TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
detection of viral and chlamydial antigens in open-lung biopsy specimens.the recovery of viruses and chlamydia trachomatis from cell cultures and the detection of their antigens in impression smears prepared from open-lung biopsy (olb) specimens from immunocompromised adults were compared. touch impression smears were prepared on three slides, each containing eight wells. olb tissue was homogenized (stomacher) and inoculated into mrc-5, primary monkey kidney, and mccoy cell cultures. the direct and indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests were used to detect antigens t ...19852983526
nucleotide sequences of the 1b and 1c nonstructural protein mrnas of human respiratory syncytial virus.the genes encoding the 1c and 1b mrnas of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus are first in the order of viral transcription and encode nonstructural (ns) proteins of approximate molecular weights 14,000 and 11,000, respectively, estimated by gel electrophoresis. the complete nucleotide sequences of the 1c and 1b mrnas determined from several full-length cdna clones are described. the 1c and 1b mrnas contain 528 and 499 nucleotides, respectively, exclusive of poly(a), and encode proteins of 13 ...19852998021
the effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport.tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using a radioisotope-labeled aerosol and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. the movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. one subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. ...19853002287
a survey of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 neutralising and immunoprecipitating antibodies in relation to paget disease.the aetiology of paget disease of bone has not been established but certain features have suggested involvement of a parainfluenzalike virus. to seek further evidence of the possible role of paramyxoviruses in paget disease we have surveyed the presence of neutralising and immunoprecipitating antibodies to both respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in the sera of patients attending a bone disease clinic. these two viruses were implicated by the sporadic observation of viral ...19853001223
seroepidemiologic survey for antibodies to selected viruses in the respiratory tract of lambs.a serologic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to, and infection rate of, mastadenovirus ovi 5, m ovi 6, parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, and ovine progressive pneumonia (opp) virus in lambs at a ram lamb growth-rate test station. for 2 consecutive years, serum samples were prepared from blood collected from 1- to 2-month-old ram lambs as they entered the test station (1st ...19853002217
serological evidence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in lambs. 198516031205
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in an ontario cattle herd.bovine respiratory syncytial virus was recovered from the lung of a six month old calf that died during an outbreak of respiratory disease in a cattle herd in ontario. lung tissue removed from the calf at necropsy, performed within two hours of death, was frozen at -70 degrees c prior to virus isolation attempts. syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusions were demonstrated both in histological sections of the calf's lung and in stained cell culture preparations infected with the bovine respiratory ...198517422509
immunofluorescence in the serological diagnosis of parainfluenza type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.the fluorescent antibody (fa) test is compared with the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test for parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3) and virus neutralisation (vn) test for respiratory syncytial (rs) virus for detection and titration of virus-specific antibodies. in experimentally inoculated calves pi-3 and rs virus fa tests detected seroconversion at the same time as hi and vn tests, however, in serially diluted sera, the fa test was positive to higher dilution. in studies with paired samples fr ...19863027802
[rhinovirus and acute respiratory infections in infants].human leucocytary interferon (ifn) in a concentration of 2,000 ul/ml stops the development of 9 rhinovirus (rv) strains. the use of serum ifn antibodies (saif) reverses this effect. of 256 nasal aspirates culture negative for other respiratory viruses, 40 rv were isolated with saif as opposed to 19 without serum anti ifn. the frequency and some clinical aspects are emphasized in infants: 43% had bronchiolitis similar to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and atopy was frequent.19863028312
respiratory syncytial virus--oklahoma. 19863081783
specific human cytotoxic t cells recognize b-cell lines persistently infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the t-lymphocyte response to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus has been invoked to explain the bronchiolitis and pneumonia caused by rs virus in human infants. however, t cells also appear to play a role in protection against rs virus infection. although rs virus-specific human lymphocytes have been demonstrated, neither the phenotype nor the function of the lymphocytes was characterized. we describe here the induction of anti-rs virus cytotoxic t lymphocytes, in both bulk culture and restimulate ...19863097646
clinical observations on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in unusually large number of infants (82) were admitted to stanford university hospital from november 1, 1983, through may 31, 1985, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis requiring oxygen therapy. a larger percentage of these infants (17/82 = 21%) than generally expected required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. fourteen infants had respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, and three had parainfluenza virus infections. ten patients had respiratory difficulties as neonates. the mec ...19863022224
rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in patients with acute respiratory disease.viral respiratory infections represent a significant segment of the total respiratory disease spectrum; however, until recently the laboratory diagnosis of viral respiratory infections was relatively inefficient. development of new and improved immunologic assay systems has paved the way for accurate and reliable rapid diagnostic tests that detect viral antigens in clinical specimens. we conducted a careful and elaborate study in which radioimmunoassay for antigen detection was compared with a b ...19863009083
simultaneous infections with different enteric and respiratory tract viruses.infants and young children with rotavirus (rv) or visualized adenovirus in their stools were tested for the simultaneous presence of a respiratory viral pathogen in their upper respiratory tract. overall, at least 10.7% of 484 study subjects had such dual infections, including 8.3% of 385 rv-positive gastroenteritis patients and 24.3% of 37 rv-positive respiratory disease patients. respiratory syncytial virus was present in 34.1% of 41 dual infections with rv and at least 40% of the 12 to 15 dua ...19863009527
evaluation of cell line 293 for virus isolation in routine viral diagnosis.cell line 293, a continuous line of transformed human embryonic kidney cells, has been recognized for its sensitivity in the isolation of adenoviruses, particularly the fastidious species 40 and 41, from stool specimens. to explore the possibility of using this cell line for the isolation of other viruses from clinical specimens, 293 cells were tested for their susceptibility to a variety of viruses including herpes simplex virus, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and the enter ...19863009540
presence of respiratory viruses in middle ear fluids and nasal wash specimens from children with acute otitis media.during a 28-month period, 84 children with acute otitis media were studied by viral and bacterial cultures of middle ear fluid and viral cultures of nasal lavage fluid. viruses were isolated from the middle ear fluid of 17 (20%) patients. evidence of viral infection was demonstrated by positive viral cultures of middle ear fluid and/or nasal lavage fluid in 33 (39%) patients. rhinovirus in one patient and influenza b virus in another were the only pathogens isolated. influenza virus, enterovirus ...19863010225
patterns of viral respiratory tract infections in singapore.a second retrospective study on viral respiratory tract infections, based on 12 years' laboratory reports for the influenza viruses, and 9 years' reports for the other respiratory viruses was made. seasonal variation in incidence was found to occur with infections due to the influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenzavirus type 1. observations made previously on the age distribution of specific respiratory viral infections, and the association of the viruses with various re ...19863010799
fusion glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus type 3: nucleotide sequence of the gene, direct identification of the cleavage-activation site, and comparison with other paramyxoviruses.the complete sequences of the fusion (f) mrna and protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (pf3) were determined from overlapping cdna clones. to confirm the cdna sequence, the complete sequence of the f gene was determined independently by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of genomic rna using synthetic oligonucleotide primers. the mrna contains 1845 nucleotides, exclusive of poly (a), has an unusually long (193-nucleotide) 5' nontranslated region, and encodes an f0 protein of 539 amino acids. th ...19863012869
the association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in ontario feedlot calves.a seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. a total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). titers t ...19863017529
fever in respiratory virus infections.the case records of 258 children with adenovirus; influenza a or b virus; parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3 virus; or respiratory syncytial virus infections were studied retrospectively with special attention to the degree and duration of fever. a temperature of 39.0 degrees c or higher was most frequently recorded in adenovirus, influenza a, and influenza b virus infections (in 68%, 84%, and 65%, respectively). the mean highest degree of fever in respiratory virus infections (39.2 degrees c +/- 0.6 degr ...19863020965
ribavirin: a clinical overview.ribavirin, a broad spectrum, non-interferon-inducing virustatic chemotherapeutic agent, demonstrates activity against a wide range of rna and dna viruses, including the retrovirus known to cause the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. the drug's proposed mechanism of action, as well as pharmacokinetics are discussed, and preclinical toxicity, safety and clinical efficacy studies are presented. to date, the best success has occurred in the use of ribavirin to treat respiratory syncytial virus in ...19863021519
in vitro effect of ascorbic acid on infectivity of herpesviruses and paramyxoviruses.suspensions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and parainfluenzavirus type 2 were inactivated within 24 h when treated at 37 degrees c with 1 mg (5.05 mm) of copper-catalyzed sodium ascorbate per ml. the infectivity titer of respiratory syncytial virus was reduced substantially after 24 h but required 48 h for inactivation. under these conditions, inactivation of these viruses was also successfully achieved with 5.68 mm catalyzed ascorbic acid. copper (cu2+), when added with ...19863021808
serosurvey for selected pathogens in hunter-killed pronghorns in western nebraska.exposure of pronghorns (antilocapra americana) in western nebraska in 1983 to selected livestock pathogens was examined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies were present to the agents of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. there were no serologic reactors to brucella, and attempts to isolate the viruses of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease were negative.19863005667
effect of recombinant dna-derived bovine and human interferons on replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses.antiviral effects of recombinant dna-derived bovine (bo) and human (hu) interferons (ifn) on the replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses were studied. bovine monolayer cultures were treated with recombinant dna-produced bo ifn-alpha 1, bo ifn-beta 2, hu ifn-alpha a, or hu ifn-alpha a/d and then challenge exposed with bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, or vesicular stomatitis virus. treatment with ...19863008606
pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in papua new guinea.paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to goroka hospital, papua new guinea. all but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the harvard median). pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. five ...19863002538
nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion glycoprotein of newcastle disease virus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion (f) glycoprotein of the beaudette c strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv) has been determined from cdna clones obtained from virion rna. the gene is 1792 nucleotides long, including mrna start and polyadenylation signals typical of paramyxoviruses. the single open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 553 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 59042. the f polypeptide has three regions of high hydrophobicity: an n-terminal sig ...19863025345
parainfluenza virus bronchiolitis. epidemiology and investigation of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bronchiolitis due to parainfluenza virus (pv) was carried out. bronchiolitis due to pv occurred most commonly in non-caucasian males. breast-fed infants exhibited a reduced risk of developing bronchiolitis. once an episode of pv bronchiolitis occurred, both exposure to cigarette smoke and bottle feeding were associated with an increased frequency of recurrent wheezing, and subsequent infection with respiratory virus almost uniformly result ...19863002169
role of respiratory viruses in exacerbations of primary nephrotic determine whether respiratory virus infections (uri) are associated with exacerbation of nephrotic syndrome (ns) in childhood, a prospective two-winter study of 32 children with ns was done. we obtained pre- and post-season viral serologic studies, biweekly nose and throat viral cultures, daily urinalysis, biweekly telephone follow-up for uri and renal complaints, and clinical assessments as indicated. when a uri occurred, viral cultures were done weekly if the child was at home and twice wee ...19863005537
dynamics of some genetic marker changes of respiratory-syncytial virus strains circulating among nursery-school children.respiratory-syncytial (rs) virus strains circulating during several years appeared polymorphic in respect of two genetic markers: the regression coefficient of infectious activity (rcia39) characterizing the isolates by their reproduction in tissue cultures at supraoptimal temperature (39 degrees c) and the regression coefficient of neutralization indices (rcni) characterizing the degree of sensitivity of the strains to antibodies. high-yield rs viruses were more often isolated from children fre ...19862871732
complete sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein gene of human parainfluenza type 3 virus: comparison with other negative strand viruses.the sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein (np) mrna and its encoded protein were deduced by sequencing a cdna clone representing the complete mrna. the cdna sequence was confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of purified viral genomic rna by primer extension using synthetic oligonucleotides. the np mrna contains 1,641 nucleotides exclusive of poly(a) and encodes an np protein of 515 amino acids. alignment of the human parainfluenza type 3 virus (pf3) np protein sequence with that of send ...19862878059
study of prolonged virus infection in cattle stocks infected by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. 19862953213
ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus. 19862868301
simultaneous infection with bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children.we compared three groups of hospitalized children with bordetella pertussis infection, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection and dual b. pertussis/rsv infections in an effort to establish clinical and laboratory criteria by which to distinguish children with dual infections from children infected with either organism alone. the groups were compared for admission laboratory data, history of present illness, perinatal history and immunization history. children with pertussis were more likely ...19862876415
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
identification of epitopes on respiratory syncytial virus proteins by competitive binding characterize the interrelationship of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and their respective epitopes, we developed a competitive binding assay based on the biotin-avidin system and a tissue culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the competitive binding assay clearly distinguished between competing and noncompeting mabs. eight mabs against the fusion protein (f protein) demonstrated two blocking patterns consistent with two antigenic sites. mabs reacti ...19862420819
murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize different antigenic subtypes of the virus.the aim of this study was to establish whether cytotoxic t cells (tc), raised against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the mouse, are specific to the strain of immunizing virus, or cross-reactive between virus strains. several recent studies using monoclonal antibodies have begun to define the antigenic variation among strains of rsv. it is likely that a successful rsv vaccine will need to contain antigenic determinants from more than one subtype, but since only the highest levels of neutral ...19862420922
interferon-mediated self-limiting growth of respiratory syncytial virus in mouse embryo cells.the growth of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus in primary mouse embryo (me) cells was investigated. the virus yields in me cells were markedly lower if compared with those in hep-2 cells, which are fully permissive for rs virus, and a remarkable production of interferon (ifn) was found in the early period of infection of the former cells. the virus yields in me cells were enhanced when antimouse ifn serum was added to the medium. indirect immunofluorescent staining of infected me cells showed th ...19862432168
concurrent circulation of antigenically distinct strains of respiratory syncytial virus during community outbreaks.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is considered to be of a single serotype. antigenic variants are detectable both by neutralization and monoclonal antibodies and have been divided into two broad categories, groups 1 and 2. group 2 isolates have been considered to be uncommon. we used indirect immunofluorescence with strain-specific monoclonal antibodies to study rsv isolates from hospitalized infants in the greater boston area. of 223 rsv isolates recovered over a five-month period in 1983-1984 ...19862418126
analysis of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein using monoclonal and polyclonal least four distinct epitopes are described on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (vp70) using 13 monoclonal antibodies in solid-phase competitive binding studies. two, and possibly three, fusion-inhibiting epitopes, one non-fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope, and one non-neutralizing epitope are described. all but the latter site demonstrated partial overlap, suggesting possible topographical proximity of these epitopes. polyclonal rabbit sera to vp70, which neutralized virus ...19862419491
enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus pulmonary pathology in cotton rats by prior intramuscular inoculation of formalin-inactiva ted virus.cotton rats previously inoculated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were challenged intranasally with live rsv to induce an enhancement of rsv disease similar to that observed after the administration of formalin-inactivated rsv vaccine to human infants 20 years ago. within 24 h after infection with rsv, cotton rats developed pulmonary lesions that reached a maximum by day 4. histologically, the lesions resembled an experimental pulmonary arthus reaction. an action of f ...19862419587
the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates: assessment, formulation, and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as a diagnostic reagent.comparisons were made between standard methods of cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence (if) using hyperimmune respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antiserum, and indirect if using mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against various epitopes of rsv for the detection of rsv in nasopharyngeal aspirates. the monoclonal antibodies were used singly and in pools of different specificities which in turn were tested in both direct and indirect if. in a preliminary study, aspirates from 227 infants wer ...19862419492
respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein expression in human and simian cell lines.glycoproteins synthesized in both human (hela and hep-2) and simian (vero and bs-c-1) cell lines following infection with two different strains of respiratory syncytial virus (a2 and long) were analysed by sds-page following immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies. minor virus strain-dependent differences in the large glycoprotein, g, and the fusion protein polypeptides f1 and f2 were observed together with minor cell line-dependent differences in the size of the f2 polypeptide. major qua ...19862427648
antigen mimicry involving measles virus hemagglutinin and human respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein.intergenic antigenic relationships between measles virus and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific structural components were studied by using monoclonal antibodies. of 75 monoclonal antibodies against these components, only one, an anti-measles virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody, cross-reacted. immunofluorescence analysis of measles virus- and rs virus-infected cells with this monoclonal antibody showed qualitatively different staining patterns which indicated that the antigen involved ...19862416956
human and murine cytotoxic t cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize the viral nucleoprotein (n), but not the major glycoprotein (g), expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants.the viral antigens recognized by cytotoxic t cells (ctl) have not been defined in most viruses infecting mouse or man. natural or artificial virus recombinants can be used to determine the antigen specificity of ctl directed against viruses with segmented genomes, such as influenza, but this technique is more difficult to apply to the study of unsegmented viruses. we describe here the use of recombinant vaccinia viruses, containing cdna corresponding to either the nucleoprotein (n) gene or the m ...19862431051
immunovirological studies on human respiratory syncytial virus structural proteins.immunovirological studies suggest that human respiratory syncytial virus may well be composed of five structural proteins as are other members of the paramyxoviridae family: the two external membrane glycoproteins h (90 000) and fo (f1, 49 000; f2, 20 000; disulfide linked), the internal membrane protein m (34 000), the nucleoprotein n (42 000), and a protein (78 000) designated p that could be the equivalent of the polymerase of the morbillivirus and paramyxovirus genus. neutralizing monoclonal ...19862421860
evaluation of a commercially available direct immunofluorescent staining reagent for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory secretions.a commercially-available direct immunofluorescence (if) reagent (imagen; boots-celltech, slough, berkshire, united kingdom) was similar in sensitivity and specificity to the conventional indirect if test for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory secretions. both if tests were more sensitive than culture, particularly for specimens transported from outside the institution.19863088032
respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized children over one year of age. 19863110028
rs virus diagnosis: comparison of isolation, immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay.two techniques for rapid diagnosis, immunofluorescence (ifat) and enzyme immunoassay (eia), have been compared with virus isolation in tissue culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in specimens of nasopharyngeal secretions. the specimens were obtained from children under five years of age suffering from acute respiratory illness, during a period of six months from january to june 1982. of 471 specimens examined 54 (11.5%) were positive by virus isolation and 180 (38.2%) w ...19863295470
nucleotide sequences for the gene junctions of human respiratory syncytial virus reveal distinctive features of intergenic structure and gene order.complete sequences for the intergenic regions of the genome of human respiratory syncytial virus were obtained by dideoxynucleotide sequencing using synthetic oligonucleotides. these experiments established that the 10 respiratory syncytial viral genes are arranged, without additional intervening genes, in the order 3' 1c-1b-n-p-m-1a-g-f-22k-l 5'. for the first nine genes, the exact gene boundaries were identified by comparison of the genomic sequences with previously determined mrna sequences. ...19863460060
passively acquired antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus impair the secondary cytotoxic t-cell response in the neonatal mouse.passively acquired antibody has been known since the 1940s to impair the secondary antibody response to the homologous antigen. however, the effect of passive immunity on the t-cell response is largely unknown. the results presented here demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), transferred in the mother's milk or injected directly, can reduce the generation of rsv-specific cytotoxic t-cell (tc) precursors by the neonatal mouse; the development of influe ...19863489669
expression of the major glycoprotein g of human respiratory syncytial virus from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.the major glycoprotein, g, of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is a mr 84,000-90,000 species that has about 60% of its mass contributed by carbohydrate, most of which is in the form of o-linked oligosaccharides. the g protein contains neither a hydrophobic n-terminal signal sequence nor a hydrophobic c-terminal anchor region. instead, its amino acid sequence reveals only one region with significant hydrophobic character, which is between residues 38 and 66. in order to study the synthesis, ...19863455762
isolation of viruses from specimens submitted for direct immunofluorescence test for respiratory syncytial virus. 19863511204
common bacterial pneumonitis in infants. determining the etiology and tailoring the infantile pneumonia, we recommend close attention to the history and physical examination. baseline studies, including cbc, esr, blood cultures, and chest film, should be performed at onset and repeated as warranted. nasopharyngeal secretions or washings should be drawn by means of gentle suction and specimens sent for gram stain, fluorescent antibody stain for respiratory syncytial virus, and culture for bacteria and for viruses if possible. acute and convalescent serum specimens should be o ...19863511465
flunixin meglumine in calves with natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection.twenty-three calves (three to eight months of age) with serological evidence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were used in this study. the calves originated from four herds with respiratory tract disease. in a double blind trial the calves were injected intravenously with either flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg body weight) or with a placebo. the effect on the course of disease was measured using the po2 in capillary blood samples from the ears of the calves and by the effect on body t ...19863511602
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by a biotin-avidin elisa more sensitive than the fluorescent antibody technique.the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was investigated by immunofluorescent antibody (if) technique and by a biotin/avidin (ba) elisa in 156 samples of nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) obtained from infants and small children with acute respiratory disease. of 70 rsv-if-positive nps, 68 were positive by ba-elisa. of 86 rsv-if-negative nps, eight were positive by ba-elisa. ba-elisa could detect 0.5-1.0 ng rsv-protein.19863512768
neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.the effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. by using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs ...19863512852
resistance to human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection induced by immunization of cotton rats with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the rsv g glycoprotein.a cdna copy of the g glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. the recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kda protein that migrated with the authentic rsv g glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of othe ...19863513191
a live pasteurella haemolytica vaccine efficacy trial.a live pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 vaccine was used in an efficacy trial conducted on 100 lightweight feeder calves purchased from a florida ranch. forty-one calves were inoculated with the vaccine intradermally in the neck. fifty-nine calves served as nonvaccinated controls. fourteen days later, the calves were shipped to an order buyer in eastern tennessee, where the calves were mixed with 60 local calves in a community sale barn for 72 hours. after 3 additional days, the calves were sh ...19863514562
antigenic variation between human respiratory syncytial virus isolates.three hybridoma antibodies, prepared against the rsn-2 strain of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus, have been used to identify antigenic variation between 41 isolates of rs virus collected from widely separated geographical regions over a period of 29 years. one antibody was directed against an antigenic site on the virus fusion protein, vp70. this site was shared by 21 virus isolates tested and its recognition by the antibody was sensitive to the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. the remainin ...19863517224
evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus antigens using an enzyme enzyme-linked immunoassay (eia) was developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen in nasopharyngeal secretions. this assay, which employs goat and rabbit anti-rsv as the capture and detector antibodies respectively, was used in a retrospective evaluation of frozen clinical specimens from children. the eia results were compared with those of virus isolation in cell culture and direct fluorescent antibody staining performed at the time of specimen collection. the sens ...19863517226
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence, and virus isolation: a comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) from children with acute respiratory disease. antisera against rsv nucleocapsids were used as immunoreagents for this test system. the results obtained by rsv antigen elisa were compared to those of indirect immunofluorescence (if) and tissue culture virus isolation (tc). of the 404 nps obtained, 278 were tested in parallel by elisa and if ...19863522805
occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes a and b strains in sweden.the subtype characteristics of 22 strains of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus isolated in sweden were determined by the use of monoclonal antibodies. eleven antibodies specific for distinct epitopes on five different structural proteins were used in immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation assays. one group of 12 isolates were derived from a three-month epidemic during 1984, whereas the other ten virus isolates were recovered during a time period of 13 years (1971-1983). all isolates cou ...19863525747
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates by a commercial enzyme immunoassay.a commercial enzyme immunoassay (eia) for the rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in respiratory secretions was evaluated by comparison with both virus isolation in hep-2 cells and indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) staining of exfoliated respiratory cells. initial examination of 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from infants with acute respiratory illness showed that the rsv eia was positive for 21 of 24 specimens positive by virus isolation or ifa (87.5% sensitivity) and ne ...19863514658
value of rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection on management of small infants.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common cause of infection in infancy and early childhood. a presumptive diagnosis of rsv infection can frequently be made on clinical grounds. confirmation can be made by viral culture, which may take 3 to 7 days. immunofluorescent assay (ifa) is a specific and sensitive test that can provide laboratory confirmation of rsv infection the same day. rapid diagnosis of rsv infection may have implications regarding prevention of nosocomial spread of rsv, early i ...19863524958
mycoplasma bovis infection in gnotobiotic calves and combined infection with respiratory syncytial virus.mycoplasma bovis was inoculated alone or in combination with respiratory syncytial virus into the respiratory tracts of 12 gnotobiotic calves. clinical signs ranged from transient pyrexia to protracted fever accompanied by severe lower respiratory signs and in one case, arthritis. pulmonary lesions included foci of coagulative necrosis surrounded by mononuclear cells and suppurative bronchiolitis with varying degrees of lympho-reticular hyperplasia. no enhancement of lesions occurred in the comb ...19863535220
strategy for efficient detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric clinical immunofluorescence (if) with a polyclonal respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific antibody preparation was used for antigen detection during the 1982-1983 rsv season (155 specimens) and gave an overall sensitivity of 94% with 87% specificity compared with viral culture. indirect if was used in the 1983-1984 season (265 specimens) and exhibited sensitivity of 96% with specificity of 79%. during these two seasons, 42 of 224 (18.8%) specimens that were if-negative for rsv grew viruses oth ...19863536275
comparison of two new tests for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence techniques.the sensitivity and the specificity of two new commercial reagent tests, an indirect fluorescent antibody test (fat) with a mouse monoclonal antibody (mab) against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) rsv antigen detection kit, were determined by a comparison of results from these tests with those of tissue culture isolation and an indirect fat with bovine polyclonal antibody (bpa). of 251 nasal aspirates from infants with suspected rsv infection, po ...19863536993
capture-elisa for serum igm antibody to respiratory syncytial virus.a four-component solid-phase capture enzyme immunoassay was set up to test for serum igm antibody to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and was compared with immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 128 young children with acute respiratory infections were studied. thirty-six were shown to be rs virus-positive by the detection of rs virus in nasopharyngeal secretions and 92 were rs virus-negative. a serum specimen was collected after admission to the hospital (days 0-4) and a further specimen wa ...19863540115
structural differences between subtype a and b strains of respiratory syncytial virus.differences in the properties of homologous intracellular structural components of eight strains of subtype a and eight strains of subtype b of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus were examined. the size of the fusion (f) protein cleavage products and the phosphoprotein (p) showed systematic differences between virus strains representing the two subtypes. the apparent mol. wt. in sds-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions was 48,000 (48k) and 46k to 47k for the cleavage product f1 in s ...19863540207
expression of the f glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus by a recombinant vaccinia virus: comparison of the individual contributions of the f and g glycoproteins to host immunity.a cdna clone representing the mrna coding sequence of the fusion glycoprotein (f) gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was constructed and inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus (wr strain) under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. the resulting recombinant vaccinia virus, vaccinia f, expressed the f1 and f2 cleavage products (48 and 20 kda, respectively) of the f glycoprotein in cell culture. f1 and f2 were indistinguishable from their authentic rsv counterpa ...19863532115
time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of influenza infections.monoclonal antibodies that are broadly reactive with either influenza a or influenza b viruses were used to develop a 2- to 3-h antigen capture time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr fia) for detecting influenza viral antigens in both original nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and in tissue cultures inoculated with nose or throat swab specimens. the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay was about 10 pg of protein as determined with purified influenza a nucleoprotein expressed by recombinant dna. ...19863537001
recent advances in antiviral therapy.virus replication is described, and the clinical trials and indications for amantadine, rimantadine, vidarabine, vidarabine phosphate, acyclovir, ribavirin, and other promising antiviral agents are reviewed. amantadine and rimantadine are useful for the treatment and prophylaxis of viral influenza a infections. vidarabine is a second-line agent and is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis, neonatal herpes simplex types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster infections. vidarabine pho ...19863542344
interleukin 1 and interleukin 1 inhibitor production by human macrophages exposed to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus. respiratory syncytial virus is a potent inducer of inhibitor activity.respiratory viral infections are commonly associated with altered immune responses, such as proliferative responses to mitogens and antigens. to examine potential mechanisms, we examined production of il-1 and il-1 inhibitors by purified human peripheral blood-derived macrophages exposed to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). il-1 and il-1 inhibitor activities in supernatant fluids from macrophages exposed to the viruses 24 h previously were measured using the standard mouse th ...19863485170
diagnosis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections improved by virus detection in lung lavage samples.the potential of lung lavage to diagnose and study infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was investigated. the technique was simple to perform under field conditions, and even in calves with respiratory tract disease, serious drawbacks were not observed. in 9 epizootics of respiratory tract disease, brsv infection was diagnosed in 1 or more calves. the brsv was detected from a total of 21 of 32 calves by immunofluorescence in cells recovered from lavage fluids, and the virus ...19863511803
ribavirin aerosol for acute bronchiolitis.a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of treatment with an aerosolised antiviral agent, ribavirin, was conducted in 26 infants with clinically diagnosed bronchiolitis. nebulised ribavirin (14 infants) or normal saline aerosol (12 infants) was given for 18 hours a day for at least three days. respiratory syncytial virus was identified in nasal secretions from 20 cases (10 from both groups). trends in seven out of eight clinical variables favoured active treatment. ribavirin aerosol w ...19863524473
use of egg-yolk antibody for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal secretions by elisa.egg-yolk immunoglobulins extracted from the eggs of hens immunized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) have been used as a reagent in double sandwich elisa for detecting rsv in nasal secretions. the sensitivity of virus detection was the same in indirect elisa, using rabbit anti chicken globulin conjugate, as when biotinylated yolk globulin and labeled avidin were used for detection. the specificity of elisa for detecting rsv using yolk antibody was similar to that achieved by indirect immuno ...19863524512
respiratory syncytial virus: a review of the virus, its epidemiology, immune response and laboratory diagnosis. 19863524530
[enhanced luminescence intensity in immunofluorescent preparations following trypsin treatment].comparative investigations were carried out on the immunofluorescent preparations of cell cultures infected with bovine viruses--rota-, corona-, respiratory-syncytial, parainfluenza-3, adeno-1, and herpes-1--to test various fixatives and the effect of trypsin in raising the sensitivity of the immunofluorescence method. the effect of trypsin was manifested in fixation with formalin, ethanol, methanol, and acetone treated immunofluorescent preparations of cell cultures infected with rota- and aden ...19863544471
rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection by antigen immunofluorescence detection with monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin m immunofluorescence test.during a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection outbreak in a pediatric hospital, diagnosis was made by immunofluorescence on smears by using an anti-rsv monoclonal antibody (ifm). immunoglobulins m and g were titrated by indirect immunofluorescence on hep-2 cells infected with an rsv strain. the ifm was sensitive (89%) and specific (75%) when compared with the cell culture method. we showed that the specimens which were found positive by ifm and negative by cell culture were truly positive ...19863536995
application of a modified indirect fluorescent antibody test to the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in ontario cattle.a modified indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of serum antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus was developed. the test made use of terasaki plastic microtiter plates in which bovine respiratory syncytial virus (saskatchewan strain) infected georgia bovine kidney cells were grown and fixed in situ by a modified acetone fixation procedure. evans blue dye was used as a counterstain to reduce nonspecific fluorescence. in a study of 986 field sera from a geographically broa ...19863527392
neutralizing activity in human milk fractions against respiratory syncytial virus.neutralizing activity against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was measured in milk samples from 17 healthy women whose infants had an acute infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and from 27 women with healthy infants. all milk samples were obtained 2-8 months post partum. neutralizing activity was detected in 36 samples. no major difference in neutralizing titers was observed between the two groups, and the titers were low. rsv-specific iga was found in two samples, and rsv-specific ...19863564936
radiological findings in children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: relationship to clinical and bacteriological findings.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a frequent cause of bronchiolitis leading to acute admission to hospital in the winter months. a wide range of findings accompanies this disease and the appearances are seldom completely diagnostic. associated bacterial co-infections are common and we have shown an association with atelectasis among patients with pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx.19863951895
vapors, viruses, and views. ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus. 19863953524
seroepizootiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd.a 16-month seroepizootiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection was conducted in a dairy herd. results indicated that antibodies to brsv present in serum from newborn calves were derived through the ingestion of colostrum. this passive immunity in calves became undetectable in an average of 99 days (sd = 36.5; range = 30 to 208 days). two epizootics of respiratory tract disease occurred during the study period, and an association with brsv was demonstrated in both epiz ...19863954198
seroepizootiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef herd.a seroepizootiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef herd was conducted from february 1983 through march 1984. during the study period, 3 separate respiratory tract disease epizootics were recognized in calves after they had been split into 3 groups. bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection was diagnosed in each epizootic on the basis of serologic evidence, postmortem findings, and immunofluorescent examination of lung tissue. additionally, there was serologic evidence ...19863954199
complement activation by respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a major respiratory pathogen of children, has been speculated to cause disease by immunologic mechanisms. although circulating levels of complement (c) are normal during rsv infections, the role of c in respiratory tract secretion is unclear. since epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of children infected with rsv express viral surface antigens, the ability of rsv infected human cells to activate c was studied. rsv infected human cells (hela) were found to ...19863954599
comparison of washed nasopharyngeal cells and whole nasal secretions for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we compared washed nasal epithelial cells with unfractionated nasal secretions as sources of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). of 28 infants positive for rsv by virus isolation or direct immunofluorescence or both, 27 (96%) were positive by elisa with whole nasal secretions, whereas only 19 (68%) were positive by elisa with the matching washed-cell fractions. furthermore, the elisa absorbances obtained with nasal secretions were ...19863700621
enhanced isolation of respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture.during two winter seasons, we found that the combination of wi-38 or mrc-5 human lung fibroblasts plus primary rhesus monkey kidney (rhmk) and hep-2 cell cultures yielded maximal isolation of respiratory syncytial virus. cytopathic effects (cpe) developed earliest in rhmk cells and slowest in the human fibroblast lines. in rhmk cells, 50% of ultimately positive cultures showed cpe in 5 days, and 90% of positive cultures showed cpe within 7 days during both respiratory syncytial virus seasons.19863700634
risk of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus is the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infection in children. for children followed up from birth in the houston family study, the infection rate was 68.8/100 children less than 12 months of age and 82.6/100 during the second year of life. virtually all children had been infected at least once by 24 months of age, and about one half had experienced two infections. although lower respiratory tract disease (lrd) was common (22.4/100 during year 1 ...19863706232
measles virus rna detected in paget's disease bone tissue by in situ hybridization.morphological and immunocytological studies have demonstrated the presence of paramyxovirus antigens in paget's bone disease tissue and in particular antigens related to measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus. to examine the relationship between measles virus and paget's bone disease we used in situ hybridization and a cloned measles virus dna probe specific for the nucleocapsid protein to detect and locate measles virus rna sequences in paget's bone tissue. in five patients with the dise ...19863701300
[sensitivity of cell cultures to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus].investigated was the individual susceptibility of individual batches of primary cell cultures of fetal and normal calf kidney as well as of individual series of cultures of fetal and normal lamb kidney to the replication of the strains antonovo/448 and nomi of the bovine respiratory-syncytial virus. it was found that both types of primary cultures possessed varying susceptibility to the virus, which was likely to be genetically substantiated. it was shown that beside such susceptibility of vario ...19863727375
value of serological tests in the diagnosis of viral acute respiratory infections in adults.the dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses a (h1n1), a (h3n2) and b, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ari) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. the fact is most likely due to the presen ...19863727398
[predictive indicators of the severity of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus in infants]. 19863729251
study on the etiologic role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in pneumonia of dairy calves.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was the viral agent most commonly identified in 14 epizootics of pneumonia in dairy calves. a microtiter serum-virus neutralization test proved to be the best means of identifying involvement of brsv; seroconversion (fourfold or greater rise in titer) was demonstrated in 10 of the 14 epizootics. only limited involvement of bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and bovine adenovirus type 3 was recogni ...19863733504
respiratory syncytial virus: a report of a 5-year study at a children's hospital.a study over a 5-year period (1979-1983) of rsv infections in children in sydney, australia is reported. in common with findings made elsewhere in the world, annual epidemics of rsv infection commencing in autumn and lasting 4-6 months, with peak activity in mid-winter, were observed in 1979, 1980, and 1983. however, in 1981 and 1982 virus activity was first detected in midsummer, peaked in autumn, and was present throughout most months of the year. the alteration in virus activity in 1981 and 1 ...19863746259
[significance of various respiratory viruses in the development of chronic nonspecific bronchopulmonary processes].combined virological and bacteriological studies were carried out in 83 patients with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. viral antigens, predominantly respiratory syncytial virus antigen, were detected in 72% of the patients in bronchial material obtained by bronchoscopy. examinations for antibody of igm and igg classes specific for different viruses revealed acute infection in 79% of the patients which coincided with exacerbation of the process due to concomitant arvd. the other patients had ch ...19863765557
metabolism of ribavirin in respiratory syncytial virus-infected and uninfected cells.the metabolism of ribavirin to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate derivatives was examined in uninfected and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. the degree of phosphorylation was dose dependent upon extracellular ribavirin concentration. the major species formed was the triphosphate, with mono- and diphosphates being approximately 12 and 4% of the triphosphate, respectively. amounts of triphosphate formed in infected cells were up to 2.6-fold greater than those in uninfected cells. upon dr ...19863752974
serum and nasal-wash immunoglobulin g and a antibody response of infants and children to respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins following primary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with immunoaffinity-purified fusion (f) or attachment (g) glycoprotein was used to measure the serum and secretory immune responses of 18 infants and children, 4 to 21 months of age, who underwent primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). most of the 10 older individuals (9 to 21 months of age) developed moderate levels of serum and nasal-wash immunoglobin a (iga) and igg f and g antibodies. these individuals developed a moderate level ...19863754878
bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. 19863771353
simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus.a simplified and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was applied to the detection of serum antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). rsv-infected cells were fixed and dried on 96-well microtiter plates and kept at 4 degrees c. the titers of reference sera were determined by endpoint dilution. a linear relation was found between the titers and the logarithm of absorbance values of sera diluted to 1:1,000 (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001). measurement of rsv antibodies was d ...19863771748
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