TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
fusion glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus type 3: nucleotide sequence of the gene, direct identification of the cleavage-activation site, and comparison with other paramyxoviruses.the complete sequences of the fusion (f) mrna and protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (pf3) were determined from overlapping cdna clones. to confirm the cdna sequence, the complete sequence of the f gene was determined independently by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of genomic rna using synthetic oligonucleotide primers. the mrna contains 1845 nucleotides, exclusive of poly (a), has an unusually long (193-nucleotide) 5' nontranslated region, and encodes an f0 protein of 539 amino acids. th ...19863012869
the association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in ontario feedlot calves.a seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. a total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). titers t ...19863017529
fever in respiratory virus infections.the case records of 258 children with adenovirus; influenza a or b virus; parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3 virus; or respiratory syncytial virus infections were studied retrospectively with special attention to the degree and duration of fever. a temperature of 39.0 degrees c or higher was most frequently recorded in adenovirus, influenza a, and influenza b virus infections (in 68%, 84%, and 65%, respectively). the mean highest degree of fever in respiratory virus infections (39.2 degrees c +/- 0.6 degr ...19863020965
ribavirin: a clinical overview.ribavirin, a broad spectrum, non-interferon-inducing virustatic chemotherapeutic agent, demonstrates activity against a wide range of rna and dna viruses, including the retrovirus known to cause the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. the drug's proposed mechanism of action, as well as pharmacokinetics are discussed, and preclinical toxicity, safety and clinical efficacy studies are presented. to date, the best success has occurred in the use of ribavirin to treat respiratory syncytial virus in ...19863021519
in vitro effect of ascorbic acid on infectivity of herpesviruses and paramyxoviruses.suspensions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and parainfluenzavirus type 2 were inactivated within 24 h when treated at 37 degrees c with 1 mg (5.05 mm) of copper-catalyzed sodium ascorbate per ml. the infectivity titer of respiratory syncytial virus was reduced substantially after 24 h but required 48 h for inactivation. under these conditions, inactivation of these viruses was also successfully achieved with 5.68 mm catalyzed ascorbic acid. copper (cu2+), when added with ...19863021808
clinical observations on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in unusually large number of infants (82) were admitted to stanford university hospital from november 1, 1983, through may 31, 1985, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis requiring oxygen therapy. a larger percentage of these infants (17/82 = 21%) than generally expected required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. fourteen infants had respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, and three had parainfluenza virus infections. ten patients had respiratory difficulties as neonates. the mec ...19863022224
nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion glycoprotein of newcastle disease virus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion (f) glycoprotein of the beaudette c strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv) has been determined from cdna clones obtained from virion rna. the gene is 1792 nucleotides long, including mrna start and polyadenylation signals typical of paramyxoviruses. the single open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 553 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 59042. the f polypeptide has three regions of high hydrophobicity: an n-terminal sig ...19863025345
immunofluorescence in the serological diagnosis of parainfluenza type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.the fluorescent antibody (fa) test is compared with the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test for parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3) and virus neutralisation (vn) test for respiratory syncytial (rs) virus for detection and titration of virus-specific antibodies. in experimentally inoculated calves pi-3 and rs virus fa tests detected seroconversion at the same time as hi and vn tests, however, in serially diluted sera, the fa test was positive to higher dilution. in studies with paired samples fr ...19863027802
[rhinovirus and acute respiratory infections in infants].human leucocytary interferon (ifn) in a concentration of 2,000 ul/ml stops the development of 9 rhinovirus (rv) strains. the use of serum ifn antibodies (saif) reverses this effect. of 256 nasal aspirates culture negative for other respiratory viruses, 40 rv were isolated with saif as opposed to 19 without serum anti ifn. the frequency and some clinical aspects are emphasized in infants: 43% had bronchiolitis similar to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and atopy was frequent.19863028312
parainfluenza virus bronchiolitis. epidemiology and investigation of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bronchiolitis due to parainfluenza virus (pv) was carried out. bronchiolitis due to pv occurred most commonly in non-caucasian males. breast-fed infants exhibited a reduced risk of developing bronchiolitis. once an episode of pv bronchiolitis occurred, both exposure to cigarette smoke and bottle feeding were associated with an increased frequency of recurrent wheezing, and subsequent infection with respiratory virus almost uniformly result ...19863002169
identification of epitopes on respiratory syncytial virus proteins by competitive binding characterize the interrelationship of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and their respective epitopes, we developed a competitive binding assay based on the biotin-avidin system and a tissue culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the competitive binding assay clearly distinguished between competing and noncompeting mabs. eight mabs against the fusion protein (f protein) demonstrated two blocking patterns consistent with two antigenic sites. mabs reacti ...19862420819
murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize different antigenic subtypes of the virus.the aim of this study was to establish whether cytotoxic t cells (tc), raised against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the mouse, are specific to the strain of immunizing virus, or cross-reactive between virus strains. several recent studies using monoclonal antibodies have begun to define the antigenic variation among strains of rsv. it is likely that a successful rsv vaccine will need to contain antigenic determinants from more than one subtype, but since only the highest levels of neutral ...19862420922
immunovirological studies on human respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins.immunovirological studies suggest that human respiratory syncytial virus may well be composed of five structural proteins as are other members of the paramyxoviridae family: the two external membrane glycoproteins h (90 000) and fo (f1, 49 000; f2, 20 000; disulfide linked), the internal membrane protein m (34 000), the nucleoprotein n (42 000), and a protein (78 000) designated p that could be the equivalent of the polymerase of the morbillivirus and paramyxovirus genus. neutralizing monoclonal ...19862421860
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus. 19862868301
dynamics of some genetic marker changes of respiratory-syncytial virus strains circulating among nursery-school children.respiratory-syncytial (rs) virus strains circulating during several years appeared polymorphic in respect of two genetic markers: the regression coefficient of infectious activity (rcia39) characterizing the isolates by their reproduction in tissue cultures at supraoptimal temperature (39 degrees c) and the regression coefficient of neutralization indices (rcni) characterizing the degree of sensitivity of the strains to antibodies. high-yield rs viruses were more often isolated from children fre ...19862871732
simultaneous infection with bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children.we compared three groups of hospitalized children with bordetella pertussis infection, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection and dual b. pertussis/rsv infections in an effort to establish clinical and laboratory criteria by which to distinguish children with dual infections from children infected with either organism alone. the groups were compared for admission laboratory data, history of present illness, perinatal history and immunization history. children with pertussis were more likely ...19862876415
complete sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein gene of human parainfluenza type 3 virus: comparison with other negative strand viruses.the sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein (np) mrna and its encoded protein were deduced by sequencing a cdna clone representing the complete mrna. the cdna sequence was confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of purified viral genomic rna by primer extension using synthetic oligonucleotides. the np mrna contains 1,641 nucleotides exclusive of poly(a) and encodes an np protein of 515 amino acids. alignment of the human parainfluenza type 3 virus (pf3) np protein sequence with that of send ...19862878059
concurrent circulation of antigenically distinct strains of respiratory syncytial virus during community outbreaks.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is considered to be of a single serotype. antigenic variants are detectable both by neutralization and monoclonal antibodies and have been divided into two broad categories, groups 1 and 2. group 2 isolates have been considered to be uncommon. we used indirect immunofluorescence with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies to study rsv isolates from hospitalized infants in the greater boston area. of 223 rsv isolates recovered over a five-month period in 1983-1984 ...19862418126
analysis of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein using monoclonal and polyclonal least four distinct epitopes are described on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (vp70) using 13 monoclonal antibodies in solid-phase competitive binding studies. two, and possibly three, fusion-inhibiting epitopes, one non-fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope, and one non-neutralizing epitope are described. all but the latter site demonstrated partial overlap, suggesting possible topographical proximity of these epitopes. polyclonal rabbit sera to vp70, which neutralized virus ...19862419491
the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates: assessment, formulation, and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as a diagnostic reagent.comparisons were made between standard methods of cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence (if) using hyperimmune respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antiserum, and indirect if using mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against various epitopes of rsv for the detection of rsv in nasopharyngeal aspirates. the monoclonal antibodies were used singly and in pools of different specificities which in turn were tested in both direct and indirect if. in a preliminary study, aspirates from 227 infants wer ...19862419492
enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus pulmonary pathology in cotton rats by prior intramuscular inoculation of formalin-inactiva ted virus.cotton rats previously inoculated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were challenged intranasally with live rsv to induce an enhancement of rsv disease similar to that observed after the administration of formalin-inactivated rsv vaccine to human infants 20 years ago. within 24 h after infection with rsv, cotton rats developed pulmonary lesions that reached a maximum by day 4. histologically, the lesions resembled an experimental pulmonary arthus reaction. an action of f ...19862419587
antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and rs virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen involved ...19862416956
administration of ribavirin to neonatal and pediatric patients during mechanical ventilation.we have modified the circuits of pressure-preset and volume-preset ventilators to permit the administration of ribavirin to mechanically ventilated infants suffering from respiratory syncytial virus. the modifications isolate the ventilator itself and permit continuous aerosolization for as long as seven days without ventilator malfunction from the effects of crystallized medication. excessive spilling of ribavirin into the environment is also avoided. each institution must devise its own experi ...198610315718
surveillance of respiratory viral infections by rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis, with emphasis on virus interference.during the 7-year period from september 1978 to august 1985, smear specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions from 3132 patients mainly hospitalized children, taken in different regions in norway, were examined for respiratory viruses by the rapid immunofluorescence (if) technique. a positive diagnosis for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenza virus type 1, 2 and 3 or influenza a and b virus was made for 896 patients (29%). the greatest prevalence for all these viruses was observed during ...19872824225
cryogenic preservation of virus-infected cells used as immunofluorescent assay substrates.cells infected with herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus were subjected to several cryogenic regimens to determine whether these procedures were detrimental to the performance and results obtained with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). infected cells were harvested and divided into equal aliquots prior to freezing at different temperatures (-20, -70 and -165 degrees c). cells fixed onto glass slides immediately after harvesting were used as controls. for the ...19872824546
field trial of a quadrivalent vaccine against calf respiratory disease.a quadrivalent vaccine containing the killed antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, mycoplasma dispar and m bovis, emulsified with an oil adjuvant, was tested for efficacy against naturally occurring calf respiratory disease. three batches of beef cattle aged 12, seven and three weeks at the time of first vaccination were used. within each batch of approximately 100 animals, half were vaccinated subcutaneously on three occasions, three weeks apart and half served as ...19872825397
epidemiology of viral infections in singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) being the most important ones. seasonal variation occurs with influenza, rsv and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. the age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar ...19872825585
hospital-acquired pneumonia in children: the role of respiratory viruses.the most frequent agents of pneumonia acquired by children in the hospital are viruses. the characteristics of these nosocomial viral agents differ appreciably from the more classical bacterial nosocomial infections. the viral agents tend to be more contagious, with normal children being as susceptible as the predisposed, high-risk child. the epidemiology of these hospital-acquired infections tends to mimic the patterns of activity of the respiratory viruses in the community. the major causes of ...19872827278
pulmonary infections with respiratory syncytial virus and the parainfluenza viruses.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and the parainfluenza viruses (pivs) are the most important causes of acute lower respiratory illness (lri) in infants and children under 6 years of age. these enveloped viruses are members of the paramyxovirus family. they infect cells in the epithelium lining the trachea and intrapulmonary airways, and cause croup, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia. rsv causes annual midwinter to early spring outbreaks of respiratory disease in temperate climates ...19872827280
[infectious respiratory tract diseases in cattle in the winter of 1985/86: detection of infection by bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 by immunofluorescence in nasal swab samples and by antibody titer increase in serum (elisa)]. 19872827303
protection against respiratory disease in calves induced by vaccines containing respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, mycoplasma bovis and m dispar.a field trial to assess the ability of two vaccines to protect calves against respiratory disease was carried out on a large beef rearing unit in southern england over the two winters of 1983 to 1984 and 1984 to 1985. a quadrivalent vaccine containing the killed antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, mycoplasma bovis and m dispar or a vaccine containing only the respiratory syncytial virus component were inoculated into 246 and 245 calves, respectively; 245 calves r ...19872827366
cell-mediated cytotoxic response to respiratory syncytial virus in infants with bronchiolitis.a cell-mediated cytotoxic response to respiratory syncytial (rsv) was demonstrated in the peripheral blood of 4 of 22 infants with acute bronchiolitis. these 4 infants were aged 3 weeks to 3 months. no such response was found in infants older than 4 months. all 4 infants with a positive response had mild infections.19872888988
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical specimens.results of the direct immunofluorescence (if) test in 152 clinical specimens (throat swabs) were compared with those of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolation. the prevalence of rsv infections in the upper and lower respiratory tract was high especially in infants until 12 months of age. the average rsv isolation rate was 18.42%, whereas the virus antigen detection was positive in 19.74% of cases. the agreement between virus isolation and direct if was 92.1%, the sensitivity of if being 82. ...19872891280
efficiency of immunofluorescence for rapid detection of common respiratory viruses.rapid immunofluorescence (fa) methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses were compared with culture results over a 3-year period to assess the relative efficiency of fa in a clinical laboratory setting. for respiratory syncytial virus, efficiencies were high (sensitivity, 90 to 95%; specificity, 92 to 95%). the sensitivity of fa for detection of parainfluenza virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3, influenza a virus, and adenoviruses ranged from 28 to 63%, but specificities for th ...19873029168
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the human parainfluenza 3 virus gene encoding the matrix protein.the sequence of the matrix (m) protein gene and contiguous intergenic regions of the human parainfluenza 3 virus (pf3) was determined by molecular cloning. the encoded m protein contains 354 amino acids and has a predicted mol wt of 39,506. the m protein amino acid sequence was compared to the homologous proteins from other members of the paramyxoviridae family. the pf3 protein shared 61% homology with the sendai virus protein and approximately 35% homology with measles and canine distemper viru ...19873029963
seroepidemiological studies on the occurrence of common respiratory infections in paediatric student nurses and medical technology students.the occupational risk of acquiring minor respiratory infections for paediatric student nurses was estimated by performing serological examinations with influenza a, b, c, parainfluenza, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and mycoplasma pneumoniae at 6-month intervals over a period of 4 years in paediatric student nurses at two schools of nursing and students at one school of medical technology. titre increases against all tested agents occurred 1.86 times more often in the student nu ...19873030790
preparation of nasopharyngeal secretions for immunofluorescence by one-step centrifugation through percoll.a simple method was developed for separation of cells from nasopharyngeal secretion for the diagnosis of respiratory virus infections by immunofluorescence microscopy. the diluted specimen, containing dithiothreitol to break up the mucus, was centrifuged once through a cushion of 20% percoll (colloidal silica, a density gradient medium), which permitted sedimentation of cells through the cushion, but retained mucus on top of it. the pelleted cells were resuspended, and microscope slides were the ...19873034944
respiratory virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes: correlation with ageing of cells and interferon production in vitro.the ability of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) to replicate in peripheral blood monocytes cultured in vitro for 1, 2, 4 or 7 days prior to infection was investigated. inoculation of 1-day old monocytes produced at least tenfold less new virus than infection of the older, more macrophage-like cells for both viruses. piv3 induced extensive syncytium formation, whereas rsv caused a cytopathic effect manifest by increased rounding of the cells with minimal syn ...19873035067
epstein-barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and other viral infections in children after liver transplantation.we studied 51 consecutive pediatric patients for the frequency and morbidity of viral infections after liver transplantation. the incidence of primary (67%) and reactivation (48%) epstein-barr virus (ebv) infections and reactivation (88%) cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection was comparable to that seen in adult transplant recipients. however, fewer pediatric than adult transplant recipients experienced primary cmv infection (p less than .01). five (38%) of 13 cmv infections were symptomatic and inclu ...19873036964
pneumonias in adults due to mycoplasma, chlamydiae, and viruses.pneumonias in adults due to mycoplasma, chlamydiae, and viruses are a common clinical problem. these microorganisms contribute to the etiologies in 6-35% of all cases of pneumonia and are the sole pathogens in 1-17% of hospitalized cases. important trends and developments in the field include the emergence of a chlamydia psittaci strain (twar) that is passaged from human to human, causes a mycoplasma-like illness, and that is relatively resistant to erythromycin, the recognition of respiratory s ...19873037901
infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, pneumocystis, and ureaplasma: follow-up.a total of 205 infants who were hospitalized when younger than 3 months of age for pneumonitis were followed longitudinally. of these patients, 145 (70%) had evidence of infection with one or more pathogens. the most common etiologic agents were chlamydia trachomatis 61/193 (36%), respiratory syncytial virus 33/142 (23%), cytomegalovirus 42/203 (20%), pneumocystis carinii 30/171 (17%), and ureaplasma urealyticum 21/125 (16%). the initial clinical presentation was characterized by cough, rales, n ...19873025807
gene overlap and site-specific attenuation of transcription of the viral polymerase l gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.sequence analysis of the gene encoding polymerase l protein of respiratory syncytial virus showed that l-gene transcription initiates within its upstream neighbor, the gene encoding the 22-kda protein 22k. this is an exception to the canonical mode of sequential transcription of nonoverlapping genes described for other nonsegmented negative-strand rna viruses. as a consequence of the gene overlap, the termination/polyadenylylation signal for the 22k gene is located at nucleotides 56-68 within th ...19872440043
modulation of monocyte mo2 surface antigen expression by exposure to respiratory syncytial virus.the mo2 antibody recognizes a monocyte-specific cell surface antigen of unknown function. upward modulation of mo2 surface epitope density was demonstrated in response to 72-hr culture of monocytes with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), but this was not seen after culture with phytohemagglutinin or other respiratory viruses. monoclonal antibody probes for rsv proteins were used to demonstrate probable replication of rsv proteins in peripheral blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. ...19872440300
monoclonal antibodies to the large glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus: possible evidence for several functional antigenic sites.employing different routes of immunization and different adjuvants, a large number of hybridomas were produced that secreted monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the large envelope glycoprotein (gp90) and the fusion glycoprotein (gp70) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the antigenic specificity of the mabs was established by immunoblot analysis and radioimmunoprecipitation. three hybridomas secreting anti-gp90 mabs were established from mice immunized by intraperitoneal injection of purified ...19872440982
the g glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial viruses of subgroups a and b: extensive sequence divergence between antigenically related proteins.two major antigenic subgroups (designated a and b) have been described for human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). previously, on the basis of reactivity patterns with monoclonal antibodies, the greatest intersubgroup variation was shown to occur in the g protein, the putative attachment glycoprotein. to delineate the molecular basis for this variation, we have determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the g mrnas and proteins representing a subgroup a (long strain) and a su ...19872441388
identification of a synthetic peptide as part of a major neutralization epitope of respiratory syncytial virus.a 7000 mr cleavage fragment of the f1 subunit that carries the major neutralization epitope has been identified by chemical and enzymatic cleavage of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (long strain) with an efficient rs virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. based on the published mrna-deduced sequence of the a2 strain, coupled to the hydropathicity profile and prediction of protein conformation, the neutralization epitope has tentatively been localized on the first third of ...19872443612
respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: further characterization of a major epitope involved in virus neutralization.competition experiments and biological assays with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of at least four antigenic sites on the fusion protein of human respiratory syncytial virus, three of which were involved in virus neutralization. one antigenic site, recognized by two strongly neutralizing antibodies, was conserved after reduction and denaturation and shown by immunoblotting to be localized on the f1 fragment of the fusion protein. cleavage of this protein with staphylo ...19872446731
antiviral chemotherapy and prophylaxis of viral respiratory disease.respiratory viruses continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality. currently available chemotherapy is limited to oral amantadine for uncomplicated influenza a and aerosolized ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. amantadine is also efficacious for chemoprophylaxis of influenza a virus infections. rimantadine has similar clinical efficacy and is better tolerated than amantadine. aerosolized ribavirin may be useful in the treatment of serious respiratory illness cau ...19872446820
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against five structural components of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b.mouse hybridomas producing antibodies against the structural proteins of strain wv4843, a subgroup b strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, were produced by fusion of sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with purified preparations of the virus. after immunoprecipitation test with [35s]methionine-labelled extracellular virions, 35 clones found to produce antibodies against the fusion (f) protein, six against the member (m) protein, 21 against the nucleocapsid (np) ...19872447224
effect of breast feeding on responses of systemic interferon and virus-specific lymphocyte transformation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus order to elucidate the mechanisms of breast-feeding-induced resistance to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with this infection were tested at the onset of illness and then again 1 and 2 weeks later for the presence of interferon (ifn) as well as of virus-specific lymphocyte transformation (ltf) activity. alpha-ifn was detected in nine out of ten breast-fed infants, while it was found in only 11 out of 21 bottle-fed subjects. the rate of ...19873794673
virus-specific ige and igg4 antibodies in serum of children infected with respiratory syncytial virus. 19873794891
site-directed serology with synthetic peptides representing the large glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial virus.a set of 23 nested 15-amino-acid-long peptides with overlaps of 5 amino acids, representing the complete extramembranous part of the large glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, was analyzed in elisa against different sera containing virus-specific antibodies. seven of the peptides reacted with rabbit hyperimmune sera against purified virions. in contrast, only one of these seven peptides reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies specific for g. in connection with rs virus infection ...19873476962
respiratory syncytial virus-specific ige antibody responses at the mucosal surface: predictive value for recurrent wheezing and suppression by ribavirin therapy. 19873425457
treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19873428978
association of respiratory syncytial virus and streptococcus pneumoniae infection in young infants. 19873431985
[in vitro translation of mrna from respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells and preparation of cdna]. 19873435222
intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and young children.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected cotton rats (sigmadon hispidus) and owl monkeys (aotus trivirgatus) showed significant reductions in rsv shedding from their respiratory tracts following parenteral therapy with human intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig) containing high titers of rsv-neutralizing antibody. because this therapy was well tolerated and appeared safe, a double-blind, placebo-controlled ivig immunotherapy pilot study was performed on 35 hospitalized, rsv-infected infants and ch ...19873439796
[unusual manifestation of infection by respiratory syncytial virus]. 19873447502
[diagnosis and therapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection]. 19873452581
cytotoxic t cell specificity for respiratory syncytial virus proteins: fusion protein is an important target antigen.we examined the specificity of balb/c cytotoxic t (tc) cells for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) components, using recombinant vaccinia viruses (vv) coding for several individual rsv proteins. we found that immunization with the different vvs yielded the following tc memory cell populations: high levels of rsv-specific tc cells were induced with the fusion protein vv, but low levels were induced with vv coding for the rsv nucleoprotein. tc cell recognition of attachment glycoprotein, part of t ...19873497222
lymphocyte transformation response of calves to respiratory syncytial virus.virus-specific cell-mediated immunity, as determined by in vitro lymphocyte transformation (lt), was demonstrated in calves following infection and vaccination with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). after experimental infection, 4 of 6 gnotobiotic calves and 6 of 21 conventional calves developed a significant lt response to rsv. by means of a whole blood assay, the lt responses of calves were examined after vaccination with an inactivated vaccine, which consisted of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine ...19873498008
in vitro and in vivo stimulation of murine lymphocytes by human respiratory syncytial virus strains.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strains of subtype a (a2, wv9894, and wv12138) and of subtype b (wv1293, wv4843, and wv6873) are mitogenic in vitro for unprimed balb/c spleen cells. the virus also triggered splenocytes in vitro to secrete immunoglobulins. plaque-purified and uv-irradiated materials of both rsv subtypes produced comparable levels of dna synthesis. infectious materials of both subtypes also induced pronounced responses. lymphocyte activation with uv-inactivated rsv strain a2 was ...19873498209
clearance of persistent respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunodeficient mice following transfer of primed t cells.little is known of the role of t-cell mediated immune responses in the clearance and pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. in this study, we established persistent pulmonary rsv infections in athymic nu/nu balb/c mice or immunodeficient irradiated balb/c mice, and examined the patterns of virus clearance following adoptive transfer of splenic memory t cells. primed t cells transferred between day 5 and day 8 of infection will clear lung rsv from both nu/nu mice and irradia ...19873498683
respiratory syncytial virus infections in sr croatia, yugoslavia.the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was studied during three consecutive annual outbreaks (1983-1986) in sr croatia, yugoslavia. a total of 1,238 subjects were examined, using rsv isolation and immunofluorescent (dtfa) methods, with 1,042 showing the signs of respiratory infection and 207 of these having a positive rsv finding. generally, the prevalence of mild upper respiratory infection (urti) was 18%, reaching a peak of 30% at 1 year of age. the prevalence of severe ...19873499590
antiviral agents.amantadine is well established as the preferred antiviral agent for the prophylaxis of influenza a and may also be beneficial therapeutically when used early in the course of the disease. idoxuridine is applicable only in the treatment of herpetic keratitis. currently, acyclovir is the most effective agent for the treatment of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. ribavirin has recently been released for use in aerosol form for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections that o ...19873500376
diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in children with aids.between october, 1985 and may 1987, 29 children (mean age 22 +/- 22 months, range 2-54 months) with aids or arc developed acute respiratory illness. the initial diagnostic procedure was flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, with bronchoalveolar lavage (bal). bal was positive for pneumocystis carinii in 14 and for respiratory syncytial virus, staphylococcus aureus, and escherichia coli in 3 additional patients. subsequent lung tissue analysis and/or clinical course suggested no false negative lavages ...19873501100
sequence similarities between human immunodeficiency virus gp41 and paramyxovirus fusion proteins.cell fusion is a characteristic cytopathic effect induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) that leads to the formation of syncytia between infected lymphocytes. although this process has been shown to occur following the specific binding of the 110-120 kd externalized envelope molecule of the virus with the cd4 glycoprotein, the region of the hiv envelope that directly mediates cell fusion is unknown. in an attempt to identify this fusion domain, we compared the amino acid sequences fro ...19873501726
total and specific ige responses in the acute and recovery phases of respiratory infections in ige and specific ige antibodies to common allergens were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. the decrease of total ige from the acute to convalescent phase was observed in 105 of 134 (78.4%) children with m. pneumoniae infection and in 40 of 49 (81.6%) of those with rsv infection. similarly, many patients showed a decrease of the responses of specific ige in the convalescent phase of the ...19873505529
relation of serum antibody to glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus with immunity to infection in children.immunity in relation to passively transferred maternal and naturally-induced serum antibody to the viral proteins was determined in 34 children who were followed from birth through three years of age for respiratory syncytial virus infection (rsv). sera were tested by immunoglobulin class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the attachment and fusion proteins of the long strain. the basis for immunity for maternal antibody in primary infection was assessed by a comparison of the dist ...19873509676
t cell cross-reactivity among viruses of the paramyxoviridae.blastogenesis and delayed-type hypersensitivity assays were used to examine mouse t cell responses to five viruses representing the three genera of the paramyxoviridae. cross-reactive t cell responses were observed in a lympho-proliferative assay for measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial, canine distemper and parainfluenza type 3 virus. confirmation of t cell cross-reactivity among measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus was obtained with a delayed-type hypersensitivity test. these result ...19873509945
expression of the fusion protein of human respiratory syncytial virus from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors and protection of vaccinated mice.vaccinia virus (vv) recombinants were constructed that contained full-length cdna copies of the fusion (f) protein gene of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. the f protein gene was placed next to the strong early-late vv 7.5-kilodalton promoter and was located within the vv thymidine kinase (tk) gene. full-length recombinant transcripts that initiated at both the tk and the 7.5-kilodalton promoters accumulated in cells early in infection, and one or more of these transcripts was translated ...19873806789
possible association of mycoplasma and viral respiratory infections with bacterial meningitis.the presence of viral infection was evaluated in 160 children older than three months with bacterial meningitis who were admitted to children's medical center or parkland memorial hospital, dallas, tx, between october 1979 and march 1982. results were compared with a single serologic specimen in 138 children without meningitis. a recent history of upper respiratory infection was obtained from 60% of patients, including 10/13 with pneumococcal, 9/16 with meningococcal, and 77/131 with haemophilus ...19873812456
american academy of pediatrics committee on infectious diseases: ribavirin therapy of respiratory syncytial virus. 19873822659
serologic survey of viral antibodies in the peruvian alpaca (lama pacos).sera from more than 100 alpacas (lama pacos) from the peruvian southern sierra were examined for antibodies to 8 viruses known to infect other domestic animals. on the basis of these serologic findings and previously published serologic or clinical data, it is now known that the alpaca can be infected with the following viruses: parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bluetongue virus, border disease virus, influenza a virus, rotavirus, rabies virus, vesicular ...19873826854
fatal pneumonia in an adult due to respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in adults are generally mild, and no fatalities in uninstitutionalized adults have been reported. to our knowledge, we document herein the first case of fatal rsv pneumonia in a previously healthy elderly woman living at home, in whom complement fixation titers against rsv rose from less than 1:8 to reach 1:256 at death. cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of rsv were detected at autopsy.19873827469
respiratory syncytial virus surveillance in various regions across canada. 19873791104
infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in canada. 19873791105
differential immunoglobulin g subclass antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins in adults.two respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins, f and g, which differ substantially in the amount of glycosylation were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass titers in 30 experimentally infected healthy adults. the titers of antibodies to the f glycoprotein achieved in postinfection sera were highest in the igg1 subclass, whereas those to the g glycoprotein were highest and comparable in the igg1 and igg2 subclasses. the high igg2 re ...19873571485
epidemic infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in institutionalized young adults. 19873572045
heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus 22k protein revealed by western blotting with monoclonal antibodies.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-infected hela, hep-2, vero and bs-c-1 cell lysates were electrophoresed on sds-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions and analysed by western blotting and immunoperoxidase using monoclonal antibodies specific for the 22k protein (relative mol. wt. of 23,000 in our gel system). three novel polypeptides with mol. wt. of 24,000, 21,000 and 17,000 were stained in addition to the 23,000 polypeptide which was present in the greatest amount in all three virus str ...19873572360
immunoblot analysis of the human antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.the protein specificities of the antibodies induced during natural respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection in humans were investigated using immunoblotting of human sera against virus proteins resolved by gel electrophoresis. sera from 33 patients, who had complement-fixing antibodies against rs virus, were analysed. all the patients showed a response against the virus nucleoprotein (vpn41) and glycoprotein (vgp48). antibodies against the virus proteins gp90, vpp32, vpm27 and two proteins of ...19873572364
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection rate in personnel caring for children with rsv infections. routine isolation procedure vs routine procedure supplemented by use of masks and goggles.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in hospitalized children were identified by indirect fluorescent antibody technique. patients with rsv infections were assigned to one of two isolation categories. in one category, the health care workers entering the child's room did not wear masks and goggles; in the other category, the workers did wear masks and goggles. the rsv illness rate in health care workers using masks and goggles was 5%, but the rate for those not using masks and goggles wa ...19873578197
uraemic pericarditis, an epidemic disease?pericarditis (pc) is a frequent complication with renal failure. numerous causes have been proposed. over a six week period, we observed five cases of pc in five of 102 patients on maintenance haemodialysis. viral cause was suspected in one case (respiratory syncytial virus). during the past year, no recurrence of pc has been seen. the case clustering episodes might suggest a viral cause. the value of examining the patients by stetoscopy and echocardiography was documented.19873581923
outbreak of respiratory illness on board a ship cruising to ports in southern europe and northern africa.a large outbreak of influenza-like and diarrhoeal illness took place over a period of 21 days in april 1984 on board a ship cruising to ports in southern europe and northern africa. a cohort study of the 418 passengers was made by postal questionnaire and personal interview. of the 391 passengers who were interviewed or who returned a questionnaire, 335 (86%) were affected. of the ill passengers, 295 (88%) had an influenza-like illness. these included 20 with signs of lower respiratory tract inf ...19873585036
appearance of a soluble form of the g protein of respiratory syncytial virus in fluids of infected cells.we examined the antigenic reactivities and virion associations of glycoproteins that were released into the culture fluids of cells infected with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. culture fluids and cell extracts were obtained from cells 24 to 30 h after they were infected with the long strain of rs virus. radioimmune precipitation of [3h]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins by large glycoprotein (g)-specific or fusion protein (f)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) revealed that the g, f1 and f ...19873585282
antigenic variations of respiratory syncytial virus in recurrent infections. 19873595584
prevention of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections through compliance with glove and gown isolation determine whether increased compliance with a policy of glove and gown isolation precautions could reduce the high rate of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on an infant and toddler ward, we conducted a longitudinal intervention trial during three rsv seasons, from 1982 to 1985, with an intervention to increase compliance introduced midway through the second season. the risk of acquiring rsv infection in the hospital was adjusted for the intensity of nosocomial exposure t ...19873600729
seasonal patterns of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hong kong: a preliminary report. 19873611837
recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying the n gene of human respiratory syncytial virus: studies of gene expression in cell culture and immune response in mice.the construction and characterization of vaccinia virus recombinants carrying the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus are described. recombinant viruses were constructed that contained the n gene oriented either positively or negatively with respect to the 7.5-kilodalton vaccinia virus promoter. in addition, a positively oriented recombinant was constructed that lacked an out-of-frame aug codon in the 5'-terminal noncoding region. in hep-2 cells, both positive ...19873612955
acute bronchiolitis: predisposing factors and characterization of infants at risk.fifty-one infants hospitalized because of acute bronchiolitis and 24 control children were prospectively followed until 2 years of age. respiratory syncytial virus was detected initially in 31 index children, parainfluenza virus in two, and rhinovirus in one. more index children were born during the months april through september, and six index children had neonatal respiratory complications. the index children were breast-fed for shorter periods, lived in more crowded homes, and had more siblin ...19873615038
ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19873615086
respiratory syncytial virus and the infant immune response. 19873619469
mammary immunity in mothers of infants with respiratory syncytial virus of 230 breast fed infants followed prospectively from birth through their first winter contracted rs virus infections. the colostral from five of the mothers of these infants contained antiviral iga antibodies. in each case antibody levels were above the mean for a group of 36 mothers whose infants were age matched to infected infants but for whom there was no evidence of rs virus infection in their first winter. four colostral samples from mothers of infected infants also contained antivi ...19873625176
immunoglobulin m-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of immunoglobulin (ig) m antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in cattle was developed. monoclonal antibody to bovine igm was used as the catching antibody. the igm-elisa was used, as well as a brsv-specific igg elisa to determine the kinetics of igm and igg antibody responses to brsv infections in cattle. high igm and igg antibody titers developed after naturally occurring or induced brsv infection of ...19873631699
respiratory syncytial virus infections in a retrospective 10-year study of 57 adult patients admitted to orebro medical center hospital, sweden, with rs virus infections, pneumonia was diagnosed in 36. a primary episode of obstructive airway symptoms was observed in 20% of the patients with pneumonia. several patients had a long period of fever and a protracted stay in the hospital. no fatal cases or serious complications were registered. compromised hosts did not appear to be overrepresented in the material, nor did patients with im ...19873631728
efficacy of ribavirin aerosol treatment for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants.the therapeutic efficacy of ribavirin, an anti-viral agent with a broad spectrum of activity, was studied in 14 infants with bronchiolitis which, in seven cases, was caused by a respiratory syncytial virus infection. the drug was administered for 5-6 days using an aerosol in periods of either 4 or 6 h with an interval of either 4 or 2 h between administrations. the body temperature of patients with fever returned to normal by day 3 of therapy. a significant decrease in the respiratory rate occur ...19873653500
rapid virus subunit visualization by direct sedimentation of samples on electron microscope grids.airfuge direct ultracentrifugation of viral samples on electron microscope grids offers a rapid way for concentrating viral particles or subunits to facilitate their detection and study. using the a-100 fixed angle rotor (30 degrees) with a k factor of 19 at maximum speed (95,000 rpm), samples up to 240 microliters can be prepared for electron microscopy observation in a few minutes: observation time is decreased and structural details are highlighted. using latex spheres to calculate the increa ...19873654898
freeze-drying of respiratory syncytial viruses for transportation and storage.the stabilities of eight strains of respiratory syncytial virus were compared after the strains were freeze-dried in the presence and absence of the stabilizer spga, which contains 218 mm sucrose, 7.1 mm dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 3.76 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 4.9 mm sodium glutamate, and 1% (wt/vol) bovine albumin. strains freeze-dried in the presence of spga showed only small-to-negligible losses at 4 degrees c and losses of approximately 2.0 log10 infectious units at 25 degrees ...19873654949
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