neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.the effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. by using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs ...19863512852
resistance to human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection induced by immunization of cotton rats with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the rsv g glycoprotein.a cdna copy of the g glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. the recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kda protein that migrated with the authentic rsv g glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of othe ...19863513191
a live pasteurella haemolytica vaccine efficacy trial.a live pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 vaccine was used in an efficacy trial conducted on 100 lightweight feeder calves purchased from a florida ranch. forty-one calves were inoculated with the vaccine intradermally in the neck. fifty-nine calves served as nonvaccinated controls. fourteen days later, the calves were shipped to an order buyer in eastern tennessee, where the calves were mixed with 60 local calves in a community sale barn for 72 hours. after 3 additional days, the calves were sh ...19863514562
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates by a commercial enzyme immunoassay.a commercial enzyme immunoassay (eia) for the rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in respiratory secretions was evaluated by comparison with both virus isolation in hep-2 cells and indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) staining of exfoliated respiratory cells. initial examination of 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from infants with acute respiratory illness showed that the rsv eia was positive for 21 of 24 specimens positive by virus isolation or ifa (87.5% sensitivity) and ne ...19863514658
antigenic variation between human respiratory syncytial virus isolates.three hybridoma antibodies, prepared against the rsn-2 strain of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, have been used to identify antigenic variation between 41 isolates of rs virus collected from widely separated geographical regions over a period of 29 years. one antibody was directed against an antigenic site on the virus fusion protein, vp70. this site was shared by 21 virus isolates tested and its recognition by the antibody was sensitive to the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. the remainin ...19863517224
evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus antigens using an enzyme enzyme-linked immunoassay (eia) was developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen in nasopharyngeal secretions. this assay, which employs goat and rabbit anti-rsv as the capture and detector antibodies respectively, was used in a retrospective evaluation of frozen clinical specimens from children. the eia results were compared with those of virus isolation in cell culture and direct fluorescent antibody staining performed at the time of specimen collection. the sens ...19863517226
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence, and virus isolation: a comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) from children with acute respiratory disease. antisera against rsv nucleocapsids were used as immunoreagents for this test system. the results obtained by rsv antigen elisa were compared to those of indirect immunofluorescence (if) and tissue culture virus isolation (tc). of the 404 nps obtained, 278 were tested in parallel by elisa and if ...19863522805
ribavirin aerosol for acute bronchiolitis.a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of treatment with an aerosolised antiviral agent, ribavirin, was conducted in 26 infants with clinically diagnosed bronchiolitis. nebulised ribavirin (14 infants) or normal saline aerosol (12 infants) was given for 18 hours a day for at least three days. respiratory syncytial virus was identified in nasal secretions from 20 cases (10 from both groups). trends in seven out of eight clinical variables favoured active treatment. ribavirin aerosol w ...19863524473
use of egg-yolk antibody for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal secretions by elisa.egg-yolk immunoglobulins extracted from the eggs of hens immunized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) have been used as a reagent in double sandwich elisa for detecting rsv in nasal secretions. the sensitivity of virus detection was the same in indirect elisa, using rabbit anti chicken globulin conjugate, as when biotinylated yolk globulin and labeled avidin were used for detection. the specificity of elisa for detecting rsv using yolk antibody was similar to that achieved by indirect immuno ...19863524512
respiratory syncytial virus: a review of the virus, its epidemiology, immune response and laboratory diagnosis. 19863524530
value of rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection on management of small infants.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common cause of infection in infancy and early childhood. a presumptive diagnosis of rsv infection can frequently be made on clinical grounds. confirmation can be made by viral culture, which may take 3 to 7 days. immunofluorescent assay (ifa) is a specific and sensitive test that can provide laboratory confirmation of rsv infection the same day. rapid diagnosis of rsv infection may have implications regarding prevention of nosocomial spread of rsv, early i ...19863524958
occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes a and b strains in sweden.the subtype characteristics of 22 strains of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus isolated in sweden were determined by the use of monoclonal antibodies. eleven antibodies specific for distinct epitopes on five different structural proteins were used in immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation assays. one group of 12 isolates were derived from a three-month epidemic during 1984, whereas the other ten virus isolates were recovered during a time period of 13 years (1971-1983). all isolates cou ...19863525747
application of a modified indirect fluorescent antibody test to the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in ontario cattle.a modified indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of serum antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus was developed. the test made use of terasaki plastic microtiter plates in which bovine respiratory syncytial virus (saskatchewan strain) infected georgia bovine kidney cells were grown and fixed in situ by a modified acetone fixation procedure. evans blue dye was used as a counterstain to reduce nonspecific fluorescence. in a study of 986 field sera from a geographically broa ...19863527392
expression of the f glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus by a recombinant vaccinia virus: comparison of the individual contributions of the f and g glycoproteins to host immunity.a cdna clone representing the mrna coding sequence of the fusion glycoprotein (f) gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was constructed and inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus (wr strain) under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. the resulting recombinant vaccinia virus, vaccinia f, expressed the f1 and f2 cleavage products (48 and 20 kda, respectively) of the f glycoprotein in cell culture. f1 and f2 were indistinguishable from their authentic rsv counterpa ...19863532115
mycoplasma bovis infection in gnotobiotic calves and combined infection with respiratory syncytial virus.mycoplasma bovis was inoculated alone or in combination with respiratory syncytial virus into the respiratory tracts of 12 gnotobiotic calves. clinical signs ranged from transient pyrexia to protracted fever accompanied by severe lower respiratory signs and in one case, arthritis. pulmonary lesions included foci of coagulative necrosis surrounded by mononuclear cells and suppurative bronchiolitis with varying degrees of lympho-reticular hyperplasia. no enhancement of lesions occurred in the comb ...19863535220
strategy for efficient detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric clinical immunofluorescence (if) with a polyclonal respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific antibody preparation was used for antigen detection during the 1982-1983 rsv season (155 specimens) and gave an overall sensitivity of 94% with 87% specificity compared with viral culture. indirect if was used in the 1983-1984 season (265 specimens) and exhibited sensitivity of 96% with specificity of 79%. during these two seasons, 42 of 224 (18.8%) specimens that were if-negative for rsv grew viruses oth ...19863536275
comparison of two new tests for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence techniques.the sensitivity and the specificity of two new commercial reagent tests, an indirect fluorescent antibody test (fat) with a mouse monoclonal antibody (mab) against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) rsv antigen detection kit, were determined by a comparison of results from these tests with those of tissue culture isolation and an indirect fat with bovine polyclonal antibody (bpa). of 251 nasal aspirates from infants with suspected rsv infection, po ...19863536993
rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection by antigen immunofluorescence detection with monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin m immunofluorescence test.during a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection outbreak in a pediatric hospital, diagnosis was made by immunofluorescence on smears by using an anti-rsv monoclonal antibody (ifm). immunoglobulins m and g were titrated by indirect immunofluorescence on hep-2 cells infected with an rsv strain. the ifm was sensitive (89%) and specific (75%) when compared with the cell culture method. we showed that the specimens which were found positive by ifm and negative by cell culture were truly positive ...19863536995
time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of influenza infections.monoclonal antibodies that are broadly reactive with either influenza a or influenza b viruses were used to develop a 2- to 3-h antigen capture time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr fia) for detecting influenza viral antigens in both original nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and in tissue cultures inoculated with nose or throat swab specimens. the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay was about 10 pg of protein as determined with purified influenza a nucleoprotein expressed by recombinant dna. ...19863537001
capture-elisa for serum igm antibody to respiratory syncytial virus.a four-component solid-phase capture enzyme immunoassay was set up to test for serum igm antibody to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and was compared with immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 128 young children with acute respiratory infections were studied. thirty-six were shown to be rs virus-positive by the detection of rs virus in nasopharyngeal secretions and 92 were rs virus-negative. a serum specimen was collected after admission to the hospital (days 0-4) and a further specimen wa ...19863540115
structural differences between subtype a and b strains of respiratory syncytial virus.differences in the properties of homologous intracellular structural components of eight strains of subtype a and eight strains of subtype b of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus were examined. the size of the fusion (f) protein cleavage products and the phosphoprotein (p) showed systematic differences between virus strains representing the two subtypes. the apparent mol. wt. in sds-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions was 48,000 (48k) and 46k to 47k for the cleavage product f1 in s ...19863540207
recent advances in antiviral therapy.virus replication is described, and the clinical trials and indications for amantadine, rimantadine, vidarabine, vidarabine phosphate, acyclovir, ribavirin, and other promising antiviral agents are reviewed. amantadine and rimantadine are useful for the treatment and prophylaxis of viral influenza a infections. vidarabine is a second-line agent and is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis, neonatal herpes simplex types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster infections. vidarabine pho ...19863542344
differences in fluorescent antibody staining of bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells by ovine and bovine indirect fluorescent antibody tests in which sera from cattle and sheep with respiratory disease problems were used to stain foetal bovine lung cells infected with a bovine respiratory syncytial virus strain, differences were noted in the pattern of fluorescence produced by some sheep sera and that produced by positive bovine sera. in serum neutralisation tests, also using a bovine respiratory syncytial virus strain, 4 of 7 sera giving this atypical pattern of fluorescence had very low neutra ...19873544469
[enhanced luminescence intensity in immunofluorescent preparations following trypsin treatment].comparative investigations were carried out on the immunofluorescent preparations of cell cultures infected with bovine viruses--rota-, corona-, respiratory-syncytial, parainfluenza-3, adeno-1, and herpes-1--to test various fixatives and the effect of trypsin in raising the sensitivity of the immunofluorescence method. the effect of trypsin was manifested in fixation with formalin, ethanol, methanol, and acetone treated immunofluorescent preparations of cell cultures infected with rota- and aden ...19863544471
comparison of hep-2 cell culture and abbott respiratory syncytial virus enzyme immunoassay.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. rapid identification of rsv infections would allow for specific chemotherapy. we evaluated a means of rapid diagnosis, the abbott enzyme immunoassay (eia), by using 314 stored nasopharyngeal aspirates. rsv antigens were identified in 62 of 66 rsv culture-positive specimens. an additional 37 specimens from which rsv was not isolated were positive in the eia. of these, 29 were confirmed as trul ...19873546371
critical evaluation of viral antigen data in paget's disease of bone.this study evaluates previous viral antigen data obtained from fixed tissue sections and cells grown in culture from bone affected by paget's disease. finding antigens to both respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and measles virus (mv) in the same osteoclasts of ten patients could not be explained on the basis of any previously known cross-reactivity. therefore, possible causes for these observations were sought. monoclonal antibodies to viral proteins of rsv and mv were used to label proteins. pol ...19873549088
on the trail of paramyxoviruses in paget's disease of bone.the ultrastructural discovery of microcylindric inclusions in the nuclei and cytoplasm of osteoclasts in tissue affected by paget's disease of bone has created a new approach. the morphologic similarity of the inclusions to viral structures has stimulated further studies involving immunocytologic techniques and in situ hybridization. polyclonal antibodies reveal the presence of paramyxovirus antigens and measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus in pagetic osteoclasts. monoclonal and monospe ...19873549098
immunoglobulin administration and ribavirin therapy: efficacy in respiratory syncytial virus infection of the cotton rat.we studied the effects of combined administration of human immunoglobulin (ivig) and ribavirin aerosol on respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus). cotton rats assigned to receive combined therapy were administered gamimune, a preparation of purified ivig with a high titer of anti-rsv neutralizing activity, intraperitoneally 24 h prior to intranasal rsv challenge and then treated with ribavirin aerosol 3 days after challenge. lung viral titers from these cot ...19873550674
aerosolized ribavirin in the treatment of patients with respiratory syncytial virus disease.thirty children 1 to 33 months of age were enrolled in a study of aerosolized ribavirin therapy for respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract illness. twenty patients received ribavirin and 10 received placebo. there were no significant differences between the groups in chronologic or gestational age or in days of illness prior to admission. among patients with pneumonia 17% of 6 placebo patients vs. 64% of 11 ribavirin patients had radiographic evidence that multiple lung lobes were a ...19873550679
peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal epithelial specimens from infants and children.a peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) assay for the rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus was compared with the indirect immunofluorescence method and with viral culture. nasal epithelial specimens from 147 infants and children with acute respiratory infections were obtained and evaluated for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus antigens. sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy by pap were 91.7, 84.8, and 87.1%, respectively, and 87.0, 88.5, and 88.0%, respectively, by immunofluoresce ...19873553234
comparison of three rapid diagnostic techniques for detection of respiratory syncytial virus from nasal wash specimens.we report results of three rapid tests for respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection. an immunofluorescence assay using commercial antibody and two commercial enzyme immunoassays (ortho diagnostics, inc., raritan, n.j., and abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill.) were applied to 199 nasal wash specimens. the abbott enzyme immunoassay was the most sensitive technique, with a sensitivity of 93.8%. the specificities of the three techniques were comparable and greater than 95%. the availabilit ...19873553236
immunization with glycoprotein subunits of respiratory syncytial virus to protect cotton rats against viral infection.the cotton rat model of respiratory syncytial virus infection was used to study immunization with viral glycoproteins. animals immunized with the purified attachment protein (g) or the fusion protein (f) developed complete pulmonary resistance, but only partial nasal resistance, to challenge with respiratory syncytial virus. antibody produced to the g protein neutralized virus, whereas antibody to the f protein neutralized virus and also inhibited fusion of infected cells. there was no evidence ...19873553346
expression of the respiratory syncytial virus 22k protein on the surface of infected hela cells.immunofluorescent staining of unfixed respiratory syncytial virus-infected hela cells with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) demonstrated that the 22k protein is expressed on the cell membrane along with the fusion (f) protein and large glycoprotein (g). all three proteins were detected in the cytoplasm at 17 h post-infection and in the case of the f and g proteins this coincided with their appearance on the cell surface. however, the 22k protein could not be detected on the surface until approximate ...19873553424
effectiveness of topically administered neutralizing antibodies in experimental immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats.initial studies of the prophylactic effect of parenterally administered respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-neutralizing antibodies in cotton rats indicated that virus replication in lung tissues was restricted when animals with preexisting antibody titers in serum of 1:100 or more (as measured by plaque reduction) were challenged intranasally with 10(4) pfu of virus. subsequently, a therapeutic effect of parenterally administered rsv antibodies (present in human gamma globulin) was demonstrated i ...19873553614
[interpretation of results of serologic analyses in large animal practices].the backgrounds to and possibilities of serological studies for the purpose of establishing are reviewed, all this with regard to bovine disease. the serology of the virus infections infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), bovine viral diarrhoea (bvd), para-influenza virus 3 infection (pi3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brs) and chlamydia is discussed in greater detail. likewise, the interpretation of serological findings in cases of brucellosis, leptospirosis and johne's disease is deal ...19873554606
clinical use of antiviral drugs.remarkable progress has been made in antiviral chemotherapy. six approved antiviral drugs are now available for the treatment of various viral infections. trifluridine, idoxuridine and vidarabine are all effective in patients with herpes keratitis; trifluridine is preferred due to its low toxicity. acyclovir is the drug of choice in patients with infections due to herpes simplex viruses, including genital herpes, herpes encephalitis, and neonatal herpes, and infections due to varicella-zoster vi ...19873556126
effect of ribavirin therapy on respiratory syncytial virus-specific ige and iga responses after infection. 19873559277
aerosolized ribavirin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants hospitalized during an epidemic.thirty-three infants with predisposing conditions and/or severely symptomatic with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection were treated with aerosolized ribavirin during a 12-week period at oklahoma children's memorial hospital. these patients were compared with 97 untreated patients with rsv infection hospitalized during the same epidemic. despite preconditions which selected for a more seriously ill treatment group, patients who received ribavirin showed prompter resolution of the illness ...19873562136
spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax in an infant with bronchiolitis.spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus. bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in an infant with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis has not been previously reported. we report the case of a four-month-old infant who presented in respiratory distress owing to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis with bilateral pneumothoraces. the infant improved with evacuation of air from the chest.19873562310
neutralizing activity in human milk fractions against respiratory syncytial virus.neutralizing activity against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was measured in milk samples from 17 healthy women whose infants had an acute infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and from 27 women with healthy infants. all milk samples were obtained 2-8 months post partum. neutralizing activity was detected in 36 samples. no major difference in neutralizing titers was observed between the two groups, and the titers were low. rsv-specific iga was found in two samples, and rsv-specific ...19863564936
differential immunoglobulin g subclass antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins in adults.two respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins, f and g, which differ substantially in the amount of glycosylation were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass titers in 30 experimentally infected healthy adults. the titers of antibodies to the f glycoprotein achieved in postinfection sera were highest in the igg1 subclass, whereas those to the g glycoprotein were highest and comparable in the igg1 and igg2 subclasses. the high igg2 re ...19873571485
epidemic infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in institutionalized young adults. 19873572045
heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus 22k protein revealed by western blotting with monoclonal antibodies.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-infected hela, hep-2, vero and bs-c-1 cell lysates were electrophoresed on sds-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions and analysed by western blotting and immunoperoxidase using monoclonal antibodies specific for the 22k protein (relative mol. wt. of 23,000 in our gel system). three novel polypeptides with mol. wt. of 24,000, 21,000 and 17,000 were stained in addition to the 23,000 polypeptide which was present in the greatest amount in all three virus str ...19873572360
immunoblot analysis of the human antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.the protein specificities of the antibodies induced during natural respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection in humans were investigated using immunoblotting of human sera against virus proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. sera from 33 patients, who had complement-fixing antibodies against rs virus, were analysed. all the patients showed a response against the virus nucleoprotein (vpn41) and glycoprotein (vgp48). antibodies against the virus proteins gp90, vpp32, vpm27 and two proteins of ...19873572364
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection rate in personnel caring for children with rsv infections. routine isolation procedure vs routine procedure supplemented by use of masks and goggles.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in hospitalized children were identified by indirect fluorescent antibody technique. patients with rsv infections were assigned to one of two isolation categories. in one category, the health care workers entering the child's room did not wear masks and goggles; in the other category, the workers did wear masks and goggles. the rsv illness rate in health care workers using masks and goggles was 5%, but the rate for those not using masks and goggles wa ...19873578197
uraemic pericarditis, an epidemic disease?pericarditis (pc) is a frequent complication with renal failure. numerous causes have been proposed. over a six week period, we observed five cases of pc in five of 102 patients on maintenance haemodialysis. viral cause was suspected in one case (respiratory syncytial virus). during the past year, no recurrence of pc has been seen. the case clustering episodes might suggest a viral cause. the value of examining the patients by stetoscopy and echocardiography was documented.19873581923
outbreak of respiratory illness on board a ship cruising to ports in southern europe and northern africa.a large outbreak of influenza-like and diarrhoeal illness took place over a period of 21 days in april 1984 on board a ship cruising to ports in southern europe and northern africa. a cohort study of the 418 passengers was made by postal questionnaire and personal interview. of the 391 passengers who were interviewed or who returned a questionnaire, 335 (86%) were affected. of the ill passengers, 295 (88%) had an influenza-like illness. these included 20 with signs of lower respiratory tract inf ...19873585036
appearance of a soluble form of the g protein of respiratory syncytial virus in fluids of infected cells.we examined the antigenic reactivities and virion associations of glycoproteins that were released into the culture fluids of cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. culture fluids and cell extracts were obtained from cells 24 to 30 h after they were infected with the long strain of rs virus. radioimmune precipitation of [3h]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins by large glycoprotein (g)-specific or fusion protein (f)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) revealed that the g, f1 and f ...19873585282
antigenic variations of respiratory syncytial virus in recurrent infections. 19873595584
prevention of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections through compliance with glove and gown isolation determine whether increased compliance with a policy of glove and gown isolation precautions could reduce the high rate of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on an infant and toddler ward, we conducted a longitudinal intervention trial during three rsv seasons, from 1982 to 1985, with an intervention to increase compliance introduced midway through the second season. the risk of acquiring rsv infection in the hospital was adjusted for the intensity of nosocomial exposure t ...19873600729
seasonal patterns of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hong kong: a preliminary report. 19873611837
recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying the n gene of human respiratory syncytial virus: studies of gene expression in cell culture and immune response in mice.the construction and characterization of vaccinia virus recombinants carrying the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus are described. recombinant viruses were constructed that contained the n gene oriented either positively or negatively with respect to the 7.5-kilodalton vaccinia virus promoter. in addition, a positively oriented recombinant was constructed that lacked an out-of-frame aug codon in the 5'-terminal noncoding region. in hep-2 cells, both positive ...19873612955
acute bronchiolitis: predisposing factors and characterization of infants at risk.fifty-one infants hospitalized because of acute bronchiolitis and 24 control children were prospectively followed until 2 years of age. respiratory syncytial virus was detected initially in 31 index children, parainfluenza virus in two, and rhinovirus in one. more index children were born during the months april through september, and six index children had neonatal respiratory complications. the index children were breast-fed for shorter periods, lived in more crowded homes, and had more siblin ...19873615038
ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19873615086
respiratory syncytial virus and the infant immune response. 19873619469
mammary immunity in mothers of infants with respiratory syncytial virus of 230 breast fed infants followed prospectively from birth through their first winter contracted rs virus infections. the colostral from five of the mothers of these infants contained antiviral iga antibodies. in each case antibody levels were above the mean for a group of 36 mothers whose infants were age matched to infected infants but for whom there was no evidence of rs virus infection in their first winter. four colostral samples from mothers of infected infants also contained antivi ...19873625176
immunoglobulin m-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of immunoglobulin (ig) m antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in cattle was developed. monoclonal antibody to bovine igm was used as the catching antibody. the igm-elisa was used, as well as a brsv-specific igg elisa to determine the kinetics of igm and igg antibody responses to brsv infections in cattle. high igm and igg antibody titers developed after naturally occurring or induced brsv infection of ...19873631699
respiratory syncytial virus infections in a retrospective 10-year study of 57 adult patients admitted to orebro medical center hospital, sweden, with rs virus infections, pneumonia was diagnosed in 36. a primary episode of obstructive airway symptoms was observed in 20% of the patients with pneumonia. several patients had a long period of fever and a protracted stay in the hospital. no fatal cases or serious complications were registered. compromised hosts did not appear to be overrepresented in the material, nor did patients with im ...19873631728
efficacy of ribavirin aerosol treatment for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants.the therapeutic efficacy of ribavirin, an anti-viral agent with a broad spectrum of activity, was studied in 14 infants with bronchiolitis which, in seven cases, was caused by a respiratory syncytial virus infection. the drug was administered for 5-6 days using an aerosol in periods of either 4 or 6 h with an interval of either 4 or 2 h between administrations. the body temperature of patients with fever returned to normal by day 3 of therapy. a significant decrease in the respiratory rate occur ...19873653500
rapid virus subunit visualization by direct sedimentation of samples on electron microscope grids.airfuge direct ultracentrifugation of viral samples on electron microscope grids offers a rapid way for concentrating viral particles or subunits to facilitate their detection and study. using the a-100 fixed angle rotor (30 degrees) with a k factor of 19 at maximum speed (95,000 rpm), samples up to 240 microliters can be prepared for electron microscopy observation in a few minutes: observation time is decreased and structural details are highlighted. using latex spheres to calculate the increa ...19873654898
freeze-drying of respiratory syncytial viruses for transportation and storage.the stabilities of eight strains of respiratory syncytial virus were compared after the strains were freeze-dried in the presence and absence of the stabilizer spga, which contains 218 mm sucrose, 7.1 mm dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 3.76 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 4.9 mm sodium glutamate, and 1% (wt/vol) bovine albumin. strains freeze-dried in the presence of spga showed only small-to-negligible losses at 4 degrees c and losses of approximately 2.0 log10 infectious units at 25 degrees ...19873654949
demonstration that glycoprotein g is the attachment protein of respiratory syncytial virus.two monospecific rabbit antisera to the g glycoprotein, one induced with purified g and the second with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gene for g, inhibit the attachment of purified [35s]methionine-labelled long strain of respiratory syncytial virus to monolayers of hela cells. attachment was not inhibited by monospecific rabbit antisera to glycoprotein f induced with either purified f or with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gene for f.19873655746
respiratory syncytial virus infection and cardiopulmonary disease. 19873658500
environmental exposure of primary care personnel to ribavirin aerosol when supervising treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections.the potential exposure to ribavirin aerosol in the environment was assessed in nurses caring for infants and children with severe lower respiratory tract infections due to respiratory syncytial virus. ribavirin aerosol was administered via a ventilator, oxygen tent, or oxygen hood. participants worked directly with infants receiving ribavirin for 20.0 to 35.0 h over a 3-day period. no toxic or adverse effects of ribavirin aerosol were observed in any of the 19 nurses studied, and ribavirin was n ...19873662474
vaccines for respiratory disease in cattle.respiratory disease is one of the most serious disease complexes affecting beef cattle production. for example, it is claimed to cost the uk industry about 70 million pounds per year. it is usually associated with young cattle and can occur in a variety of situations. it is a good example of multifactorial disease in that its aetiology involves both infection by a variety of microorganisms and a number of environmental factors. several distinct syndromes occur and a number of microorganisms are ...19873673201
transient neutropenia of childhood.patient characteristics and clinical course are described in 21 children with newly discovered neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 1500/microliter). only children over age 3 months are included; 19 of 21 were less than age 2 years. the majority had respiratory tract infections and 11 had been on various medications at the time neutropenia was discovered. bacteria were isolated from the blood of three patients (s. pneumoniae in two, h. influenzae in one) and from urine in one (e. col ...19873677533
a technique for the administration of ribavirin to mechanically ventilated infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.fifteen infants with respiratory syncytial virus pulmonary infection admitted to our pediatric icu from december 1, 1985 through april 30, 1986, required mechanical ventilation. these patients were placed on an open trial of ribavirin therapy. we describe a technique for the safe delivery of aerosolized ribavirin to these infants while on the ventilator. the agent was delivered for 16 h/day for 7 days. modifications of the ventilator circuit were needed to prevent the condensation of the drug in ...19873677748
strain variation of respiratory syncytial virus.western blotting and immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies were employed to analyse epitopic and polypeptide molecular weight variation among isolates of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus collected in newcastle between 1965 and 1986. one group of isolates resembled the a2 and long prototype subgroup a strains of rs virus in possessing a p protein of mr 34,000. isolates in this subgroup showed two patterns of reactivity with subgroup a-specific monoclonal antibodies to the g glycopr ...19873681263
molecular cloning and sequencing of the f and 22k membrane protein genes of the rss-2 strain of respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide sequences of the adjacent genes coding for the f protein and 22k protein of the rss-2 strain of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus were determined from cdna clones of genomic rna. comparison of these sequences and the inferred amino acid sequences of the f and 22k proteins with the corresponding published sequences of another subgroup a virus, the a2 strain of rs virus, reveals extensive overall homology (greater than 95%) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels, even tho ...19873681264
isotype-specific elisas for the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.isotype-specific elisas for the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) are described. brsv-specific igg1 and igg2 were determined in indirect double antibody sandwich assays. for iga and igm antibody capture assays were used. the isotype specificity of the assays was confirmed by the observation that samples with a high titre of brsv-specific antibodies of particular isotype were negative in the assays for the other isotypes and vice versa. comparison of the results ...19873685631
comparison of washed nasopharyngeal cells and whole nasal secretions for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we compared washed nasal epithelial cells with unfractionated nasal secretions as sources of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). of 28 infants positive for rsv by virus isolation or direct immunofluorescence or both, 27 (96%) were positive by elisa with whole nasal secretions, whereas only 19 (68%) were positive by elisa with the matching washed-cell fractions. furthermore, the elisa absorbances obtained with nasal secretions were ...19863700621
enhanced isolation of respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture.during two winter seasons, we found that the combination of wi-38 or mrc-5 human lung fibroblasts plus primary rhesus monkey kidney (rhmk) and hep-2 cell cultures yielded maximal isolation of respiratory syncytial virus. cytopathic effects (cpe) developed earliest in rhmk cells and slowest in the human fibroblast lines. in rhmk cells, 50% of ultimately positive cultures showed cpe in 5 days, and 90% of positive cultures showed cpe within 7 days during both respiratory syncytial virus seasons.19863700634
measles virus rna detected in paget's disease bone tissue by in situ hybridization.morphological and immunocytological studies have demonstrated the presence of paramyxovirus antigens in paget's bone disease tissue and in particular antigens related to measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus. to examine the relationship between measles virus and paget's bone disease we used in situ hybridization and a cloned measles virus dna probe specific for the nucleocapsid protein to detect and locate measles virus rna sequences in paget's bone tissue. in five patients with the dise ...19863701300
risk of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus is the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infection in children. for children followed up from birth in the houston family study, the infection rate was 68.8/100 children less than 12 months of age and 82.6/100 during the second year of life. virtually all children had been infected at least once by 24 months of age, and about one half had experienced two infections. although lower respiratory tract disease (lrd) was common (22.4/100 during year 1 ...19863706232
murine pneumonia virus: seroepidemiological evidence of widespread human infection.more than 75% of a random sample of adult human sera exhibited moderate to high murine pneumonia virus (pvm)-neutralizing activity. there was no correlation between pvm-neutralizing activity and respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza type 3 virus-neutralizing activities of the same sera. in children the proportion of sera with moderate to high titres increased with age, indicating early exposure to infection. seroconversion (i.e. greater than fourfold increase in titre) was observed in fou ...19863711866
the use of purified immunoglobulin in the therapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19863714524
[respiratory syncytial virus infections in newborn infants].twenty-three of 23 neonates were contaminated in the course of an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in a neonatal care unit. symptoms among 22 infected symptomatic infants included rhinitis (n = 21), dyspnea (n = 19), cough (n = 17), apnea (n = 5), seizures (n = 3), fever (n = 3). five patients presented with severe respiratory distress. the occurrence of non-obstructive apnea was significantly correlated with a history of respiratory disease, rsv infection during the first 15 days o ...19863718165
culture of respiratory syncytial virus infected diploid bovine nasal mucosa cells on cytodex 3 preliminary studies, a system for the propagation of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) using cytodex 3 microcarriers was established. optimal growth conditions were defined in culture to be a microcarrier concentration of 1.5 g/l with a cell inoculum density of 4 x 10(4) cells/ml tissue culture medium. under these conditions growth coefficients were 3-fold greater in microcarriers when compared to conventional monolayer culture in roux culture flasks. maximum yield of virus antigen was achiev ...19863718237
respiratory syncytial viral infection in children with compromised immune function.for 10 winters, 608 children five years old or younger who were hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection were prospectively studied to evaluate the relation between their immune status and the severity of their infection. forty-seven had been immunocompromised by chemotherapy, steroid therapy, or a primary immunodeficiency disorder. among the immunocompromised children, those receiving chemotherapy for cancer and those with immunodeficiency disease had more severe rsv diseas ...19863724802
atypical lymphocytosis in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia. 19863725666
[sensitivity of cell cultures to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus].investigated was the individual susceptibility of individual batches of primary cell cultures of fetal and normal calf kidney as well as of individual series of cultures of fetal and normal lamb kidney to the replication of the strains antonovo/448 and nomi of the bovine respiratory-syncytial virus. it was found that both types of primary cultures possessed varying susceptibility to the virus, which was likely to be genetically substantiated. it was shown that beside such susceptibility of vario ...19863727375
value of serological tests in the diagnosis of viral acute respiratory infections in adults.the dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses a (h1n1), a (h3n2) and b, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ari) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. the fact is most likely due to the presen ...19863727398
[predictive indicators of the severity of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus in infants]. 19863729251
study on the etiologic role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in pneumonia of dairy calves.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was the viral agent most commonly identified in 14 epizootics of pneumonia in dairy calves. a microtiter serum-virus neutralization test proved to be the best means of identifying involvement of brsv; seroconversion (fourfold or greater rise in titer) was demonstrated in 10 of the 14 epizootics. only limited involvement of bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and bovine adenovirus type 3 was recogni ...19863733504
serologic evidence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in free-ranging mountain goats (oreamnos americanus). 19863735589
isolation and serologic evidence of a respiratory syncytial virus in bighorn sheep from colorado. 19863735590
respiratory syncytial virus: a report of a 5-year study at a children's hospital.a study over a 5-year period (1979-1983) of rsv infections in children in sydney, australia is reported. in common with findings made elsewhere in the world, annual epidemics of rsv infection commencing in autumn and lasting 4-6 months, with peak activity in mid-winter, were observed in 1979, 1980, and 1983. however, in 1981 and 1982 virus activity was first detected in midsummer, peaked in autumn, and was present throughout most months of the year. the alteration in virus activity in 1981 and 1 ...19863746259
clenbuterol hydrochloride in calves with a natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection.the effect of clenbuterol hydrochloride on the course of disease in calves with a natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection was examined. six calves (three to nine months of age) originating from four herds with respiratory tract disease and serological evidence of a bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were used in this study. the calves were injected intravenously with clenbuterol hydrochloride. the effect of clenbuterol on the course of disease was measured using the po2 in ...19863750791
a sero-epidemiological survey of infections with the bovine respiratory syncytial virus in first-season grazing calves. 19863751394
metabolism of ribavirin in respiratory syncytial virus-infected and uninfected cells.the metabolism of ribavirin to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate derivatives was examined in uninfected and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. the degree of phosphorylation was dose dependent upon extracellular ribavirin concentration. the major species formed was the triphosphate, with mono- and diphosphates being approximately 12 and 4% of the triphosphate, respectively. amounts of triphosphate formed in infected cells were up to 2.6-fold greater than those in uninfected cells. upon dr ...19863752974
serum and nasal-wash immunoglobulin g and a antibody response of infants and children to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins following primary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with immunoaffinity-purified fusion (f) or attachment (g) glycoprotein was used to measure the serum and secretory immune responses of 18 infants and children, 4 to 21 months of age, who underwent primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). most of the 10 older individuals (9 to 21 months of age) developed moderate levels of serum and nasal-wash immunoglobin a (iga) and igg f and g antibodies. these individuals developed a moderate level ...19863754878
a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to respiratory syncytial virus which binds to both f1 and f2 components of the fusion protein.a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (1e3) specifically immunoprecipitated the 70000 mol. wt. (70k) fusion (f) protein from respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-infected hela cells. western blotting analysis of polypeptides from such cells separated by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) under reducing conditions revealed that 1e3 was peculiar in that it bound to both f1 (50k) and f2 (20k) components of the f protein. antibody subsequently eluted from either the f1 or the f2 region ...19863755162
dissociation between serum neutralizing and glycoprotein antibody responses of infants and children who received inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.the serum antibody response of infants and children immunized with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) vaccine 20 years ago was determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for the rsv fusion (f) and large (g) glycoproteins and a neutralization assay. twenty-one young infants (2 to 6 months of age) developed a high titer of antibodies to the f glycoprotein but had a poor response to the g glycoprotein. fifteen older individuals (7 to 40 months of age) deve ...19863755730
serum immunoglobulin g antibody subclass responses to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins after primary infection.because the immunoglobulin g (igg) response to carbohydrate antigens is typically from the igg2 subclass and the igg response to protein antigens is typically from the igg1 and sometimes the igg3 subclass, two respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins, f and g, which differ substantially in the amount of glycosylation, were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine igg subclass responses in 20 infants and young children with naturally acquired respiratory syncytial vi ...19863755731
respiratory syncytial virus and ribavirin. 19863763427
[significance of various respiratory viruses in the development of chronic nonspecific bronchopulmonary processes].combined virological and bacteriological studies were carried out in 83 patients with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. viral antigens, predominantly respiratory syncytial virus antigen, were detected in 72% of the patients in bronchial material obtained by bronchoscopy. examinations for antibody of igm and igg classes specific for different viruses revealed acute infection in 79% of the patients which coincided with exacerbation of the process due to concomitant arvd. the other patients had ch ...19863765557
[reproductive activity of the influenza a virus in the splenocytes of experimental animals with mono- and mixed infections].virus-induced processes in organs and tissues of syrian hamsters in relation to the influenza a virus strain used (hon1 or h3n2), age of the animals, and in the presence of mixed infection were compared. the infection of young hamsters with a/pr8/34 and a/bangkok/1/79 viruses was shown to induce the synthesis of viral proteins np and m in spleen cells lasting for up to 15 days (the observation period). in mixed influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection the possibility of influenza viru ...19863765566
bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. 19863771353
simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus.a simplified and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was applied to the detection of serum antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). rsv-infected cells were fixed and dried on 96-well microtiter plates and kept at 4 degrees c. the titers of reference sera were determined by endpoint dilution. a linear relation was found between the titers and the logarithm of absorbance values of sera diluted to 1:1,000 (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001). measurement of rsv antibodies was d ...19863771748
effect of age and preexisting antibody on serum antibody response of infants and children to the f and g glycoproteins during respiratory syncytial virus infection.the serum antibody response of 50 infants and children infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was determined by a glycoprotein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the effects of age and preexisting antibody titer at the time of rsv infection on response to the g and f glycoproteins of rsv were examined. the immune response to the g and f glycoproteins was assessed with anti-human immunoglobulin a to permit measurement of the response of young infants in the presence of mater ...19863771779
Displaying items 1101 - 1200 of 11972