[use of circulating immune complex in the study of respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia]. 19883228743
[antigenic variants of the respiratory syncytial virus in argentina and uruguay].the characterization of rsv antigenic variants was carried out on 160 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children under 5 years of age, from argentina and uruguay, with acute respiratory infection and a previously positive etiological diagnosis for rsv. results for argentina were: 20.9% of samples belonged to subtype a, 76.9% to subtype b and the remaining 2.2% to new subtypes as yet uncharacterized. results for uruguay were: 5.6% of samples belonged to subtype a, 81% to subtype b and 13.5% to other ...19883231713
influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic the course of a prospective study of the prevalence and incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and risk factors for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome among 961 homosexual men, 97 initially hiv antibody seronegative men reported a febrile period lasting at least three days. in 60 of these men serological evidence for an infection was found: influenza a or b virus (17 men), hiv (14), epstein-barr virus (seven), parainfluenza virus type i, 11 or ill (five), hepa ...19883256668
analyses of the cytotoxic t lymphocyte responses to glycoprotein and nucleoprotein components of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.the outcome of infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) in the natural murine host is determined in large part by the cytotoxic t lymphocyte response (ctl) mounted by the host. in order to define the specificities of ctl induced by lcmv infection, we have cloned and expressed the full-length nucleoprotein (np) gene and 75% of the glycoprotein (gp) gene of lcmv in vaccinia virus vectors and have used these recombinant viruses to sensitize syngeneic target cells to lysis by anti-lcmv ...19883257596
[analysis of respiratory syncytial virus diseases in hospitalized children in the district of steyr 1984/85].respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most frequent cause of serious respiratory tract infections in infancy. in the course of a one-year study the nasopharyngeal secretions of all hospitalized children with diseases of the lower respiratory tract (almost exclusively infants) were examined for viral antigens. rsv antigen could be detected in 34 of the 71 secretions. in these infants a serious clinical course, pneumonia, bronchiolitis or obstructive bronchitis was dominant, but laboratory test ...19883260367
cytotoxic t cells clear virus but augment lung pathology in mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus.we have examined the function of class i mhc-restricted cytotoxic t cells in experimental respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection of balb/c mice by transfer of t cell line mjc-a2 and ctl clone e8a into rsv-infected mice. the t cell line cleared pulmonary rsv infection within 5 d in persistently infected gamma-irradiated mice, but caused acute respiratory disease. this was only seen in infected mice and was often lethal after transfer of greater than 3 x 10(6) ctl. lower numbers of ctl produc ...19883262705
seasonal variation in respiratory syncytial virus infections in children in benin-city, nigeria.the seasonal variation in respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in children was examined in benin city. nasopharyngeal washes were obtained from children under 3 years hospitalised for acute lower respiratory infections during two seasons - rainy season (june-august) and dry season (december-february). rsv surface antigen was identified by elisa. 54% of patients in the rainy season were elisa positive for rsv compared to 8.8% during the dry season. clinical features in the rsv infected pa ...19883265812
role of apnea in the sudden infant death syndrome: a personal view.evidence supporting a role for abnormal apnea in sudden infant deaths is predominantly circumstantial. investigations of infants having cyanotic episodes have shown four mechanisms for abnormal apnea. the most frequent, prolonged expiratory apnea, is particularly dangerous because it is associated with the rapid onset and progression of hypoxemia and other features suggesting alveolar ventilatory-perfusion mismatch. seizure-induced apnea, maternally imposed obstructive apnea, and sleep-related u ...19883275935
comparison of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a direct fluorescent-antibody test for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.we prospectively evaluated three enzyme immunoassays (eias) and a direct fluorescent-antibody (dfa) test for respiratory syncytial virus detection. of 90 specimens, 79% gave the same results in all four tests (30 positive and 41 negative) and 97% were in agreement in three of the four assays. the agreement between the direct fluorescent-antibody test and each enzyme immunoassay was greater than or equal to 86%.19883277999
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in clinical specimens by viral culture, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme immunoassay.we evaluated prospectively the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by culture and by direct antigen detection using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa), a direct monoclonal immunofluorescence assay (dfa), and a monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (eia). of 221 specimens, 95 (43%) were culture positive for rsv, 4 (1.8%) contained more than one virus, and 17 (7.6%) contained a virus other than rsv. overall, hep-2 and flow 6000 cells grew significantly more rsv isolates (82 and 72%, res ...19883281981
echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function during respiratory syncytial virus infection.respiratory syncytial virus infection has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infants with underlying cardiac and pulmonary disease. to understand better the cardiopulmonary interaction in patients with acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, we performed m-mode echocardiograms and pulsed doppler assessment of pulmonary arterial flow in 19 patients with structurally normal hearts during acute illness. studies were repeated in 11 of these patients following complete ...19883285314
viral vaccines and antivirals: current use and future prospects.the evolution of viral vaccines from the time of jennerian prophylaxis to today's recombinant technology has been a continuing story of success. from the relatively crude or "first generation" vaccines for smallpox, rabies, and yellow fever followed a second and third generation of improved or new viral vaccines. the application of techniques for attenuating, inactivating, and partially purifying candidate viruses yielded safe, effective vaccines against influenza, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, ...19883288231
detection of an immunoglobulin m response in the elderly for early diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection.the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique was compared with indirect and mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) immunoglobulin m (igm) in the elderly. sera from 47 patients (mean age, 70 years) with acute lower respiratory tract infections caused by rsv were investigated. specific igm was detected in 81% (38 of 47) of the patients. the fluorescent-antibody technique, which gave 70% positive results, proved to be the most sensitive o ...19883290237
detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in nasopharyngeal secretions by abbott diagnostics enzyme immunoassay.we compared a rapid respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen enzyme immunoassay (eia) (abbott diagnostics, north chicago, ill.) with virus culture and with the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (fat) by using nasopharyngeal washings from children with suspected rsv pneumonia or bronchiolitis. fresh washings were used in all three tests. specimens were inoculated into hep-2 cells and human embryonic lung fibroblasts and observed for cytopathic effect. cells in the centrifuged sediments of the n ...19883290243
occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup a and b strains in japan, 1980 to 1987.the subgroup characteristics of 71 strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolated in sapporo, japan, during 5 epidemic years from 1980 to 1987 were determined by the use of 17 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against the rsv long strain, which is now recognized as the prototype subgroup a strain. nine of these mabs immunoprecipitated the fusion protein (f), five immunoprecipitated the large glycoprotein (g), two immunoprecipitated the nucleoprotein (np), and one immunoprecipitated the ...19883290246
evaluation of two commercially available test methods to determine the feasibility of testing for respiratory syncytial virus in a community hospital laboratory.the feasibility of performing respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) testing in a community hospital laboratory was assessed. the abbott rsv eia kit, an enzyme immunoassay (eia), and the ortho respiratory syncytial virus identification reagent, a direct fluorescent antibody (dfa) technique, were evaluated in terms of technologist time, result time, cost, and agreement of results. there was little difference in the amount of technologist time required for either method. the dfa technique was shown to ...19883293421
comparison of cell culture and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus from nasopharyngeal aspirate and tracheal secretion specimens.a total of 211 specimens, including 144 nasopharyngeal aspirates and 67 tracheal secretions, were evaluated for the rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen by three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa; kallestad diagnostic, austin, tx; ortho diagnostics, raritan, nj, and abbott laboratories, north chicago, il) and by isolation of rsv in cell culture. of the 61 rsv culture positive specimens, kallestad elisa, ortho elisa, and abbott elisa detected rsv antigen ...19883293894
comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasopharyngeal swab specimens for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis by cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.paired nasopharyngeal aspirate (npa) and nasopharyngeal swab (nps) specimens obtained from each of 32 hospitalized infants with x-ray-confirmed pneumonia (91%) or bronchiolitis were tested for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection by virus culture, the indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (ifa) technique, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa; ortho diagnostic systems, inc.), and spot hybridization with a human genomic probe to quantitate cellular dna. rsv was isolated in cell cultures f ...19873294883
diagnostic efficacy of two rapid tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.with the availability of ribavirin therapy for serious respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of rsv antigen are increasingly important. efficacies of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (eia) (abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill.) and a fluorescent-antibody assay (fa) were evaluated in a study involving 135 specimens from children with respiratory symptoms. a nasal wash specimen was cultured immediately on rsv-sensitive a549 cells; the ...19873294889
rs virus diagnosis: comparison of isolation, immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay.two techniques for rapid diagnosis, immunofluorescence (ifat) and enzyme immunoassay (eia), have been compared with virus isolation in tissue culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions. the specimens were obtained from children under five years of age suffering from acute respiratory illness, during a period of six months from january to june 1982. of 471 specimens examined 54 (11.5%) were positive by virus isolation and 180 (38.2%) w ...19863295470
wheezing in infants: the response to epinephrine.there is significant controversy about the role of bronchodilator therapy for wheezing in infants. a double-blind, randomized trial of subcutaneous epinephrine upsilon normal saline was conducted in children less than 24 months of age evaluated at yale-new haven hospital. respiratory assessments using a newly developed respiratory distress assessment instrument were made at baseline and 15 minutes after each of two injections. relief of respiratory distress was assessed using strict a priori cri ...19873295741
clinical review of ribavirin.the recent approval of ribavirin aerosol for the treatment of severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in infants and young children is a significant addition to the antiviral drugs available today. when administered as an aerosolized form by face mask or mist tent for 20 to 21 hours per day, ribavirin effectively decreases the symptoms of rsv infection and the shedding of rsv virus. studies of other viral infections such as viral hepatitis, influenza a and b, lassa fever, genital herpes, and he ...19873298116
immunological differences between the envelope glycoproteins of two strains of human respiratory syncytial virus.the envelope glycoproteins of two distinct strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) (long and 18537 strains) were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by immunological methods. the fusion (f) proteins from the two strains were similar in molecular weight by gel electrophoresis and were very closely related immunologically. rabbit antisera to either f protein reacted with near equivalent titres with the heterologous f protein by western blot, enzyme-linked immunoassay (eia), ...19873302101
efficacy of high dose-short duration ribavirin aerosol in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infected cotton rats and influenza b virus infected mice.fifteen to 20 mg/ml ribavirin administered as a small particle aerosol for 10-18 h per day is currently the regimen generally used to treat experimental or naturally-occurring respiratory syncytial (rs) or influenza virus infections in humans. to determine if such prolonged treatment schedules could be reduced, cotton rats and mice were inoculated with rs or influenza b virus, respectively, and then treated with different concentrations of ribavirin small particle aerosols. aerosols generated fr ...19873304159
subgroup characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus strains recovered from children with two consecutive infections.respiratory syncytial virus strains from 13 children who had repeat infections at least 1 year apart were identified as either subgroup a or subgroup b according to reaction patterns with several monoclonal antibodies directed against the large surface glycoprotein (g), fusion protein (f), nucleoprotein (np), and matrix protein (m). the virus strains were characterized by enzyme immunoassay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence procedures. during the first infection, 10 chi ...19873305568
monoclonal antibodies demonstrate heterogeneity in the g glycoprotein of prototype strains and clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial order to study variation among prototype strains and clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, four prototype strains (long, a2, ch18537, 9320) were used to produce monoclonal antibodies to this virus. the majority of monoclonals reacted with all four prototype strains by fluorescent antibody staining. among the non-cross-reacting monoclonals, five additional patterns of reactivity with the prototype strains were recognized. fourteen monoclonals, including ones representative of ...19873305785
antigenic relatedness between glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and b: evaluation of the contributions of f and g glycoproteins to immunity.the degree of antigenic relatedness between human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroups a and b was estimated from antibody responses induced in cotton rats by respiratory tract infection with rsv. glycoprotein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibody responses induced by rsv infection demonstrated that the f glycoproteins of subgroups a and b were antigenically closely related (relatedness, r approximately 50%), whereas the g glycoproteins were only distantly related (r app ...19873305988
inhibitory effects of antiviral compounds on respiratory syncytial virus replication in vitro.we examined the inhibitory effect of 20 antiviral compounds, including ribavirin, on the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in hela and hep-2 cell cultures. of the compounds studied, pyrazofurin and 3-deazaguanine emerged as more potent inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus than ribavirin. based on their inhibitory effect on the cytopathogenicity of respiratory syncytial virus in hela cells, the average 50% effective dose of pyrazofurin and 3-deazaguanine for eight strains was 0.07 a ...19873307618
application of pooled monoclonal antibodies for 1-hr detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in clinical specimens.a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated pool of monoclonal antibodies (moab) to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was prospectively evaluated for its utility as a direct, 1-hr test for the diagnosis of rsv infection. direct nasopharyngeal swab smears collected from 109 infants and children with acute respiratory illnesses were studied and compared with results obtained by indirect immunofluorescence using bovine polyclonal anti-rsv antibody on eluted cells derived from pooled nasopharyngeal and ...19873308304
microplaque immunoperoxidase detection of infectious respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of infected mice.a rapid microplaque technique was developed for the detection of infectious respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the lungs of infected mice. infected lung homogenates were titrated on microwell hep-2 monolayers and incubated for 24 or 48 h. the microwells were then fixed with 4% formaldehyde in saline, or methanol containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide. 24-h single cell infectious foci and 48-h microplaques were detected by an indirect immunoperoxidase (iip) assay using monoclonal antibodies specific ...19873312262
the selection and performance of monoclonal and polyclonal anti-respiratory syncytial virus (rs) antibodies in capture elisas for antigen detection.six monoclonal antibodies directed against fusion protein (f) or nucleoprotein (np) of respiratory syncytial virus (rs) have been investigated in an antigen capture elisa for virus detection. the potency, spectrum and pattern of reactivity were investigated with the intention of selecting antibodies reacting with rs-common antigen determinants and with complementary rather than competitive activity. two anti-f protein antibodies satisfied these criteria and were used with enzyme amplified detect ...19873316261
immune and histopathological responses in animals vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia viruses that express individual genes of human respiratory syncytial virus.previous reports have established that vaccinia virus (vv) recombinants expressing g, f, or n protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus protect small animals against intranasal challenge with live rs virus. this work demonstrates that a variety of parameters affect the protection induced by recombinant viruses. the route of vaccination, the subtype of challenge virus, and the species used influenced the antibody titers and extent of protection. during these studies, observations were also made ...19873316707
comparison of nasopharyngeal washings and swab specimens for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus by eia, fat, and cell culture.respiratory secretions for viral diagnosis are often collected with nasopharyngeal (np) swabs, although many laboratories recommend np aspirates or washings. we compared results using np washings and np swabs in three diagnostic rsv tests, a rapid rsv eia antigen test (abbott laboratories), an indirect fluorescent antibody test (fat) with rabbit antiserum, and virus culture (hep-2 cells). paired samples were collected from 121 children with suspected rsv bronchiolitis or pneumonia. a minitip swa ...19873322655
[the role of ige in recurrent orl infections in children].the high incidence of bacterial super-infection in atopic individuals has long been known, especially in asthma and atopic dermatitis. in recurrent ent infections in children, increased ige levels are found in half the cases; this increase results from two main mechanisms: a predisposition to allergy (often with positive rasts), and certain viral infections: respiratory syncytial virus, para-influenzae, and measles, that trigger production of partly non-specific serum iges. in the latter situati ...19873325914
comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (eia) kits with immunofluorescence and isolation in cell culture for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections is based upon detection of viral antigen in cells obtained from the respiratory tract and usually employs immunofluorescence (if) reactions or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (eia). the pathfinder eia kit (kallestad diagnostics) was compared with the abbott eia kit by evaluating each against isolation of rsv in cell culture and detection of antigen by if. the pathfinder kit identified 116 of 129 culture-positive and 72 of 90 cult ...19873329591
respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and children: diagnosis and treatment. 19873332375
ribavirin aerosol treatment of serious respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants.bronchiolitis is one of the most serious pulmonary infections commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). rsv disease occurs in yearly epidemics and is most severe in children 1 year of age or younger. approximately 1 in 50 to 1 in 100 infants are hospitalized after their first infection, and mortality fluctuates between 0.5 and 5.0 per cent. patients with underlying conditions such as congenital heart disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are at higher risk for morbidity and mortalit ...19873332796
respiratory syncytial virus epidemics: variable dominance of subgroups a and b strains among children, 1981-1986.we examined the distribution of subgroups a and b strains from respiratory syncytial virus during five epidemic years from 1981 to 1986 in huntington, west virginia. of 235 infants and children with respiratory syncytial virus infection, 211 had virus reisolated from frozen throat swab specimens for subgroup characterization by reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to the g, f, np, m, and p proteins by using an enzyme immunoassay. we identified 160 (75.8%) strains as subgroup a and 51 ...19883335796
prediction of the duration of hospitalization in patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection: use of clinical assess the possibility that clinical data available at the time of hospital admission for patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection could predict the length of hospitalization without antiviral therapy, the charts of all 102 patients admitted with laboratory documented respiratory syncytial virus infection during 1982 to 1985 were reviewed. two thirds (65) of the patients remained hospitalized greater than three days. prolonged hospitalization could have been predicted for 40 of the ...19883336593
lower respiratory tract illness in the first two years of life: epidemiologic patterns and costs in a suburban pediatric practice.the epidemiologic patterns and the economic impact of acute lower respiratory tract illness (lrti) in children under age two were studied using data collected from november 1, 1971-august 30, 1975 in a suburban pediatric practice in monroe county, new york. lrti was responsible for 23 illness episodes per 100 child-years among children in their first two years of life. this indicates that a cohort of 100 children might be anticipated to have 46 lrti episodes from birth until their second birthda ...19883337302
the purification of four respiratory syncytial virus proteins and their evaluation as protective agents against experimental infection in balb/c mice.the fusion (f) glycoprotein, large glyco- (g) protein, phospho- (p) protein and 22k protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus a2 strain were purified by a combination of immunoaffinity adsorption and preparative sds-page. all four proteins elicited serum antibody in mice after repeated inoculation in adjuvant, although the magnitude of the response as measured by elisa varied from mouse to mouse. the f protein generated neutralizing antibodies in only 50% of the mice determined to be seroposit ...19883339327
kinetics of synthesis and phosphorylation of respiratory syncytial virus polypeptides.the kinetics of synthesis of [35s]methionine-labelled respiratory syncytial virus-specific proteins were studied in cv-1 cells infected at high multiplicity. immunoprecipitated viral proteins resolved by sds-page were quantified by scanning fluorographs of protein bands. the nucleocapsid (n) protein was detectable by 2 h post-infection (p.i.), whereas the phospho- (p), matrix (m) and fusion (fo) proteins and vp24 (a matrix-like protein) were first detected between 4 and 6 h p.i. synthesis of the ...19883339328
adenosine deaminase inhibitors. synthesis and biological activity of deaza analogues of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine.two new deaza analogues of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (ehna, 1), 7-deaza-ehna (6) and 1,3-dideaza-ehna (11), were synthesized and evaluated for adenosine deaminase (ada) inhibitory activity and compared with ehna, 1-deaza-ehna (2), and 3-deaza-ehna (3). substitution of a methine group for a nitrogen atom in the 7-position of the purine moiety of ehna produces a dramatic drop in the inhibitory activity (ki = 4 x 10(-4) m) whereas compounds 2 and 3 are still good inhibitors (ki = 1.2 x 1 ...19883339608
epidemiology of acute respiratory illness during an influenza outbreak in a nursing home. a prospective study.we observed an influenza epidemic caused by influenza a/arizona/82 (h3n2) in a nursing home during 1982 to 1983. a survey indicated that 59% of the residents were immunized before the outbreak. the outbreak was observed to begin in november, peak in february, and disappear in april. a significant level of herd immunity may have accounted for the slow progression through the nursing home. in addition, serologic evidence of concurrent infection with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus ...19883341856
calcium requirement for syncytium formation in hep-2 cells by respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) grown in hep-2 cells in the absence of calcium did not induce cell fusion and syncytium formation. although the infected cells contained viral antigens, the cytopathic effect (giant cell formation) typical for rsv was not observed in calcium-free cultures. infectious virus yield was also slightly reduced (less than a one log10 reduction) in the absence of calcium. an analysis of viral proteins synthesized in both the presence and the absence of calcium revealed ...19883343306
strain-specific serum antibody responses in infants undergoing primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus.we sought to characterize the human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroup-specific antibody response to primary infection with rsv. rsv isolates from 43 infants and young children were typed as either subgroup a (long strain-like) or b (18537 strain-like) based on reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. acute-phase or preinfection and convalescent-phase sera were collected from the 43 subjects and tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified f and g glycoproteins from rsv su ...19883346563
pharmacokinetics of ribavirin aerosol in mice.the pharmacokinetics of ribavirin administered in single or multiple treatments to mice by small-particle aerosol were monitored in lung, serum, and brain tissues. ribavirin aerosol was administered with a standard drug concentration (20 mg/ml) in the reservoir for 12 h or a high dose (60 mg/ml) for 2 or 4 h. after single or 3-day treatments, ribavirin rapidly accumulated in the lungs at concentrations sufficient to inhibit influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (1 to 5 mm). while peak l ...19883348604
infection control practices for preventing respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19883351265
prevention of nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus in a newborn nursery.during three winter seasons prior to 1984-1985 the special care nursery at new england medical center experienced respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) epidemics that required closure of the unit. prior to and during the 1984-1985 winter season, several measures were taken to prevent recurrent nosocomial rsv transmission. in the winters of 1984-1985 and 1985-1986 there were 26 introductions of community-acquired rsv with no transmission of nosocomial cases during 1,688 patient days at risk as compar ...19883351266
respiratory syncytial virus infection: a cause of respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia in adults.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, an important and sometimes lethal disease of infants and children, generally causes a milder and self-limited syndrome of cough, nasal congestion and fever in adults. while some evidence suggests that rsv may be responsible for more serious respiratory illness in the elderly and chronically ill, it has not been shown to cause life-threatening respiratory tract disease in previously healthy adults. this report describes a previously healthy woman who e ...19883354594
experimental bovine respiratory tract disease with haemophilus somnus.eight calves were inoculated into the bronchus with h. somnus. thirteen calves were inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and 8 days later with h. somnus. all calves developed necrotizing, suppurative, lobular bronchopneumonia and pleuritis. clinical signs of disease and pneumonic lesions were significantly more severe in calves that were sequentially inoculated with brsv followed by h. somnus. pneumonic lesions in the inoculated calves were similar to those described for nat ...19883363790
respiratory syncytial virus infection and the immunocompromised host. 19883368256
role of oligosaccharides in the structure and function of respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins.the contribution of oligosaccharides to the structural and functional make-up of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus g and f proteins was investigated by observing the effects of various oligosaccharide-specific enzymes on their molecular size as well as on virus infectivity. the n-linked oligosaccharides of the f protein were completely removed by endoglycosidase f and n-glycanase. addition of oligosaccharides to f protein during synthesis was completely inhibited by the drug tunicamycin (tm), an ...19883369089
ribavirin aerosol in the elderly.ribavirin aerosol is effective in treating respiratory syncytial virus and influenzal infections in children and young adults. it has not been studied in elderly patients. we evaluated the safety of ribavirin aerosol in eight elderly volunteers at high risk for influenza. their mean age was 64 years; seven subjects had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd). subjects received ribavirin aerosol for two or six hours with six hours between treatments. regimens were continued for 96 hours. the ...19883371103
modulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses to inhaled ragweed antigen in experimentally induced infection with respiratory syncytial virus implication in virally induced allergy.groups of balb/c mice were either sham-infected or infected intranasally with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). on the third day following intranasal inoculation, all groups of mice were exposed by inhalation to ragweed antigen for 5 consecutive days and rechallenged with ragweed on day 31. development of antibody activity to ragweed antigen was examined in serum and bronchial washings at regular intervals employing an elisa assay for igg and iga antibody activity and passive cutaneous anaphyla ...19883372039
validation of disease diagnoses reported to the national animal health monitoring system from a large colorado beef feedlot.clinical observation and collection of biological specimens from a large beef feedlot (approximately 30,0000 animals) were used to evaluate 6 approaches for validation of a disease reporting system. data collected during a 12-month period were used to evaluate each approach. a subsample of disease cases reported to the national animal health monitoring system (nahms) was compared with the clinical observations of the investigators. although the agreement between clinical diagnosis by the nahms v ...19883372333
further characterization of the soluble form of the g glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus.a soluble form of the g glycoprotein, the attachment protein, of respiratory syncytial virus is shed from infected hep-2 cells. the gs proteins of the long and 18537 strains have apparent molecular sizes of 82 and 71 kilodaltons, respectively, 6 to 9 kilodaltons smaller than the virion-associated forms (gv). the gs protein of the long strain was further characterized. approximately one in six of all of the radiolabeled g molecules in these cultures at 24 h postinfection was present as the gs pro ...19883373568
response of vaccinated and unvaccinated bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to experimental respiratory syncytial virus challenge.five rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis), approximately 5 mo old and without detectable antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), were assigned to two groups to study the effects of rsv challenge inoculation in vaccinated (n = 3) and unvaccinated (n = 2) bighorns. the three lambs vaccinated with a modified live bovine rsv vaccine developed a detectable antibody response to the vaccine. vaccinated and unvaccinated lambs challenged with an ovine isolate of rsv dev ...19883373644
effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection on the uptake of and immune response to other inhaled antigens.groups of balb/c mice were sham infected or inoculated intranasally (in) with live rsv. from day 4 to 8 after infection, the animals were exposed in to ovalbumin (ova) with or without alum adjuvant. at different intervals, levels of ova concentration in serum, igg-anti-ova antibody activity in serum, and iga-anti-ova antibody activity in bronchial washings were determined, employing the elisa technique. ige-anti-ova antibody titers in serum and bronchial washings were assessed by pca. ova concen ...19883375265
pilot study of recombinant interferon alpha-2a for treatment of infants with bronchiolitis induced by respiratory syncytial virus.eleven children with bronchiolitis induced by respiratory syncytial virus received 10,000 to 70,000 u of recombinant interferon alpha-2a per kg of body weight per day. none developed signs of toxicity, and all but one developed an antiviral state following treatment. interferon alpha-2a appears to be safe for infants with bronchiolitis. its efficacy for the treatment of this condition remains to be determined.19883377468
transport to the cell surface of a peptide sequence attached to the truncated c terminus of an n-terminally anchored integral membrane protein.attempts to construct hybrid proteins that are transported to the plasma membrane are frequently unsuccessful because of perturbations in polypeptide folding. in seeking to minimize this problem, we have used the less common type of integral membrane protein, which has an uncleaved signal-anchor domain and an extracellular carboxyl portion, to transport a peptide sequence of interest to the cell surface. a set of plasmids was constructed that contained the gene encoding respiratory syncytial vir ...19883380095
the response of infants with bronchiolitis to the proteins of respiratory syncytial virus.acute phase sera were collected from 28 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and convalescent sera were collected from 24 of them. the sera were assayed for neutralizing antibodies by plaque inhibition, for antibodies to the viral proteins by western blot against partially purified rs virus, and for their ability to inhibit attachment and fusion. among the 28 acute phase sera, 27 had antibody to the attachment glycoprotein (g), 16 had antibody to the fu ...19883385405
electron microscopic evidence for bridges between bovine respiratory syncytial virus particles.electron microscopic examination of ultrathin sections of a continuous cell line of ovine kidney (ok) origin, infected by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), revealed the presence of well defined bridges between virus particles. this is the first report of this novel structure. observation of ultrathin sections of human rsv long strain also grown on ok cells did not show inter-particle bridges and therefore suggested that this structure could be specific to brsv. the biological significan ...19883385409
respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunocompromised adults.respiratory syncytial virus disease was documented in 11 immunocompromised adults, aged 21 to 50. underlying conditions included bone marrow transplant (6 patients), renal transplant (3 patients), renal and pancreas transplants (1 patient), and t-cell lymphoma (1 patient). diagnosis of infection was based on specimens from bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, throat, sinus aspirate, and lung biopsy. the virus was detected simultaneously by antibody in either an immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked imm ...19883389604
risk of secondary bacterial infection in infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial viral infection.because infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection frequently receive antibiotics, our study was undertaken to determine what the actual risk of secondary bacterial infections in patients with rsv infection is and what effect antibiotic treatment might have on the course of illness. in a 9-year prospective study of 1706 children hospitalized with acute respiratory illnesses, 565 children had documented rsv infections. a subsequent bacterial infection rarely developed i ...19883397789
respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.little is known about the risk of severe illness from respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. a prospective study was done of the natural history of respiratory syncytial virus infection in 30 children less than 2 years of age with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who were in a home oxygen program. surveillance to identify children with acute respiratory symptoms was done by weekly telephone interview. symptomatic children were examined, oxygen saturation was ...19883399292
day-care center attendance and hospitalization for lower respiratory tract identify risk factors associated with hospitalization for acute lower respiratory tract illness, 102 children less than 2 years of age admitted to four atlanta metropolitan area hospitals between december 1984 and june 1985 with the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract illness were studied. the most common causative agent associated with illness was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by other respiratory viruses, haemophilus influenzae, and streptococcus pneumoniae. the 102 case-patients w ...19883405658
epidemiological study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in calves: influence of maternal antibodies on the outcome of disease.a prospective epidemiological survey on bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infections in calves was carried out on 21 dairy farms during one brsv epidemic season. special attention was paid to the role of maternal antibodies. on 15 farms the spread of the virus was demonstrated during the investigation period and on eight farms this was accompanied by an outbreak of acute respiratory disease. disease seldom occurred in calves younger than two weeks old and the most severe disease was obse ...19883413952
mismatching of ventilation and perfusion in calves with natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection.the cause of arterial hypoxia during natural infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus was studied in seven calves (three to nine months of age) originating from five herds with respiratory tract disease and serological evidence of infection with the virus. blood gas values were measured during ambient air breathing and during 100 per cent oxygen breathing. the percentages of contribution to the arterial hypoxia from alveolar hypoventilation, mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, and ...19883413962
[virus replication in a culture of smooth muscle cells from the human aorta].a new modification of the method for cultivation of cells from blood vessel explants has been proposed, and on its basis several cell lines from different vessels of human embryo and adult subjects have been derived. the sensitivity of vessel cells to viruses was studied on a model of aorta cell culture using a wide spectrum of rna and dna viruses. all the strains under study with the exception of respiratory-syncytial virus (rsv) and encephalomyocarditis (emc) virus induced a productive infecti ...19883414071
ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus--associated apnea. 19883414613
community-acquired pneumonia and infection with respiratory syncytial virus. 19883415114
respiratory syncytial virus-specific ige antibody responses at the mucosal surface: predictive value for recurrent wheezing and suppression by ribavirin therapy. 19873425457
treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19873428978
association of respiratory syncytial virus and streptococcus pneumoniae infection in young infants. 19873431985
[in vitro translation of mrna from respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells and preparation of cdna]. 19873435222
intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and young children.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected cotton rats (sigmadon hispidus) and owl monkeys (aotus trivirgatus) showed significant reductions in rsv shedding from their respiratory tracts following parenteral therapy with human intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig) containing high titers of rsv-neutralizing antibody. because this therapy was well tolerated and appeared safe, a double-blind, placebo-controlled ivig immunotherapy pilot study was performed on 35 hospitalized, rsv-infected infants and ch ...19873439796
[unusual manifestation of infection by respiratory syncytial virus]. 19873447502
[diagnosis and therapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection]. 19873452581
expression of the major glycoprotein g of human respiratory syncytial virus from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.the major glycoprotein, g, of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is a mr 84,000-90,000 species that has about 60% of its mass contributed by carbohydrate, most of which is in the form of o-linked oligosaccharides. the g protein contains neither a hydrophobic n-terminal signal sequence nor a hydrophobic c-terminal anchor region. instead, its amino acid sequence reveals only one region with significant hydrophobic character, which is between residues 38 and 66. in order to study the synthesis, ...19863455762
nucleotide sequences for the gene junctions of human respiratory syncytial virus reveal distinctive features of intergenic structure and gene order.complete sequences for the intergenic regions of the genome of human respiratory syncytial virus were obtained by dideoxynucleotide sequencing using synthetic oligonucleotides. these experiments established that the 10 respiratory syncytial viral genes are arranged, without additional intervening genes, in the order 3' 1c-1b-n-p-m-1a-g-f-22k-l 5'. for the first nine genes, the exact gene boundaries were identified by comparison of the genomic sequences with previously determined mrna sequences. ...19863460060
site-directed serology with synthetic peptides representing the large glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial virus.a set of 23 nested 15-amino-acid-long peptides with overlaps of 5 amino acids, representing the complete extramembranous part of the large glycoprotein g of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, was analyzed in elisa against different sera containing virus-specific antibodies. seven of the peptides reacted with rabbit hyperimmune sera against purified virions. in contrast, only one of these seven peptides reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies specific for g. in connection with rs virus infection ...19873476962
interleukin 1 and interleukin 1 inhibitor production by human macrophages exposed to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus. respiratory syncytial virus is a potent inducer of inhibitor activity.respiratory viral infections are commonly associated with altered immune responses, such as proliferative responses to mitogens and antigens. to examine potential mechanisms, we examined production of il-1 and il-1 inhibitors by purified human peripheral blood-derived macrophages exposed to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). il-1 and il-1 inhibitor activities in supernatant fluids from macrophages exposed to the viruses 24 h previously were measured using the standard mouse th ...19863485170
passively acquired antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus impair the secondary cytotoxic t-cell response in the neonatal mouse.passively acquired antibody has been known since the 1940s to impair the secondary antibody response to the homologous antigen. however, the effect of passive immunity on the t-cell response is largely unknown. the results presented here demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), transferred in the mother's milk or injected directly, can reduce the generation of rsv-specific cytotoxic t-cell (tc) precursors by the neonatal mouse; the development of influe ...19863489669
cytotoxic t cell specificity for respiratory syncytial virus proteins: fusion protein is an important target antigen.we examined the specificity of balb/c cytotoxic t (tc) cells for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) components, using recombinant vaccinia viruses (vv) coding for several individual rsv proteins. we found that immunization with the different vvs yielded the following tc memory cell populations: high levels of rsv-specific tc cells were induced with the fusion protein vv, but low levels were induced with vv coding for the rsv nucleoprotein. tc cell recognition of attachment glycoprotein, part of t ...19873497222
lymphocyte transformation response of calves to respiratory syncytial virus.virus-specific cell-mediated immunity, as determined by in vitro lymphocyte transformation (lt), was demonstrated in calves following infection and vaccination with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). after experimental infection, 4 of 6 gnotobiotic calves and 6 of 21 conventional calves developed a significant lt response to rsv. by means of a whole blood assay, the lt responses of calves were examined after vaccination with an inactivated vaccine, which consisted of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine ...19873498008
in vitro and in vivo stimulation of murine lymphocytes by human respiratory syncytial virus strains.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strains of subtype a (a2, wv9894, and wv12138) and of subtype b (wv1293, wv4843, and wv6873) are mitogenic in vitro for unprimed balb/c spleen cells. the virus also triggered splenocytes in vitro to secrete immunoglobulins. plaque-purified and uv-irradiated materials of both rsv subtypes produced comparable levels of dna synthesis. infectious materials of both subtypes also induced pronounced responses. lymphocyte activation with uv-inactivated rsv strain a2 was ...19873498209
clearance of persistent respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunodeficient mice following transfer of primed t cells.little is known of the role of t-cell mediated immune responses in the clearance and pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. in this study, we established persistent pulmonary rsv infections in athymic nu/nu balb/c mice or immunodeficient irradiated balb/c mice, and examined the patterns of virus clearance following adoptive transfer of splenic memory t cells. primed t cells transferred between day 5 and day 8 of infection will clear lung rsv from both nu/nu mice and irradia ...19873498683
respiratory syncytial virus infections in sr croatia, yugoslavia.the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was studied during three consecutive annual outbreaks (1983-1986) in sr croatia, yugoslavia. a total of 1,238 subjects were examined, using rsv isolation and immunofluorescent (dtfa) methods, with 1,042 showing the signs of respiratory infection and 207 of these having a positive rsv finding. generally, the prevalence of mild upper respiratory infection (urti) was 18%, reaching a peak of 30% at 1 year of age. the prevalence of severe ...19873499590
antiviral agents.amantadine is well established as the preferred antiviral agent for the prophylaxis of influenza a and may also be beneficial therapeutically when used early in the course of the disease. idoxuridine is applicable only in the treatment of herpetic keratitis. currently, acyclovir is the most effective agent for the treatment of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. ribavirin has recently been released for use in aerosol form for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections that o ...19873500376
diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in children with aids.between october, 1985 and may 1987, 29 children (mean age 22 +/- 22 months, range 2-54 months) with aids or arc developed acute respiratory illness. the initial diagnostic procedure was flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, with bronchoalveolar lavage (bal). bal was positive for pneumocystis carinii in 14 and for respiratory syncytial virus, staphylococcus aureus, and escherichia coli in 3 additional patients. subsequent lung tissue analysis and/or clinical course suggested no false negative lavages ...19873501100
sequence similarities between human immunodeficiency virus gp41 and paramyxovirus fusion proteins.cell fusion is a characteristic cytopathic effect induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) that leads to the formation of syncytia between infected lymphocytes. although this process has been shown to occur following the specific binding of the 110-120 kd externalized envelope molecule of the virus with the cd4 glycoprotein, the region of the hiv envelope that directly mediates cell fusion is unknown. in an attempt to identify this fusion domain, we compared the amino acid sequences fro ...19873501726
total and specific ige responses in the acute and recovery phases of respiratory infections in ige and specific ige antibodies to common allergens were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. the decrease of total ige from the acute to convalescent phase was observed in 105 of 134 (78.4%) children with m. pneumoniae infection and in 40 of 49 (81.6%) of those with rsv infection. similarly, many patients showed a decrease of the responses of specific ige in the convalescent phase of the ...19873505529
relation of serum antibody to glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus with immunity to infection in children.immunity in relation to passively transferred maternal and naturally-induced serum antibody to the viral proteins was determined in 34 children who were followed from birth through three years of age for respiratory syncytial virus infection (rsv). sera were tested by immunoglobulin class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the attachment and fusion proteins of the long strain. the basis for immunity for maternal antibody in primary infection was assessed by a comparison of the dist ...19873509676
t cell cross-reactivity among viruses of the paramyxoviridae.blastogenesis and delayed-type hypersensitivity assays were used to examine mouse t cell responses to five viruses representing the three genera of the paramyxoviridae. cross-reactive t cell responses were observed in a lympho-proliferative assay for measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial, canine distemper and parainfluenza type 3 virus. confirmation of t cell cross-reactivity among measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus was obtained with a delayed-type hypersensitivity test. these result ...19873509945
isolation of viruses from specimens submitted for direct immunofluorescence test for respiratory syncytial virus. 19863511204
common bacterial pneumonitis in infants. determining the etiology and tailoring the infantile pneumonia, we recommend close attention to the history and physical examination. baseline studies, including cbc, esr, blood cultures, and chest film, should be performed at onset and repeated as warranted. nasopharyngeal secretions or washings should be drawn by means of gentle suction and specimens sent for gram stain, fluorescent antibody stain for respiratory syncytial virus, and culture for bacteria and for viruses if possible. acute and convalescent serum specimens should be o ...19863511465
flunixin meglumine in calves with natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection.twenty-three calves (three to eight months of age) with serological evidence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were used in this study. the calves originated from four herds with respiratory tract disease. in a double blind trial the calves were injected intravenously with either flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg body weight) or with a placebo. the effect on the course of disease was measured using the po2 in capillary blood samples from the ears of the calves and by the effect on body t ...19863511602
diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections improved by virus detection in lung lavage samples.the potential of lung lavage to diagnose and study infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was investigated. the technique was simple to perform under field conditions, and even in calves with respiratory tract disease, serious drawbacks were not observed. in 9 epizootics of respiratory tract disease, brsv infection was diagnosed in 1 or more calves. the brsv was detected from a total of 21 of 32 calves by immunofluorescence in cells recovered from lavage fluids, and the virus ...19863511803
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by a biotin-avidin elisa more sensitive than the fluorescent antibody technique.the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was investigated by immunofluorescent antibody (if) technique and by a biotin/avidin (ba) elisa in 156 samples of nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) obtained from infants and small children with acute respiratory disease. of 70 rsv-if-positive nps, 68 were positive by ba-elisa. of 86 rsv-if-negative nps, eight were positive by ba-elisa. ba-elisa could detect 0.5-1.0 ng rsv-protein.19863512768
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