymus.19817337963
decreased cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus in multiple sclerosis.we compared lymphocyte transformation to respiratory syncytial virus in patients with multiple sclerosis (ms) and in healthy controls. lymphocyte transformation was decreased in ms in the presence or absence of autologous plasma, adding to the evidence that cellular immunity to viral antigens may be broadly impaired in ms, and does not occur uniquely for any single virus.19817347997
possible transmission by fomites of respiratory syncytial test whether nosocomial spread of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) could occur through contact with environmental surfaces contaminated by rsv-infected nasal secretions, survival in the environment of rsv isolated from media, pooled adult secretions, and secretions from hospitalized infants was examined. rsv in freshly obtained infant secretions was recovered from countertops for up to 6 hr, from rubber gloves for up to 1 1/2 hr, from cloth gowns and paper tissue for 30--45 min, and from ski ...19807365274
the antibody response to primary and secondary infection with respiratory syncytial virus: kinetics of class-specific responses.serum antibody responses to primary and secondary infections with respiratory syncytial virus were determined in 67 hospitalized infants. responses in igg, igm, and iga immunoglobulin fractions were assayed using an indirect immunofluorescent technique. infection was confirmed by identification of rsv antigen in nasopharyngeal secretions using indirect immunofluorescence, and by recovery of the virus in tissue culture. igm specific antibody response was commonly observed within a few days of ons ...19807365579
the age dependence of respiratory syncytial virus growth in ferret lung can be shown in organ and monolayer cultures. 19807371226
systemic cell-mediated and antibody responses in infants with respiratory syncytial virus order to investigate the possible role of immunity in lower respiratory tract disease of infants produced by respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, 18 hospitalized infants were tested for cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses in a whole blood culture assay utilizing a gamma emitting tracer, 5(125i) iodo-2'-deoxyuridine [125iudr] to quantitate cellular proliferative responses to virus antigen. class-specific antiviral antibody titres were determined in an indirect membrane immunofluorescence test. o ...19807373288
how to contain respiratory syncytial virus. 19807382084
purification and polypeptides of respiratory syncytial virus. 19807392979
concurrent respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a infections in the institutionalized elderly and chronically ill.during a community outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a/texas/77 infections, we investigated 71 cases of upper respiratory illness at a chronic disease hospital using a surveillance system plus viral and serologic studies. of the 32 patients with an etiologic diagnosis, seven had respiratory syncytial virus, 24 had influenza, and one had dual infections with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. no definite etiologic diagnosis was made in the remaining 39 patients. a comp ...19807396314
effects of ribavirin on respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.ribavirin was demonstrated to have an antiviral effect on respiratory syncytial virus in vitro. a 50% reduction in plaque number was observed at concentrations of 3 or 10 micrograms of ribavirin per ml. this effect was observed when the drug was added as late as 12 h postinfection. at concentrations of greater than 10 micrograms of ribavirin per ml, the size of the syncytial plaque also noticeably decreased. ribavirin similarly decreased the number of infectious units released into the culture s ...19807396465
the stabilization and purification of respiratory syncytial virus using mgso4. 19807414957
morphogenesis and structure of caprine respiratory syncytial virus.cell cultures inoculated with caprine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were studied with light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy to determine the morphogenesis and structure of the virus. small syncytia were seen after 36 hours in culture. after 48 hours in culture, syncytia were large and numerous and pleomorphic cytoplasmic inclusions were seen. these inclusions were more pronounced and numerous later in the infection cycle. indirect immunofluorescence revealed a diffuse to granular cytop ...19807416970
the appearance of cell-bound ige in respiratory-tract epithelium after respiratory-syncytial-virus infection.we studied the appearance of ige in the respiratory tract in 42 infants and young children with various forms of respiratory illness after infection by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). ige was bound to exfoliated nasopharyngeal epithelial cells in most patients with rsv infection during the acute phase of infection, regardless of the form of illness. however, the continued presence of cell-bound ige was more common in patients with rsv-induced bronchiolitis or asthma than in patients with mild ...19807421946
[bronchiolitis].is an acute bronchial, obstructive disease of the infant caused mainly by the respiratory syncytial virus. it appears epidemically preceded by infections of the upper respiratory ducts, followed by coughing, dysnea, expiratory sibilants, suprasternal and subcostal during inspiration and radiologic evidences of choneking. in the differential diagnosis the physician must consider pulmonary dysgenesis, diaphragmatic hernia, congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cardiopathy, pneumothorax, obstructi ...19807426129
outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the elderly. 19807427656
metabolic requirements for the maturation of respiratory syncytial virus.the metabolic processes required for maturation of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was determined by testing with metabolic inhibitors in hela cells that had been trypsinized 18 h p.i. although > 90% of the virus synthesized by that time remained cell-associated, treatment with trypsin inactivated at least 90% of the cell-associated virus. the trypsinized cells, when re-plated in virus growth medium, immediately resumed virus synthesis and this continued exponentially for at least 10 h, during ...19807441215
experimental infection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (quebec strain).an experiment was designed to evaluate the clinical, haematological, viral and serological aspects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves. eleven calves were inoculated intranasally with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (quebec strain) in aerosol. clinical, haemotological and serological responses of the calves and virus shedding were monitored. the experimentally infected animals manifested moderate to severe signs of respiratory disease. the parameters used to evaluate the ...19807448628
respiratory syncytial virus infections in madras. 19807461760
nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus.analysis of purified respiratory syncytial virus revealed that the virion rna was composed of 50s, 28s, 18s, and 4s species. the 18s and 28s species were presumed to represent host rrna since virus grown in actinomycin d-treated cells contained only 50s and 4s rnas. actinomycin d treatment stimulated production of infectious respiratory syncytial virus 5- to 10-fold. the 50s virion rna was shown to hybridize with polyadenylated mrna's isolated from infected cells, indicating that respiratory syn ...19807463558
respiratory syncytial virus infection: ten-year follow-up.studies within the last 20 years have shown that the incidence of asthma is increased in children who have been hospitalized with bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus. to evaluate such respiratory consequences in an ambulatory population, a follow-up study was done of 37 children who had respiratory syncytial virus infection documented at a community pediatric clinic in 1968 when they were younger than 4 years. this study, done ten years later by chart review and parental interview, ...19817471595
role of t-lymphocyte subsets in recovery from respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.the role of t-cell subsets in respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was investigated by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to selectively deplete gnotobiotic calves of cd4+, cd8+, or wc1+ gamma delta t-cell receptor+ lymphocytes. injection of these mabs produced specific reductions of the target cell populations in the circulation and tissues. ten days after rsv infection, immunoglobulin m (igm), igg1, and iga antibodies were detected in sera and lung washings from control calves. depletio ...19957474075
update: respiratory syncytial virus activity--united states, 1995-96 season.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a common cause of winter outbreaks of acute respiratory disease, is associated each year with an estimated 90,000 hospitalizations and 4500 deaths from lower respiratory tract disease in both infants and young children in the united states (1). outbreaks occur annually throughout the united states, and community activity usually peaks within 1 month of the national peak in january or february (figure 1) (2). rsv activity in the united states is monitored by the ...19957476847
[rsv infection. international symposium from the 89th annual meeting of the german society for pediatrics. würzburg, september 9, 1993]. 19937477026
[respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults]. 19957481058
comparison of the t helper cell response induced by respiratory syncytial virus and its fusion protein in balb/c mice.specific proliferative t-cell responses were induced in the lymph node cells (lnc) of mice immunised with a sucrose density gradient purified preparation of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus or an immunoaffinity purified preparation of the f glycoprotein. inhibition studies and flow cytometric analysis showed that the responding cell population were cd4+ t cells. the cytokines produced by virus-specific and f-specific cells were assessed using the ctll cell line. peak quantities of cytokine were ...19957483764
antibody responses by cattle after vaccination with commercial viral vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus immunogens and subsequent revaccination at day 140.calves were vaccinated with four different commercial viral vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea (bvdv), parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3v), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) immunogens. for the initial vaccination certain vaccines were given twice (days 0 and 28), whereas other vaccines were given on day 0. the calves received another injection on day 140 with the vaccine originally given on day 0. the sera were collected at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 5 ...19957483787
cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive mutants of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) are highly attenuated, immunogenic, and protective in seronegative chimpanzees, even when rsv antibodies are infused shortly before immunization.a cold-passaged (cp) temperature-sensitive (ts) rsv mutant, designated rsv cpts-530, which possesses host-range mutations acquired during 52 passages at low temperature in bovine tissue culture and one or more ts mutations induced by chemical mutagenesis (shut-off temperature 39 degrees c) was found previously to be tenfold restricted in its replication in mice as compared to wild-type virus and stable genetically in nude mice. in the current study, we introduced additional attenuating mutations ...19957483808
evaluation of the antiviral activity of n-(phosphonoacetyl)-l-aspartate against paramyxoviruses in tissue culture and against respiratory syncytial virus in cotton rats.n-(phosphonoacetyl)-l-aspartate (pala), a potent inhibitor of l-aspartic acid transcarbamoylase, was evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against three different paramyxoviruses in tissue culture, and for antiviral efficacy and toxicity in vivo using a cotton rat-respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) model. significant in vitro cytotoxicity was observed in proliferating cultures of hep-2 (ic50 = 250 micrograms/ml) and vero cells (ic50 = 32 micrograms/ml), but was less evident in culture ...19957486959
bovine respiratory syncytial virus antibodies in non-bovine study the role of non-bovine species in the epidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, sera obtained from 9 non-bovine animal species and from humans were examined for bovine rsv specific antibodies. sera were mainly from animals and humans which had been in contact with cattle. forty sera of each species were tested in an rsv specific whole virus elisa as well as in a peptide based elisa, that was developed to measure antibodies specific for bovine rsv. antibodies d ...19957487487
serological response to respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric patients with a comparison to immunofluorescence and virus isolation.the serological response to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in 125 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for specific immunoglobulin (ig) a, igg, and igm and complement fixation (cf) test. by elisa, a 4-fold rise in igg titre in paired sera was most commonly found, followed by a rise in iga and igm titres. investigation by elisa and cf leads to the suggestion that major cf activity against rsv antige ...19957488342
phosphorylation of ser232 directly regulates the transcriptional activity of the p protein of human respiratory syncytial virus: phosphorylation of ser237 may play an accessory role.the phosphoprotein p of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was expressed in eukaryotic cells in phosphorylated form. site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant protein established ser232 as the major site of phosphorylation in vivo. phosphorylation of bacterially made p protein in vitro by purified casein kinase ii (ckii) resulted in the phosphorylation of ser237, whereas mainly ser232 was phosphorylated by a crude cell extract. the p kinase activity in the cell extract exhibited properti ...19957491765
safety and immunogenicity of the pfp vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv): the western blot assay aids in distinguishing immune responses of the pfp vaccine from rsv infection.pfp-1 vaccine was evaluated in a randomized, controlled study in 47 rsv seropositive children. trivalent inactivated influenza virus (tiv) vaccine was the control. vaccine reactions were monitored, and bloods were obtained before vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, and at the end of the rsv season. respiratory illnesses were evaluated during the outbreak. neutralizing antibody (nt ab) assay to rsv, igg elisa to rsv proteins and a western blot assay were performed. acute reactions with the pf ...19957491817
respiratory syncytial virus, a rare cause of severe pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation.mixed alveolar interstitial pneumonia is a much-feared complication in bone marrow transplant recipients because it carries a high mortality. many cases in which an etiological agent is identified are due to fungi or cytomegalovirus; rarely, other infectious agents such as pneumocystis carinii or (para)influenzavirus are involved. in this report we describe a patient who received intense chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation for relapse of testis seminoma and who develo ...19957492628
viral respiratory infections and their role as public health problem in tropical countries (review).acute respiratory infections (ari) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. data from the world health organization indicate that there are at least 2.2 million deaths from ari throughout the world each year. a considerable number of study have been performed in different countries to assess the etiological role of viruses in ari and is now clear that the majority of infections of the respiratory tract are caused by viruses. in tropical countries information on the vira ...19957495193
respiratory syncytial virus--associated lower respiratory diseases in hospitalised pre-school children in analysis of the features of lower respiratory diseases (lrd) associated with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in 21 children aged 1-23 months, indicated that the clinical features did not differ appreciably from those described for lrd due to other infective agents. it was however, remarkable that none of the children was grossly malnourished, neither was there any death. the final respiratory diagnoses were bronchiolitis alone (6 cases), bronchopneumonia (6 cases), empyema/pleural effusion ...19957495200
respiratory syncytial virus in infants and children.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a frequent cause of respiratory illness in infants and children, affecting almost 100% of children by the age of 3 years. mild rsv infection usually involves only the upper respiratory tract, while the lower respiratory tract is involved in severe disease. this article addresses the epidemiology of rsv infection, transmission of the disease, predisposing conditions, clinical course, diagnosis, and management. the majority of children can be managed on an outp ...19957501313
alteration of cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity of murine alveolar macrophages after in vitro infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). 19957502897
bovine respiratory syncytial virus replicates minimally in bovine alveolar macrophages.the interaction between two different bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strains and bovine alveolar macrophages (bams) was studied in vitro. bovine respiratory syncytial virus replicated minimally in bams and most of the virus produced remained cell-associated. approximately 1 out of 1,000 bams produced infectious virus, a number that further declined during the 7 days of culture. in contrast, bams exposed to bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (pi3v) produced high amounts of infectious virus. ...19957503690
binding of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to regions of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus expressed in escherichia coli.cdna containing the entire coding sequence of the respiratory syncytial (rs) virus fusion (f) protein gene (574 amino acids) and two large psti restriction fragments, encoding amino acids 18 to 212 and 214 to 574, were expressed in escherichia coli as c-terminal chimeras with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in the pex expression vector system. a further cdna fragment, overlapping the psti restriction site and encoding amino acids 190 to 289, was derived by pcr and expressed in a similar manner. po ...19937506297
conformational constraints of conserved neutralizing epitopes from a major antigenic area of human respiratory syncytial virus fusion study the conformational requirements of epitopes from a conserved antigenic area (area ii) of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus fusion (f) glycoprotein, peptides of increasing length containing amino acids essential for these epitopes were synthesized. the synthetic peptides were tested for binding to a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) for this area as well as to rabbit hyperimmune and human convalescent antisera. antibody binding was dependent on peptide length; thus, a 61- ...19937506298
loss of conserved cysteine residues in the attachment (g) glycoprotein of two human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants that contain multiple a-g substitutions (hypermutations).two escape mutants (r10c/1 and r10c/10) of the human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus long strain were selected after serial passage in the presence of monoclonal antibody c793 directed against the g glycoprotein. this antibody recognizes an epitope which is shared by all viruses of the two antigenic subgroups in which human rs virus isolates have been subdivided. the mutant viruses had lost most of the g protein conserved and subgroup-specific epitopes but maintained the strain-variable epitope ...19947507282
enhanced pulmonary pathology associated with the use of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in cotton rats is not a unique viral phenomenon.the specificity of viral antigens in the formalin-inactivated, alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus (fi-rsv) vaccine in augmenting the pulmonary inflammatory response was evaluated. cotton rats were immunized with a fi-rsv vaccine derived from vero cells, a monkey cell line, or hep-2 cells, a human cell line. the fi-rsv/vero and the fi-rsv/hep-2 vaccines were prepared similarly to the original lot-100 fi-rsv vaccine that was associated with enhanced disease in the mid-1960s field trials ...19937508665
[diagnosis and treatment with traditional chinese medicine and western medicine in infantile pneumonia]. 19937508774
respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein (n) expressed in insect cells forms nucleocapsid-like structures.the gene coding for the n protein of rsv strain long has been cloned and sequenced. it was introduced behind the polyhedrin promoter of the shuttle vector pvl941 and baculoviruses containing the n gene were constructed by homologous recombination. infection of spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells resulted in the production of large amounts of a protein similar in size and antigenicity to the authentic n protein. the baculovirus expressed n protein was concentrated in the cytoplasm of the insect cells a ...19947513931
interleukin-8, interleukin-6, and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor type i release from a human pulmonary epithelial cell line (a549) exposed to respiratory syncytial virus.the release of interleukin-8 (il-8), interleukin-6 (il-6) and the soluble forms of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (stnf-r) from human pulmonary type ii-like epithelial cells (a549) after respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was analysed. rsv infection alone induced a time- and rsv dose-dependent il-8 and il-6 release from a549 cells. furthermore, the soluble form of the tnf-ri was also secreted in a time- and rsv dose-dependent fashion. the soluble tnf-rii was not detected in the cel ...19947519169
respiratory syncytial virus infections in malnourished children.the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection among severely malnourished children was studied at the university of benin teaching hospital, benin city, nigeria at a time when the infection was known to be prevalent in the community. nasopharyngeal washings were obtained from subjects on admission and thereafter every 4 days until discharge. rsv was detected by elisa technique. of 20 well nourished children who served as controls, 11 were elisa-positive for rsv (55%). eight (16%) ...19947521627
linear antigenic and immunogenic regions of human respiratory syncytial virus n protein.three linear antigenic regions on the n protein from human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroup a (strain a2) were identified by using peptides which reacted in elisa with sera from humans with recent or previous rsv infection. the determinants were localized within three hydrophilic regions of the protein: thr11 to gly30 (n3 peptide), ser231 to ala250 (n25 peptide) and thr371 to leu391 (n39 peptide). the site represented by the n39 peptide reacted with four subgroup a-specific mabs. there ...19957531217
preparation of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup a and b antigens for enzyme immunoassay antibody detection.a simplified method was described for purification of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroup a and b aimed to be used as antigens in enzyme immunoassay (eia). the titer of each rsv subgroup and the amount of protein was determined from the visible band in 45% sucrose gradient. the quality of prepared rsv subgroup antigens for eia was described in terms of the achievable final titer, the amount of protein, and eia criss-cross titration. the rsv subgroup a and b antigens, diluted as 1:100 (low ...19947532051
[production of monoclonal antibodies to the human respiratory syncytial virus].the paper describes the procedure for producing monoclonal antibodies to human respiratory asyncytial virus using hybridoma technology. two groups of antibodies were identified in the study of their specific activity. the representatives of the first group preferably reacted with purified virus antigens. those of the second one binded mostly to unpurified virus antigens from the cultural fluid. the antibodies of these groups appear to be different in their epitope specificity.19947532487
[some characteristics of circulation and respiratory viruses in the country].the 17-year observation of changes in the etiological pattern of acute respiratory diseases (ard) in the country has demonstrated that different types of adenoviruses are prevalent in the circulation on the whole territory. adenoviral infection was found to prevail among non-influenza infections in the ukraine, rsv infection in the north of the russian federation and in the far east; piconaviral infections caused by echo and coxsackievirus b in the urals and byelarus republic. however, some year ...19947532499
current respiratory infections. 19957532521
immunosuppressive drugs and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 19957540242
molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus: a review of the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the analysis of genetic variability.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the major viral cause of lower respiratory tract disease (bronchiolitis and pneumonia) in babies and infants. infections with the virus occur as annual winter epidemics in temperate climates, placing considerable pressure on the provision of hospital beds. the virus is unusual in that it can reinfect individuals and it can infect babies despite the presence of maternal antibody. rsv has a negative sense nonsegmented rna genome and as such is liable to high le ...19957541747
antigenic analysis of the f protein of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus: identification of two distinct antigenic sites involved in fusion inhibition.from two independent fusions, fifteen mabs directed to the f protein of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were characterized by radio-immunoprecipitation assays. competition binding assays among these mabs identified two distinct antigenic sites (a and b) and one overlapping site (ab). all of the mabs specific to epitopes belonging to site a neutralized the infectivity of the virus in vitro and recognized human and bovine rsv strains. only two out of the five mabs directed to epitope ...19957541983
expression of adhesion molecules (icam-1, lfa-3) on human epithelial cells (a549) after respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19957542091
isolation and characterization of a highly attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) vaccine candidate by mutagenesis of the incompletely attenuated rsv a2 ts-1 ng-1 mutant virus.ts-1, a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant of rsv, was previously derived from rsv a2 virus by mutagenesis with 5-fluorouracil (5-fu). ts-1 was attenuated for adult volunteers and seropositive children but retained a low level of virulence in seronegative infant vaccinees as indicated by the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease. ts-1 ng-1, a more defective derivative of ts-1, was produced by mutagenesis of ts-1 with nitrosoguanidine. however, ts-1 ng-1 still retained a low level of virul ...19957543716
cell-mediated immune responses of lambs to challenge with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the lamb is a good model to study the pathogenesis and immune responses to infections with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) as lambs experimentally infected with bovine or human rsv may develop overt clinical disease. in the present study the development of cellular cytotoxic responses was studied in splenic, pulmonary and peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from lambs after primary and secondary infection with bovine rsv. infection with bovine rsv was followed by the appearance of cyto ...19957544251
evaluation of abbott testpack rsv and an in-house rsv elisa for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory tract aspirates.the abbott testpack rsv was compared with an in-house rsv enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen. nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 121 inpatients. rsv antigen was detected in 46 specimens by the abbott testpack, 42 of these being confirmed by the in-house rsv elisa. of the 75 specimens tested negative in the abbott testpack rsv, one was found positive by the in-house rsv elisa. the sensitivity and specificity of the abbott ...19957546643
progress toward the development of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. 19957547360
[experimental and clinical study of shuanghuanglian aerosol in treating acute respiratory tract infection].two hundrde and two cases of acute respiratory tract infection (ari) were treated with shuanghuanglian (shl) aerosol. in these cases, the majority of cases were virus infection and 64% of them was caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the virostatic and bacteriostatic test were done in vitro by the cell culture method and it was shown that shl could inhibit the rsv, para-influenza i-iv and 23 kinds of pathogenic bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus etc. the bacteriostatic effect was ...19957549385
respiratory syncytial virus replication in human lung epithelial cells: inhibition by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon beta.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the major pathogen causing severe lung disease in children. rsv initially replicates efficiently in the respiratory tract but becomes undetectable by 7 to 21 d after infection in normal children, suggesting that intrinsic cellular mechanisms, as yet undefined, may restrict virus replication. to provide an in vitro model to examine mechanisms that restrict rsv replication, three human lung epithelial cell lines were exposed to rsv in vitro and virus replicatio ...19957551395
immunity and immunopathology to respiratory syncytial virus. the mouse model.infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major unsolved challenge for vaccine development. rsv is worldwide in distribution and infects almost all children during the first 2 yr of life. the mouse model of rsv lung disease has been very successful in reproducing many aspects of the human disease. in particular, the role of antiviral t cells in both eliminating virus and causing enhanced disease has been shown dramatically. this immunopathologic paradox is now more clearly understood ...19957551415
pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-augmented pathology.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is an important respiratory pathogen for which vaccine development has been thwarted by the legacy of vaccine-enhanced illness. a formalin-inactivated, alum-precipitated, whole virus vaccine did not protect children from infection and was associated with severe illness. clues from clinical studies of rsv and vaccine-induced atypical measles illness suggest that an aberrant cd4+ lymphocyte response occurred in vaccinees. there is a growing body of evidence from m ...19957551416
the induction of respiratory syncytial virus-specific cytotoxic t-cell responses following immunization with a synthetic peptide containing a fusion peptide linked to a cytotoxic t lymphocyte epitope.previously published work has shown that a cytotoxic t-cell epitope (ctl) representing residues 82-90 of the m2 protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the target for a protective response against the virus. in this report, we demonstrate that a synthetic peptide representing residues 81-95, when covalently linked to a fusion peptide derived from the conserved n-terminal 19 residues of the f1 protein of measles virus efficiently primes rsv-specific ctls in vivo following immunization wit ...19957558120
cytokine (il-8, il-6, tnf-alpha) and soluble tnf receptor-i release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after respiratory syncytial virus infection.during the initial phase of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, when a low virus-cell ratio is most probable, signs of inflammation are detectable in the infected respiratory tissue. therefore we analysed the release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (il-6), il-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), and the soluble form of the tnf receptor-i (stnfr-i), from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) after exposure to low infectious rsv doses (multiplicity of infection, ...19957558123
viral infections in children's wards--how well do we manage them?children are frequently admitted to hospital wards with viral infections. many are not life-threatening to the index case, but the spread to vulnerable patients who are already at higher risk should be avoided. to do so requires active awareness and availability of rapid diagnosis (i.e. the same day). cohorting and handwashing have been found to be the best measures to prevent spread of respiratory syncytial virus (responsible for considerable morbidity every winter) in hospital wards.19957560947
respiratory syncytial virus--is it preventable?respiratory syncytial virus infection spreads readily among hospital wards, nurseries and intensive care units. careful handwashing is the cornerstone in the prevention of nosocomial transmission. use of rapid diagnostic tests permits the cohorting of patients and staff which has been shown to limit the spread in hospital wards. in addition, the use of gowns and gloves and limiting visitors have been recommended. in the future passive immunization with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) immune gl ...19957560988
identification of the respiratory syncytial virus-induced immunosuppressive factor produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro as interferon-alpha.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) can inhibit the proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) in vitro. this inhibition is mediated by an extracellular rsv-induced factor. in the present study, the factor was clearly identified as interferon (ifn)-alpha. the rsv-induced ifn-alpha bound strongly to pbmc and inhibited the anti-rsv proliferative response only when added within the first few days of stimulation. there was, however, no concomitant decrease in the product ...19957561210
diaphragmatic flutter in three babies with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.abnormalities of respiratory control, especially apnea, have been reported previously in infants with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. this is the first report of yet another abnormality of respiratory control, diaphragmatic flutter (df), in infants with rsv infection. the presentation of these infants did not differ from the usual clinical presentation of rsv infection. while being monitored with respiratory inductive plethysmography for occurrences of apnea known to be common in r ...19957567207
a cotton rat model of effectors of immunity to respiratory syncytial virus other than serum antibody.a model for studying effectors of immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was developed. paris of inbred cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) were joined surgically using the technique of parabiosis. one week later, one animal of each pair was primed intranasally with a small volume of rsv suspension. fourteen days after priming, both animals of each pair were bled for determination of serum neutralizing antibody titers, and challenged intranasally with a standard dose of rsv suspension. single ...19957567215
legionnella pulmonary infection in children on steroids. 19957567223
microbial inciters of acute asthma in urban nigerian tropical africa the role of microbial agents of acute respiratory infections in acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma remains largely unexplored. however, empirical antibacterial therapy is frequently initiated in moderate to severe cases of acute asthma with symptoms of acute respiratory infection. a study was set up to determine how often acute respiratory infection is associated with acute asthma, to identify the associated pathogens, and to proffer appropriate therapeutic suggestions.19957570407
different kinetics of antibody responses between iga and igg classes in nasopharyngeal secretion in infants and children during primary respiratory syncytial virus infection.the secretory antibody responses in 34 infants and children (20 days-17 months old) with lower respiratory tract disease following primary respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection were determined using a sensitive tissue culture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. none of the patients in the acute phase showed iga antibody responses. in contrast significant igg antibody responses which were thought to be maternally derived were observed in infants younger than 2 months of age. in the convalesc ...19957572146
differential antiviral activity of derivatized dextrans.the antiviral activity of water-soluble dextrans derivatized with varying percentages of carboxymethyl, benzylamide, and sulfonate groups was evaluated. several of the polymers exhibited potent antiviral activity against a variety of enveloped viruses, but not against non-enveloped viruses, and only when present during virus adsorption. the mechanism of activity against retroviruses [i.e. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)] and herpes viruses (i.e. human cytomegalovirus) could be ascribed to inh ...19957575633
lack of detection of enteroviral rna or bacterial dna in magnetic resonance imaging-directed muscle biopsies from twenty children with active untreated juvenile investigate for the presence of increased titers of circulating antibody to putative infectious agents and for detectable viral rna or bacterial dna in children with active recent-onset juvenile dermatomyositis (dm).19957575702
prior infection by respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza viruses augments virus-specific igg responses induced by the measles/mumps/rubella vaccine.we found previously that immunizing cyclophosphamide-treated mice with one paramyxoviridae virus mixed with dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide induces t cells which apparently also recognize other paramyxoviridae viruses. this finding and the fact that respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza viruses (pivs) infect children early in life led us to ask if prior rsv or piv infections influence the antibody response to measles and mumps vaccine viruses. detection of virus-specific igg ...19947576035
hydrophobicity engineering to facilitate surface display of heterologous gene products on staphylococcus xylosus.protein engineering has been employed to investigate the effect of specific amino acid changes on the targeting of heterologous proteins to the outer cell surface of the gram-positive bacterium staphylococcus xylosus. three different variants, corresponding to a 101 amino acid region of the major glycoprotein (g protein) of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), were generated in which multiple hydrophobic phenylalanine residues were either substituted or deleted. the different g protein fragm ...19957576540
interleukin-1 alpha mediates the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in pulmonary epithelial cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the mechanisms of virus-induced enhancement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) expression in epithelial cells are unknown. in the present study, the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on the expression of icam-1 in human pulmonary type ii-like epithelial (a549) cells was evaluated. conditioned rsv media (crsv) produced from growth of rsv in a549 cells induced a significant increase in the expression of icam-1. treatment of the cells with noninfectious crsv prepared ...19957576697
[immune replacement therapy in rs infection].respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is the main cause of severe respiratory infections in newborns and infants during the first year of life. in the recent years, search is under way for chemo- and immune replacement therapy preparations for etiotropic rs-infection therapy. procedures have been developed to prepare immunoglobulins and chigain preparations having a target-oriented action. they were clinically tested. there was a positive dynamics in the clinical manifestations of the disease and a p ...19957580414
[characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to rs virus in immunoenzyme and immunofluorescence techniques].according to the competitive elisa test data, new preparations of monoclonal antibodies (mab) to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) differed in their blocking activity and they were directed to 3 different virus epitopes. mab 9c5 and mab 131-2a (cdc, atlanta) competed against each other strongly and they were directed to epitope f1a of rsv f-protein. mabs 8c5 and 10d8 showed a two-way blocking and were presumably topologically linked. mab 8b10 did not compete against other mabs. the fact that mab ...19957580416
mucosal t cells recovered from mice after infection with respiratory syncytial virus display a memory/activation phenotype.pgp-1 expression was studied as a marker of memory/activation on systemic and mucosal t cells of balb/c and c57bl/6 mice after infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), using two-color dual fluorescence flow cytometry employing anti-l3t4 (cd4), anti-ly2 (cd8), and anti-pgp-1 (cd44) monoclonal antibodies. pgp-1 was expressed in relatively low densities on t cells of c57bl/6 mice, allowing differentiation of a dual population of pgp-1(10) and pgp-1hi t cells after antigenic stimulation in ...19957581721
testing models predicting severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection on the picnic rsv database. pediatric investigators collaborative network on infections in determine the sensitivity and specificity of published prognostic models to predict morbidity resulting from lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus in an independent pediatric population and to assess the accuracy of single risk factors in predicting adverse outcome.19957581752
role of ecmo in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: a collaborative report the collaborative experience of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo) in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis between april 1989 and january 1995.19957583613
Displaying items 1801 - 1900 of 11972