neutralizing, complement-fixing and precipitating antibody response of guinea pigs to intranasal and intracardiac respiratory syncytial virus inoculations. a method of producing specific hyperimmune serum. 19676049274
acute lower respiratory illness in elderly patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19676058359
studies on respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19676080415
the characterization and uses of monoclonal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus.fifteen hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) have been produced. three react with nucleoprotein (mw 42 000 daltons), 1 with phosphoprotein (mw 36 000 daltons), 1 with a larger protein (mw 60 000 daltons) and 10 with the fusion glycoprotein (mw 46 000 + 22 000 daltons). by immunofluorescent staining of infected cells, 5 monoclonal antibodies bind to cytoplasmic inclusions and the remainder give diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence. virus infectivity is ...19846084614
detection of respiratory virus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions from patients with acute respiratory disease by radio-immunoassay and tissue culture investigation was made of the sensitivity and specificity of four-layer radio-immunoassays (ria) in the detection of adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types a and b, as well as para-influenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 from nasopharyngeal aspirates of 146 patients with acute respiratory disease. the sensitivity of ria was comparable with that of tissue culture isolation if the total number of positives is considered. the difference may have been caused both by a higher effi ...19846088961
prevalence of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus in sheep and goats in quebec.serum samples were collected from 1,075 clinically normal sheep and goats from 77 flocks in 7 agricultural regions of quebec from june to august 1982. sheep and goats were tested for antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine herpes-virus-1 by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique and for parainfluenza-3 virus by the hemagglutination inhibition test. the prevalence of antibodies in animals to respiratory syncytial virus was 31%; to bovine vira ...19846089626
survey for antibodies to respiratory viruses in two groups of sheep in northern ireland.two hundred serum samples from texel and texel crossbred sheep (non-indigenous breeds) and 200 from indigenous northern ireland breeds (mainly blackface, cheviot and border leicester crosses) were tested for antibodies to parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus (subgroups 1 and 2), influenza type a, maedi-visna virus and bovine virus diarrhoea virus. the percentage of animals with antibodies to parainfluenza virus 3 (50 to 56 per cent) and adenovirus ...19846095511
serological studies of parainfluenza type 3 virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in beef calves.six serum samples were taken at monthly intervals from birth to weaning from each of 41 newborn calves in the autumn and spring calf crops of a beef cow--calf herd. the serum hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibody titres to parainfluenza type 3 virus (piv-3), virus-neutralization (vn) antibody titres to bovine adenovirus type 3 (bav-3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined using microtitration techniques. there was serological evidence of a significantly higher inciden ...19846095517
nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion (f) glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequence of the mrna encoding the f protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (strain a2) was determined from cdna clones that contain the complete mrna sequence. the mrna is 1899 nucleotides long exclusive of polyadenylylate. the single major open reading frame encodes a protein of 574 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 63,453. major structural features predicted from the amino acid sequence include an nh2-terminal signal sequence (residues 1-22), hydrophobic tr ...19846096849
prevention of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection and clinical disease by vaccination.a double blind field trial was carried out with a live attenuated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. the trial involved 530 calves, two to 10 months old, on 27 dairy farms, where respiratory problems due to bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections had been observed during the preceding year. in 17 herds either all calves were vaccinated (nine groups) or all calves received a placebo (eight groups). in 10 herds half the number of calves were vaccinated and the other half kept as non ...19846097014
rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections among children in european countries. 19806104237
rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections in children. 19806105590
prospects for new viral vaccines.animal virology has made outstanding contributions to preventive medicine by the development of vaccines for the control of infectious disease in man and animals. cost-benefit analysis indicates substantial savings in health care costs from the control of diseases such as smallpox, poliomyelitis, yellow fever and measels. areas for further development include vaccines for influenza (living, attenuated virus), the herpes group (varicella: cytomegalovirus), respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus a ...19806106250
detection of respiratory syncytial virus serum antibodies by an elisa elisa test for respiratory syncytial (rs) virus assay was adapted and standardized; it gave 10-15 times higher antibody titres than complement fixation (cf) but was not a more sensitive test for detecting recent rs virus infection in persons above 1 year of age. in testing normal-population sers, elisa revealed twice more positive sera than the cf test. owing to its high sensitivity and apparent ability to detect long-persisting antibodies, elisa is the test of choice for sero-epidemiological ...19816112865
respiratory syncytial virus infection causing neurological disorder in neonates. 19816113386
respiratory syncytial virus causing neurological disorder in an adult. 19816114314
interference between outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus infection. 19826121154
the genome of respiratory syncytial virus is a negative-stranded rna that codes for at least seven mrna species.the rna from purified respiratory syncytial (rs) virions and the rnas from rs virus-infected cells were isolated and characterized. the rna from rs virions was found to be a unique species of single-stranded rna of approximately 5 x 10(6) daltons. specific annealing experiments demonstrated that at least 93% of the virion rna was of negative (nonmessage) polarity. eight major and three minor species of virus-specific rna were detected in the cytoplasm of rs virus-infected hep-2 cells. the larges ...19826125602
ribavirin for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19836136701
monoclonal antibodies protect against respiratory syncytial virus. 19836138541
some regularities in variations of respiratory syncytial virus strains during their epidemiological circulation.among respiratory syncytial (rs) viruses circulating in the territory of u.s.s.r., strain variations were observed based on the differences in activity of virus reproduction in human embryo kidney cell cultures at 39 degrees c and in virus sensitivity to antibodies. mathematical expression of the correlation between these two genetic markers made it possible to classify the new isolates of rs virus into three groups differing in their virulence, namely high, mild and low virulent strains. popula ...19836138987
respiratory syncytial virus infection in syrian hamsters. i. development of humoral syrian hamsters have been shown useful for the study of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. clinical manifestations coincided with the maximum replication of the virus in respiratory tract of infected animals as confirmed by immunofluorescence (if) test. the dynamics of secretory and serum antibody responses is described in infected and reinfected animals.19836140834
respiratory syncytial virus infection in syrian hamsters. ii. regulation of the immune response.the dynamics of immune cell responsiveness in the process of development of primary and secondary immune responses after infection of adult syrian hamsters with native respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was studied. in primary immune response, the enhancement of functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogens and the maximum level of their spontaneous proliferative activity were found to precede the optimal level of antibody synthesis. regulation of the dynamics of immunogenesis after reinfe ...19836140835
cell cultures from bone affected by paget's disease.cells obtained from paget's bone specimens were maintained in culture for up to 8 1/2 months. the cells had several characteristics of bone cells including the presence of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, or succinic dehydrogenase as demonstrated histochemically. electron microscopy revealed nuclear inclusions similar to those found in the osterclasts of paget's disease in 4 or 11 cultures. immunohistology utilizing specific antisera demonstrated the presence of respiratory syncytial viru ...19806158956
interferon production in adults with respiratory syncytial viral infection.respiratory syncytial virus may cause repeated infections and appreciable illness in adults as well as children. factors associated with immunity and recovery are poorly understood. we studied 37 adults with natural respiratory syncytial viral illness and eight experimentally infected volunteers for nasal interferon production. their response was compared to that of 25 adults with influenza. interferon was detected in only six of those with natural respiratory syncytial virus and in none of thos ...19816160798
interferon and respiratory syncytial virus. 19816163386
interferon production by human mononuclear leukocytes: differences between respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses.the ability of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) to induce interferon production by human mononuclear leukocytes was compared with that of influenza viruses. cell culture fluids were assayed for interferon activity 1, 3 and 7 days after exposure to rsv or to one of two subtypes of influenza a virus (h0n1 and h3n2). rsv induced interferon production inconsistently and in low titers. varying the multiplicity of infection did not improve the ability of rsv to induce interferon production. in contra ...19816163726
the development of respiratory syncytial virus-specific ige and the release of histamine in nasopharyngeal secretions after infection.we studied the development of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific ige and the release of histamine in nasopharyngeal secretions from 79 infants with various forms of respiratory illness due to rsv. rsv-ige was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; specificity was confirmed by appropriate blocking experiments. histamine content in the secretions was determined by fluorimetric methods. rsv-ige was detectable in only one of 19 patients with rsv infection without wheezing, but was ...19816168908
interferon, fluorescent antibody, and neutralizing antibody responses in sera of calves inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.interferon, fluorescent antibody, and neutralizing antibody responses were studied in sera of 9 calves inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, in relation to viral shedding and clinical signs of disease. the calves (5.5 to 6.5 weeks of age) were assigned to 3 groups. group i was inoculated once with the virus, and groups ii and iii were challenge exposed at postinoculation day (pid) 15 or 37. serum-neutralizing and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques were used to measure antibod ...19816170241
different effects of influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and sendai virus on human lymphocytes and macrophages.influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and sendai virus depress human cell-mediated immune responses, such as mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, but differ in their ability to induce other immune defense mechanisms, such as interferon production. exposure to the different viruses resulted in depressed transformation responses to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin by affecting the function of lymphocytes, or macrophages, or both cell types.19826175576
cdna cloning and transcriptional mapping of nine polyadenylylated rnas encoded by the genome of human respiratory syncytial virus.we have isolated cdna clones representing nine unique poly(a)+ rnas transcribed from the genome of human respiratory syncytial virus, a paramyxovirus. a cdna library was constructed by using poly(a)+ rna from virus-infected cells as template and the escherichia coli plasmid pbr322 as vector. viral cdna clones were identified by hybridization with cdna probes prepared from viral genomic rna. the viral clones were grouped into nine different families by hybridization with individual size-selected ...19836190173
report of a workshop on respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses. 19836194232
antiviral drugs 1983.a number of antiviral compounds are currently available, and several others are of great interest. trifluridine, idoxuridine, and vidarabine are effective topically in herpes simplex virus keratoconjunctivitis infection. vidarabine (and presumably acyclovir) is effective in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and in herpes zoster infections in the immunocompromised host. acyclovir is effective topically, orally, and intravenously in primary herpes genitalis, and the oral and intravenous forms are ...19836194388
antigenic and biological criteria of differentiation of the newly isolated strains of respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus strains isolated in different years varied by their antigenic and biological properties. the lowest degree of relatedness was found between the "street" virus and the prototype long strain; the highest occured among the isolates from a given isolation period. based on the mean indices of efficiency of the virus reproduction in human embryo lung (hel) cells at 37 degrees c and 39 degrees c as well as on the degree of virus sensitivity to reference antibodies, the ...19836195898
monoclonal antibodies protect against respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice.twenty-five monoclonal antibodies (mab) to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and two to hepatitis b virus were inoculated intravenously into mice. twenty-four hours later the mice were challenged intranasally with rsv. eleven of 14 mab against fusion protein and four out of six mab against a larger glycoprotein (gp84) significantly reduced the titre of rsv in the lungs when mice were killed 5 days later. five mab against three other rsv proteins and two mab against hepatitis b virus had no signi ...19846201436
antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.the antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of these ...19846201505
monoclonal antibodies to human respiratory syncytial virus and their use in comparison of different virus isolates.monoclonal antibodies to the rsn -2 isolate of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus have been characterized with regard to their specificity for viral polypeptides and for different rs virus isolates. five hybridoma antibodies recognized the phospho-protein vpp32 and the other recognized the matrix protein vpm27 . evidence was obtained to support the view that vpp32 was associated with the nucleoprotein vpn41 . three of the antibodies to vpp32 showed cytoplasmic immunofluorescent staining whil ...19846202832
monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection by immunofluorescence.eight separate monoclonal antibodies to the long strain of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were tested for their utility as rapid diagnostic reagents in immunofluorescence. preliminary screening indicated that all 8 reacted with 11 field strains from three previous local rsv outbreaks and with 4 of 5 additional strains chosen because of their antigenic diversity by neutralization. two monoclonal antibodies, one each directed against a surface glycoprotein and the nucleocapsid protein, were the ...19846204807
spectrophotometric quantitation of peroxidase-stained protein bands following gel electrophoresis and the western blot transfer technique with respiratory syncytial virus.a procedure is described for spectrophotometrically measuring the position and intensity of elisa-stained protein bands after western blot analyses. partially purified virus proteins separated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transblotted onto nitrocellulose paper were identified by elisa reactions according to established procedures. the nitrocellulose paper strips were then rendered transparent on glass slides by treatment with a plastics solvent (gelman sepra-clear). ...19846205014
antigenic and structural variation in the major nucleocapsid protein of respiratory syncytial virus.antigenic and structural variation in the major nucleocapsid protein, vpn41, from different strains of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was observed using a combination of monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional peptide mapping. limited trypsin treatment of intact nucleocapsids produced two peptide fragments mr 27k and mr 14k. two monoclonal antibodies, n1 and n2, reactive with primary sequence epitopes located on intact nucleocapsids also reacted with either the 27k fragment (n2) or the 14k f ...19846208317
aromatic amidines: comparison of their ability to block respiratory syncytial virus induced cell fusion and to inhibit plasmin, urokinase, thrombin, and trypsin.two series of amidine derivatives consisting of a total of 24 compounds were examined for a correlation between their blocking effect on respiratory syncytial virus induced cell fusion and their inhibitory activity against selected trypsin-like protease. although no correlation was evident between the two activities, several potentially important discoveries were made. a highly selective inhibitor of plasmin over thrombin (compound 10) was obtained, and a potent new blocker of virus-induced cell ...19836219223
enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus-induced cytopathology by trypsin, thrombin, and plasmin.a series of proteases of diverse substrate specificity were tested for their effect on respiratory syncytial virus-induced cytopathology. three of the enzymes, thrombin, plasmin, and trypsin, were able to augment significantly the fusion of virus-infected a549 cells. on a concentration basis, thrombin was the most active promoter, followed by plasmin and then trypsin. hirudin, a specific thrombin inhibitor, blocked the fusion-enhancing property of thrombin, yet had no influence on the basal rate ...19836219957
[early diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants and young children. detection of specific igm by indirect immunofluorescence technic]. 19826221821
[a survey on antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in the sera of children in beijing]. 19836226398
defective regulation of immune responses in respiratory syncytial virus infection.the relationship of suppressor cell numbers and function to virus-specific ige response was determined in 72 infants with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. monoclonal antibodies to membrane antigens were used to enumerate okt4 and okt8 antigen-positive cells, and suppressor cell function as quantitated by the degree of suppression of lymphocyte mitogenesis induced by incubation of lymphocyte cultures with histamine. patients with bronchiolitis had fewer okt8-positive cells during conv ...19846236259
seasonal pattern in childhood viral lower respiratory tract infections in melbourne.respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses are the major pathogens in acute lower respiratory infection in infants and younger children. they show distinct seasonal patterns. an annual epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus infection is seen in melbourne and this coincides with the coldest months of the year. parainfluenza virus type 1, the most frequent cause of laryngotracheobronchitis, occurs as an autumn epidemic every second year. parainfluenza virus types 2 and 3 are present mo ...19806244480
inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus by bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)methane. 19806247826
[rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children. respiratory syncytial virus demonstrated by the immunofluorescent technic]. 19806250259
experimental models for study of common respiratory viruses.numerous epidemiological studies have shown that there is excess respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution, implying an interactive effect on the clinical illness associated with these common infections. the principal etiologic agents of human respiratory infections are respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), influenza viruses (iv), parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 (p1, p3), adenoviruses (ad), rhinoviruses (rv) and mycoplasma pneumoniae (mpn). understanding the pathogenesi ...19806250807
injury of respiratory epithelium.the large surface area provided by the respiratory tract epithelium of humans for exposure to microbial agents and toxic substances in the environment makes this organ system very vulnerable but a good early indicator of adverse health effects. however, the complexity of pulmonary defense mechanisms complicates definition of the interactive effects of pollutants and infectious agents. tracheal organ culture has been utilized to maintain organized, differentiated respiratory epithelium in vitro. ...19806250814
rheumatoid factor in acute viral infections: interference with determination of igm, igg, and iga antibodies in an enzyme immunoassay.igm rheumatoid factor (rf), an autoantibody to the fc fragment of igg, was determined by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (eia). rf levels were significantly higher in patients with rubella virus infection than in patients with infections due to influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, mumps virus, or herpes simplex virus. to evaluate the role of rf in eia determinations of viral antibodies, igm rf from igm-igg cryoglobulin or control igm was ...19806251140
secretory immunological response in infants and children to parainfluenza virus types 1 and 2.the secretory immunological responses to natural infection with parainfluenza viruses ae not well defined. nasopharyngeal secretion specimens from 20 infants and children naturally infected with parainfluenza virus type 1 or type 2 were examined for class-specific antibody and virus-neutralizing activity. there was a marked discordance in individual secretions between immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody (as measured by indirect immunofluorescence) and neutralizing activity (as determined by either h ...19806254881
nosocomial viral infections: ii. guidelines for prevention and control of respiratory viruses, herpesviruses, and hepatitis viruses.this article reviews the most likely mechanisms of transmission of the commonly encountered respiratory viruses (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus), herpesviruses, and hepatitis viruses, and presents the guidelines used currently for prevention and control that are in use at strong memorial hospital.19806256306
a survey of virus infections of the respiratory tract of cattle and their association with disease.a total of 1590 caves were investigated between may 1972 and december 1975. twenty-two per cent were treated for respiratory disease and 2 . 5% died of pneumonia. almost 80% of the respiratory illness occurred in six sharp outbreaks. samples of virology were collected routinely from 127 healthy calves and from 354 calves treated for respiratory signs and comprised 1143 nasopharyngeal swabs and 1069 sera. virus infections were detected on 540 occasions including 135 by parainfluenzavirus type 3 ( ...19806256435
pneumonia: an eleven-year study in a pediatric from an 11-year study of acute lower respiratory tract illness were analyzed to provide added insight into the causes and patterns of occurrence of pneumonia in an outpatient pediatric population. over 80% of all episodes of pneumonia occurred in children less than seven years of age; the peak attack rate was observed in 2-4-year-old children. a virus or mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 24% of children with pneumonia; 57% of all episodes occurred during outbreaks for which a viral or ...19816257108
detection of respiratory syncytial, parainfluenza type 2, and adenovirus antigens by radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay on nasopharyngeal specimens from children with acute respiratory disease.four-layer antispecies radioimmunoassay (ria) and enzyme immunoassay (eia) procedures were developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenza type 2 virus, and adenovirus antigens in nasopharyngeal specimens from children hospitalized for acute respiratory disease. polystyrene beads (ria) or flat-bottomed polystyrene microtiter plates (eia) were used as the solid phases, guinea pig anti-virus immunoglobulins were used as the captive antibodies, rabbit anti-virus immu ...19816259198
nosocomial viral respiratory infections: perennial weeds on pediatric wards.the frequency and importance of nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract in pediatrics have generally been underestimated. in part this has resulted from the emphasis on bacterial infections which occur primarily in select at-risk populations. most respiratory infections in pediatric patients, hospital- and community-acquired, are viral and all patients are potentially susceptible the epidemiologic patterns of these viral respiratory agents on the ward mirror those seen in the community in ...19816259940
comparison of direct immunofluorescent staining of clinical specimens for respiratory virus antigens with conventional isolation techniques.staining of clinical respiratory specimens obtained by nasopharyngeal and throat swabs with direct fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antisera to para-influenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, influenza a virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, mumps virus, and measles virus was compared with isolation procedures in routine tissue culture systems. direct staining of clinical specimens with the commercially available conjugated offered a rapid means of diagnosing respiratory infections on a r ...19806260834
virus infection of endothelial cells.endothelial injury is important in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, atherosclerosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and vasculitis. the ability of several common human viruses to infect cultures of endothelial cells obtained from human umbilical veins or bovine thoracic aorta was demonstrated. indicators of infection included cytopathology, viral growth curves, and antigen detection by immunofluorescence. herpes simplex virus type 1, adenovirus type 7, measles virus, and parainfluenza vi ...19816260874
sensitive plaque neutralization assay for parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 and respiratory syncytial virus.a sensitive plaque neutralization assay for parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 and respiratory syncytial virus was developed in vero and ma 104 cell cultures. the tests were performed in semimicrotoiter trays containing 24 wells, 16 mm in diameter. parainfluenza virus type 1 formed plaques in vero and ma 104 cells only when trypsin was added to the overlay medium. plaquing of parainfluenza virus type 1 was more sensitive and technically reproducible in ma 104 cells than in vero cells. parainf ...19816262372
the cotton rat as an experimental model of human parainfluenza virus type 3 disease.intranasal or aerosol inoculation of cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) with human parainfluenza virus type 3 (p3) produces pulmonary changes which closely resemble human disease due to this agent. active viral replication resulted in peak titers by day 2 of infection. viral antigen was localized by immunofluorescence in bronchial epithelial cells alone (aerosol inoculation) or epithelial and alveolar cells (intranasal instillation). cytopathic effects in epithelial cells was noted as early as day ...19816268401
acute non-bacterial infections of the respiratory tract in singapore children: an analysis of three years' laboratory findings.a retrospective study of the laboratory results on respiratory specimens received from children under 12 years of age between january 1977 and december 1979 was carried out. these children were either hospital patients, usually with lower respiratory infections, or outpatients on the influenza surveillance programme. the overall virus isolation rate was 26.8%, and the isolation rate among hospital patients, 38.5%. epidemics or outbreaks were associated with infections due to the influenza viruse ...19816269479
[acute respiratory syndromes caused by viruses in a pediatric department. clinical and epidemiological studies of a series of cases admitted in the period from february to may, 1979].in the period between february and may 1979, in concomitance with a sharp increase in admittance to the pediatric division of the parma general hospital for acute respiratory infections, we carried out a virologic and serologic investigation on hospitalized children aged 21 days-12 years. the investigation was carried out on 137 patients with respiratory diseases: 33 with bronchiolitis, which occurred mainly (32/33) between february and march in children that were prevalently (30/33) in the firs ...19816271082
patterns of shedding of myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in the houston family study, young children were cultured for virus weekly or biweekly and during acute respiratory illnesses. the interval between the onset of illness and positive culture was examined for 179 infections during 1975-1979. in week 1 after onset, 73%, 73%, and 66% of cultures were positive for influenza a virus, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and parainfluenza virus type 3, respectively. pooled data from influenza b virus infections in 1977 and 1980 showed that 73% of culture ...19816273473
nosocomial viral infections: i. epidemiology and significance.viral illnesses in strong memorial hospital were monitored over a 17-month period. using criteria based primarily on the incubation periods for a number of common virus infections, the infections we found were classified as hospital- or community-acquired. hospital-acquired viral infections occurred on most hospital services; the majority of infections occurred on the pediatric and psychiatric services. infections due to herpesviruses were seen more frequently in a group of patients aged 14 year ...19806274823
concurrent outbreaks of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in an intensive care nursery: epidemiology and associated risk outbreak of viral respiratory disease occurred in eight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit during the 1980 winter respiratory season. four infections with respiratory syncytial virus and four infections with rhinovirus were identified. epidemiologic investigation revealed that viral respiratory infection was significantly associated with intubation with orotracheal tubes (p = 0.001), with the presence of both a nasal feeding tube plus an orotracheal tube together (p = 0.007), and with ...19826279812
a longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion.we analyzed data from a 14-year longitudinal study of respiratory infections in young children to determine the relative importance of viral respiratory infection and nasopharyngeal colonization with streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae as factors influencing the occurrence of acute otitis media with effusion. the incidence of this disorder was increased in children with viral respiratory infections (average relative risk, 3.2; p less than 0.0001). infection with respiratory syncy ...19826281639
viral agents of acute respiratory infections in young children in kuala lumpur.the results of this study indicate that the important viral agents associated with lower respiratory tract infections in young children are respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza virus, particularly in those under 2 years of age. this is in close agreement with studies done in temperate climates. influenza a virus is seasonal and plays an important role in upper respiratory tract infections in older children.19826282479
the role of respiratory syncytial virus and other viral pathogens in acute otitis media.we utilized recently developed enzyme immunoassay techniques to examine the role of selected viruses in the etiology of acute otitis media. viral pathogens were found in middle ear fluids obtained from 13 (24%) of 53 children with acute otitis media; respiratory syncytial virus accounted for ten of the 13 viral agents identified. in addition, respiratory syncytial viral antigen was found in nasopharyngeal washings obtained from 15 of the 53 children. seven of these children had rsv identified as ...19826283052
infections in pregnancy: highlights from the collaborative perinatal project.the longitudinal study of approximately 60,000 pregnant women was conducted at 14 major medical centers throughout the united states. clinical data was obtained under prescribed protocols for each of the study women throughout their pregnancy, at delivery, and through the postpartum period. the children were followed with uniform examinations from birth through seven years of age. in addition blood samples were taken from the pregnant women at registration, every two months through pregnancy, at ...19826285538
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine oral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, bovine adenoviruses-3 and -7, and goat respiratory syncytial viral antibodies in goats.sera from healthy goats were collected during october 1979 through october 1980. these sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine adenoviruses (bav) -3 and -7, and goat respiratory syncytial virus (grsv) antibodies by microtitration virus-neutralization test. the number of herds with seropositive goats for each virus were: 5/38 (13.2%) for bhv-1; 9/38 (23.7%) for bvdv; 8/38 (21.1%) for pi-3 virus; 1/38 (2.6%) for ba ...19826285781
defective interfering particles of respiratory syncytial virus.a multiplicity-dependent interference was observed in respiratory syncytial virus preparations (randall strain) grown in hep-2 cells, and the factor mediating this interference was characterized. cloned virus did not demonstrate this multiplicity-dependent interference, but its replication was shown to be inhibited by the interfering factor by assays of reduction of infectious yield assay, the interferon factor was found to be particulate, to be inactivated by uv irradiation, and not to interfer ...19826288562
microfilaments associated with paget's disease of bone: comparison with nucleocapsids of measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus.the structural characteristics and intracellular disposition of microtubules present in osteoclasts in paget's disease of bone were compared with those of nucleocapsids in cells infected with measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the distribution of microtubules in pagetic osteoclasts closely paralleled that of measles nucleocapsids in monkey kidney cells, but the dimensions of the pagetic microtubules were significantly different from those of measles virus. in contrast, pagetic ...19826292129
hotting-up the complement-fixation test.a detailed investigation into the effect of modifying the incubation temperature of the complement-fixation (cf) test is described. for varicella-zoster virus cytomegalovirus and rubella virus, increasing the incubation temperature progressively increased the sensitivity of the cf test to reach a maximum at 15 degrees c, at which temperature the geometric mean titre of seropositive samples was significantly greater than that found at 4 degrees c. for these three viruses, each serum shown to cont ...19836296229
croup: an 11-year study in a pediatric practice.the etiology and epidemiology of croup were studied in a pediatric group practice over an 11-year period, 1964 to 1975. croup was diagnosed in 951 instances in 6,165 cases of lower respiratory tract infection (lri) studied. as census figures of the practice clientele were available, attack rates were calculated. the incidence of total lri was highest in the first year of life. in contrast, the attack rate for croup was highest in the second year of life; the rate declined gradually after that ag ...19836304611
viral infections of the respiratory tract in hospitalized children. a study from oslo during a 90 months' period.a diagnosis of 979 respiratory viral infections was made in hospitalized children. respiratory syncytial virus greatly out-numbered the other viruses: it caused 58% of the total virus infections and occurred in winter epidemics. influenza a and b virus occurred during late winter and spring, rhinovirus had a seasonal distribution towards spring and autumn, whereas adenovirus types 1, 2 and 5 had no distinct seasonal distribution. whereas respiratory syncytial virus were mainly associated with br ...19836305106
elimination of contaminating bovine viral diarrhea virus from bovine respiratory syncytial virus stock. 19836306037
[chronic isolated brain lesions caused by respiratory viruses in children].combined study of 48 postmortem observations of cerebral lesions caused mainly by meningococcal infection in children was carried out. in 15 cases, isolated subclinical involvement of the brain (more frequently, of the vascular plexus and meninges) caused by influenza a viruses (8 cases), b (2 cases), adenoviruses (6), parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (1 each), and chlamydia (2) was found. this was proved by the presence of the appropriate antigens in the brain revealed by immunoflu ...19836309121
activation of oxidative and arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils by respiratory syncytial virus antibody complexes: possible role in disease.the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antibody complexes on the metabolism of human neutrophils was determined by examining the generation of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, superoxide, and thromboxane b2. incubation of neutrophils with rsv antibody complexes resulted in a significant increase in the production of chemiluminescence. the increase in chemiluminescence appeared to be due to (1) active phagocytosis of rsv antibody complexes as evidenced by 70% inhibition with cytochal ...19836309990
amino acid sequence of human respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein.amino acid sequence of the human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus nucleocapsid (nc) protein, deduced from the dna sequence of a recombinant plasmid, is presented. the cdna plasmid (prsb11) has 1412 bp of rs viral nc sequence and lacks six nucleotides of the 5' end of mrna. there is a single long open reading frame encoding 467 amino acids. this 51540 dal protein is rich in basic amino acids and has no homologies with other known viral capsid proteins.19836310521
effect of sucrose phosphate and sorbitol on infectivity of enveloped viruses during storage.cytomegalovirus and varicella-zoster virus recovery from sucrose phosphate (0.2 m sp) and 70% sorbitol (sorbitol) was compared after storage at -70, 4, and 20 degrees c over time. recovery from 0.2 m sp was uniformly better. more tissue culture infective doses and infectious foci were recovered in cell monolayers inoculated with 0.2 m sp virus stocks as compared with viruses stored in 70% sorbitol. although both viruses were isolated from diluted fresh stocks (10(-1) through 10(-4], freezing dil ...19836313747
[contribution of direct immunofluorescence diagnosis to the epidemiology of acute viral respiratory infections in young children].rapid diagnosis by immunofluorescence (if) has enabled us to study the epidemiology of acute viral respiratory diseases in infants admitted to the chru at caen between january 1980 and december 1982. 809 nasal aspiration samples were examined. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was recovered in 36% of cases. these were observed during the four winter outbreaks which occurred during the study period and were extensive in 1980-1981 and 1982-1983. a virus was demonstrated in 13.5% of the 515 rsv neg ...19836316549
improvement of respiratory syncytial virus replication in actively growing hep-2 cells.the growth of respiratory syncytial (rs) and parainfluenza type iii (pi3) viruses has been studied in actively growing versus relatively stationary hep-2 cells. there was no effect on pi3 virus growth. rs virus synthesis was stimulated from 20- to 60-fold by growth in actively growing cultures when the cell density was approximately 1/3 that of a confluent culture. this stimulation was manifested by a greater yield of virus per cell, more virus-specific mrna produced per cell, and a 50% decrease ...19836317708
[viruses and asthma].more than one-third of infants with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis subsequently experience recurrent episodes of wheezing. in asthmatic children, viral infections frequently trigger asthmatic attacks. indeed, viruses induce immunological and respiratory functional disorders. as compared with non-wheezing rsv infected infants, wheezing infants with bronchiolitis or asthma due to rsv have: a) increased t-lymphocyte responsiveness to rsv antigen; b) more persistent ige bound to nas ...19836320377
bronchopulmonary obstruction in children with respiratory virus infections.among 873 children hospitalized with confirmed respiratory viral infections, 492 suffered from bronchopulmonary obstruction. respiratory syncytial virus infections were dominant among the patients with bronchopulmonary obstruction (80%). the majority of patients with rhinovirus infections suffered from bronchopulmonary obstruction (57%). two main groups of children at risk from developing bronchopulmonary obstruction during respiratory virus infections were found: 1) infants, suffering from bron ...19846321218
treatment of respiratory viral infection in an immunodeficient infant with ribavirin infant with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (scids) secondary to adenosine deaminase deficiency had pneumonitis and combined infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3). four separate courses of ribavirin were delivered by small-particle aerosol. the piv3 disappeared during the first course, and rsv disappeared after the fourth course on the 58th hospital day. neither virus returned during profound immunosuppression for bone marrow transpla ...19846322573
a prospective study of chlamydial, mycoplasmal, and viral infections in a neonatal intensive care a prospective study of non-bacterial infection in a neonatal intensive care unit in north west london, chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 4 of 280 babies (1.4%) and was the most common cause of neonatal ophthalmia. one of the four developed pneumonitis. ureaplasma urealyticum was found to colonise the nasopharynx in 53 of 235 babies (22.6%), with mycoplasma hominis present in 6 of 235 babies (2.6%). there was a statistically significant association between u urealyticum colonis ...19846322705
viruses associated with acute respiratory infections in children admitted to hospital in naples, 1979-82.a survey of the virological and epidemiological features of acute respiratory diseases in children admitted to hospital in naples has been carried out; the results of three years of research are reported.between april 1979 and march 1982, 787 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined. there were 287 (36.5%) positive samples, with the highest isolation rate being found in children with bronchiolitis (39.5%).among the different viruses isolated, adenovirus was the most common (161 positive samples, 56%); ...19836325032
a simultaneous outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in a newborn nursery.over a 3-week period, 20 of 34 (59%) infants in a newborn nursery developed nosocomial viral respiratory tract disease. either respiratory syncytial virus (seven infants) or parainfluenza virus type 3 (five) or both (two) were demonstrated in respiratory secretions from 14 of the 20 symptomatic patients. symptoms in the 20 infants included rhinitis (15 infants), cough (14), apnea (eight), pulmonary infiltrates (seven), and fever (six). there were no differences in symptoms between children infec ...19846325655
brs virus, pi3 virus and bhv1 infections of young stock on self-contained dairy farms: epidemiological and clinical findings.the role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 as disease agents in 28 groups of young cattle on 19 dairy farms which raised their own replacements was investigated. bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections occurred in 27, parainfluenza type 3 virus infections in all and bovine herpesvirus 1 infections in three of the 28 groups. some infections were accompanied by clinical signs while others were entirely subclinical. clinical respiratory ...19846326374
respiratory virus infections and aeroallergens in acute bronchial asthma.two hundred and fifty six attacks of acute bronchial asthma occurring in 169 children aged over 2 years were studied during a two year period. more attacks occurred during spring and autumn than at other times of the year. in 73 patients (29%) a respiratory virus infection was diagnosed, with the same seasonal variation as the asthmatic attacks. most of the virus infections were caused by rhinovirus (45%) and respiratory syncytial virus (19%). there was no significant correlation between asthmat ...19846326694
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, goat respiratory syncytial, bovine leukemia, and bluetongue viral antibodies in sheep.sera from healthy sheep were collected in january and march 1982 from flocks of sheep located in southwestern and southeastern louisiana. these sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, and goat respiratory syncytial virus (grsv) antibodies by microtitration virus-neutralization test. the sera were tested also for bovine leukemia virus (blv) and bluetongue virus (btv) antibodies by immunodiffusion tests. the number of flo ...19846329044
cell-mediated cytotoxic responses in lungs of cotton rats infected with respiratory syncytial virus.pneumonia induced in cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) after inoculation of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was accompanied by the appearance of leukocytes in infected lungs. the number of these leukocytes increased until day 5 after inoculation when sixfold more leukocytes were recovered from infected lungs using transpleural lavage than were recovered from lungs of uninfected control animals. although macrophages and lymphocytes constituted approximately 65 and 25%, respectively, of the cells ...19836340570
ribavirin treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial viral infection. a controlled double-blind study in young adults.the effect of ribavirin aerosol on experimental respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was evaluated in a double-blind controlled study of 16 young adult volunteers. two days after intranasal inoculation with rsv, half of the subjects were treated with a small-particle aerosol of ribavirin and half with placebo for a total of 12 hours each day for three days. seven of eight placebo-treated and six of eight ribavirin-treated subjects became infected. viral shedding was diminished in the riba ...19836341640
aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. a randomized double-blind study.we evaluated a new antiviral agent, ribavirin, in the treatment of infants hospitalized with lower-respiratory-tract disease from respiratory syncytial virus. ribavirin or placebo was administered to 33 infants in a double-blind manner by continuous aerosol for three to six days. seventeen infants were treated with placebo, and 16 with ribavirin. by the end of treatment, infants receiving ribavirin had significantly greater improvement in their overall score for severity of illness, in lower-res ...19836343860
the nosocomial spread of respiratory syncytial viral infections.respiratory syncytial virus is a regular winter visitor that is highly contagious among persons of all ages. it is the major nosocomial pathogen on infant and toddler wards, and has recently been recognized as also causing appreciable nosocomial illness in the elderly. control of the spread of this virus has been difficult, but transmission appears to require close contact via large-particle aerosols or via fomites. environmental conditions affect the survival of the virus on varying surfaces an ...19836344761
monoclonal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus proteins: identification of the fusion protein.six monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus proteins were produced. each was characterized by immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence. one was directed against the nucleocapsid protein. np 44, two were directed against a 37,000-dalton protein, two were directed against the major envelope glycoprotein, gp 90, and one was directed against the 70,000-dalton envelope protein, vp 70. indirect immunofluorescence stain patterns of infected hep-2 cells defined gp 9 ...19836345804
lung defenses against infection: a clinical correlation.the current state of knowledge of lung defenses has been reviewed. first, mechanical factors such as aerodynamic filtration and mucociliary transport were considered. then, in general terms, the contributions of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins, and the roles of complement, antiproteases, lysozyme, and fibronectin were examined. interactions between these components may regulate their effect. finally, the responses to five specific microorganisms were reviewed ...19836346246
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus with a monoclonal antibody.we developed an indirect fluorescent-antibody test employing a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the nucleoprotein of rsv for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). this test demonstrated distinctive fluorescent inclusions in hep-2 cells infected with 24 rsv isolates collected during 6 previous years but not in cells infected with 13 other respiratory viruses. examination of nasal cells of 100 infants with acute respiratory illness showed that the indirect fluorescent-ant ...19836348077
evidence for a viral etiology of paget's disease of bone.ultrastructural studies of the bone cells in patients with paget's disease of bone have revealed the presence of nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions that resemble the nucleocapsids of paramyxoviridae virus. immunocytologic studies of bone biopsy specimens and cultured bone cells have demonstrated positive responses with antisera against measles virus and/or respiratory syncytial virus. these observations suggest that paget's disease may be a slow viral infection of bone. the exact nature of the p ...19836349897
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