leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies.the expression of exogenous antibodies in plant is an effective strategy to confer protection against viral infection or to produce molecules with pharmaceutical interest. however, the acceptance of the transgenic technology to obtain self-protecting plants depends on the assessment of their substantial equivalence compared to non-modified crops with an established history of safe use. in fact, the possibility exists that the introduction of transgenes in plants may alter expression of endogenou ...200919099506
transient protein expression in three pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.the expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the abili ...200919156736
expressing a whitefly groel protein in nicotiana benthamiana plants confers tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and cucumber mosaic virus, but not to grapevine virus a or tobacco mosaic virus.transgenesis offers many ways to obtain virus-resistant plants. however, in most cases resistance is against a single virus or viral strain. we have taken a novel approach based on the ability of a whitefly endosymbiotic groel to bind viruses belonging to several genera, in vivo and in vitro. we have expressed the groel gene in nicotiana benthamiana plants, postulating that upon virus inoculation, groel will bind to virions, thereby interfering with pathogenesis. the transgenic plants were inocu ...200919184338
monoclonal antibodies specific to cucumber mosaic virus coat protein possess dna-hydrolyzing activity.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (cmv-cp) were designed from cdna and deduced amino acid sequences of the light chain genes of 10 out of 14 different hybridoma cell lines. ten of these mabs revealed a very restricted germline family vkappaii, within which gene bd2 has identical amino acid sequences with vipase and an i41sl 1-2 catalytic antibody light chain, both of which possess peptidase activity. four out of the 14 mabs illustrated another germline f ...200919187964
engineered polyamine catabolism preinduces tolerance of tobacco to bacteria and oomycetes.polyamine oxidase (pao) catalyzes the oxidative catabolism of spermidine and spermine, generating hydrogen peroxide. in wild-type tobacco (nicotiana tabacum 'xanthi') plants, infection by the compatible pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci resulted in increased pao gene and corresponding pao enzyme activities; polyamine homeostasis was maintained by induction of the arginine decarboxylase pathway and spermine was excreted into the apoplast, where it was oxidized by the enhanced apoplastic pao ...200919218362
virus diseases in the tobacco fields of guilan and western azerbaijan provinces of iran.tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) is one of the important industrial plants in iran. viruses as an important group of plant pathogens cause many losses on the quality and quantity of tobacco crop. there was few information on the types of plant viruses infecting the tobacco fields of guilan and almost no information for western azerbaijan province. during 2005-2007, leaf samples were taken from symptomatic plants in the growing areas of these two provinces. the observed symptoms on plants in the fi ...200819226768
ngrdr1, an rna-dependent rna polymerase isolated from nicotiana glutinosa, was involved in biotic and abiotic stresses.the rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrs) play a key role in rna silencing, heterochromatin formation and natural gene regulation. here, a novel rdr gene was isolated from nicotiana glutinosa, designated as ngrdr1. the full-length cdna of ngrdr1 encodes a 1117-amino acid protein which harbors the five conserved regions in plant rdrs, including the most remarkable motif dbdgd (b is a bulky residue). amino acid sequence alignment revealed that ngrdr1 exhibited a high degree of identity with other h ...200919231228
characterizing multiple exogenous and endogenous small rna populations in parallel with subfemtomolar sensitivity using a streptavidin gel-shift we present a simple and inexpensive gel-shift assay for the detection and quantification of small rnas. the assay is at least 5-10 times more sensitive than a conventional northern, and is highly scalable. total rna is first size purified to enrich the desired size range, phosphatase treated, and then radiolabeled to high specific activity using polynucleotide kinase. the resulting rna stock is then hybridized to an excess of biotinylated dna probe oligonucleotide, prior to mixing with stre ...200919237462
the arabidopsis patatin-like protein 2 (plp2) plays an essential role in cell death execution and differentially affects biosynthesis of oxylipins and resistance to pathogens.we previously reported that patatin-like protein 2 (plp2), a pathogen-induced patatin-like lipid acyl hydrolase, promotes cell death and negatively affects arabidopsis resistance to the fungus botrytis cinerea and to the bacteria pseudomonas syringae. we show here that, on the contrary, plp2 contributes to resistance to cucumber mosaic virus, an obligate parasite inducing the hypersensitive response. these contrasted impacts on different pathosystems were also reflected by differential effects o ...200919271961
the quantification of tomato micrornas response to viral infection by stem-loop real-time rt-pcr.micrornas (mirnas) are rna molecules consisting of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in regulating plant's gene expression for growth and development, cell viability and stress responses. viral infection often has a noticeable influence on host gene expression, which may result in a range of developmental abnormalities. to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection, mirna pathway and host gene expression, we report herein the application of the novel mirnas quantif ...200919374024
reactive oxygen species are involved in brassinosteroid-induced stress tolerance in cucumber.brassinosteroids (brs) induce plant tolerance to a wide spectrum of stresses. to study how br induces stress tolerance, we manipulated the br levels in cucumber (cucumis sativus) through a chemical genetics approach and found that br levels were positively correlated with the tolerance to photo-oxidative and cold stresses and resistance to cucumber mosaic virus. we also showed that br treatment enhanced nadph oxidase activity and elevated h(2)o(2) levels in apoplast. h(2)o(2) levels were elevate ...200919386805
impact of a defective rna 3 from cucumber mosaic virus on helper virus infection dynamics.d rna 3yalpha (d3yalpha), a defective (d) rna 3 derived from the y strain of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-y), was further characterized in combination with different helper viruses in the genus cucumovirus. interestingly, nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with cmv-d8 and d3yalpha developed systemic symptoms which were different from those induced by cmv-d8. to elucidate the potential effects of d rna 3 on virus infection on the basis of the original combination of cmv-y and d3yalpha, a point ...200919427011
the role of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein in viral movement and symptom induction.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b protein is a counter-defense factor and symptom determinant. conserved domains in the 2b protein sequence were mutated in the 2b gene of strain fny-cmv. the effects of these mutations were assessed by infection of nicotiana tabacum, n. benthamiana, and arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype col-0) with mutant viruses and by expression of mutant 2b transgenes in a. thaliana. we confirmed that two nuclear localization signals were required for symptom induction and found ...200919445589
effects of dicer-like endoribonucleases 2 and 4 on infection of arabidopsis thaliana by cucumber mosaic virus and a mutant virus lacking the 2b counter-defence protein tobacco and nicotiana benthamiana, limited cross-protection against cucumber mosaic virus strain fny (fny-cmv) was provided by prior inoculation with a deletion mutant lacking the 2b silencing-suppressor protein gene (fny-cmvdelta2b). cross-protection by fny-cmvdelta2b did not result from induction of systemic rna silencing. we investigated whether protection occurs through induction of localized rna silencing by using arabidopsis thaliana plants harbouring mutations in genes encoding the dic ...200919474248
induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain.the virulence factor of melon necrotic spot virus (mnsv), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. when the replication protein p29 was expressed in n. benthamiana using a cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using gfp-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated wi ...200919501870
optimization of the bioprocessing conditions for scale-up of transient production of a heterologous protein in plants using a chemically inducible viral amplicon expression system.use of transient expression for the rapid, large-scale production of recombinant proteins in plants requires optimization of existing methods to facilitate scale-up of the process. we have demonstrated that the techniques used for agroinfiltration and induction greatly impact transient production levels of heterologous protein. a cucumber mosaic virus inducible viral amplicon (cmviva) expression system was used to transiently produce recombinant alpha-1-antitrypsin (raat) by co-infiltrating harv ...200919504593
the 3' untranslated region of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) subgroup ii rna3 arose by interspecific recombination between cmv and tomato aspermy virus.recombination in single-stranded rna viruses is one of the principal mechanisms responsible for their evolution. here we show, using a variety of different methods, that the 3' untranslated region (3'utr) of subgroup ii strains of cucumber mosaic virus [cmv(ii)] is related more closely to that of tomato aspermy virus (tav) than to those of cmv(i) strains. these results suggest that the cmv(ii) 3'utr arose by interspecific cmv/tav recombination. the putative crossover is close to the 5' end of th ...200919474245
biochemical evidence for translational repression by arabidopsis micrornas.micrornas (mirnas) regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally through rna silencing, a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes. prevailing models entail most animal mirnas affecting gene expression by blocking mrna translation and most plant mirnas, triggering mrna cleavage. here, using polysome fractionation in arabidopsis thaliana, we found that a portion of mature mirnas and argonaute1 (ago1) is associated with polysomes, likely through their mrna target. we observed enhanced accumulation of se ...200919531599
detection of cucumber mosaic virus and typing using serological and molecular methods in razavi khorasan province.investigation was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to detect and determine typing of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in field-collected samples from razavi khorasan province. leaves showing chlorosis, mosaic, distortion and shoestring symptoms were collected from the mashhad regions (astan-e-ghods and khaje-rabie), neishabour, torbat-e-heidarye, ghochan, chenaran, fariman, shirvan, kalat and kashmar. samples were transferred to laboratory in order to detect the virus in the collected samples, samples ...200919634493
molecular variability of five cucumber mosaic virus isolates from china.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) isolates are currently divided into two main groups, i and ii according to their genomic sequences. the group i is further divided into two subgroups ia and ib. we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genome regions containing 1a, 2a, 2b, coat protein (cp), and movement protein (mp) genes of 5 cmv isolates from china and other 28 cmv isolates available in the genbank. the results indicated that cmv isolates could be genetically divided into three groups i, ii, and ...200919537909
mapping of heterologous expressed sequence tags as an alternative to microarrays for study of defense responses in plants.microarray technology helped to accumulate an immense pool of data on gene expression changes in response to different environmental factors. yet, computer- generated gene profiling using expressed sequence tags (est) represents a valuable alternative to microarrays, which allows efficient discovery of homologous sequences in evolutionarily different species and comparison of gene sets on the whole genome scale. in this study, we used publicly available est database derived from different plant ...200919538747
differential tolerance to direct and indirect density-dependent costs of viral infection in arabidopsis thaliana.population density and costs of parasite infection may condition the capacity of organisms to grow, survive and reproduce, i.e. their competitive ability. in host-parasite systems there are different competitive interactions: among uninfected hosts, among infected hosts, and between uninfected and infected hosts. consequently, parasite infection results in a direct cost, due to parasitism itself, and in an indirect cost, due to modification of the competitive ability of the infected host. theory ...200919649316
the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus is essential for viral infection of the shoot apical meristem and for efficient invasion of leaf primordia in infected tobacco has been reported previously that a 2b protein-defective mutant of the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) pepo strain (delta 2b) induces only mild symptoms in systemically infected tobacco plants. to clarify further the role of the 2b protein as an rna silencing suppressor in mosaic symptom expression during cmv infection, this study monitored the sequential distribution of delta 2b in the shoot meristem and leaf primordia (lp) of inoculated tobacco. time-course histochemical observations revealed t ...200919675191
long-distance trafficking of macromolecules in the phloem.the fact that macromolecules such as proteins and mrnas overcome the symplastic barriers between various tissue domains was first evidenced by the movement of plant viruses. we have recently demonstrated that viral infection disengages the symplastic restriction present between the sieve element-companion cell complex and neighboring cells in tobacco plants. as a result, green fluorescent protein, which was produced in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, could traffic into the sieve tube and trav ...200819704648
analysis of recombination between viral rnas and transgene mrna under conditions of high selection pressure in favour of possible environmental risk related to the utilization of virus-resistant transgenic plants expressing viral sequences is the emergence of new viruses generated by recombination between the viral transgene mrna and the rna of an infecting virus. this hypothesis has been tested recently for cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) by comparing the recombinant populations in transgenic and non-transgenic plants under conditions of minimal selection pressure in favour of the recombinants. equivalent populat ...200919625460
effects of dicer-like proteins 2, 3 and 4 on cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus infections in salicylic acid-treated plants.salicylic acid (sa)-mediated resistance and rna silencing are both important plant antiviral defence mechanisms. to investigate overlap between these resistance phenomena, we examined the ability of mutant arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking dicer-like (dcl) endoribonucleases 2, 3 and 4 to exhibit sa-induced defence. we found that in dcl2/3/4 triple mutant plants, treatment with exogenous sa stimulated resistance to two positive-sense rna viruses: cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. ...200919710258
antigenic properties of the coat of cucumber mosaic virus using monoclonal antibodies.the coat protein (cp) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was characterized by antigen-capture-elisa using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which were produced against pepo-cmv-cp. comparative analysis of three mabs with four different strains by competitive elisa revealed that the binding affinity of the mab decreased about 10-fold with both my17- and y-cmv than with pepo-cmv. the cp of these three strains showed high homology (approximately 98%) following comparison in the genbank database. ...200919729036
seed transmission of cucumber mosaic virus in pepper.infection caused by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is one of the most important viral diseases of pepper worldwide. young pepper seedlings were inoculated mechanically with cmv-fny (fast new york) isolate and were kept in growth chambers at 20-25 degrees c for symptom and fruit development. all inoculated plants developed severe mosaic symptoms and produced fruit except one. mature seeds were isolated from fruits harvested from cmv-infected plants. total rna was extracted from pepper seeds and anal ...201019819264
a generic method to identify plant viruses by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry of their coat proteins.although a number of protocols have been developed for detection of viruses at the genus or family level, universal approaches to detect and identify unknown viruses are still required. high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify accurately peptide masses and their constituent sequences from partially purified plant virus preparations. analysis of the peptide fragment masses against a virus database using pattern-matching algorithms identified sequences with homology to known v ...201019712699
broomrape can acquire viruses from its hosts.broomrapes (phelipanche, formerly orobanche) are parasitic plants that physically connect with the vascular systems of their hosts through haustorial structures. in this study, we found that cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), tomato mosaic virus (tomv), potato virus y (pvy), and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (tylcv) translocate from infected host plants to phelipanche aegyptiaca. in order to examine whether these viruses, and specifically cmv, replicate in the parasite, we tested several replication p ...200919821737
differential effects of mild and severe cucumber mosaic virus strains in the perturbation of microrna-regulated gene expression in tomato map to the 3' sequence of rna 2.viral infections interfere with the microrna (mirna)-mediated regulation of gene expression, determining developmental defects. in tomato leaves, the accumulation levels of six mirna species and their target transcripts corresponding to transcription factors with roles in plant development and leaf morphogenesis and two genes involved in the short rna processing, dcl1 and ago1, were significantly enhanced upon infection with the severe strain cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-fny, while that of ago4 w ...200919737097
modeling temporal trends in aphid vector dispersal and cucumber mosaic virus epidemics in snap bean.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has become a major limiting factor in snap bean production in the great lakes region of north america, and epidemics have occurred more frequently since the soybean aphid, aphis glycines matsumura, was introduced. major aphid vectors of cmv epidemics were identified by statistically relating their temporal dispersal trends to the incidence of cmv. alates were monitored weekly using water pan traps in 74 snap bean fields in new york and pennsylvania from 2002 to 2006. ...200919825288
capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a determinant for vector transmission by a beetle.cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) is a bromovirus transmitted by species of chrysomelid beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii barber. an experimental system was set up to identify the viral determinant(s) of the beetle transmission of ccmv. nicotiana clevelandii was selected as an experimental plant host because it supports the replication and accumulation of both ccmv and a second member of the family bromoviridae, cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). us ...201019828763
mixed infection in tomato to ensure frequent generation of a natural reassortant between two subgroups of cucumber mosaic virus.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is divided into subgroups i (sub-i) and ii (sub-ii). isolate cmv-pf, which had been isolated from tomato by single lesion isolation (sli), was classified in sub-ii by serology, but it had the pathogenicity of sub-i cmvs. sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses showed that cmv-pf was actually a reassortant cmv isolate containing rnas 1 and 2 from sub-i and rna 3 from sub-ii (i, i, and ii). a subgroup-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ss-r ...201019866353
tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene leht1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (tylcv), cdna libraries from lines resistant (r) and susceptible (s) to the virus were compared. the hexose transporter leht1 was found to be expressed preferentially in r tomato plants. the role of leht1 in the establishment of tylcv resistance was studied in r plants where leht1 has been silenced using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (trv vigs). following tylcv inoculation, leht1-silenced r plants s ...201019946703
rnai-mediated viral immunity requires amplification of virus-derived sirnas in arabidopsis diverse eukaryotic organisms, dicer-processed, virus-derived small interfering rnas direct antiviral immunity by rna silencing or rna interference. here we show that in addition to core dicing and slicing components of rnai, the rnai-mediated viral immunity in arabidopsis thaliana requires host rna-directed rna polymerase (rdr) 1 or rdr6 to produce viral secondary sirnas following viral rna replication-triggered biogenesis of primary sirnas. we found that the two antiviral rdrs exhibited spec ...201019966292
effects of cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus on six soybean (glycine max l.) cultivars.the study was carried out to determine the comparative pathogenic response of six cultivars of soybean; tgx 1844-18e, tgx 1448-2e, tgx 1910-8f, tgx 1019-2en, tgx 1910-8f and tgx 1876-4e to single and mixed infections with cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus. the experiment was conducted in the screenhouse at the crop production pavilion, faculty of agriculture, university of ilorin, ilorin, kwara state nigeria. the results of the experiment revealed that all soybean cultivars were susc ...200920003292
allergenicity assessment of genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) resistant tomato (solanum lycopersicon).cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has been identified as the causal agent of several disease epidemics in most countries of the world. insect-mediated virus diseases, such as those caused by cmv, caused remarkable loss of tomato (solanum lycopersicon) production in taiwan. with expression of the cmv coat protein gene (cmvcp) in a local popular tomato cultivar l4783, transgenic tomato line r8 has showed consistent cmv resistance through t(0) to t(8). in this report, the allergenicity of the cmv coat pr ...201020102156
evaluation and application of a luciferase fusion system for rapid in vivo analysis of rnai targets and constructs in plants.the practical use of rna-mediated approaches including antisense rna, ribozymes and sirnas for specific inhibition of gene expression is limited by lack of simple quantitative methods to rapidly test efficacy in vivo. there have been indications that cotransfer of target::reporter gene fusions with constructs designed against the target sequence, followed by quantification of transient reporter gene activity might be effective. here, we report detailed testing of the approach in plants, using di ...201020102531
the solution structures of the cucumber mosaic virus and tomato aspermy virus coat proteins explored with molecular dynamics simulations.the three-dimensional structures of two cucumovirus coat proteins (cp), namely cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and tomato aspermy virus (tav), were explored by molecular dynamics (md) simulations. the n-terminal domain and the c-terminal tail of the cps proved to be intrinsically unstructured protein regions in aqueous solution. the n-terminal alpha-helix had a partially unrolled conformation. the thermal factor analysis of the cp loop regions demonstrated that the cmv cp had more flexible loop regi ...201020056465
the c-terminal residues of the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus are important for efficient expression in escherichia coli and dna-binding.the rna silencing suppressor 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is difficult to produce in escherichia coli. we compared two cmv 2b proteins that differ in their toxicity against e. coli and found that the acidic amino acid residues in the c-terminal significantly affected the toxicity and expression level of the protein in e. coli. in addition, in a dna-binding assay, 2b had the ability to bind to dna, and this ability was affected by the charge on the c-terminal residues of 2b. we concl ...201020096691
local lesions and induced resistance.the local lesion phenomenon is one of the most notable resistance mechanisms where virus after multiplying in several hundred cells around the point of entry, does not continue to spread and remains in a local infection. several types of local lesions are known, inter alia, necrotic, chlorotic, and starch lesions. cells inside the lesion generally contain much less virus than cells in a systemic infection. cytopathic changes accompany the local lesion development. proteases that may have propert ...201020109664
toward a quarter century of pathogen-derived resistance and practical approaches to plant virus disease control.the concept of pathogen-derived resistance (pdr) describes the use of genetic elements from a pathogen's own genome to confer resistance in an otherwise susceptible host via genetic engineering [j. theor. biol. 113 (1985) 395]. illustrated with the bacteriophage qbeta in escherichia coli, this strategy was conceived as a broadly applicable approach to engineer resistance against pathogens. for plant viruses, the concept of pdr was validated with the creation of tobacco plants expressing the coat ...201020109666
in vitro stability of cucumber mosaic virus nanoparticles carrying a hepatitis c virus-derived epitope under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in vivo efficacy of an edible vaccine.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is an isodiametric plant virus with an extremely wide host range, present worldwide. cmv chimeric particles (r9-cmv), engineered to express a 27-aa synthetic peptide derived from hepatitis c virus (hcv), were demonstrated to be stable under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. then the possibility of inducing a humoral immune response in rabbits fed with r9-cmv infected lettuce plants was demonstrated, suggesting that this system could function as a confir ...201020132840
deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts.previous studies have shown that vector-borne pathogens can alter the phenotypes of their hosts and vectors in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between them, with significant implications for the transmission and spread of disease. for insect-borne pathogens, host odors are particularly likely targets for manipulation, because both plant- and animal-feeding insects use volatile compounds derived from their hosts as key foraging cues. here, we document the effects of a ...201020133719
cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein subcellular targets and interactions: their significance to rna silencing suppressor activity.the rna silencing suppressor activity of the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has been variously attributed to its nuclear targeting, its interaction with and inhibition of argonaute 1 (ago1), or its ability to bind small rnas in vitro. in addition, the 2b ortholog of tomato aspermy virus forms aggregates and binds rnas in vitro. we have further studied the relationships between cmv 2b protein silencing suppressor activity and its subcellular distribution, protein-protein interactions i ...201020121451
a progeny virus from a cucumovirus pseudorecombinant evolved to gain the ability to accumulate its rna-silencing suppressor leading to systemic infection in tobacco.two isolates of tomato aspermy virus (tav), v-tav and c-tav, can systemically infect nicotiana benthamiana but only c-tav can move systemically in n. tabacum. any pseudorecombinants between the two strains could not move systemically in tobacco as efficiently as c-tav. however, a pseudorecombinant consisting of rnas 1 and 3 of v-tav and rna 2 of c-tav (v1c2v3), which cannot infect tobacco systemically, generated progeny with a mutation in v1 and a recombination in c2 (v1(m)c2(r)v3), enabling the ...201020121454
hc-pro, a potyvirus rna silencing suppressor, cancels cycling of cucumber mosaic virus in nicotiana benthamiana plants.the mixed infection of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and a potyvirus has been known to increase cmv titer in nicotiana benthamiana plants, resulting in synergistic viral symptoms. we found that among three potyviruses--potato virus y (pvy), turnip mosaic virus (tumv), and clover yellow vein virus (c1yvv)--synergistic effects on cmv (or a recombinant cmv vector) titers were most efficiently induced by a co-infection with pvy in n. benthamiana plants. in addition, the helper component-proteinase (hc ...201020162445
pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis to assess the effects of a genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus-resistant tomato plant on soil microbial communities.the effects of a genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-resistant tomato on soil microbial communities were evaluated in this study. soil position and environmental factors played more dominant roles than the tomato genotype in the variation of soil microbial communities.201020348288
molecular mapping and characterization of a single dominant gene controlling cmv resistance in peppers (capsicum annuum l.).cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is one of the most destructive viruses in the solanaceae family. simple inheritance of cmv resistance in peppers has not previously been documented; all previous studies have reported that resistance to this virus is mediated by several partially dominant and recessive genes. in this study, we showed that the capsicum annuum cultivar 'bukang' contains a single dominant resistance gene against cmv(korean) and cmv(fny) strains. we named this resistance gene cmr1 (cucumb ...201020180096
semicontinuous bioreactor production of a recombinant human therapeutic protein using a chemically inducible viral amplicon expression system in transgenic plant cell suspension cultures.plant cell culture is an alternative for the production of recombinant human therapeutic proteins because of improved product safety, lower production cost, and capability for eukaryotic post-translational modification. in this study, bioreactor production of recombinant human alpha-1-antitrypsin (raat) glycoprotein using a chemically inducible cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) viral amplicon expression system in transgenic nicotiana benthamiana cell culture is presented. optimization of a chemically ...201020198659
two amino acids on 2a polymerase of cucumber mosaic virus co-determine hypersensitive response on legumes.the hypersensitive response (hr) is one of the most important defense responses during the incompatible interaction between plant and pathogen. the viral determinant of hr on legumes induced by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was studied, and our previous results showed that 243 nucleotides on 2a polymerase gene of cmv were involved in the induction of hr on legumes. with further analysis of the nucleotides and amino acids in this region, the amino acids phe and ala at positions 631 and 641 in the 2 ...200320213360
difference of physiological characters in dark green islands and yellow leaf tissue of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected nicotiana tabacum leaves.dark green islands (dgis) are a common symptom of plants systemically infected with the mosaic virus. dgis are clusters of green leaf cells that are free of virus but surrounded by yellow leaf tissue that is full of virus particles. in cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-infected nicotiana tabacum leaves, the respiration and photosynthesis capabilities of dgis and yellow leaf tissues were measured. the results showed that the cyanide-resistant respiration was enhanced in yellow leaf tissue and the photo ...201020355325
molecular analysis of multicatalytic monoclonal antibodies.recently, our first report demonstrated that cucumber mosaic virus (cmv)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) possess dnase-like activity against dna. in the present study, we show for the first time ever how one mab (mab-5) has polyreactive (protease, dnase, and rnase) catalytic activities (catabs). amino acid sequence analysis of the encoded variable-genes showed that the light chains of the hybridomas expressed the germline family genes v kappa 1a, bb1.1 and v kappa ii, bd2, whose protease a ...201020356628
symptom induction and rna silencing suppression by the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein.the 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and other cucumoviruses is multifunctional, having roles in local and systemic virus movement, symptom determination, evasion of defense mediated by salicylic acid, and in suppression of antiviral rna silencing. it also perturbs silencing-mediated regulation of host transcripts, suggesting that another function of 2b protein is to manipulate host gene expression and physiology in a way that may aid the virus. the 2b proteins encoded by the va ...201020404501
resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase or coat protein subgroup ii gene from cucumber mosaic virus.transgenic gladiolus plants that contain either cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) subgroup i coat protein, cmv subgroup ii coat protein, cmv replicase, a combination of the cmv subgroups i and ii coat proteins, or a combination of the cmv subgroup ii coat protein and replicase genes were developed. these plants were multiplied in vitro and challenged with purified cmv isolated from gladiolus using a hand-held gene gun. three out of 19 independently transformed plants expressing the replicase gene unde ...201020411391
molecular characterization of cucumber mosaic virus infecting gladiolus, revealing its phylogeny distinct from the indian isolate and alike the fny strain of cmv.the majority of gladiolus plants growing in the botanical garden at nbri, lucknow, india and adjoining areas exhibited symptoms of mosaic, color breaking, stunting of spikes and reduction in flower size. the occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was suspected in symptomatic gladiolus plants. cucumber mosaic virus, the type species of the genus cucumovirus of the family bromoviridae, is an important plant virus worldwide, which infects many plants and causes quantity and quality losses. for v ...201020414713
cucumber mosaic virus movement protein severs actin filaments to increase the plasmodesmal size exclusion limit in tobacco.plant viral movement proteins (mps) enable viruses to pass through cell walls by increasing the size exclusion limit (sel) of plasmodesmata (pd). here, we report that the ability of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) mp to increase the sel of the pd could be inhibited by treatment with the actin filament (f-actin)-stabilizing agent phalloidin but not by treatment with the f-actin-destabilizing agent latrunculin a. in vitro studies showed that cmv mp bound globular and f-actin, inhibited actin polymeriz ...201020435906
oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and identification of 10 major tomato viruses.a dna microarray chip was developed for screening 10 major economically important tomato viruses from infected plants using "combimatrix" platform 40-mer oligonucleotide probes. a total of 279 oligonucleotide virus probes were specific for simultaneous multiple detection, identification, differentiation and/or genotyping of each of the following tomato rna viruses and/or strains and a virus satellite: cucumber mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus satellite rna, tomatoinfectiouschlorosisvirus, tom ...201020470828
arabidopsis thaliana as a model for the study of plant-virus co-evolution.understanding plant-virus coevolution requires wild systems in which there is no human manipulation of either host or virus. to develop such a system, we analysed virus infection in six wild populations of arabidopsis thaliana in central spain. the incidence of five virus species with different life-styles was monitored during four years, and this was analysed in relation to the demography of the host populations. total virus incidence reached 70 per cent, which suggests a role of virus infectio ...201020478893
ros mediate brassinosteroids-induced plant stress responses.brassinosteroids (brs) play important roles in the complex network of plant signal transduction that regulates plant growth and development. field and greenhouse trials have shown that exogenous brs can also improve plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. we have recently shown that application of exogenous br enhances while inhibition of endogenous br biosynthesis compromises the tolerance to photo-oxidative and cold stresses and resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in cucumber plants. the ...201020436298
disruption of two defensive signaling pathways by a viral rna silencing suppressor.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) 2b counter-defense protein disrupts plant antiviral mechanisms mediated by rna silencing and salicylic acid (sa). we used microarrays to investigate defensive gene expression in 2b-transgenic arabidopsis thaliana plants. surprisingly, 2b inhibited expression of few sa-regulated genes and, in some instances, enhanced the effect of sa on certain genes. strikingly, the 2b protein inhibited changes in the expression of 90% of genes regulated by jasmonic acid (ja). con ...201020521947
cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein inhibits rna silencing pathways in green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii.the functions of rna silencing are repression of endogenous gene expression and antiviral defense in plants and animals. cucumber mosaic virus 2b (cmv2b) is a suppressor of rna silencing in higher plants. in the present study, we evaluated the rna silencing suppressor activity of cmv2b in chlamydomonas reinhardtii. before transformation, we modified cmv2b codons to increase the gc content for optimal expression in c. reinhardtii. inhibition of maa7 silencing was detected in cmv2b-expressing maa7 ...201020532888
isolation of a novel rna-dependent rna polymerase 6 from nicotiana glutinosa, ngrdr6, and analysis of its response to biotic and abiotic stresses.rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrs) play an important role in rna silencing, antiviral and developmental progress. here, we firstly isolated the full-length cdna, genomic dna and 5'-flanking region of rdr6 from nicotiana glutinosa (ngrdr6). sequences analysis revealed that the cdna of ngrdr6 was 3,921 bp in length, and the deduced protein consisted of 1,197 amino acids, containing all highly conserved sequence motifs that are present among all rdrs families. moreover, two introns were detected ...201120495874
risk-managed production of bioactive recombinant proteins using a novel plant virus vector with a helper plant to complement viral systemic movement.a plant viral vector has the potential to efficiently produce recombinant proteins at a low cost in a short period. although recombinant proteins can be also produced by transgenic plants, a plant viral vector, if available, may be more convenient when urgent scale-up in production is needed. however, it is difficult to use a viral vector in open fields because of the risk of escape to the environment. in this study, we constructed a novel viral vector system using a movement-defective cucumber ...201120492549
genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement of cucumber mosaic virus vary in different host plants.genetic bottlenecks are stochastic events that narrow variation in a population. we compared bottlenecks during the systemic infection of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in four host plants. we mechanically inoculated an artificial population of twelve cmv mutants to young leaves of tomato, pepper, nicotiana benthamiana, and squash. the inoculated leaves and primary and secondary systemically infected leaves were sampled at 2, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. all twelve mutants were detected in all ...201020542533
cucumber mosaic virus, a model for rna virus evolution.summary taxonomic relationships: cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) is the type member of the cucumovirus genus, in the family bromoviridae. additional members of the genus are peanut stunt virus (psv) and tomato aspermy virus (tav). the rnas 3 of all members of the genus can be exchanged and still yield a viable virus, while the rnas 1 and 2 can only be exchanged within a species. physical properties: the virus particles are about 29 nm in diameter, and are composed of 180 subunits (t = 3 icosahedral ...200120572992
genomic plus-strand rna synthesis by the brome mosaic virus (bmv) rna replicase requires a sequence that is complementary to the binding site of the bmv helicase-like protein.summary initiation of genomic plus-strand rna synthesis by the brome mosaic virus (bmv) replicase in vitro requires a 26-nucleotide (nt) rna sequence at the 3' end of the minus-strand rna and a nontemplated nucleotide 3' of the initiation cytidylate [sivakumaran, k. and kao, c.c. (1999)j. virol.64, 6415-6423]. at the 5' end of this rna is a 9-nt sequence called the cb box, the complement of the previously defined b box. the cb box can not be functionally replaced by the b box and has specific po ...200020572981
core promoter for initiation of cucumber mosaic virus subgenomic rna4a.summary the core subgenomic promoter for the initiation of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) rna4a was characterized in vitro using a template-dependent rna synthesis assay and variants of the core promoter rnas. the minimal sequence required for specific initiation from the cytidylate (t1) used in vivo consists of 31-nucleotides (nt) 3' of t1 and a 13 nt template sequence. this 44 nt rna was found to provide three elements that contribute to efficient initiation of rna4a synthesis by the cmv replicas ...200220569307
lessons learned from the core rna promoters of brome mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus.summary rna core promoters are nucleotide sequences needed to direct proper initiation of viral rna synthesis by the viral replicase. minimal length core promoter-templates that can direct accurate initiation of the genomic plus-, genomic minus-, and subgenomic rnas of brome mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus were characterized in previous works. several common themes and differences were observed in how each of the core promoters directed the initiation of viral rna synthesis in vitro. thes ...200220569308
hairpin transcription does not necessarily lead to efficient triggering of the rnai pathway.previously, we had shown that stable expression of a hairpin rna sharing homology with the coat protein (cp) of the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) (hprna(cmv)) produced cmv resistant nicotiana tabacum plants. however, only 17% of the hprna(cmv)-expressing plants generated substantial amounts of sirnas that mediated cmv resistance (sirnas(cmv)). here, we demonstrate that the transcription of a hprna(cmv) per se is not sufficient to trigger cytoplasmic and nuclear rnai. a multiple-transgene copy line ...201120582569
elevated co2 shifts the focus of tobacco plant defences from cucumber mosaic virus to the green peach aphid.elevation in co(2) concentration broadly impacts plant physiological characteristics, which influences herbivores and biotrophic pathogens, which in turn regulate the plant defensive response. in this study, responses of tobacco plants to stress in the form of the green peach aphid, myzus persicae (sulzer), or cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), or both aphid and cmv combined were investigated in open-top chambers under ambient and elevated co(2) concentrations. we measured aboveground biomass and foli ...201020626646
expression of artificial micrornas in tomato confers efficient and stable virus resistance in a cell-autonomous manner.expression of artificial micrornas (amirnas) in plants can target and degrade the invading viral rna, consequently conferring virus resistance. two amirnas, targeting the coding sequence shared by the 2a and 2b genes and the highly conserved 3' untranslated region (utr) of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), respectively, were generated and introduced into the susceptible tomato. the transgenic tomato plants expressing amirnas displayed effective resistance to cmv infection and cmv mixed with non-targe ...201120835923
cucumber mosaic virus as the expression system for a potential vaccine against alzheimer's disease.a primary therapeutic goal in alzheimer's disease (ad) is to reduce the quantity of amyloid β protein (aβ) present in the brain. to develop an effective, safe system for vaccination against alzheimer's disease, the plant virus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) was engineered genetically to express aβ-derived fragments that stimulate mainly humoral immune responses. six chimeric constructs, bearing the aβ1-15 or the aβ4-15 sequence in positions 248, 392 or 529 of the cmv coat protein (cp) gene, were cr ...201020691733
proteomic analysis of the plant-virus interaction in cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) resistant transgenic tomato.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), a member of the cucumovirus genus, is the causal agent of several plant diseases in a wide range of host species, causing important economic losses in agriculture. because of the lack of natural resistance genes in most crops, different genetic engineering strategies have been adopted to obtain virus-resistant plants. in a previous study, we described the engineering of transgenic tomato plants expressing a single-chain variable fragment antibody (scfv g4) that are s ...201020815412
an h-type thioredoxin functions in tobacco defense responses to two species of viruses and an abiotic oxidative stress.various thioredoxin (trx) proteins have been identified in plants. however, many of the physiological roles played by these proteins remain to be elucidated. we cloned a trxh-like gene predicted to encode an h-type trx in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) and designated it nttrxh3, based on the biochemical activity of the nttrxh3 protein. overexpression of nttrxh3 conferred resistance to tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus, both of which showed reduced multiplication and pathogenicity in nt ...201020923353
tobacco micrornas prediction and their expression infected with cucumber mosaic virus and potato virus x.micrornas (mirnas) are a newly identified class of non-coding small rnas of about 21-24 nucleotides. they play important roles in multiple biological processes by degrading targeted mrnas or repressing mrna translation. to date, a total of 2,043 plant mirnas are present in the mirna registry database (mirbase release 14.0), and none for tobacco (nicotiana tabacum). in this research, we used known plant mirnas against both genomic survey sequence (gss) and expressed sequence tags (est) databases ...201120853150
characterization of the interactions between cucumber mosaic virus and potato virus y in mixed infections in tomato.mixed infection with the son41 strain of potato virus y (pvy-son41) in tomato increased accumulation of rnas of strains fny and ls of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-fny and cmv-ls, respectively) and enhanced disease symptoms. by contrast, replication of pvy-son41 was downregulated by cmv-fny and this was due to the cmv-fny 2b protein. the cmv-fnyδ2b mutant was unable to systemically invade the tomato plant because its movement was blocked at the bundle sheath of the phloem. the function needed for i ...201020923355
melon phloem-sap proteome: developmental control and response to viral addition to small molecules such as sugars and amino acids, phloem sap contains macromolecules, including mrna and proteins. it is generally assumed that all molecules in the phloem sap are on the move from source to sink, but recent evidence suggests that the macromolecules' direction of movement can be controlled by endogenous plant mechanisms. to test the hypothesis that the phloem-sap protein profile is affected by local metabolic activities, we analyzed the phloem-sap proteome in young a ...201020924770
characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of cucumber mosaic virus strain new delhi from india.the genome of cucumber mosaic virus new delhi strain (cmv-nd) from india, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known cmv strains from subgroups i and ii, for their genetic diversity. sequence analysis suggests cmv-nd shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a cmv strain from taiwan. among all 15 strains of cmv, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (cp) is most conserved. sequence identity ...201020978836
multigenic system controlling viral systemic infection determined by the interactions between cucumber mosaic virus genes and quantitative trait loci of soybean cultivars.soybean 'harosoy' is resistant to cucumber mosaic virus soybean strain c (cmv-sc) and susceptible to cmv-s strain d (cmv-sd). using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and northern hybridization, we characterized the harosoy resistance and found that cmv-sc did not spread systemically but was restricted to the inoculated leaves in harosoy. harosoy resistance was not controlled by either a dominant or recessive single gene. to dissect this system controlling long-distance movement of cmv in soybean ...201121171888
a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. however, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. we introduce an application of jasmonic acid (ja) and salicylic acid (sa), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to rna viruses. applying 0.06 mm ja and then 0.1 mm sa 24 h later, enhanced resistance to cuc ...201021046144
tissue blot immunoassay and direct rt-pcr of cucumoviruses and potyviruses from the same nitropure nitrocellulose membrane.a method is described for using nitropure nitrocellulose (npn) membranes as an effective solid matrix for retrieval of template rna of three potyviruses, tobacco etch virus, soybean mosaic virus and turnip mosaic virus, and two cucumoviruses, cucumber mosaic virus and peanut stunt virus. these npn membranes were also used for tissue blot immunosorbent assays (tbias) to identify and detect plant viruses. for rna detection, discs from dried membranes blotted with infected tissue were minimally cle ...201021126542
the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the regulation of the plasmodesmal size exclusion limit.plasmodesmata (pd) are the communication channels which allow the trafficking of macromolecules between neighboring cells. such cell-to-cell movement of macromolecules is regulated during plant growth and development; however, little is known about the regulation mechanism of pd size exclusion limit (sel). plant viral movement proteins (mps) enhance the invasion of viruses from cell to cell by increasing the sel of the pd and are therefore a powerful means for the study of the plasmodesmal regul ...201021150300
virus-mediated efficient induction of epigenetic modifications of endogenous genes with phenotypic changes in plants.gene silencing through transcriptional repression can be induced by targeting double-stranded rna (dsrna) to a gene promoter. it has been reported that a transgene was silenced by targeting dsrna to the promoter, and the silenced state was inherited to the progeny plant even after removal of the silencing inducer from cells. in contrast, no plant has been produced that harbors silenced endogenous gene after removal of promoter-targeting dsrna. here, we show that heritable gene silencing can be i ...201021175898
single amino acid substitutions at residue 129 in the coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus affect symptom expression and thylakoid structure.the symptomatic effect of the amino acid type at residue 129 in the coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus was investigated in tobacco using coat protein mutants of the pepo strain in which proline 129 was substituted with 19 other amino acids. these mutants caused six types of symptoms: white mosaic, pale green mosaic, veinal chlorosis, veinal necrosis, systemic necrosis, and necrotic local lesions. transmission electron microscopy revealed that the chloroplasts of plants showing the three forme ...201121221672
microarray-based identification of tomato micrornas and time course analysis of their response to cucumber mosaic virus infection.a large number of plant micrornas (mirnas) are now documented in the mirbase, among which only 30 are for solanum lycopersicum (tomato). clearly, there is a far-reaching need to identify and profile the expression of mirnas in this important crop under various physiological and pathological conditions. in this study, we used an in situ synthesized custom microarray of plant mirnas to examine the expression and temporal presence of mirnas in the leaves of tomato plants infected with cucumber mosa ...201121265043
virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin rna give immunity to tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce rna silencing by expressing virus-derived dsrna in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses.201121269519
sucrose transporter plays a role in phloem loading in cmv-infected melon plants that are defined as symplastic loaders.based on the high density of plasmodesmata interconnecting the intermediary cells and their neighboring phloem parenchyma or bundle-sheath cells, and based on the insensitivity to the sucrose transport inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pcmbs), cucurbits have been concluded to be symplastic loaders. in the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length sequence of sucrose transporter gene (cmsut1) from melon (cucumis melo l. cv. hale's best jumbo). in vitro experiment ...201121241389
plasmodesmal companion cell-mesophyll communication in the control over carbon metabolism and phloem transport: insights gained from viral movement proteins.many plant viruses encode for a protein(s) that is essential for movement from the site of replication to surrounding, uninfected cells. these proteins have the ability to interact with endogenous plasmodesmal proteins to increase the plasmodesmal size exclusion limit (sel). when expressed in transgenic tobacco plants, the movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus (tmv-mp), in addition to increasing the sel, also alters the biomass partitioning and carbon allocation within these plants. during th ...199621245241
increased resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in lilium transformed with a defective cmv replicase gene.lilium cv acapulco was transformed with a defective cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) replicase gene (cmv2-gdd) construct using agrobacterium tumefaciens. four lines were analyzed for gene expression and resistance to cmv-o strain. expression of the cmv2-gdd gene in the transgenic plants was confirmed by reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr). when these four lines were mechanically inoculated with cmv-o, no signal of coat protein (cp) messages using rt-pcr was detected in newly produced leaves of two tra ...201121287228
an antiviral defense role of ago2 in plants.argonaute (ago) proteins bind to small-interfering (si)rnas and micro (mi)rnas to target rna silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mrnas. plants encode multiple ago proteins but, in arabidopsis, only ago1 is known to have an antiviral role.201121305057
the 2b silencing suppressor of a mild strain of cucumber mosaic virus alone is sufficient for synergistic interaction with tobacco mosaic virus and induction of severe leaf malformation in 2b-transgenic tobacco plants.tobacco plants infected simultaneously by tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) and cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) are known to produce a specific synergistic disease in which the emerging leaves are filiformic. similar developmental malformations are also caused to a lesser extent by the severe strains (e.g., fny) of cmv alone, but mild strains (e.g., kin) cause them only in mixed infection with tmv. we show here that transgenic tobacco plants expressing 2b protein of cmv-kin produce filiformic symptoms when ...201121341985
replication of cucumber mosaic virus rna 1 in cis requires functional helicase-like motifs of the 1a protein.the cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) encoded 1a protein contains an ntpase/helicase-like domain. to investigate whether various helicase motifs were required for efficient replication and to establish whether cmv rna 1 could be replicated efficiently in cis, we constructed deletion mutations in helicase motifs i, iii and vi and analyzed their effects on cmv rna replication in tobacco. cmv replication was not detectable for any of the three helicase mutants, indicating that the helicase domain is cruc ...201121402113
effects of cucumber mosaic virus infection on vector and non-vector herbivores of squash.plant chemicals mediating interactions with insect herbivores seem a likely target for manipulation by insectvectored plant pathogens. yet, little is currently known about the chemical ecology of insect-vectored diseases or their effects on the ecology of vector and nonvector insects. we recently reported that a widespread plant pathogen, cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), greatly reduces the quality of host-plants (squash) for aphid vectors, but that aphids are nevertheless attracted to the odors of ...201021331245
spatio-temporal expression of mirnas in tomato tissues upon cucumber mosaic virus and tomato aspermy virus infections.micrornas (mirnas) play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development. recent work has shown that mirna-mediated regulation of cellular mrna expression is involved in pathogen-host interactions. however, knowledge about the timing and spatial regulation of plant mirna expression is still limited. here, we use stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression changes of seven mirnas and their target mrnas in different tomato tissues during the ...201121335334
the 21-nucleotide, but not 22-nucleotide, viral secondary small interfering rnas direct potent antiviral defense by two cooperative argonautes in arabidopsis thaliana.arabidopsis thaliana defense against distinct positive-strand rna viruses requires production of virus-derived secondary small interfering rnas (sirnas) by multiple rna-dependent rna polymerases. however, little is known about the biogenesis pathway and effector mechanism of viral secondary sirnas. here, we describe a mutant of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv-?2b) that is silenced predominantly by the rna-dependent rna polymerase6 (rdr6)-dependent viral secondary sirna pathway. we show that productio ...201121467580
inorganic base-catalyzed formation of antivirally active n-substituted benzamides from alpha-amido sulfones and n-nucleophile.abstract: background: heteronucleophiles as well as carbanionic reagents can be used to react with alpha-amido sulfones, thus giving the opportunity to prepare a large array of amino derivatives. since, novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol derivatives can serve as potent nucleophiles, we employed 5-subsititued phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols as the nucleophilic source of nitrogen in the reaction with alpha-amido sulfones. results: a series of n-substituted benzamides bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazol unit were ...201121545729
a zinc finger protein tsip1 controls cucumber mosaic virus infection by interacting with the replication complex on vacuolar membranes of the tobacco plant.• in cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) rna replication, replicase-associated protein cmv 1a and rna-dependent rna polymerase protein cmv 2a are essential for formation of an active virus replicase complex on vacuolar membranes. • to identify plant host factors involved in cmv replication, a yeast two-hybrid system was used with cmv 1a protein as bait. one of the candidate genes encoded tsi1-interacting protein 1 (tsip1), a zinc (zn) finger protein. tsip1 strongly interacted with cmv 2a protein, too. • ...201121477206
characterisation of a satellite rna of cucumber mosaic virus that induces chlorosis in capsicum annuum.the presence of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) satellite rna dramatically changes symptoms on some hosts. a satellite rna present in a strain of cmv (pepy-cmv) that induced chlorosis in pepper (capsicum annuum) was shown to induce chlorosis in pepper in combination with another strain (fny-cmv) that by itself induced a green mosaic symptom. the location of sequences within the pepy satellite rna (pepy-satrna) of cmv that conferred the ability to induce chlorosis on pepper plants were analyzed by ex ...201121484400
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