PMID(sorted descending)
data describing ifnγ-mediated viral clearance in an adult mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).the data presented here are related to the research article entitled "age predicts cytokine kinetics and innate immune cell activation following intranasal delivery of ifnγ and gm-csf in a mouse model of rsv infection" (eichinger et al., 2017) [1]. the cited manuscript demonstrated that the macrophage-stimulating cytokine, interferon gamma (ifnγ), but not granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (gm-csf), effectively enhanced viral clearance in infant mice infected with respiratory syncy ...201728861450
modulation of host immunity by human respiratory syncytial virus virulence factors: a synergic inhibition of both innate and adaptive immunity.the human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (artis) and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. symptoms of hrsv infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. the lung pathology observed during hrsv infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. hrsv is an enveloped virus, a member of the pneumoviridae family, with a non-segment ...201728861397
viral bronchiolitis in young infants: new perspectives for management and treatment.the aim of this review was to address advances in management and treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants.201728859915
determining the seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus in the united states: the impact of increased molecular the united states, the seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) has traditionally been defined on the basis of weeks during which antigen-based tests detect rsv in >10% of specimens (hereafter, the "10% threshold"). because molecular testing has become more widely used, we explored the extent of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based rsv testing and its impact on determining the seasonality of rsv.201728859428
reduced activation and proliferation of human lymphocytes exposed to respiratory syncytial virus compared to cells exposed to influenza virus.both respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza a virus (iav) may infect human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (pbmc) during the immune response to viral challenge as the cells are recruited to the respiratory tract. the current studies demonstrated differences in pbmc responses to the two viruses very early after exposure, including reduced fos protein and cd69 expression and il-2 production by rsv-exposed t lymphocytes. exposure to rsv resulted in reduced lymphocyte proliferation ...201728856681
respiratory syncytial virus infection influences tight junction integrity.background respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is an important risk factor of asthma development and is responsible for severe respiratory tract infections. however, the influence of rsv infection on barrier function of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo is still unclear. objective the aim of this study was to analyze the role of rsv in tight junction (tj) regulation and to compare epithelial integrity between asthmatic and healthy individuals upon rsv infection. methods healthy and a ...201728856667
soluble f proteins exacerbate pulmonary histopathology after vaccination upon respiratory syncytial virus challenge but not when presented on virus-like particles.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion (f) protein is suggested to be a protective vaccine target although its efficacy and safety concerns remain not well understood. we investigated immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of f proteins in a soluble form or on virus-like particle (f-vlp). f vlp preferentially elicited igg2a antibody and t helper type 1 (th1) immune responses whereas f protein induced igg1 isotype and th2 responses. despite lung viral clearance after prime or prime-boost and then ...201728854003
human genetic determinants of viral diseases.much progress has been made in the identification of specific human gene variants that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral diseases. herein we review multiple discoveries made with genome-wide or candidate gene approaches that have revealed significant insights into virus-host interactions. genetic factors that have been identified include genes encoding virus receptors, receptor-modifying enzymes, and a wide variety of innate and adaptive immunity-related proteins. we d ...201728853921
peptidoglycan from immunobiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus improves resistance of infant mice to respiratory syncytial viral infection and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia.several research works have demonstrated that beneficial microbes with the capacity to modulate the mucosal immune system (immunobiotics) are an interesting alternative to improve the outcome of bacterial and viral respiratory infections. among the immunobiotic strains with the capacity to beneficially modulate respiratory immunity, lactobacillus rhamnosus crl1505 has outstanding properties. although we have significantly advanced in demonstrating the capacity of l. rhamnosus crl1505 to improve ...201728848552
virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (fi-rsv) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (erd) upon exposure to rsv in children. virus-like particles presenting rsv f fusion protein (f vlp) are known to increase t helper type-1 (th1) immune responses and avoid erd in animal models. we hypothesized that f vlp would prime immune responses preventing erd upon subsequent exposure to erd-prone fi-rsv. here, we demonstrated that heterologous f vlp priming and fi-rsv boosting o ...201728846899
a49 molecular evolutionary dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus group a in recurrent epidemics in coastal kenya. 201728845262
the impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.introduction acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza a/b and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (poc) and newer easy to use molecular tests. from experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. however, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing ...201728841814
acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children in vientiane, lao pdr - the importance of respiratory syncytial virus.the human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is one of the most important viral pathogens, causing epidemics of acute respiratory infection (ari), especially bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in children worldwide. to investigate the rsv burden in laos, we conducted a one-year study in children <5 years old admitted to mahosot hospital, vientiane capital, to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics and predictive factors for severity of rsv-associated ari. pooled nasal and throat swabs we ...201728839157
complete genome sequence of human respiratory syncytial virus from lanzhou, china.a complete genome of human respiratory syncytial virus was sequenced and analyzed. phylogenetic analysis showed that the full-length human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) genome sequence belongs to gene type na1. we sequenced the genome in order to create the full-length cdna infectious clone and develop vaccines against hrsv.201728839014
the burden of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infections in hospitalized norwegian children.the burden of severe human metapneumovirus (hmpv) respiratory tract infections (rtis) in european children has not been clarified. we assessed hmpv in norwegian children and compared hospitalization rates for hmpv and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).201728838133
attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hpiv1) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion f glycoprotein from an added gene: effects of pre-fusion stabilization and packaging of rsv f.human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hpiv1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. both viruses lack vaccines. here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent rsv/hpiv1 vaccine based on a recombinant hpiv1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses rsv f protein modified for increased stability in ...201728835504
detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) at birth in a newborn with respiratory distress.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. from the nasopharyngeal or conjunctival mucosa of infected individuals, rsv spreads to the lower respiratory tract causing acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia after an incubation period of 4-6 days. in addition to its well-documented tropism for the airway epithelium, it has been shown previously that rsv can also spread hematogenously and efficiently infect extrapulmonary tissues of human host ...201728834426
chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients.human metapneumovirus (hmpv) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. the radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed hmpv acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed.201728831577
evaluation of anyplex™ ii rv16 and rb5 real-time rt-pcr compared to seeplex(®) rv15 onestep ace and pneumobacter ace for the simultaneous detection of upper respiratory pathogens.this prospective study was performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the multiplex pcr seeplex(®) assays and anyplex™ ii assays. from may 2014 until april 2016, a total of 247 respiratory samples were collected in okinawa, japan. multiple respiratory pathogens were detected in 37% of patients with positive results. the most prevalent pathogens were influenza a virus and respiratory syncytial virus b. despite minor differences in capabilities, both the seeplex(®) assays and anyplex™ ii ...201728830668
pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, and pneumorrachis complicating acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children.we report 2 children with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection complicated with spontaneous pneumopericardium (pp) and pneumomediastinum (pm), one also associated with pneumorrhachis (pr).201728829494
intranasal immunization with a single dose of the fusion protein formulated with a combination adjuvant induces long-term protective immunity against respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infections in both children and elderly people. in this study we evaluated the short- and long-term protective efficacy of a single intranasal (in) immunization with a rsv vaccine formulation consisting of a codon-optimized fusion (f) protein formulated with poly(i:c), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (δf/triadj). this vaccine induced strong systemic and local immune responses, including rsv ...201728825870
the crucial role of maternal care providers as vaccinators for pregnant women.vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. it has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. as new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a ...201728822646
[molecular biological and clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus in children with bronchiolitis].objective: to investigate the clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus(rsv)bronchiolitis and molecular biological characteristics of rsv in children in beijing. method: in a systematic retrospective study, 2 296 nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) were collected from children diagnosed with bronchiolitis from july 2006 to june 2016 for respiratory virus screening using direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa). for specimens positive for rsv, subgroup a or b was confirmed by real time rt-p ...201728822433
[clinical analysis of children with pertussis and significance of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis].objective: to analyze the clinical data of children with pertussis and explore the necessity of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis so as to improve the clinician's understanding and standardize the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis in children. method: clinical data and laboratory examination of 195 suspected pertussis children between jan. 2015 and dec. 2016 in children's hospital affiliated to capital institute of pediatric were analyzed retrospectively. result: the nasop ...201728822432
qingkailing injection () for treatment of children pneumonia induced by respiratory syncytial virus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled evaluate the efficacy and safety of qingkailing injection (, qkl) for treatment of children pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).201728819777
multi-center evaluation of the cobas(®) liat(®) influenza a/b & rsv assay for rapid point of care diagnosis.point of care testing (poct) provides the capability for rapid laboratory test results in patient care environments where a traditional clinical laboratory is not available. pocts have shorter turn-around times (tats), they may be performed by non-laboratory personnel, and the need for transport time is eliminated. the food and drug administration (fda) recently granted clinical laboratory improvements amendment (clia) waiver status to the cobas(®) influenza a/b & rsv assay, a rapid, accurate po ...201728818691
[lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].acute bronchiolitis (ab) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the t lymphocytes. the objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of ab in hospitalised infants.201728818563
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) entry is inhibited by serine protease inhibitor aebsf when present during an early stage of proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. host proteases have been described to play essential roles in ebola, hcv, hiv and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. rsv utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its po ...201728818113
role of γδ t cells in exacerbated airway inflammation during reinfection of neonatally primed mice in adulthood.age at primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of reinfection. however, how neonatal rsv infection affects the immune system and renders the host more susceptible to reinfection in later life is poorly understood. in the present study, by using balb/c mice that were first infected with rsv as neonates, the role of γδ t cells in the development of airway inflammation during reinfection in adulthood was investigated. we found that neo ...201728815644
bronchiolitis care in the hospital.viral bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalization in young children, but despite a variety of therapeutic options, the mainstay of treatment remains supportive care.201728814254
structure properties and mechanisms of action of naturally originated phenolic acids and their derivatives against human viral infections.a great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. the related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms. the aim of th ...201728814240
bronchiolitis in infants and children.bronchiolitis is among the most common illnesses in infants and children, and is the most common cause for hospitalization in infants in the u.s. this illness can be caused by many viruses, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus. it is diagnosed clinically by history and physical exam findings, with a narrow role for ancillary testing. management is supportive, with medications demonstrating limited utility in multiple studies. preventive measures include hand hygiene, breastfeeding, avoiding ...201728813765
innate lymphoid cells: the role in respiratory infections and lung tissue damage.innate lymphoid cells (ilcs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ilcs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the ...201728812393
advances in vaccines to prevent viral respiratory illnesses in children.childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. acute lower respiratory infection (alri) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. key bacterial pathogens including streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the p ...201728808938
the impact of the recent aap changes in palivizumab authorization on rsv-induced bronchiolitis severity and incidence.following the most recent modification by the american academy of pediatrics, based on american studies on rsv epidemiology, the italian drug agency (aifa) decided to limit the total financial coverage of the palivizumab prescription by the national health service only to the < 29 wga group and age ≤ 12 months at the beginning of the rsv epidemic season. however, the vulnerability of otherwise healthy premature infants ≥ 29 wga has been demonstrated in italian analyses. we retrospectively review ...201728807039
burden of paediatric respiratory syncytial virus disease and potential effect of different immunisation strategies: a modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis for england.vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. the most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers.201728804787
new insights contributing to the development of effective vaccines and therapies to reduce the pathology caused by hrsv.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (alrti) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. it is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hrsv is due in part to the activity of several viral prot ...201728800119
propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized.201728797733
the epidemiology of medically attended respiratory syncytial virus in older adults in the united states: a systematic review.this review was undertaken to assess the historical evidence of the disease incidence and burden of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in medically attended older adults.201728797053
in vitro enhancement of rsv infection by maternal antibodies does not explain disease severity in infants.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. at this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matabs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. rsv-specific matabs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe rsv disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matab levels are present. to investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to ant ...201728794038
platelets modulate innate immune response against human respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in blood, including mononuclear leukocytes and organs other than the lung, suggests that rsv disseminates outside the respiratory tract. in this study, the role of platelets in host defense against rsv was explored using an in vitro model. platelets, also produced in the lungs, are increasingly recognized as an important part of host immune responses and may therefore play a role in modulating lung infections and clearing rsv viremia. in human perip ...201728783457
is immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab justified for respiratory syncytial virus? 201728783400
respiratory syncytial virus: the influence of serotype and genotype variability on clinical course of infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) belongs to the recently defined pneumoviridae family, orthopneumovirus genus. it is the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis and one of the most common causes of infant viral death worldwide, with infection typically occurring as recurrent seasonal epidemics. there are two major rsv subtypes, a and b, and multiple genotypes, which can coexist during rsv epidemic season every year and result in different disease severity. recently, new rsv genomic sequences and a ...201728783078
respiratory viral infections occurring after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.respiratory viral infection is one of the most crucial complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct), which affects approximately 60% of hsct recipients within one year after transplantation. prevalence of progression from upper respiratory tract infection to lower respiratory tract disease (lrd) among hsct recipients is 15-20% and day-90 mortality after lrd is as high as 40%. risk factors for the progression to lrd are early infection after hsct, low neutrophil or lymphocyt ...201728781280
local dornase alfa treatment reduces nets-induced airway obstruction during severe rsv infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection is characterised by airway obstruction with mucus plugs, containing dna networks in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). we investigated the effect of dornase alfa on histopathological nets-induced airway obstruction and viral load in an age-relevant calf model of severe bovine rsv disease. as compared with the control animals, dornase alfa treatment resulted in a strong reduction of nets-induced airway obstruction. viral load in the lowe ...201728780505
deep sequencing of rsv from an adult challenge study and from naturally infected infants reveals heterogeneous diversification rna virus mutation occurs during replication within host cells, we hypothesized that viral evolution during acute infections in healthy hosts reflects host immune pressure. we therefore investigated the within-host diversification of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infections. we evaluated healthy adults experimentally infected with an identical inoculum and infants hospitalized with naturally acquired infections. in aggregate, viral dive ...201728779686
pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection.we aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes.201728777158
burden of lower respiratory infections in the eastern mediterranean region between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study.we used data from the global burden of disease 2015 study (gbd) to calculate the burden of lower respiratory infections (lris) in the 22 countries of the eastern mediterranean region (emr) from 1990 to 2015.201728776246
converting everolimus to mycophenolate mofetil ameliorated prolonged respiratory syncytial virus infection in a child after heart immunocompromised patients, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections are known to be severe and prolonged, and have significant mortality and morbidity. however, little is known about the clinical courses and treatment strategy of rsv infection in heart transplant recipients. here, we report a 6-year-old female with heart transplantation who had exhibited prolonged respiratory symptoms and shedding of rsv. she had received everolimus as an immunosuppressant. as immunosuppressants could ha ...201728775087
discovery of methylsulfonyl indazoles as potent and orally active respiratory syncytial virus(rsv) fusion inhibitors.recently we described a novel class of imidazopyridine compounds that showed exceptional anti-rsv potency in cell culture. however, unfavorable pharmacokinetic (pk) properties and glutathione (gsh) adduct liabilities impeded their further development. in a bid to address the pk and early safety concerns, a small compound library consisting of dozens of scaffold-hopping analogues was designed and synthesized for rsv cpe assay screening, which led to the identification of a new chemical starting p ...201728772235
prevalence and seasonality of six respiratory viruses during five consecutive epidemic seasons in belgium.acute respiratory infections (aris) are a major health problem, especially in young children and the elderly.201728772168
pulmonary c-fiber degeneration downregulates ifn-γ receptor 1 via ifn-α induction to attenuate rsv-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a leading cause of respiratory infection in infants. unfortunately, no effective vaccine or treatment against rsv is currently available. pulmonary c-fibers (pcfs) are critical for regulating pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (ahr). we previously reported that ifn-γ partially mediated rsv-induced airway disorders. in this study, we found that pcf degeneration alleviated rsv-induced airway inflammation, especially ahr by downregulating ifn- ...201728772166
the susceptibilities of respiratory syncytial virus to nucleolin receptor blocking and antibody neutralization are dependent upon the method of virus purification.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) that is propagated in cell culture is purified from cellular contaminants that can confound experimental results. a number of different purification methods have been described, including methods that utilize fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) and gradient ultracentrifugation. thus, the constituents and experimental responses of rsv stocks purified by ultracentrifugation in sucrose and by fplc were analyzed and compared by infectivity assay, coomassie sta ...201728771197
natural helper cells mediate respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway inflammation by producing type 2 cytokines in an il-33-dependent manner.type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is considered to be linked with asthma exacerbation. as potent th2 cytokine producers, natural helper (nh) cells play a key role in influenza virus-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. however, it is unclear whether nh cells contribute to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-induced airway inflammation, and how the cytokine profile in nh cells is changed during rsv infection.201728771101
[comparison of clinical features and diagnosis between the a and b subgroups of respiratory syncytial virus.]lower respiratory tract infection by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most frequent cause of admission in children under 2 years old. the rsv subgroups a and b may circulate simultaneously. we aimed to determine whether clinical differences exist between rsv subgroups a and b. additionally, we tested the sensitivity of the rapid antigen detection test (radt) based on immunochromatography in diagnosing subgroups a and b, taking the polymerase chain reaction assay (rt-pcr) as reference.201728765656
prevalence of respiratory viruses in wheezing children not older than 24 months of age.wheezing in children not older than 24 months of age is a frequent event, and viruses are usually the causative agents. the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory viruses in wheezing children who were not older than 24 months of age and who had no history of asthma.201728763071
therapeutic efficacy of a respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitor.respiratory syncytial virus is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in young children, immunocompromised adults, and the elderly. intervention with small-molecule antivirals specific for respiratory syncytial virus presents an important therapeutic opportunity, but no such compounds are approved today. here we report the structure of jnj-53718678 bound to respiratory syncytial virus fusion (f) protein in its prefusion conformation, and we show that the potent nanomolar activi ...201728761099
utility of ambulance data for real-time syndromic surveillance: a pilot in the west midlands region, united kingdom.introduction the public health england (phe; united kingdom) real-time syndromic surveillance team (resst) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. a system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. this report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance dat ...201728760171
camp-dependent activation of protein kinase a attenuates respiratory syncytial virus-induced human airway epithelial barrier disruption.airway epithelium forms a barrier to the outside world and has a crucial role in susceptibility to viral infections. cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) is an important second messenger acting via two intracellular signaling molecules: protein kinase a (pka) and the guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, epac. we sought to investigate effects of increased camp level on the disruption of model airway epithelial barrier caused by rsv infection and the molecular mechanisms underlying camp actions. ...201728759570
transient depletion of cd169(+) cells contributes to impaired early protection and effector cd8(+) t cell recruitment against mucosal respiratory syncytial virus infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. alveolar macrophages (ams) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express cd169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. therefore, we used cd169-diphtheria toxin receptor (dtr) transgenic mice to explore the roles of cd169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal rsv infection. the administration of diphtheria toxin to cd169-dtr mice induced specific am depletion and ...201728751894
respiratory syncytial virus: a systematic scientometric analysis of the global publication output and the gender distribution of publishing authors.worldwide, the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) represents the predominant viral agent causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children. to conduct research and tackle existing healthcare disparities, rsv-related research activities around the globe need to be described. hence, we assessed the associated scientific output (represented by research articles) by geographical, chronological and socioeconomic criteria and analysed the authors publishing in the field by gender. also, the 15 most cited ...201728751483
cholesterol is required for stability and infectivity of influenza a and respiratory syncytial viruses.cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane are considered to play a major role in the enveloped virus lifecycle. however, the functional role of cholesterol in assembly, infectivity and stability of respiratory rna viruses is not fully understood. we previously reported that depletion of cellular cholesterol by cholesterol-reducing agents decreased production of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hpiv1) particles by inhibiting virus assembly. in this study, we analyzed the ro ...201728750327
the genetic stability of piv5-vectored rsv vaccine candidates after in vitro and in vivo passage.human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. previously, our laboratory developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (piv5)-based rsv vaccine candidates that protect mice against rsv challenge. piv5 was engineered to express either the rsv fusion protein (f) or the rsv major attachment glycoprotein (g) between the hn and l genes of the piv5 genome [piv5-rsv-f (hn-l) or piv5-rsv-g (hn-l)]. to inves ...201728747497
parainfluenza virus 5 (piv5) expressing wild-type or pre-fusion respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion protein protect mice and cotton rats from rsv challenge.human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. rsv can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. there is no licensed vaccine. we previously generated a piv5-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the rsv fusion protein (f) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. in this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the piv5 vector or by modifying the rsv-f antigen. ...201728747496
investigation of respiratory syncytial virus outbreak on an adult stem cell transplant unit using whole genome sequencing.a viral whole genome sequencing strategy, based on pcr amplification followed by next-generation sequencing, was used to investigate a nosocomial rsv-b outbreak in a hematology-oncology and stem cell transplant unit. rsv-b genomes from 16 patients and healthcare workers (hcws) suspected to be involved in the outbreak were compared to rsv-b genomes acquired from outpatients during the same time period but epidemiologically unrelated to the outbreak. phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome ident ...201728747373
mammalian diaphanous-related formin-1 restricts early phases of influenza a/nws/33 virus (h1n1) infection in llc-mk2 cells by affecting cytoskeleton dynamics.viruses depend on cellular machinery to efficiently replicate. the host cytoskeleton is one of the first cellular systems hijacked by viruses in order to ensure their intracellular transport and promote the development of infection. our previous results demonstrated that stable microfilaments and microtubules interfered with human influenza a/nws/33 virus (h1n1) infection in semi-permissive llc-mk2 cells. although formins play a key role in cytoskeletal remodelling, few studies addressed a possi ...201728744815
development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: infection 2012, the american college of cardiology's (acc) adult congenital and pediatric cardiology council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. the council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, kawasaki disease, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the infection prevention co ...201728741863
respiratory viruses in transplant recipients: more than just a cold. clinical syndromes and infection prevention principles.the aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (rvis) in both solid organ (sot) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (hsct) patients.201728739424
promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. when considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, dise ...201728739285
human metapneumovirus and other respiratory viral infections during pregnancy and birth, nepal.human metapneumovirus (hmpv) is a respiratory virus that can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and even death, primarily in young children. the incidence and characteristics of hmpv have not been well described in pregnant women. as part of a trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural southern nepal, we conducted prospective, longitudinal, home-based active surveillance for febrile respiratory illness during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. during 2011-2014, hmpv was dete ...201728726613
prolonged viral replication and longitudinal viral dynamic differences among respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infected infants.longitudinal rsv dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged rsv replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. we therefore measured viral load in previously rsv-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans.201728723886
a critical role of gas6/axl signal in allergic airway responses during rsv vaccine-enhanced disease.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common virus that causes lower respiratory infections across a wide range of ages. a licensed rsv vaccine is not available because vaccination with formalin-inactivated rsv (fi-rsv) and the subsequent rsv infection cause not only insufficient induction of neutralizing antibodies but also severe allergic airway responses, termed fi-rsv vaccine enhanced disease (fi-rsv ved). however, the underlying mechanism has not been identified, although a th2-biased immu ...201728722020
burden and seasonality of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern sri tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. we determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern sri lanka. from march 2013 to january 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ili). nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex p ...201728719323
severity of pneumonia in under 5-year-old children from developing countries: a multicenter, prospective, observational study.pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. the objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. a multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from india (lucknow, vadu), madagascar (antananarivo), mali (bamako), and paraguay (san lorenzo). children aged 2-60 months wit ...201728719310
severe viral respiratory infections in children with ifih1 loss-of-function mutations.viral respiratory infections are usually mild and self-limiting; still they exceptionally result in life-threatening infections in previously healthy children. to investigate a potential genetic cause, we recruited 120 previously healthy children requiring support in intensive care because of a severe illness caused by a respiratory virus. using exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified and characterized three rare loss-of-function variants in ifih1, which encodes an rig-i-like receptor ...201728716935
modulation of the transcription factor nf-κb in antigen-presenting cells by bovine respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic protein.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) is an important cause of respiratory disease in young cattle and is closely related to human rsv (hrsv), which causes severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. the rsv genome encodes a small hydrophobic (sh) protein with viroporin activity. previous studies have shown that recombinant brsv lacking the sh gene (rbrsvδsh) is attenuated in the lungs, but not in the upper respiratory tract, of calves and mucosal vaccination with rbrsvδsh induced ...201728714847
emergence of on1 genotype of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup a in china between 2011 and 2015.a molecular epidemiological study of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) was conducted to examine the distribution of its subgroups and genotypes, as well as to identify its transmission pattern in china. a total of 705 samples collected from 9 provinces in china between january 2008 and february 2015 were identified as hrsv-positive and were subsequently sequenced. of these, 336 samples were hrsv subgroup a (hrsva), 368 samples were hrsv subgroup b (hrsvb), and 1 sample contained both hrsv ...201728710393
advances in asthma 2016: designing individualized approaches to this years advances in asthma review we discuss viral infections in asthma and potential therapeutic agents, the microbiome, novel genetic associations with asthma, air quality and climate effects on asthma, exposures during development and long term sequelae of childhood asthma, patient centered outcome research, and precision medicine. in addition, we discuss application of biomarkers to precision medicine, and new information on asthma medications. new evidence indicates that rhinovirus-tr ...201728709967
effectiveness of palivizumab in high-risk infants and children: a propensity score weighted regression analysis.infants with premature birth ≤35 weeks gestational age, chronic lung disease of prematurity and congenital heart disease are at an increased risk for lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization from respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), which has been shown in randomized trials to be prevented by palivizumab. however, palivizumab effectiveness (pe) has not been studied in a large clinical setting.201728709160
identification of two novel functional trna-derived fragments induced in response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (lrti) in children from infancy up to early childhood. recently, we demonstrated that rsv infection alters cellular small non-coding rna (sncrna) expression, most notably the trna-derived rna fragments (trfs). however, the functions of the trfs in virus-host interaction are largely unknown. herein, we examined the role of three rsv-induced trfs derived from the 5-end of mature trnas decoding glyccc, lysct ...201728708049
viral etiology, seasonality and severity of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infections in the eastern mediterranean region, 2007-2014.little is known about the role of viral respiratory pathogens in the etiology, seasonality or severity of severe acute respiratory infections (sari) in the eastern mediterranean region.201728704440
neonatal pneumonia in sub-saharan africa.neonatal pneumonia is a devastating condition. most deaths in sub-saharan africa can be attributed to preventable diseases, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, which together killed an estimated 2.2 million children under the age of 5 years in 2012, accounting for a third of all under-five deaths in this region. some countries are making progress in reducing mortality through community-based health schemes; however, most countries in this region are far from achieving the world health or ...201628702283
costs of hospitalization with respiratory syncytial virus illness among children aged <5 years and the financial impact on households in bangladesh, 2010.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of acute respiratory illness in young children and results in significant economic burden. there is no vaccine to prevent rsv illness but a number of vaccines are in development. we conducted this study to estimate the costs of severe rsv illness requiring hospitalization among children <5 years and associated financial impact on households in bangladesh. data of this study could be useful for rsv vaccine development and also the value of va ...201728702175
a novel host factor for human respiratory syncytial virus.human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory disease in young children worldwide. as part of a genome-wide sirna screen, we recently discovered that actin-related protein 2 (arp2) is a host factor in the rsv replication cycle. arp2 is a major constituent of the arp2/3 complex, which catalyzes actin polymerization involved in cell morphology and motility. in the course of investigating this finding, we also found that rsv infection of human lung e ...201728702128
nanoparticles increase human bronchial epithelial cell susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus infection via nerve growth factor-induced autophagy.cytotoxic and neuroinflammatory effects of tio2 nanoparticles (tio2-np) in human airways are mediated by nerve growth factor (ngf), which is also implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. we tested the hypothesis that exposure to tio2-np results in increased susceptibility to rsv infection and exacerbation of airway inflammation via ngf-mediated induction of autophagy in lower respiratory tract cells. human primary bronchial epithelial cells were exposed t ...201728701524
an interaction of lps and rsv infection in augmenting the ahr and airway inflammation in mice.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (lrti) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. in most cases, rsv-in ...201728695368
mirna-200c-3p is crucial in acute respiratory distress syndrome.influenza infection and pneumonia are known to cause much of their mortality by inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards), which is the most severe form of acute lung injury (ali). angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), which is a negative regulator of angiotensin ii in the renin-angiotensin system, has been reported to have a crucial role in ali. downregulation of ace2 is always associated with the ali or ards induced by avian influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona ...201728690868
systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined epinephrine and corticosteroid therapy for acute bronchiolitis in infants.objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of combined epinephrine and corticosteroid therapy for acute bronchiolitis in infants. methods: four electronic databases (medline, embase, cinahl, and central) were searched from their inception to february 28, 2017 for studies involving infants aged less than 24 months with bronchiolitis which assessed the use of epinephrine and corticosteroid combination therapy. the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the cochrane collabo ...201728690542
determining the burden of respiratory syncytial virus disease: the known and the unknown. 201728689665
global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study.we have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (alri) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. in the past 5 years, major research activity on rsv has yielded substantial new data from developing countries. with a considerably expanded dataset from a large international collaboration, we aimed to estimate the global incidence, hospital admission rate, ...201728689664
inhibition of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus by a peptide derived from vflip through its direct destabilization of viruses.the antiviral activities of synthesized kα2-helix peptide, which was derived from the viral flice-like inhibitor protein (vflip) of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), against influenza a virus (iav) were investigated in vitro and in vivo, and mechanisms of action were suggested. in addition to the robust autophagy activity of the kα2-helix peptide, the present study showed that treatment with the kα2 peptide fused with the tat peptide significantly inhibited iav replication and tran ...201728687749
severe respiratory viral infections: new evidence and changing paradigms.lower respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of death in the united states. advances in diagnostic testing have improved our ability to detect pathogens. viral pathogens are important causal pathogens in immunocompetent patients. as the number of elderly adults and those with chronic medical conditions increases, the burden of viral respiratory infections will increase. clinicians must be familiar with the characteristics of rhinovirus, human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, an ...201728687214
estimating influenza and respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality in western kenya using health and demographic surveillance system data, 2007-2013.influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical africa.201728686692
etiology, seasonality, and clinical features of viral respiratory tract infections in children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis: a single-center study.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the viral frequency, seasonality, and clinical and demographic features of patients hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. a cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in 316 infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. respiratory tract infection agents were investigated with polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total of 316 infants were included in this study. of the 316 infants, at least one respiratory ...201728680946
dose selection for an adjuvanted respiratory syncytial virus f protein vaccine for older adults based on humoral and cellular immune responses.this is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) vaccine containing rsv fusion protein (sf) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid a in 2% stable emulsion (gla-se). in this randomized, double-blind study (nct02289820,, 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (iiv) or a vaccine containing 120 μg sf with escalating doses of gla (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in se or a vaccine containing 80 μg sf with 2.5 μg gla in se. subjects receiving 120 μ ...201728679495
first report of immunohistochemical detection of peste des petit ruminants, parainfluenza 3 and respiratory syncytial viral antigens in lungs of nigerian goats.this study determined the of involvement of ppr, pi3 and rs viruses in the pathology of caprine pneumonia across nigeria. 150 goats were selected randomly. pi3 and rsv monoclonal antibodies and ppr polyclonal antibody were used for the immunolocalisation of the antigens. histologically, 61 of the goats had broncho-interstitial pneumonia, 25 had interstitial pneumonia, 42 had bronchopneumonia, 12 had bronchiolitis and 10 were normal. ppr, pi3 and rs viral antigens were demonstrated in: intact and ...201728679075
respiratory syncytial virus in adults with severe acute respiratory illness in a high hiv prevalence setting.there are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) illness in hiv-infected adults or the elderly in africa. we studied the epidemiology of rsv-associated severe acute respiratory illness (sari) hospitalizations in adults in south africa from 2009 through 2013.201728676408
a functional genomics approach to henipavirus research: the role of nuclear proteins, micrornas and immune regulators in infection and disease.hendra and nipah viruses (family paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) are zoonotic rna viruses that cause lethal disease in humans and are designated as biosafety level 4 (bsl4) agents. moreover, henipaviruses belong to the same group of viruses that cause disease more commonly in humans such as measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. due to the relatively recent emergence of the henipaviruses and the practical constraints of performing functional genomics studies at high levels of contai ...201728674944
respiratory viruses detected in mexican children younger than 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia: a national multicenter study.acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, especially in developing countries. pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age and was the cause of death of 935000 children in 2015. despite its frequency and severity, information regarding its etiology is limited. the aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses associated with community-acquired pneumonia (cap) in children younger than 5 years old.201728673837
the central conserved region (ccr) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) g protein modulates host mirna expression and alters the cellular response to infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infects respiratory epithelial cells and deregulates host gene expression by many mechanisms including expression of rsv g protein (rsv g). rsv g protein encodes a central conserved region (ccr) containing a cx3c motif that functions as a fractalkine mimic. disruption of the cx3c motif (a.a. 182-186) located in the ccr of the g protein has been shown to affect g protein function in vitro and the severity of rsv disease pathogenesis in vivo. we show that infectio ...201728671606
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