TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
glucocorticoid insensitivity in virally infected airway epithelial cells is dependent on transforming growth factor-β activity.asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) exacerbations are commonly associated with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), rhinovirus (rv) and influenza a virus (iav) infection. the ensuing airway inflammation is resistant to the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (gcs). viral infection elicits transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β) activity, a growth factor we have previously shown to impair gc action in human airway epithelial cells through the activation of activin-like kin ...201728046097
human metapneumovirus impairs apoptosis of nasal epithelial cells in asthma via hsp70.asthmatics are highly susceptible to respiratory viral infections, possibly due to impaired innate immunity. however, the exact mechanisms of susceptibility are likely to differ amongst viruses. therefore, we infected primary nasal epithelial cells (necs) from adults with mild-to-moderate asthma, with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) or human metapneumovirus (hmpv) in vitro and investigated the antiviral response. necs from these asthmatics supported elevated hmpv but not rsv infection, compare ...201727723652
the presence of fever in adults with influenza and other viral respiratory infections.we compared the rates of fever in adult subjects with laboratory-confirmed influenza and other respiratory viruses and examined the factors that predict fever in adults. symptom data on 158 healthcare workers (hcws) with a laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection were collected using standardized data collection forms from three separate studies. overall, the rate of fever in confirmed viral respiratory infections in adult hcws was 23·4% (37/158). rates varied by virus: human rhinovirus ...201727691995
incidence and etiology of hospitalized acute respiratory infections in the egyptian delta.acute respiratory infections (ari) are responsible for nearly two million childhood deaths worldwide. a limited number of studies have been published on the epidemiology of viral respiratory pathogens in egypt.201727458989
etiology, seasonality, and clinical characteristics of respiratory viruses in children with respiratory tract infections in eastern india (bhubaneswar, odisha).acute respiratory tract infections (artis) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low and middle income countries. to analyse the overall burden of respiratory viruses responsible for artis in paediatrics population in eastern india, this study was performed. clinical information, demographic information and nasal/oral swabs were collected from 332 paediatric patients (aged from 1 month to 12 years old) with the symptoms of arti, enrolled from the outpatient departme ...201727509268
serology enhances molecular diagnosis of respiratory virus infections other than influenza in children and adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.both molecular and serological assays have been used previously to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (cap). however, the extent to which these methods are correlated and the added diagnostic value of serology for respiratory viruses other than influenza virus have not been fully evaluated. using data from patients enrolled in the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) etiology of pneumonia in the community (epic) study, we compared real-time reverse transcription-p ...201727795341
human quarantine: toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at the taï chimpanzee project, côte d'ivoire.due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) and human metapneumovirus (hmpv), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. to prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene m ...201728095600
comparing human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus: viral co-detections, genotypes and risk factors for severe is unclarified as to whether viral co-detection and human metapneumovirus (hmpv) genotypes relate to clinical manifestations in children with hmpv and lower respiratory tract infection (lrti), and if the clinical course and risk factors for severe lrti differ between hmpv and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).201728095451
neutrophil infiltration and activation in bronchiolitic airways are independent of viral etiology.hospitalization with bronchiolitis is linked to the development of early childhood chronic wheeze and asthma. viral etiology and severity of inflammation are potential contributing factors. previously we observed reduced airway neutrophil infiltration in breastfed bronchiolitic infants, with a corresponding reduction in disease severity. this study aimed to examine whether respiratory viral etiology and co-infection alters the pattern of neutrophil influx, and the inflammatory mediator profile, ...201727410761
antiviral therapy for respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients.respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infectio ...201728067078
paramyxovirus outbreak in a long-term care facility: the challenges of implementing infection control practices in a congregate setting.objective we report an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and human metapneumovirus (hmpv) infections in a dementia care ward containing 2 separately locked units (a and b) to heighten awareness of these pathogens in the older adult population and highlight some of the infection prevention challenges faced during a noninfluenza respiratory viral outbreak in a congregate setting. methods cases were defined by the presence of new signs or symptoms that included (1) a single oral tempera ...201728065183
surveillance for respiratory infectious diseases caused by 6 common viruses in a recruit training site in the northern region of china.recruit training sites are places with a high incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. effective surveillance for acute respiratory infectious diseases in a recruit training site is an important way to prevent disease outbreaks.201728373908
simultaneous detection of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus by one-step multiplex real-time rt-pcr in patients with respiratory symptoms.both respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and human metapneumovirus (hmpv) are important viral pathogens causing respiratory tract infection (rti) in the pediatric population. however, the clinical manifestations of rsv and hmpv infections are similar. therefore, a reliable and rapid diagnostic tool is needed for diagnostic performance.201728347279
respiratory dna viruses are undetectable in nasopharyngeal secretions from adenotonsillectomized children.respiratory viruses are frequently detected in association with chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in the absence of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ari). the present analysis was done in follow-up to a previous clinical study done by this same group. nasopharyngeal washes (npws) were obtained from 83 of 120 individuals at variable times post adenotonsillectomy, in the absence of ari symptoms. a look back at virus detection results in npws from the same 83 individuals at the time of tonsille ...201728306724
human metapnuemovirus infections in hospitalized children and comparison with other respiratory viruses. 2005-2014 prospective study.human metapneumovirus (hmpv) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of hmpv to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of hmpv single and multiple infections, and to compare hmpv infections with respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv), rhinovirus (hrv), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same po ...201728301570
influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.influenza-like illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. areas covered: we present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and who-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. the 22-item vivi ...201728277820
etiology of severe pneumonia in ecuadorian latin america, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in ecuador.201728182741
other community respiratory viruses.polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis has become the standard for viral pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. expansion of respiratory viral panels (rvps) outside of influenza and, possibly, respiratory syncytial virus has led to the ability to diagnose viral infections for which no approved specific antiviral treatment exists. careful clinical evaluation of the patient with a positive rvp is, therefore, critical given the limited repertoire of treatments. generic treatments with ...201728159160
antiviral treatments.most viral respiratory tract infections are caused by classic respiratory viruses, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, and adenovirus, whereas other viruses, such as herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and measles virus, can opportunistically affect the respiratory tract. the m2 inhibitors, amantadine and rimantadine, were historically effective for the prevention and treatment of influenza a but all circulating strains are currently r ...201728159156
clinical evaluation of the isothermal amplification assays for the detection of four common respiratory viruses in children with pneumonia.respiratory viruses are recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in lower respiratory tract infections in patients. isothermal amplification assays are increasingly used in their detection because of their rapidity, simplicity and cost-effectiveness, when compared to traditional molecular diagnostic methods. however, systematic assessment of these assays in the clinical settings is rarely reported. medline (pubmed) searches were done analysing subject headings and words in the abs ...201728155195
structural basis for antibody cross-neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and human metapneumovirus (hmpv) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). there are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. a humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for rsv infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are ...201728134915
viral influenza-like illnesses: dynamic interrelationships during the 2015-2016 influenza season in hospitalized hospitalized children and adults, the temporal relationship of viruses causing influenza-like illnesses (ilis) and influenza has not been well described. during the 2015-2016 influenza season at our hospital, the dynamic interrelationships between ili viruses (human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses 3 and 4, rhinoviruses/enteroviruses, and coronaviruses) and influenza a were characterized in 768 hospitalized children and adults.201728131642
systems biology from virus to humans.natural infection and then recovery are considered to be the most effective means for hosts to build protective immunity. thus, mimicking natural infection of pathogens, many live attenuated vaccines such as influenza virus, and yellow fever vaccine 17d were developed and have been successfully used to induce protective immunity. however, humans fail to generate long-term protective immunity to some pathogens after natural infection such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and ...201726269748
what are the most powerful immunogen design vaccine strategies? a structural biologist's perspective.the ability of structure-based design to control the shape and reactivity-the atomic-level chemistry-of an immunogen argues for it being one of the "most powerful" immunogen-design strategies. but antigenic reactivity is only one of the properties required to induce a protective immune response. here, a multidimensional approach is used to exemplify the enabling role atomic-level information can play in the development of immunogens against three viral pathogens, respiratory syncytial virus, inf ...201728159876
excess respiratory viral infections and low antibody responses among hiv-exposed, uninfected uninfected (heus) infants have frequent severe infection, hospitalization, and death. we performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in heus.201728060016
acute viral respiratory infections among children in mers-endemic riyadh, saudi arabia, 2012-2013.the emergence of the middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) in saudi arabia has intensified focus on acute respiratory infections [aris]. this study sought to identify respiratory viruses (rvs) associated with aris in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. children (aged ≤13) presenting with ari between january 2012 and december 2013 tested for 15 rvs using the seeplex(r) rv15 kit were retrospectively included. epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. of the 2235 children t ...201727430485
comparison of different methods for extraction of cinnamomi ramulus: yield, chemical composition and in vitro antiviral activities.hydrodistillation (hd), supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) and reflux extraction (re) were applied to obtain cinnamomi ramulus extracts. the yields, chemical compositions and antiviral activities of the extracts were investigated. extracts were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antiviral activities were evaluated using cytopathic effect inhibition assay. hd, sfe and re afforded 0.376, 1.227 and 5.914% yields, respectively. cinnamaldehyde (ca), sfe and ethanol extracts ...201728322072
human coronavirus in the 2014 winter season as a cause of lower respiratory tract infection.during the late autumn to winter season (october to december) in the republic of korea, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (lrtis). interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (hcov) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also lrtis more commonly than in other years. therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with hcov infections at a sin ...201727873511
patterns of human respiratory viruses and lack of mers-coronavirus in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections in southwestern province of saudi arabia.we undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between november 2013 and january 2014 (winter time). nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for mers-cov as well as other respiratory viruses using rt-pcr and multiplex microarray. a total of 75 (41.2%) of these patients had positive viral infection. mers-cov was not detected in any of the samples. human rhinovirus (hrv) was the mo ...201728348590
viral infections in neonates with suspected late-onset bacterial sepsis-a prospective cohort study.objective the aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of viral infections in infants with suspected late-onset bacterial sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit. methods in a prospective study, infants with suspected late-onset bacterial sepsis underwent viral testing alongside routine blood culture sampling. using a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed for adenovirus, respiratory syncytial vi ...201727182999
antiviral activity of aspirin against rna viruses of the respiratory tract-an in vitro study.aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been used for more than 115 years in medicine. research exists to show that aspirin has antiviral effects in vitro, for example, by blocking influenza virus propagation via nf-κb inhibition when used at high concentrations and short-term incubation steps. the aim of this study was to confirm the antiviral activity of aspirin against influenza virus and further elucidate the activity of aspirin against other respiratory viruses.201727542891
regional diversification of influenza activity in poland during the 2015/16 epidemic season.the national influenza center (nic) at the department of influenza research of the national institute for public health-national institute of hygiene (niph-nih) participates in the global influenza surveillance and response system (gisrs) and continuously coordinates epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza in poland. the aim of this study was to determine the regional differences of influenza activity in poland in the 2015/16 epidemic season. the influenza surveillance involved ...201728255914
sb 9200, a novel agonist of innate immunity, shows potent antiviral activity against resistant hcv 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the rig-i and nod2 pathways. sb 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against rna viruses including hepatitis c virus (hcv), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis b virus (hbv) in vitro and in vivo. in phase i clinical trials in chronically infected hcv patients, sb 9200 has been shown to reduce hcv rna by up to 1.9 ...201728303593
matrix metalloproteinase 9 facilitates hepatitis b virus replication through binding with type i interferon (ifn) receptor 1 to repress ifn/jak/stat signaling.hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection may cause acute hepatitis b, chronic hepatitis b (chb), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). however, the mechanisms by which hbv evades host immunity and maintains chronic infection are largely unknown. here, we revealed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp-9) is activated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) of hbv-infected patients, and hbv stimulates mmp-9 expression in macrophages and pbmcs isolated from healthy individuals. mmp-9 p ...201728122987
enteric helminth-induced type i interferon signaling protects against pulmonary virus infection through interaction with the microbiota.helminth parasites have been reported to have beneficial immunomodulatory effects in patients with allergic and autoimmune conditions and detrimental consequences in patients with tuberculosis and some viral infections. their role in coinfection with respiratory viruses is not clear.201728196762
influenza in poland in 2013 and 2013/2014 epidemic seasonanalysis of epidemiological situation of influenza in poland in 2013 and 2013/14 epidemic season in reference to previous years and seasons.201727883286
estimates of hospitalization attributable to influenza and rsv in the us during 1997-2009, by age and risk status.estimates of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) burden must be periodically updated to inform public health strategies. we estimated seasonal influenza- and rsv-attributable hospitalizations in the us from 1997 to 2009 according to age and risk status (nct01599390).201728320361
respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aecopd) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of aecopd, but data from developing countries like india are scant. we set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with aecopd.201728144057
microrna-146a induction during influenza h3n2 virus infection targets and regulates traf6 levels in human nasal epithelial cells (hnecs).we have previously shown that human nasal epithelial cells (hnecs) are highly permissive cells for respiratory viruses including influenza a virus (iav) and respiratory syncytial virus. recent studies have indicated that micrornas (mirnas) are involved in virus-host relationship, and this led us to investigate its essential roles in the in vitro hnecs model derived from multiple donors. by comparing the differential expression of mirnas upon iav infection among animal and cell line studies, cand ...201728131813
microrna-21 drives severe, steroid-insensitive experimental asthma by amplifying phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated suppression of histone deacetylase 2.severe steroid-insensitive asthma is a substantial clinical problem. effective treatments are urgently required, however, their development is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. steroid-insensitive asthma is associated with respiratory tract infections and noneosinophilic endotypes, including neutrophilic forms of disease. however, steroid-insensitive patients with eosinophil-enriched inflammation have also been described. the mechanisms that underpin ...201727448447
throat swabs in children with respiratory tract infection: associations with clinical presentation and potential targets for point-of-care testing.diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (rtis) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. if symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. this study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs.201728334924
biosynthesis of an antiviral compound using a stabilized phosphopentomutase by multipoint covalent immobilization.ribavirin is a synthetic guanosine analogue with a broad-spectrum of antiviral activity. it is clinically effective against several viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus, several hemorrhagic fever viruses and hcv when combined with pegylated interferon-α. phosphopentomutase (ppm) catalyzes the transfer of intramolecular phosphate (from c1 to c5) on ribose, and is involved in pentose phosphate pathway and in purine metabolism. reactions catalyzed by this enzyme are useful for nucleoside an ...201728347766
novel expression of a functional trimeric fragment of human sp-a with efficacy in neutralisation of rsv.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalisation of infants in developed countries. surfactant protein a (sp-a) is an important innate immune molecule, localized in pulmonary surfactant. sp-a binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens in a calcium-dependent manner to enable neutralisation, agglutination and clearance of pathogens including rsv. sp-a forms trimeric units and further oligomerises through interactions between its n-terminal domains ...201727793398
clinical characterization of influenza a and human respiratory syncytial virus among patients with influenza like illness.influenza a and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) has been recognized as a major cause of acute respiratory tract infection. h1n1 is one of the subtypes of influenza a, pandemic worldwide in july 2009, causing 18,449 deaths globally. to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of the influenza a, h1n1pdm09, and rsv. throat/nasal swab collected from the patients of all age group either outpatients/inpatients having respiratory illness from 2 to 5 days. the clinical data were recorded ...201727329816
antiviral activity of the "virus blocking factor" (vbf) derived i.a. from pelargonium extract and sambucus juice against different human-pathogenic cold viruses in vitro.the in-vitro antiviral activity of the "virus blocking factor" (vbf), a combination of pelargonium extract and sambucus juice with addition of betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, zincum gluconium, acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: influenza a h1n1 (flua h1n1), rhinovirus b subtype 14 (hrv14), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (para 3), and adenovirus c subtype 5 (adeno 5).201727717933
peritonsillar abscess: clinical aspects of microbiology, risk factors, and the association with parapharyngeal abscess.pta is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. it is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in denmark) and cause of acute admission to danish ent departments. teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. however, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. fu ...201728260599
diterpenoid alkaloids from delphinium ajacis and their anti-rsv activities.five new diterpenoid alkaloids, ajacisines a-e (1-5), were isolated from delphinium ajacis, along with seven known alkaloids (6-12). on the basis of their spectral data (ir, uv, hr-esi-ms, 1d and 2d nmr) and chemical properties, the structures of compounds 1-12 were identified. all isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus, and compounds 3-5 and 8 exhibited moderate to weak effects with ic50 values of 75.2 ± 1.1, 35.1 ± 0.6, 10. ...201727405107
a novel benzo-heterocyclic amine derivative n30 inhibits influenza virus replication by depression of inosine-5'-monophospate dehydrogenase activity.influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. host inosine-5'- monophosphate dehydrogenase (impdh) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target to inhibit the replication of viruses. herein, we evaluated antiviral activity of a benzo-heterocyclic amine derivative n30, which was designed to inhibit impdh.201728298229
report from the world health organization's third product development for vaccines advisory committee (pdvac) meeting, geneva, 8-10th june 2016.the third meeting of who's product development for vaccines advisory committee (pdvac) was held in june 2016, with a remit to revisit the pathogen areas for which significant progress has occurred since recommendations from the 2015 meeting, as well as to consider new advances in the development of vaccines against other pathogens. since the previous meeting, significant progress has been made with regulatory approvals of the first malaria and dengue vaccines, and the first phase iii trials of a ...201728262332
viral encephalitis after haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: causative viral spectrum, characteristics, and risk retrospectively identify characteristics and risk factors of viral encephalitis (ve) in patients who underwent a haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (hsct).201728129450
environmental factor and inflammation-driven alteration of the total peripheral t-cell compartment in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.autoimmune diseases are initiated by a combination of predisposing genetic and environmental factors resulting in self-perpetuating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. autoantibody production and an imbalance of effector and regulatory t-cells are hallmarks of autoimmune dysregulation. while expansion of circulating effector memory t-cells is linked to disease pathogenesis and progression, the causes driving alterations of the peripheral t-cell compartment have remained poorly understood so ...201728040323
[adult immunisation: general points, hot topics and perspectives].vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. in addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortal ...201728214181
a comparison of host gene expression signatures associated with infection in vitro by the makona and ecran (mayinga) variants of ebola virus.the ebola virus (ebov) variant makona (which emerged in 2013) was the causative agent of the largest outbreak of ebola virus disease recorded. differences in virus-host interactions between viral variants have potential consequences for transmission, disease severity and mortality. a detailed profile of the cellular changes induced by the makona variant compared with other ebola virus variants was lacking. in this study, a549 cells, a human cell line with a robust innate response, were infected ...201728240256
modulation of antiviral immunity by heme oxygenase-1.heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) is a stress-inducible, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective enzyme expressed in most cell types in the organism. under several stress stimuli, ho-1 expression and activity is up-regulated to catalyze the rate-limiting enzymatic step of heme degradation into carbon monoxide, free iron, and biliverdin. besides its effects on cell metabolism, ho-1 is also capable of modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses in response to sepsis, transplantation, and autoimmunity ...201728082120
multiplexed metagenomic deep sequencing to analyze the composition of high-priority pathogen reagents.laboratories studying high-priority pathogens need comprehensive methods to confirm microbial species and strains while also detecting contamination. metagenomic deep sequencing (mds) inventories nucleic acids present in laboratory stocks, providing an unbiased assessment of pathogen identity, the extent of genomic variation, and the presence of contaminants. double-stranded cdna mds libraries were constructed from rna extracted from in vitro-passaged stocks of six viruses (la crosse virus, ebol ...201727822544
meeting report: 29th international conference on antiviral research in la jolla, ca, usa.the 29th international conference on antiviral research (icar) was held in la jolla, ca, usa from april 17 to 21, 2016. this report opens with a tribute to the late chris mcguigan, a past-president of isar, then continues with summaries of the principal invited lectures. doug richman (elion award) investigated hiv resistance, bob vince (holý award) showed how carbocyclic nucleoside analogs led to abacavir and jerome deval (prusoff award) explained how his group chose to seek a nucleoside analog ...201727815125
the role of nod-like receptors in pulmonary infection.pneumonia is caused by both viral and bacterial pathogens and is responsible for a significant health burden in the unites states. the innate immune system is the human body's first line of defense against these pathogens. the recognition of invading pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (prrs) leads to proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production followed by recruitment and activation of effector immune cells. the nonspecific inflammatory nature of the innate immune response can resu ...201728157451
antibody response to paramyxoviruses in paget's disease of bone.paget's disease of bone (pdb) is a common skeletal disorder characterised by focal abnormalities of increased and disorganised bone turnover. genetic factors play a central role in the pathogenesis of pdb but environmental factors also contribute. measles virus (mv), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) have all been implicated as potential disease triggers but the data are conflicting. since chronic paramyxovirus infection with measles is known to be accompanied by ...201728361207
the bovine paranasal sinuses: bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.the bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. while lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (brd) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. the par ...201728282443
pathogens, patterns of pneumonia, and epidemiologic risk factors associated with respiratory disease in recently weaned cattle in ireland.we examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (brd) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in ireland. a standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneu ...201728074713
animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. there is no licensed hrsv vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. however, there are a growing number of hrsv vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hrsv infection. animal models of hrsv play an important role in the preclinical testi ...201727908639
a recombinant subunit vaccine for bovine rsv and histophilus somni protects calves against dual pathogen challenge.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and histophilus somni synergize to cause respiratory disease in cattle. these pathogens cause enhanced disease during dual-infection and an ige response to antigens of h. somni in dual-infected but not singly infected calves. vaccines containing whole inactivated brsv or h. somni have been associated with ige responses a vaccine strategy that avoids stimulation of ige antibodies would provide superior protection from dual infection. we hypothesized that ...201728274639
agreement among 4 sampling methods to identify respiratory pathogens in dairy calves with acute bovine respiratory disease.four sampling techniques commonly are used for antemortem identification of pathogens from cattle with bovine respiratory disease (brd): the nasal swab (ns), guarded nasopharyngeal swab (nps), bronchoalveolar lavage (bal), and transtracheal wash (ttw). agreement among these methods has not been well characterized.201728295570
development of a one-run real-time pcr detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex.bovine respiratory disease complex (brdc) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. the etiology of brdc is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. here, we developed a detection system by applying taqman real-time pcr (dembo respiratory-pcr) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with brdc in a single run. we selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza vi ...201728070089
immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research.201728293985
structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.bovine respiratory disease (brd) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. however, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. a structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common brd viral and bacterial pathog ...201725929158
simultaneous antibiofilm and antiviral activities of an engineered antimicrobial peptide during virus-bacterium coinfection.antimicrobial-resistant infections are an urgent public health threat, and development of novel antimicrobial therapies has been painstakingly slow. polymicrobial infections are increasingly recognized as a significant source of severe disease and also contribute to reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials. chronic infections also are characterized by their ability to resist clearance, which is commonly linked to the development of biofilms that are notorious for antimicrobial resistance. the us ...201727303744
mycoplasma bovis arthritis and pneumonia in calves.mycoplasma bovis arthritis and pneumonia in six-month-old calvessudden deaths in housed suckler cows due to hypomagnesaemiabovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in two-year-old heifersbovine abortion associated with parachlamydia speciesfibrinous pericarditis due to aeromonas hydrophila in weaner pigsthese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for december 2016 from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201728302886
plant-based vaccines against respiratory diseases: current status and future prospects.respiratory infections have an enormous, worldwide epidemiologic impact on humans and animals. among the prophylactic measures, vaccination has the potential to neutralize this impact. new technologies for vaccine production and delivery are of importance in this field since they offer the potential to develop new immunization approaches overriding the current limitations that comprise high cost, safety issues, and limited efficacy. areas covered: in the present review, the state of the art in d ...201727599605
infantile systemic hyalinosis complicated with right atrial thrombus and pericardial effusion in an infant.infantile systemic hyalinosis (ish) is a rare multisystem fatal autosomal recessive disorder that involves widespread deposition of hyaline on connective tissues and certain internal organs. the major manifestations include painful articular contractures, hyperpigmentation, subcutaneous nodules, gingival hypertrophy, failure to thrive secondary to protein-losing enteropathy, and osteolytic bone lesions. in this paper, we report a 12-month-old girl with ish presenting with recurrent diarrhea, fai ...201725458638
disease complexity in a declining alaskan muskox (ovibos moschatus) population.the muskox ( ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern north slope (ens) of alaska, us declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western alaska (wa) were stable or increasing. to understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, alaska department of fish and game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. additionally, archived sera from both ens and wa muskoxen collected during 1984-92, before the documented begin ...201728099077
single- and multiple viral respiratory infections in children: disease and management cannot be related to a specific pathogen.the number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ari) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays. multiple viruses are detected during a single ari episode in approximately a quarter of all cases. the clinical relevance of these multiple detections is unclear, as is the role of the individual virus. we therefore investigated the correlation between clinical data and rt-pcr results in chil ...201728077074
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