PMID(sorted ascending)
the mannose-specific plant lectins from cymbidium hybrid and epipactis helleborine and the (n-acetylglucosamine)n-specific plant lectin from urtica dioica are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.a series of four mannose(man)-, three n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac)n-, ten n-acetylgalactosamine/galactose(galnac/gal)-, one 5-acetylneuraminic acid (alpha-2,3-gal/galnac)- and one 5-acetylneuroaminic acid(alpha-2,6-gal/gal-nac)-specific plant agglutinins were evaluated for their antiviral activity in vitro. the mannose-specific lectins from the orchid species cymbidium hybrid (ca), epipactis helleborine (eha) and listera ovata (loa) were highly inhibitory to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( ...19921329650
viral infections.viral infections may cause serious morbidity as well as death in elderly patients. of the rna viruses, influenza virus is the most important pathogen; the majority of influenza-related deaths occur in older patients. respiratory syncytial virus appears to be gaining increasing importance in elderly persons. herpes zoster or shingles is caused by the dna virus, varicella-zoster virus, and its major morbidity in older patients is postherpetic neuralgia.19921330279
viral pneumonia in the immunocompromised adult with neoplastic disease: the role of common community respiratory viruses.until recently, the viruses most often identified in lower respiratory tract infections among immunocompromised adults with neoplastic disease have been the herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human herpesvirus-6) and adenovirus. these viral pneumonias occur with greater frequency and/or severity among these adults than among immunocompetent adults. during the last decade, mounting evidence has suggested that the rna viruses that commonly cause lower res ...19921332171
rapid detection of respiratory viruses using mixtures of monoclonal antibodies on shell vial cultures.eleven hundred and thirty-three clinical specimens submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections were tested by direct immunofluorescence (dif) for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), by shell vial culture, and by conventional cell culture. the shell vial cultures were stained with 8 different monoclonal antibodies both 1 day and 3-7 days after inoculation. in order to limit the cost and the workload, mixtures of monoclonal antibodies were used. coverslips with hep-2 c ...19921334129
studies on the epidemiology of child infections. 3. parainfluenza viruses (types 1-4) and respiratory syncytial virus infections.a seroepidemiological study on the rate of neutralizing antibodies for parainfluenza viruses (types 1-4) and for the respiratory syncytial virus in 2,514 infants and children between 0 and 15 years, residing in bari and its hinterland was carried out. positive results were very high for both the individual parainfluenza serotypes (81.7% for type 3, 78.0% for type 1, 76.6% for type 4, 71.9% for type 2) and for respiratory syncytial virus (88.5%). the pattern of infections due to respiratory syncy ...19921335108
serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) by virus neutralization, and to pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (phia) and cy ...19921335831
[detection of respiratory syncytial and adenovirus in nasopharyngeal aspirates: comparison of cellular cultures and immunofluorescence].respiratory syncytial and adenovirus are 2 of the most important pathogens for respiratory infection in infancy. we compared the results of cellular cultures and immunofluorescence in the detection of these agents in nasopharyngeal exudates from hospitalized infants. evidence for respiratory syncytial virus was searched in 776 samples. immunofluorescence was much more sensitive, detecting 303 positive results, compared to only 142 for cell culture. compared to immunofluorescence, the sensitivity ...19921340571
ribavirin aerosols and respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19921346054
cd4+ t cells clear virus but augment disease in mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus. comparison with the effects of cd8+ t cells.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus-specific t cell lines were derived from the spleens of balb/c mice primed by intranasal infection with rs virus. the lines were expanded by repeated antigenic stimulation in vitro, and separated into cd4+ and cd8+ t cell-enriched fractions by immunomagnetic adhesion. the effects of passive transfer of these fractions into rs virus infected mice were observed. the most severe immunopathological changes were seen in mice receiving cd4+ cells. transfer of cd4+, cd8+ ...19921351433
nosocomial infection with respiratory syncytial virus. 19921357459
prospective controlled study of four infection-control procedures to prevent nosocomial infection with respiratory syncytial determine the most effective infection control procedure in preventing nosocomial infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), we did a prospective controlled study of four infection-control strategies in four wards in a large paediatric hospital in the west of scotland. all children under two years old admitted to four general wards during three winter rsv epidemics (1989-92) were screened for rsv infection (by nasopharyngeal aspirate and direct immunofluorescence) within 18 hours of ad ...19921357462
respiratory syncytial virus: babies and antibodies. 19921365525
respiratory syncytial virus and ribavirin: quo vadis?respiratory syncytial virus is the major respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. every year, this unique and ubiquitous virus accounts for substantial morbidity and occasional mortality in this age group. until recently, therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infections was limited to supportive measures such as hydration, supplemental oxygen, and assisted ventilation. therefore, the licensure of ribavirin in 1986 for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections raised hopes ...19921365535
reshaping a human monoclonal antibody to inhibit human respiratory syncytial virus infection in vivo.we transferred the complementarity determining regions from a murine monoclonal antibody that neutralizes infection by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) to a human igg1 monoclonal antibody. the resulting reshaped human antibody lost affinity for rsv, but an additional alteration to one of the framework regions restored binding affinity and specificity. this second generation reshaped human monoclonal antibody cross-reacted with all clinical isolates of rsv tested and both prevented disease and c ...19911367535
rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies.the bartels respiratory virus panel detection kit is an indirect fluorescent-antibody (ifa) method that uses pooled and individual antisera for tissue culture confirmation of seven respiratory viruses. we evaluated these reagents for detecting viral antigen in shell vial cultures and by direct staining of cells from respiratory specimens. the isolation from 254 specimens of respiratory viruses in shell vial cultures compared with standard tube cultures was highly sensitive (94%) and specific (97 ...19921372616
infectious respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) effectively inhibits the proliferative t cell response to inactivated rsv in vitro.the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) on the cellular immune response of human mononuclear cells in vitro was examined. inhibition by rsv of the lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin in vitro was confirmed using cells from human umbilical cord blood. in addition, rsv significantly inhibited both the proliferative and t cell colony responses of human mononuclear cells to epstein-barr virus. an rsv-specific cellular immune response was induced in vitro by stimulation of mononuclear c ...19921373752
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification.a rapid method for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in nasopharyngeal aspirates, involving a combination of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification (rt-pcr), has been developed. the rt-pcr assay employs oligonucleotide primers specific for the region of the rsv genome which encodes the f1 subunit of the fusion (f) glycoprotein. other respiratory viruses do not give a positive reaction. the rt-pcr assay was tested on 202 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected f ...19921374080
intracellular processing of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: amino acid substitutions affecting folding, transport and cleavage.the intracellular processing and transport of the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion (f) glycoprotein was examined by comparing the maturation and stability of wild-type f, uncleaved mutant f and chimeric f glycoproteins expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses to that of f protein expressed by rsv. one of the recombinant viruses, vf317, expressed f protein (f317) that was processed like the rsv f glycoprotein. f317 was synthesized initially as f0, the uncleaved glycosylated precursor of ...19921375280
assignment of mutant tsn19 (complementation group e) of respiratory syncytial virus to the p protein gene.the mutation responsible for the temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype of mutant tsn19 (complementation group e) of respiratory syncytial virus has been located to the p protein gene. viral protein synthesis was completely restricted at 39 degrees c, and the tsn19 p protein did not react with an anti-p monoclonal antibody (mab) (3-5) at 33 degrees c. reversion of temperature sensitivity restored reactivity with mab 3-5. nucleotide sequence determination and in vitro expression of cdna clones of p ...19921378878
epitope specificities of human serum antibodies reactive with respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein.respiratory syncytial (rs) virus continues to cause serious human respiratory disease and no prophylactic vaccine is yet available. serum antibodies to rs virus fusion protein (f) that have the appropriate specificities and activities could confer protection against severe rs virus infections. to explore human serum antibody responses to rs virus f we first characterised four epitopes on f and then measured the concentrations of human serum antibodies to these sites for 389 sera. individuals var ...19921379425
nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection in a newborn nursery.the nosocomial spread of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was studied in a newborn nursery in benin city, nigeria at a time the virus was known to be highly prevalent in the community. nasopharyngeal washings were obtained from babies on admission and, thereafter, every 4 days until discharged. questionnaires were administered to medical personnel with upper respiratory tract infection (urti). rsv was detected by an elisa technique. a total of 56 babies were studied, made up of 33 preterm and 2 ...19921381895
location of the epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 63g on the primary structure of human respiratory syncytial virus g glycoprotein and the ability of synthetic peptides containing this epitope to induce neutralizing antibodies.the location of the epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody (mab) 63g on the primary structure of the human respiratory syncytial virus g glycoprotein was determined by testing the reactivity of synthetic peptides with the mab. the role of individual amino acids in this epitope was determined by using a set of 13-mer peptides containing single residue deletions. residues 204 to 209 were found to be essential for antibody binding. these results are in full agreement with previous sequence data ...19921383397
protective epitopes on the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus recognized by murine and bovine monoclonal antibodies.the regions of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) that react with neutralizing, fusion-inhibiting and highly protective bovine and murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were mapped by two methods: (i) competitive binding assays and (ii) production and analysis of antibody-escape mutants. competitive binding assays with 16 murine and 10 bovine mabs identified 11 antigenic sites on the fusion (f) protein, many of which overlapped extensively, and indicated that cattle, a natural ...19921383403
characterization of two antigenic sites recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against the fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus.two antigenic sites recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the fusion (f) glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus were mapped on the primary structure of the protein by (i) the identification of amino acid substitutions selected in antibody-escape mutants and (ii) the reactivity of synthetic peptides with mabs. the first site contained several overlapping epitopes which were located within the trypsin-resistant amino-terminal third of the large f1 subu ...19921383404
epitopes at the proteolytic cleavage sites of hiv-1-gp120 and rsv-f protein share a sequence homology: comparative studies with virus-induced and antipeptide antibodies.the proteolytic cleavage sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor gp160 and the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) show a sequence homology. to study this homology two synthetic peptides corresponding to hiv-1-env-gp160-aa 507-518 (kakrrvvqrekr) and rsv-f2-aa 130-136 (skkrkrr) were synthesized. human serum samples from hiv-positive or rsv-positive collections recognized the appropriate peptide in 90.6 or 37.2% respectively. no cros ...19921385356
an r.s.v.p. to r.s.v. (respiratory syncytial virus): declining mortality rates. 19921395656
respiratory syncytial virus morbidity and mortality estimates in congenital heart disease patients: a recent determine recent morbidity and mortality rates from respiratory syncytial virus infection in a pediatric congenital heart disease population.19921395661
comparison of a new commercial enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus.two rapid methods for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory specimens were compared: direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa) with monoclonal antibody and an enzyme immunoassay (eia) (test-pack rsv). ninety-five nasopharyngeal washings and aspirates from 51 children were examined; the patients were hospitalized during a winter outbreak of rsv infection in the first trimester of 1990. a total of 41.0% and 56.8% of these samples were positive by eia and dfa respectively. considering ...19921396733
sequence comparison between the phosphoprotein mrnas of human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses identifies a divergent domain in the predicted protein.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the phosphoprotein (p) mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a51908 have been determined. the p mrna is 860 nucleotides long with a single large open reading frame and the encoded polypeptide is 241 amino acids long. comparison with the corresponding sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) subgroups a and b revealed 72 to 74% identity at the nucleotide level, and 81% at the amino acid level. the p protein contain ...19921402819
respiratory syncytial virus puzzle: clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention. 19921403380
transcription of human respiratory syncytial virus genome rna in vitro: requirement of cellular factor(s).extracts made from human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected hep-2 cells synthesized mrnas encoded by all known viral genes. in contrast, rsv ribonucleoproteins purified from infected cells failed to transcribe in vitro; transcription was restored by addition of a cytoplasmic extract of uninfected hep-2 cells, demonstrating that a cellular factor(s) has a role in rsv gene expression. quantitation of the individual gene mrnas transcribed in vitro revealed polarity of transcription of the g ...19921404620
respiratory syncytial virus and the use of ribavirin. 19921406102
first-year infections after initial hospitalization in low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia.symptoms of infection, specific infections, antibiotic course and hospitalizations were evaluated prospectively by using monthly questionnaires after initial hospitalization in 73 low birth weight (lbw) infants (less than 1751 g) and a subgroup of 19 infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (bpd) compared with 63 full-term controls matched for age, sex and home locality. the immunoglobulin g, a, m and e levels of the lbw infants were measured at corrected ages of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months. ...19921411318
sero-epidemiological studies of respiratory syncytial and adenoviruses in children in ibadan, nigeria, 1985-1988.retrospective and prospective serological surveys to determine the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and adenovirus (adv) infections in children with respiratory diseases were carried out from 1985 to 1988 at the university college hospital, ibadan, nigeria. 306 sera from subjects between 3 months and 12 years old were assayed by complement fixation test for antibodies to both viruses. second samples were available from 42 of the subjects for antibody conversion testing. the rate v ...19921412660
risks connected with the use of conventional and genetically engineered vaccines.a review is given of real and potential risks connected with the use of conventional and genetically engineered live and dead vaccines. special attention is given to live carrier vaccines expressing one or more heterologous genes of other microorganisms. because most carrier vaccines are still in an experimental phase, there is only limited experience with the risks of carrier vaccines. there are three potential risks of live carrier vaccines which will be discussed: 1. changes in cell, tissue, ...19921413441
polylactosaminoglycan modification of the respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (sh) protein: a conserved feature among human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.we investigated the nature of the oligosaccharide modification of the glycosylated forms of the small hydrophobic integral membrane protein, sh (previously designated 1a), of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. analysis of sh protein expressed in cells infected with rs virus or with a recombinant vaccinia virus revealed two glycosylated sh protein species, shg and shp, which contained n-linked carbohydrate residues. shp migrated diffusely on polyacrylamide gels, which suggested modification by pol ...19921413513
analysis of relatedness of subgroup a respiratory syncytial viruses isolated worldwide.respiratory syncytial virus strains (subgroup a) isolated from around the world during the period 1988-1991 were analysed to determine their relatedness. analysis was by restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing following amplification of selected regions of the virus genome by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). twenty-three viruses of subgroup a isolated from cities in temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres and the tropics during the period 1988-1991 fell into distinct gro ...19921413992
effects of allergen challenge on plasma concentrations of prostaglandins, thromboxane b2, and histamine in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial examine the influence of allergen-induced type-1 hypersensitivity on the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection, we sensitized calves by aerosol to micropolyspora faeni (mf) and challenge exposed them during infection with brsv. the development of mf-specific ige serum concentrations was confirmed by elisa. the dynamics of arachidonic acid metabolism and histamine release during a type-1 hypersensitivity reaction in the bovine lung were studied by quantitating the ...19921416375
immunologic response of adenoidal lymphocytes to respiratory syncytial virus.adenoidal lymphocytes obtained from 43 subjects with serum antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were established in culture in vitro and analyzed for immunoglobulin (ig) and rsv-specific antibody synthesis. spontaneous synthesis of ig was consistently observed in culture supernatants. the ratios of iga to igg and igm to igg in adenoidal lymphocyte culture supernatant were higher than in serum. in cell cultures stimulated with rsv or pokeweed mitogen, rsv antibody activity was detected ...19921416640
detection of genomic sequences of respiratory syncytial virus in otitis media with effusion in children.the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the nested polymerase chain reaction were used for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) sequences in middle ear effusions collected from children with otitis media. sequences of rsv were detected in 21 of 34 samples tested. these samples were collected during and/or after natural outbreaks of rsv infection in the community. in those patients from whose nasopharynges rsv was isolated, the viral sequences were highly detectable (75% ...19921416657
field trials on a live bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in calves.field trials were carried out in calves using a live bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus vaccine prepared from the attenuated brs virus, strain rs-52. two hundred seventy-five and 353 calves were vaccinated intranasally and intramuscularly, respectively. no undesirable postvaccinal reactions were observed in the vaccinated calves. of the serum neutralizing (sn) antibody negative calves 89.7% (26/29) and 92.8% (90/97) developed sn antibody 1 month after intranasal and intramuscular vaccinati ...19921420579
respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19921424399
evaluation of three rapid enzyme immunoassays and cell culture for detection of respiratory syncytial virus.three rapid enzyme immunoassay techniques for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen (becton dickinson directigen rsv, abbott rsv testpack and abbott rsv eia) and cell culture were evaluated in a total of 250 nasal washings. the sensitivity and specificity were 62% and 76% respectively for directigen, 64% and 86% for rsv testpack, and 76% and 81% for rsv eia, taking cell culture as the reference method. agreement between cell culture and eia techniques was 79% (70 positive and 128 ...19921425717
direct detection of immunogold reactions by real-time video microscopy allows the detection and tracking of individual colloidal gold particles. the analysis of immunogold reactions can also be conducted as a function of time and thus allows the study of dynamic events in living cells. the direct visualization in real time is reported of the reaction of immunogold particles with a surface antigen. this time-resolved immunocytochemistry was achieved by continuous observation of living cells infected with a virus (respiratory syncytial virus ...19921429013
a novel, spectrophotometric microneutralization assay for respiratory syncytial virus.we describe a simple and rapid microneutralization assay for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) based on the colorimetric quantitation of the conversion of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (mtt) to a formazan product by the mitochondria of viable cells. conditions for rsv infectivity were first optimized for sensitivity and reproducibility based on cell density and on rsv concentration as a function of multiplicity of infection (moi) and time post-infection and the re ...19921430065
immunotherapy of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats (sigmodon fulviventer) using igg in a small-particle determine whether aerosolized igg can be used effectively in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, cotton rats were infected intranasally with rsv and treated 3 days later with human igg containing anti-rsv antibodies delivered in a small-particle aerosol. pulmonary histology and virus titers were determined 24 h after igg treatment. a single 15-min exposure to aerosolized igg did not exacerbate pulmonary pathology and effected a 50-fold reduction in pulmonary virus t ...19921431258
respiratory syncytial virus detection by dot blot hybridization with a nonradioactive synthetic oligo deoxynucleotide probe.a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a region of the nucleocapside gene (n) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), was used as a dna probe to develop a nonradioactive hybridization assay for the detection of rsv. the probe was labeled by incorporation of biotin-7-datp to the 3' end by a reaction catalyzed by terminal deoxynucleotydil transferase. the dot blot hybridization assay was found to be specific for rsv when tested against rsv isolates (subgroups a and b) obtained from cell c ...19921431818
pulmonary histopathology induced by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) challenge of formalin-inactivated rsv-immunized balb/c mice is abrogated by depletion of cd4+ t previous studies, it was observed that children immunized with a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (fi-rsv) developed severe pulmonary disease with greater frequency during subsequent natural rsv infection than did controls. during earlier efforts to develop an animal model of this phenomenon, enhanced pulmonary histopathology was observed after intranasal rsv challenge of fi-rsv-immunized cotton rats. progress in understanding the immunologic basis for these observatio ...19921433525
intensive care course and outcome of patients infected with respiratory syncytial virus.picu admissions of 97 children positive for respiratory syncytial virus on fluorescent antibody screening were reviewed; 68% of 44 patients without history of preceding disease (group i) and 79% of 53 patients with preceding pulmonary, cardiac, or other disease (group ii) required ventilation. in group i ventilated children weighted significantly less (p = 0.001) and were of lower chronological (p = 0.02) and post-conceptional ages (p = 0.02) than those not ventilated. eighteen infants ventilate ...19921437327
the role of viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract infections in childhood.acute lower respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. this study was undertaken at hacettepe university children's hospital to determine the role of viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory tract infections in children. eighty-three patients with lower respiratory tract infections were selected at random from among the children admitted to the hospital for evaluation of respiratory symptoms. acute and convalesce ...19921440953
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific immune responses in cattle following immunization with modified-live and inactivated vaccines. analysis of proliferation and secretion of lymphokines by leukocytes in vitro.cattle were immunized with vaccines containing modified-live or inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and lymphocyte proliferative responses and cytokine secretion were monitored sequentially. compared to pre-inoculated values, significant increases in proliferative responses to modified-live brsv were detectable by day 7 after the primary immunization with the vaccine containing inactivated brsv, and by 7 days after the second immunization with modified-live virus. after a third ...19921441227
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific immune responses in cattle following immunization with modified-live and inactivated vaccines. analysis of the specificity and activity of serum antibodies.cattle were immunized with vaccines containing modified-live or inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and serum antibody responses were analyzed. compared with preinculation values, at day 14 after two biweekly immunizations with modified-live or inactivated vaccines there were significant increases in brsv-specific titers in the sera of cattle that received both types of vaccines, as determined by a whole cell elisa. using a blocking elisa and radioimmune precipitation it was de ...19921441228
[the use of a virazole aerosol in young children with a respiratory syncytial virus infection].the therapeutic effect of aerosol virasol was studied in young infants suffering from rs virus infection with concomitant broncho-obstructive syndrome. the study involved 60 children between 1 month and 4 years of age of whom 30 were treated with virasol and another 30 made a control group. virasol was shown to reduce the severity of the clinical picture to a considerable degree and speed up the recovery in infants with rs virus disease. virasol is recommended for inhalation treatment of infants ...19921441436
shedding of infectious virus and virus antigen during acute infection with respiratory syncytial virus.shedding of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) of hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection was studied using direct antigen detection by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, rapid identification of infectious virus in centrifugally inoculated cell cultures by immunoperoxidase staining and conventional virus culture. sequential npas, in which also local rsv-specific iga response was measured, were collected from children with proven rsv infection. the sh ...19921460457
pneumonia--a clinical or radiographic diagnosis? etiology and clinical features of lower respiratory tract infection in adults in general practice.etiology and clinical manifestations have been studied in 153 adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection, and the results are presented according to clinical and radiographic diagnosis. laboratory investigations revealed that bacterial infection, mycoplasma and chlamydia included, occurred as often in 22 patients whose clinical diagnoses of pneumonia were not evident radiographically, as in 20 patients with radiographic pneumonia. in the latter group significantly higher values of ery ...19921465584
radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. the results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. the diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. the clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, c ...19921471325
molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus: rapid identification of subgroup a lineages.methods for the rapid analysis of samples of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus are described using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by restriction mapping. isolates (either clinical samples or tissue culture grown virus) can readily be divided into subgroups and then further classified into lineages. these methods enable examination of large numbers of isolates by molecular techniques, thereby facilitating research into the molecular epidemiology of the virus.19921474135
susceptibility to infection in relation to sids.because there is little evidence that invasive bacterial diseases contribute to cot deaths, most studies on infectious causes of sids have focused on viruses or toxin producing bacteria. although epidemiological studies found marginally significant associations between influenza virus and sids, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was isolated from 90% of older infants with sids. there are conflicting reports that some toxigenic bacteria (clostridium botulinum, clostridium difficle, enterotoxigenic ...19921474153
viral infection and alpha interferon in sids.conventional approaches to virus detection fail to provide convincing evidence in support of a viral aetiology for sids. virus positivity of about 20% in cases of sids is typical of most studies and is similar to that found in control groups. the application of direct immunofluorescence assays (dfa) has increased virus detection rates to 30-40%. constraints imposed by technology, postmortem interval, choice of samples for analysis and the necessary limitation of virus types to be sought may all ...19921474154
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in acute bronchiolitis in detection of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus antigen in nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) provides the most rapid diagnostic test for rs infection, but more sensitive methods might be more beneficial in the study of virus shedding. rs virus rna was extracted from cells stored at -70 degrees c either in suspension with added rnase inhibitor or as a pellet without inhibitor. the rna was reverse transcribed, the resultant cdna amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and detected by ethidiu ...19921474378
use of monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viruses: memorandum from a who meeting.a monoclonal antibody diagnostic kit (using immunofluorescence) to detect directly viral antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus a, influenza virus b, parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, and 3), and adenovirus has been developed by who. during 1990 and 1991 a total of 16 laboratories in different parts of the world were invited to test the kit in clinical use. this memorandum summarizes the results obtained as well as the discussions and recommendations made by participants at a ...19921486665
comparison of three immunoassays for the rapid detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (eia) designed for the detection of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were evaluated for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in bovine lungs and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct fluorescent antibody assay (dfa). the eia tests used were directigen eia, kallestad pathfinder eia, and abbott rsv eia. homogenates of lung tissues obtained from 64 cattle that had died of respiratory disease were used; 32 were ...19921501586
direct sequencing of baculovirus genomic dna: sequence determination of the engineered respiratory syncytial virus chimeric fg gene.primer-directed enzymatic sequencing has proven to be an efficient and effective method for sequencing various size double-stranded dna templates. we previously developed a primer-directed sequencing procedure for using double-stranded cosmid (50 kb) dnas as template. we are interested in using this method to directly sequence larger dna templates. towards this goal we applied this method to directly sequence an engineered gene that had been transferred and integrated into the 130-kb baculovirus ...19921503779
synthesis and antiviral evaluation of n-carboxamidine-substituted analogues of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine hydrochloride.ten, hitherto unreported, analogues of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine hydrochloride (2a, ribamidine) and methyl carboximidate 5 have been synthesized. these include the n-cyano (2b), n-alkyl (2c-e), n-amino acid (2f-h), n,n'-disubstituted (6, 7a,b), and the n-methylated carboxamide (1f) analogues of ribavirin. in addition, a new facile synthesis of carboxamidine 2a was also developed. all compounds were evaluated for biological activity against the following rna viruses: p ...19921507208
antibody response of calves to immunoaffinity-purified bovine respiratory syncytial virus vp70 after vaccination and challenge exposure.immunoaffinity-purified bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) fusion (f) protein elicited anti-brsv-specific antibody responses in brsv-seronegative calves. after primary vaccination, all calves seroconverted to brsv as determined by the virus neutralization (vn) test and developed anti-f protein antibodies detectable by protein immunoblot analyses. subsequent vaccinations induced greater than twofold increase in vn titer in 3 of 9 (33%) calves, and 1 calf became vn-negative, but still had n ...19921510306
effects of protease inhibitors on replication of various myxoviruses.we studied the effects of eight protease inhibitors on the multicycle replications of various orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. among the compounds, nafamostat mesilate, camostat mesilate, gabexate mesilate, and aprotinin, which are widely used in the treatment of pancreatitis, inhibited influenza virus a and b replication at concentrations that were significantly lower than their cytotoxic thresholds in vitro. none of the protease inhibitors had activity against respiratory syncytial virus, ...19921510439
evidence of immunosuppression by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major respiratory pathogen in human infants and calves. calves and lambs infected with bovine rsv show mild clinical signs but they are more susceptible to secondary infection with pasteurella haemolytica. lambs infected with p. haemolytica 6 days after experimental infection with bovine rsv had significantly greater magnitudes of fever, higher disease and lesion scores and higher mortality rates than those infected with p. haemolytica or bovine rsv alone ( ...19921514055
effects of vaccination against 18 immunogens in beef replacement heifers at weaning.humoral immune responses to vaccination, mean daily body-weight gains, morbidity, and mortality were compared in groups of beef replacement heifers from weaning to 4 months after weaning. the only difference in management among groups of heifers was the number and type of vaccines they received. heifers were vaccinated at weaning (mean age, 205 days) and again 28 days later against 0, 1, 9, 10, 17, or 18 antigens, using commercially available monovalent and multivalent vaccines. the common vacci ...19921517133
active respiratory syncytial virus purified by ion-exchange chromatography: characterization of binding and elution requirements.two viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) were used to evaluate viral purification by an affinity resin column (matrex cellufine sulfate (mcs); amicon division, wr grace & co.). viable rsv was purified significantly from crude cell lysate by a single pass through a column containing the anionic mcs resin. most cell protein and albumin eluted from the mcs resin with phosphate buffered saline (pbs) but rsv eluted at high ionic strength, i.e., greater than ...19921517352
improved outcome of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a high-risk hospitalized population of canadian children. pediatric investigators collaborative network on infections in determine the outcomes in children at high risk for death or complications from respiratory disease who are hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection.19921517907
lack of effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection on theophylline disposition in children.conflicting reports raise a question about decreased plasma clearance (clp) of theophylline in man during viral infections. thus a dilemma exists concerning requisite dose adjustments. we examined this issue by retrospectively evaluating theophylline clp in children infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). two pharmacokinetic approaches were applied to a one-compartment open model to fit theophylline concentrations during 83 hospitalizations of 76 children, 6 to 48 months of age, who rec ...19921517927
the limited role of the human interferon system response to respiratory syncytial virus challenge: analysis and comparison to influenza virus challenge.the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-induced production of interferon (ifn) by human macrophages and mononuclear leukocytes (mnl) and the sensitivities of rsv to subtypes of ifn-alpha were examined and compared to ifn production induced by influenza virus. influenza virus induced high titers of total ifn bioactivity, transcription of the ifn-alpha 1 and ifn-beta gene products and production of ifn-gamma. in contrast, rsv induced minimal or no detectable total ifn activity, and the absence of if ...19921522795
respiratory syncytial virus: a comparison of diagnostic modalities.this study compared prospectively viral culture for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) with three rapid rsv antigen detection tests: rsv eia and testpack rsv (tp), and directigen rsv (dir). additionally two methods of specimen collection were compared: nasopharyngeal rub (rub) and nasopharyngeal wash (wash). true positives were defined as positive rsv viral culture or at least two positive antigen tests. one hundred ninety-eight wash specimens obtained from children 3 years of age or younger duri ...19921523070
immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus-respiratory syncytial virus vaccines with adenovirus types 4, 5, and 7 vectors in dogs and a chimpanzee.recombinant adenovirus type 4, 5, and 7 expressing the fusion glycoprotein (f) gene, the attachment glycoprotein (g) gene, or both f and g genes of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was constructed. intratracheal immunization of dogs with ad7f induced moderate titers of rsv-neutralizing antibodies. after booster immunization with ad4f, the dogs developed high titers of rsv-specific antibody. subsequently, three two-dose vaccination regimens, ad4f/ad5f, ad7g/ad4g, and ad7fg/ad4fg, were compared w ...19921527411
[severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia following bone marrow autograft. 3 cases].three patients developed severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia after bone marrow autograft for acute leukaemia. clinically, the disease presents as interstitial or bilateral alveolo-interstitial pneumonia with hypoxaemia. signs of ent infection (otitis media, sinusitis) are present in 30 percent of the cases. in all 3 patients, the syncytial virus was isolated by direct immunofluorescence in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. in 2 patients the infection began soon after the autograft, in deepl ...19921532059
protective activity of a human respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin prepared from donors screened by microneutralization explore the feasibility of preparing a human immune globulin specific for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by screening plasma donors, the ability of seven rsv antibody assays to identify plasma-yielding igg with high virus-neutralizing and animal-protective activities was compared. igg prepared from plasma units selected by microneutralization assay had significantly higher activity in protecting mice from respiratory rsv challenge than did iggs prepared from plasmas selected by three direc ...19921538152
initiation of cytotoxic t-cell response and protection of balb/c mice by vaccination with an experimental iscoms respiratory syncytial virus subunit vaccine.respiratory syncytial virus is an important human pathogen causing serious lower respiratory tract infections of children and elderly people. previous studies on the development of experimental subunit vaccines either expressed by recombinant dna technology or prepared from purified viral proteins absorbed on adjuvant (iscoms) have shown promise. the present work reports on the effectiveness of an experimental iscoms vaccine in initiating humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and in providi ...19921539463
comparison of the ability of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus, immunopurified f, g and n proteins and cell lysate to enhance pulmonary changes in balb/c mice.formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (fi-rsv), a lysate of hep-2 cells and proteins f, g and n, immunopurified from infected cell cultures, were compared for their ability to prevent infection and to enhance changes in lung cytology associated with rsv challenge. mice were immunized at three weekly intervals with serial dilutions of the preparations and challenged by the nasal route 1 week after the last injection; their lungs were analysed 4 days later. the concentration of the immu ...19921539464
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: case report.a 29-year-old man underwent bilateral lung transplantation and received maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. he was readmitted 11 months later with symptoms of cough, sneezing, and rhinorrhea. the physical examination was normal. laboratory results were significant for a reduction of fev1 and an interstitial infiltrate on chest films. the patient had recently undergone bronchoscopy for rejection surveillance, and 2 days before admission the bronchoalveolar lavage cultures returned positive for ...19921540615
the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, a filovirus: homologies with paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, strain musoke, has been determined. the l gene has a single long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2330 amino acids (mw 267,175) that represents the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase. the putative transcription start signal (3'cuaccuauaauu 5') and the termination signal (3' uaauucuuuuu 5') of the gene could be identified. computer-assisted comparison of the l protein with l proteins of other nonsegmented negative-stranded rna vi ...19921546452
class-specific antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimentally infected lambs.enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (elisa) was used to titrate virus-specific igg, igm and iga levels in nasal secretions, lung lavage fluids and serum samples sequentially obtained from lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). virus-specific igg and igm responses were measured by the indirect double antibody sandwich elisa using anti-bovine rsv monoclonal antibody, as capture antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated anti-sheep igg and anti-sheep igm. virus-specif ...19921547834
human cytotoxic t cells stimulated by antigen on dendritic cells recognize the n, sh, f, m, 22k, and 1b proteins of respiratory syncytial virus.we examined the human cytotoxic t-cell repertoire of nine adults to 9 of the 10 proteins of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal adults were stimulated with rs virus in vitro. the resulting polyclonal cultures were tested for lysis of b-lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing each of nine individual rs virus proteins. the use of peripheral blood dendritic cells to present antigen gave more easily reproducible res ...19921548754
effect of changes in the nucleotide sequence of the p gene of respiratory syncytial virus on the electrophoretic mobility of the p protein.a consensus sequence for the p protein gene of the rsn-2 strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was obtained by pcr amplification of cdna obtained by reverse transcription. this established that the extent of sequence variation between two p genes of strains of antigenic subtype b is similar to that among a strains, confirming the conservation of p genes within subtypes and the divergence of the two antigenic subtypes of rs virus. the p protein of rs virus exhibits anomalous electrophoretic ...19921549911
respiratory syncytial virus infection of human primary nasal and bronchial epithelial cell cultures and bronchoalveolar adults, clinical symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) are usually confined to the upper respiratory tract, whereas rsv infection in infants frequently causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia. the preferential localization of rsv infection to the upper airways may partially be due to protective immunity, but may also depend on a difference in susceptibility of epithelial cells from upper and lower airways, or on antiviral activities of bronchoalveolar macrophages (am). in this study ...19921550681
reinfection of lambs with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.eight lambs which were experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) when they were six to eight weeks old were challenged with the same virus seven months later. after reinfection, lambs developed mild clinical disease and the virus was isolated from nasal swabs from three lambs and peripheral blood from two lambs. reinfection resulted in changes in peripheral blood cell populations. there was an early increase in the number of cd8+ t lymphocytes and b (lca p220+) lympho ...19921553439
respiratory syncytial virus infection of alveolar macrophages in adult transplant patients.pulmonary epithelial cells are thought to be the primary cellular targets for infection by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in vivo. to determine whether other pulmonary cells are infected by rsv, bronchoalveolar lavage cells from six adult transplant patients, four of whom had acute rsv infection, were examined by in situ immunohistochemistry to identify infected lung cells. both alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells were infected with rsv in vivo. at the single-cell level, three-color imm ...19921554223
the efficacy of nebulized metaproterenol in wheezing infants and young children.the benefit of beta-adrenergic agonists in the treatment of acutely wheezing infants and young children has not been well documented in the outpatient setting. to determine the efficacy of nebulized metaproterenol sulfate, 74 children aged 36 months or younger with acute wheezing participated in a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. children received nebulized metaproterenol, either as an initial treatment or after a control treatment with normal saline solution. at bas ...19921558072
mucosal t cell distribution during infection with respiratory syncytial virus.groups of 12-week-old balb/c mice were inoculated intranasally with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and sacrificed at regular intervals after infection. t lymphocyte subset distribution was determined in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (bal), peripheral blood, and spleen by means of flow cytometry employing monoclonal antibodies against the t cell membrane antigens thy1.2 (pan-t), ly2 (cd8), and l3t4 (cd4). thy1.2+ cells increased in the lung from 35.4% of total lymphocytes before infectio ...19921564449
[infectious agents associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies and asthma attacks].infections of the respiratory airways are frequently responsible for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) and attacks of asthma. however, the causal infectious agents in practice are rarely precisely identified. we have undertaken a prospective study with the aim of researching into the bacteria and viruses associated with these exacerbations. forty-seven patients who were in hospital between 1987 and 1989 for attacks of asthma (13 episodes) or exacerbations of copd (35 ...19921565831
respiratory syncytial virus: a pediatric nursing plan of care.thirty-three pediatric cases of respiratory syncytial viral (rsv) infections were treated at providence hospital's pediatric intensive care unit (picu), anchorage, ak, between september 1987 and march 1988. our 8-bed picu nursing and respiratory therapy staff learned effective techniques in caring for patients with rsv. our aim in this article is to share our approach in providing comprehensive care for patients with rsv infections.19921569520
respiratory syncytial virus infection reinforces reflex apnea in young evaluate the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on reflex apnea elicited by application of water on the laryngeal mucosa, 11 healthy, term lambs were chronically instrumented at 2 wk of age. six lambs were inoculated with bovine rsv, and five lambs were mock-infected. the lambs were studied awake and unsedated before and 4, 8, 14, and 21 d after infection. rsv infection was associated with slight rhinorrhea and with moderately increased tracheal mucous discharge. there was ...19921570205
severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia after autologous bone marrow transplantation: a report of three cases and review.three patients with acute leukemia who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (bmt) in complete remission, developed a severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) pneumonia, which was fatal in two. identification of rsv was made on the products of bronchoalveolar lavage by direct immunofluorescence. as already described by others, the initial course of rsv infection varies, depending on whether it occurs sooner or later after bmt with a better prognosis in the latter situation. treatment ...19921571714
distinguishing between respiratory syncytial virus subgroups by protein profile analysis.we subgrouped 75 strains of respiratory syncytial virus by a protein profile method (ppm) which relies on different mobilities of the phosphoprotein in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and does not require monoclonal antibodies. when compared with enzyme immunoassay, ppm correctly subgrouped 54 of 56 subgroup a and all 19 subgroup b strains.19921572961
humoral immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in the elderly.the relationship between serum immunoglobulins and the severity and risk of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in the institutionalized elderly was prospectively assessed during the winter of 1989-1990 at a 591 bed nursing home. forty rsv infections were identified out of 149 respiratory illnesses by isolation of the virus or by a greater than or equal to 4-fold rise in rsv-specific igg by eia. acute serum rsv igg levels were similar in those with rsv infection and those with non-rsv il ...19921573388
immunoglobulin therapy in older infants and children.the availability of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations and human monoclonal antibodies has broadened the potential utility of antibody therapy to include treatment of viral infections such as cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and prevention and treatment of serious bacterial infections such as endotoxic shock and pneumonia in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. as new polyclonal and monoclonal immunoglobulin preparations are developed for specific organisms or cl ...19921578124
identification of subgroups of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the occurrence of antigenic variation among nine isolates of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was determined by examining their reaction patterns to human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) subgroup a and b monoclonal antibodies (mabs) by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoprecipitation with fractionation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using mabs and polyclonal antisera to hrsv and brsv. shared epitopes were demonstrated on four of five structural protein ...19921583108
an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a bone marrow transplant outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection occurred among 31 patients in a marrow transplant center over a 13-week period beginning in january 1990. rsv infection was also documented in 35 family members and employees. of 18 patients with pneumonia, 14 (78%) died. none of 13 with upper respiratory infection died. preengraftment patients tended to develop pneumonia more frequently than did engrafted patients. early administration of ribavirin may have had a beneficial effect in pa ...19921583345
[usefulness of microbial investigations in community-acquired pneumonia].community acquired pneumonia (cap) is a common and well known disease, however there is no definite agreement on a common diagnostic-therapeutic strategy. to evaluate the usefulness of microbial investigations in the clinical practice we performed a prospective study on 93 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of cap. group i consisted of 46 patients that underwent a diagnostic protocol including sputum, blood cultures and detection of specific antibodies against m. pneumoniae, adenovirus, respi ...19921585029
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the mumps virus gene encoding the l protein and the trailer sequence.we have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequences of the seventh gene of the miyahara strain of mumps virus (muv) encoding the l protein. the l gene is 6925 nucleotides in length and contains a single long open reading frame which is capable of coding for a protein of 2261 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 256,571 da. the deduced amino acid sequence of the l protein of muv showed significant homology with those of six other paramyxoviruses, human parainfluenza type 2 virus, ...19921585659
vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.several viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. the protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. measles vaccines, which are based on attenuated live virus, have been quite effective in controlling the diseas ...19921587542
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